OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. It was created by Congress of the United States under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by President Richard M. Nixon, on December 30, 1970. Its mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and occupational fatality by issuing and enforcing standards for workplace safety and health. The agency is headed by a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Labor, of the United States.

OSHA's Mission
With the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Congress created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to ensure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance.

The OSH Act, which created OSHA also created the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a research agency focusing on occupational health and safety. NIOSH, however, is not a part of the U.S. Department of Labor.

Purpose of OSHA?
OSHA federal regulations cover most private sector workplaces. The OSH Act permits states to develop approved plans as long as they cover public sector employees and they provide protection equivalent to that provided under Federal OSHA regulations. In return, a portion of the cost of the approved state program is paid by the federal government. Twenty-two states and territories operate plans covering both the public and private sectors and five Connecticut, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and the US Virgin Islands operate public employee only plans. In those five states, private sector employment remains under Federal OSHA jurisdiction. In 2000, the United States Postal Act made the U.S. Postal Service the only quasi-governmental entity to fall under the purview of OSHA jurisdiction.

" The Act applies throughout Malaysia to the industries specified in the First Schedule. heat or cold stress. Its main goal is to ensure that employers provide employees with an environment free from recognized hazards. It was enacted by Congress in 1970 and was signed by President Richard Nixon on December 29. 1970. the Merchant Shipping Ordinance 1960 of Sabah or Sarawak or the armed forces.Occupational Safety and Health Act The Occupational Safety and Health Act is the primary federal law which governs occupational health and safety in the private sector and federal government in the United States. or unsanitary conditions. List of regulations under this Act       Occupational Safety and Health (Employers' Safety and Health General Policy Statements) (Exception) Regulations 1995 Occupational Safety and Health (Control of Industry Major Accident Hazards) Regulations 1996 Occupational Safety and Health (Safety and Health Committee) Regulations 1996 Occupational Safety and Health (Classification. for protecting others against risks to safety or health in connection with the activities of persons at work. excessive noise levels. to establish the National Council for Occupational Safety and Health and for matters connected therewith. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514) is a piece of Malaysian legislation which was gazetted on 25 February 1994 by the Malaysian Parliament. health and welfare of persons at work. mechanical dangers. such as exposure to toxic chemicals. The principle of the Act is "To make further provision for securing that safety. Nothing in this act shall apply to work aboard ships governed by the Merchant Shipping Ordinance 1952. Packaging and Labeling of Hazardous Chemicals) Regulations 1997 Occupational Safety and Heath (Safety and Health Officer) Regulations 1997 Occupational Safety and Health (Prohibition of Use of Substance) Order 1999 .

EU-OSHA also publishes a monthly newsletter OSHmail. there were guards to prevent inadvertent contact with most moving parts that were accessible in the normal course of operation. Its mission is "to make Europe's workplaces safer.By 1970. At the national level. Spain. Occupational Poisoning and Occupational Disease) Regulation 2004  (EU-OSHA) European Agency for Safety and Health at Work The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) was set up in 1996 in Bilbao.Occupational Safety and Health (Use and Standards of Exposure of Chemicals Hazardous to Health) Regulations 2000  Occupational Safety and Health (Notification of Accident. This is done by bringing together and sharing knowledge and information. It describes trends and underlying factors and anticipates changes in the working environment and their likely consequences to health and safety. With OSHA. Changes in industrial safety regulation brought about by OSHA: 1. Dangerous Occurrence. Demographic changes and developments in the organization of work and production methods are generating new types of risks to workers’ safety and health. to promote a culture of risk prevention". The European Risk observatory was set up in 2005 as an integral part of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The Risk Observatory aims to identify new and emerging risks and to promote early preventive action. it is represented through a network of focal points. . which are usually the lead OSH bodies in the individual Member States. use of guards was expanded to cover essentially all parts where contact is possible. Guards on all moving parts . which deals with occupational health and safety topics. The Agency has a staff of occupational safety and health (OSH). communication and administrative specialists. healthier and more productive.

In the 1980s.Also known as the "Right to Know" standard. Hazard Communication (HazCom) .broader use of respirators. Excavations and Trenches . Personal protective equipment (PPE) . 9. its principles have long been widely accepted by the petrochemical industry. bins. Confined space .Issued in 1992 as 29CFR1910.1001 for occupational exposure to asbestos. Although enforcement of the standard has been spotty. Lockout/tagout . 3. 10. and similar enclosed areas 6. ear protection in typical industrial environments 4. Occupational exposure requirements for asbestos in construction work can be found in 29 CFR 1926. 1983 (48 FR 53280). 7.2.In the 1990s. Blood borne Pathogens (BBP). pits.OSHA regulations specify that trenches and excavations wherein workers are working 5 feet or more down must be provided with safeguards in addition to proper sloping and storage of excavated material in order to prevent collapses/cave-ins.1101. "Construction work" means work for construction. gloves.119 in an attempt to reduce large scale industrial accidents. requirements for locking out energy sources (securing them in an "off" condition) when performing repairs or maintenance 5. specific requirements for air sampling and use of a "buddy system" when working inside tanks.OSHA has established requirements in 29 CFR 1910. manholes. Implications of OSHA in Pakistan A Survey was conducted as a cross-sectional survey of health-care workers at first level health care facilities in two rural districts (Larkana . face shields. alteration and/or repair including painting and decorating. In 1990. Exposure to asbestos . goggles. OSHA issued a standard designed to prevent health care (and other) workers from being exposed to bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B and HIV.1200 on November 25. requires developing and communicating information on the hazards of chemical products used in the workplace. These requirements apply to most workplaces .most notably excepted is construction work. Process Safety Management (PSM) . Permissible exposure limits (PEL) . and other protective equipment when handling hazardous chemicals. 8.Maximum concentrations of chemicals stipulated by regulation for chemicals and dusts. was issued as 29CFR1910. They cover around 600 chemicals. coveralls. Most are based on standards issued by other organizations in 1968 or before.

. where they mostly prescribe and dispense medication and provide injections personally but may. Dispensers.and Mirpur Khas) in Sindh province of Pakistan during January through September 2004. Usually a clinic consists of 1–2 rooms. and type of clinic. Average patient turnover at a GP clinic is 25–75 patients per day. patients from a higher SES are more likely to visit general practitioners. where only one or two practitioners are available. In these clinics. Patient mix in these clinics varies by socio-economic status (SES). location. who are or have been a physician assistant at a GP clinic. and a guard or office helper. while low and lower middle income patients are more likely to seek care from public or unqualified practitioners. at times. In remote rural areas. there is a dispenser (physician assistant). with a table for the practitioner. lady health visitor. a dispensary and sometimes a bed or a couch. or are working at a public facility. Most of the GPs have clinics in urban areas or on a highway at the junction of 3–4 villages. also practice independently. besides a physician. Where more choices are available as in towns. 128 non MBBS practitioners (dispensers) and 35 public Basic Health Units (BHUs). Public BHUs typically have one or two physicians and their assistants. patients' sitting area. at dispenser clinics 10–30 patients and 25–100 patients at a BHU. a vaccinator. who is mostly unqualified and dispenses medication and provides injections. patients seek care from them. Health care in these districts is provided by 378 general practitioners (GPs). be assisted by an assistant.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful