Dr. Verghese Kurien (born November 26, 1921 at Kozhikode, Kerala) is called the father of the White Revolution in India.

He is also known as the Milkman of India. He was the chairman of the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd.(GCMMF). GCMMF is an apex cooperative organization that manages the Amul food brand. He is recognized as the man behind the success of the Amul brand. Amul had a revenue of $1b USD in 2006-07. He is credited with being the architect of Operation Flood -- the largest dairy development program in the world. Kurien helped modernize Anand model of cooperative dairy development and thus engineered the White Revolution in India, and made India the largest milk producer in the world. His uncle, John Mathai, was an economist who served as India's first Railway Minister and subsequently as India's Finance Minister.

Verghese Kurien was born on November 26, 1921. His father was a civil surgeon in Cochin. He graduated in Physics from Loyola College, Madras in 1940 and then did B.E. (Mech) from the University of Madras. After completing his degree, he joined the Tata Steel Technical Institute, Jamshedpur from where he graduated in 1946. He then went to USA on a government scholarship to earn his Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (with distinction) from Michigan State University. When he came back to India, he was posted as a dairy engineer at the government creamery, Anand, in May 1949. Around the same time, the infant cooperative dairy, Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union (KDCMPUL), now famous as Amul -- was fighting a battle with the Polson Dairy, which was privately owned. Young Kurien, fed up with being at the government creamery, which held no challenge, volunteered to help Shri Tribhuvandas Patel, the Chairman of KDCMPUL, to set up a processing plant. This marked the birth of AMUL.

This led to the birth of AMUL and the rest is history. Madras in 1940. he was posted as Dairy Engineer at the Government Research Creamery. to set up a processing plant. Verghese Kurien graduated with Physics from Loyola College. Verghese Kurien left his government job and volunteered to help Shri Tribhuvandas Patel. Dr. Verghese Kurien won many accolades and awards. Subsequently. Dr. .(Mechanical) from the Madras University and went to USA on a government scholarship to do his Masters in Mechanical Engineering from Michigan State University. the Chairman of KDCMPUL. (GCMMF) and his name was synonymous with the Amul brand. Awards During his illustrious career. which was a giant in its field. in Anand. christened as Operation Flood. Kurien set up GCMMF (Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation) to market the products produced by the dairies. Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Limited ((KDCMPUL). created the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) under the leadership of Dr.E. Gujarat. Dr. Dr. Winner of Ramon Magsaysay Award. he completed special studies in engineering at the Tata Iron and Steel Company Institute at Jamshedpur. Awarded with Padma Shri (1965). Padma Bhushan (1966). Enthused by the challenge. Verghese Kurien returned from America in 1948 and joined the Dairy Department of the Government of India. These include: Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership (1963). Kerala. Dr. In May 1949. In 1973. Born on November 26. and Padma Vibhushan (1999). In 1965. Varghese Kurien was the architect behind the success of the largest dairy development program in the world. Bihar. Verghese Kurien to replicate the success story of Amul throughout the country. he did his B.AchievementKnown as the "father of the white revolution" in India. In between. the newly formed cooperative dairy. Around this time. Under Dr. Dr. was engaged in battle of survival with the privately owned Polson Dairy. Dr. 1921 in Kozhikode. Verghese Kurien is better known as the "father of the white revolution" in India. a small milk-powder factory. Kurien's stewardship India became the as the largest producer of milk in the world. He was the chairman of the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. He is also called as the Milkman of India. in February 1946 and underwent nine months of specialized training in dairy engineering at the National Dairy Research Institute of Bangalore. the then Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri.

Madison. Padma Bhushan (1966). Krishi Ratna Award (1986).[7] Milk Producers had to travel long distances to deliver milk to the only dairy. Often milk went sour as producers had to physically carry the milk in individual containers. the farmers of Kaira District approached Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (who later became the first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister . USA. World Food Prize Laureate (1989). Moreover. the government at that time had given monopoly rights to Polson Dairy (around that time Polson was the most well known butter brand in the country) to collect milk from Anand and supply it to Bombay city in turn. International Person of the Year (1993) by the World Dairy Expo. Wateler Peace Prize Award of Carnegie Foundation (1986). In winter. Milk is a commodity that has to be collected twice a day from each cow/buffalo. the Polson Dairy in Anand.Padma Shri (1965). These agents arbitrarily decided the prices depending on the production and the season. How it all began? The India District Co-operative Milk Producers' Union was registered on December 14. Angered by the unfair and manipulative trade practices. 1946 as a response to exploitation of marginal milk producers by traders or agents of existing dairies in the small town named Anand (in Kaira District of Gujarat). especially in the summer season. India ranked nowhere amongst milk producing countries in the world because of its limitations in 1946 British Raj. Wisconsin. the producer was either left with surplus / unsold milk or had to sell it at very low prices.

The Cooperative was further developed and managed by Dr. the then Prime Minister of India during his visit to Anand in 1964. The success of the dairy co-operative movement spread rapidly in Gujarat. Baroda. . was the architect of India’s White Revolution. V Kurien along with Shri H M Dalaya. Sardar Patel advised the farmers to form a Cooperative and supply milk directly to the Bombay Milk Scheme instead of selling it to Polson (who did the same but gave low prices to the producers). Thus the Kaira District Cooperative was established to collect and process milk in the District of Kaira in 1946. in 1973. The Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. Dr. the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation was established. Within a short span five other district unions – Mehsana. which had established the brand name Amul in 1955 decided to hand over the brand name to GCMMF (AMUL). Thus. Milk collection was also decentralized. Thus. Indigenous research and development and technology development at the Cooperative had led to the successful production of skimmed milk powder from buffalo milk – the first time on a commercial scale anywhere in the world. Impressed with the development of dairy cooperatives in Kaira District and its success. the National Dairy Developed Board was formed and Operation Flood Programme was launched for replication of the Amul Model all over India.[8] He sent Morarji Desai (who later became Prime Minister of India) to organize the farmers. The first modern dairy of the Kaira Union was established at Anand. the farmers of the area went on a milk strike refusing to be further oppressed. In 1946. the World Food Prize and the Magsaysay Award winner. V Kurien to replicate the Anand type dairy cooperatives all over India. In order to combine forces and expand the market while saving on advertising and avoid a situation where milk cooperatives would compete against each other it was decided to set up an apex marketing body of dairy cooperative unions in Gujarat.of free India) under the leadership of the local farmer leader Tribhuvandas Patel. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri. asked Dr. Banaskantha. which helped India emerge as the largest milk producer in the world. Village level cooperatives were established to organize the marginal milk producers in each of these villages. Sabarkantha and Surat were organized. as most producers were marginal farmers who were in a position to deliver 1-2 litres of milk per day. Verghese Kurien.

GCMMF Today GCMMF is India's largest food products marketing organization. The Dairy Cooperatives have helped in ending the exploitation of farmers and demonstrated that when our rural producers benefit.5 million litres of milk per day from their producer members. Gujarat’s Dairy Cooperatives have brought about a significant social and economic change to our rural people. Company info The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in Gujarat. GCMMF markets and manages the Amul brand. . The turnover of GCMMF (AMUL) during 2008-09 was Rs. produced by the district milk unions in 30 dairy plants. Dairy Cooperatives in Gujarat have created an economic network that links more than 2. It also entered the pizza business. Gandhinagar. All its products are manufactured under the most hygienic conditions. All dairy plants of the unions are ISO 9001-2000. Ever since the movement was launched fifty-five years ago. where the base and the recipes were made available to restaurant owners who could price it as low as 30 rupees per pizza when the other players were charging upwards of 100 rupees.6 million liters per day. The combined processing capacity of these plants is 11. It markets the products. product manufacture and cattle feed manufacture have been installed. Gujarat – which can handle 2. From mid-1990s Amul has entered areas not related directly to its core business. ISO 22000 and HACCP certified.8 million village milk producers with millions of consumers in India and abroad through a cooperative system that includes 13. These cooperatives collect on an average 7. The farmers of Gujarat own the largest state of the art dairy plant in Asia – Mother Dairy. 3. This State has been a pioneer in organizing dairy cooperatives and our success has not only been emulated in India but serves as a model for rest of the World. It is the apex organization of the Dairy Cooperatives of Gujarat. under the renowned AMUL brand name. Over the last five and a half decades.5 million litres of milk per day and process 100 MTs of milk powder daily. which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing affordable quality products. GCMMF (AMUL)’s Total Quality Management ensures the quality of products right from the starting point (milk producer) through the value chain until it reaches the consumer. the community and nation benefits as well.1 billion litres of milk was collected by Member Unions of GCMMF. marginal farmers and landless labourers and include a sizeable population of tribal folk and people belonging to the scheduled castes. with four dairy plants having processing capacity in excess of 1 million Liters per day. more than 70% of whom are small. 67.11 billion. During the last year. affiliated to 13 District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Unions at the District level and GCMMF at the State level. Huge capacities for milk drying. Anand (GCMMF) is the largest food products marketing organisation of India.141 Village Dairy Cooperative Societies (VDCS) at the village level. Its entry into ice cream was regarded as successful due to the large market share it was able to capture within a short period of time – primarily due to the price differential and the brand name.

socially as well as democratically. It has membership of milk producers of the village and is governed by an elected Management Committee consisting of 9 to 12 elected representatives of the milk producers based on the principle of one member. cattle-feed sales. it is known as the ‘Amul Model’ or ‘Anand Pattern’ of Dairy Cooperatives. It is an institution created by the milk producers themselves to primarily safeguard their interest economically. As the above structure was first evolved at Amul in Gujarat and thereafter replicated all over the country under the Operation Flood Programme. etc. Milk Procurement & Processing at the District Milk Union and Milk & Milk Products Marketing at the State Milk Federation. fodder & fodder seed sales. Responsible for Marketing of Milk & Milk Products Responsible for Procurement & Processing of Milk Responsible for Collection of Milk Responsible for Milk Production Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS) The milk producers of a village. milk collection is done at the Village Dairy Society. In the case of GCMMF the surplus is ploughed back to farmers through the District Unions as well as the village societies. come together and form a Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS). This is the most significant contribution the Amul Model cooperatives has made in building the Nation. the VDCS in an independent entity managed locally by the milk producers and assisted by the District Milk Union. . This structure consists of a Dairy Cooperative Society at the village level affiliated to a Milk Union at the District level which in turn is further federated into a Milk Federation at the State level. Artificial Insemination services. Business houses create profit in order to distribute it to the shareholders.The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. conducting training on Animal Husbandry & Dairying. cannot be viewed simply as a business enterprise. having surplus milk after own consumption. It also employs various people for assisting the Secretary in accomplishing his / her daily duties. The village society further appoints a Secretary (a paid employee and member secretary of the Management Committee) for management of the day-to-day functions. The Three-tier "Amul Model" The Amul Model is a three-tier cooperative structure. one vote. This circulation of capital with value addition within the structure not only benefits the final beneficiary – the farmer – but eventually contributes to the development of the village community. The Village Dairy Cooperative is the primary society under the three-tier structure. Selling liquid milk for local consumers of the village Supplying milk to the District Milk Union Thus. mineral mixture sales. This helps in eliminating not only internal competition but also ensuring that economies of scale is achieved. The above three-tier structure was set-up in order to delegate the various functions. The main functions of the VDCS are as follows: • • • • Collection of surplus milk from the milk producers of the village & payment based on quality & quantity Providing support services to the members like Veterinary First Aid.

Providing support services to the Milk Unions & members like Technical Inputs. The State Federation further appoints a Managing Director (paid employee and member secretary of the Board) for management of the day-to-day functions. It also employs various people for assisting the Managing Director in accomplishing his daily duties. The Milk Union further appoints a professional Managing Director (paid employee and member secretary of the Board) for management of the day-to-day functions. It has membership of all the cooperative Milk Unions of the State and is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of one elected representative of each Milk Union. It also employs various people for assisting the Managing Director in accomplishing his / her daily duties. Pooling surplus milk from the Milk Unions and supplying it to deficit Milk Unions. The main functions of the Milk Union are as follows: • • • • • • • • • Procurement of milk from the Village Dairy Societies of the District Arranging transportation of raw milk from the VDCS to the Milk Union. fodder & fodder seed sales. Establish distribution network for marketing of milk & milk products. Animal Husbandry & Dairying for milk producers and conducting specialized skill development & Leadership Development training for VDCS staff & Management Committee members. It has membership of Village Dairy Societies of the District and is governed by a Board of Directors consisting of 9 to 18 elected representatives of the Village Societies. Artificial Insemination services. State Cooperative Milk Federation (Federation) The Milk Unions of a State are federated into a State Cooperative Milk Federation. Creating & maintaining a brand for marketing of milk & milk products (brand building). Arranging transportation of milk & milk products from the Milk Unions to the market. . etc. management support & advisory services. The Federation is the apex tier under the three-tier structure. Decide on the prices of milk to be paid to milk producers as well on the prices of support services provided to members. Conducting training on Cooperative Development. Providing input services to the producers like Veterinary Care. cattle-feed sales. The main functions of the Federation are as follows: • • • • • • Marketing of milk & milk products processed / manufactured by Milk Unions. mineral mixture sales. Selling liquid milk & milk products within the District Process milk into various milk & milk products as per the requirement of State Marketing Federation. The Milk Union is the second tier under the three-tier structure. Establish Chilling Centres & Dairy Plants for processing the milk received from the villages. Providing management support to the VDCS along with regular supervision of its activities.District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union (Milk Union) The Village Societies of a District (ranging from 75 to 1653 per Milk Union in Gujarat) having surplus milk after local sales come together and form a District Milk Union.

these cooperatives have not just been instrumental in economic . Conflict Resolution & keeping the entire structure intact. These cooperatives today collect approximately 23 million kgs. Thus. Despite this fourfold increase in milk production. We move to the year 2008. Gujarat has emerged as the most successful State in terms of milk and milk product production through its cooperative dairy movement.• • • • • • • • Establish feeder-balancing Dairy Plants for processing the surplus milk of the Milk Unions. 20 billion over 20 years under Operation Flood Programme in 70s & 80s has contributed in increase of India’s milk production by 40 Million Metric Tonne (MMT) i. This has been the most beneficial project funded by the World Bank anywhere in the World. It has been proved that an investment of Rs. The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. 400 billion annually have been generated by an investment of Rs. Designing & Providing training on Cooperative Development. Due to this movement. there has not been drop in the prices of milk during the period and has continued to grow. This entire process has created more than 190 dairy processing plants spread all over India with large investments by these farmers’ institutions. from about 20 MMT in pre. who are processing and marketing milk and milk products profitably. Impact of the "Amul Model" The effects of Operation Flood Programme are more appraised by the World Bank in its recent evaluation report. Conduct long-term Milk Production. Arranging for common purchase of raw materials used in manufacture / packaging of milk products.000dairy cooperative societies having a total membership of around 13 million farmers on the same pattern. Decide on the prices of milk & milk products to be paid to Milk Unions. Vijaya in Andhra Pradesh or a Nandini in Karnataka. we have around 176 cooperative dairy Unions formed by 1. One can continue to see the effect of these efforts as India’s milk production continues to increase and now stands at 90 MMT. be it Amul in Gujarat or Verka in Punjab. Thus. The dairy industry in India and particularly in the State of Gujarat looks very different. Similarly. of milk per day and pay an aggregate amount of more than Rs.Operation Flood period to more than 60 MMT at the end of Operation flood Programme. 20 billion over a period of 20 years. the country’s milk production tripled between the years 1971 to 1996. Anand has become the focal point of dairy development in the entire region and AMUL has emerged as one of the most recognized brands in India.e. ahead of many international brands. Decide on the products to be manufactured at various Milk Unions (product-mix) and capacity required for the same.125 billion to the milk producers in a year. Arranging Finance for the Milk Unions and providing them technical know-how. Procurement & Processing as well as Marketing Planning. Technical & Marketing functions. an incremental return of Rs.25. India for one has emerged as the largest milk producing country in the World. the per capita milk consumption doubled from 111 gms per day in 1973 to 222 gms per day in 2000. Today.

The phenomenal growth of milk production in India – from 20 million MT to 100 million MT in a span of just 40 years – has been made possible only because of the dairy cooperative movement. 6. These dairy cooperatives have been responsible in uplifting the social & economic status of the women folk in particular as women are basically involved in dairying while the men are busy with their agriculture. race. the ‘Anand Pattern’ has demonstrated the following benefits: • • • • • • • • • • • • The role of dairying in poverty reduction The fact that rural development involves more than agricultural production The value of national ‘ownership’ in development The beneficial effects of higher incomes in relieving the worst aspects of poverty The capacity of dairying to create jobs The capacity of dairying to benefit the poor at low cost The importance of commercial approach to development The capacity of single-commodity projects to have multi-dimensional impacts The importance of getting government out of commercial enterprises The importance of market failure in agriculture The power & problems of participatory organisations The importance of policy Achievements of the "Amul Movement" 1. The dairy cooperative movement has garnered a large base of milk producers. 4. by offering open and voluntary membership. The dairy cooperative movement has also encouraged Indian dairy farmers to keep more animals. with their membership today boasting of more than 13 million member families. . The dairy cooperative movement has spread across the length and breadth of the country. This has also provided a definite source of income to the women leading to their economic emancipation. 3. As per the assessment report of the World Bank on the Impact of Dairy Development in India. which has resulted in the 500 million cattle & buffalo population in the country – the largest in the World. 5. The dairy cooperatives have also been instrumental in bridging the social divide of caste. 2. The dairy cooperatives have been able to maintain democratic structure at least at the grass-root level with the management committee of the village level unit elected from among the members in majority of the villages. Very few industries of India have such parallels of development encompassing such a large population. This has propelled India to emerge as the largest milk producing country in the World today. The three-tier ‘Amul Model’ has been instrumental in bringing about the White Revolution in the country.000 villages of 180 Districts in 22 States.development of the rural society of India but it also has provided vital ingredient for improving health & nutritional requirement of the Indian society. creed. religion & language at the villages. covering more than 125.

9. They still boast of idealism & good will of members and employees. 8. The movement has been successful because of a well-developed procurement system & supportive federal structures at District & State levels. values and purpose. 11. Dairy cooperatives have been able to create a market perception of honesty & transparency with their clean management . which still cherish a strong Cooperative identity. The dairy cooperatives are among those few institutions in India. As these are the institutions run by farmers themselves. 10. which has further propelled growth of milk production. The dairy cooperatives have been successfully propagating the concepts of scientific animal husbandry & efficiency of operations.7. The dairy cooperatives have removed the poor farmers of India from the shackles of agents & middlemen and provided an assured market for their produce. Dairy Cooperatives have always been proactive in building large processing capacities. which has resulted in low cost of production & processing of milk. it has also resulted in fair returns to the members for their produce 12.

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