Topic: Security Control In Electronic Voting Systems Using Biometric Access

SESE FRANKLIN TONYE DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCE COMPUTER SCIENCE RUN 07-08/1417

Introduction
Voting is a process which attempts to approve selection of an individual or a group of individuals out of others through different available means, in others words, voting attempts to approve a more generally accepted choice out of other choices. Most voting processes resolve selection based on the highest number of votes recorded by the contesting individual or group. Thus, the last statement therefore justifies the selection process as well as the recording/counting process as the two major phases involved in any voting process. Electronic voting otherwise known as e-voting as a term which embraces all the various electronic forms of casting votes during referendums and elections. There are a wide variety of e-voting set ups, ranging from the casting of the vote with the aid of an electronic device (voting machines) inside a polling station to casting a vote anywhere, outside the polling station at a PC and transmitting the vote via the Internet (internet voting). Electronic voting majorly functions to relieve the stress involved in the manual voting system, automate and make easy the counting and recording of votes. Beyond the ease which we stand to gain by electronically automating our manual voting systems, the question arises, how secured is out voting solution? Security-wise, even current

PINs or social Security IDs. .electronic voting solutions are not so security efficient. Other examples are face recognition. security in electronic voting systems can be made efficient and effective. Internet voting systems for example. but this system cannot control when there is an impersonation of another voter (in such a case where the knowledge based info has been revealed to the impersonator) in order to execute the voting process on behalf of such person. Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes: y Physiological are to the shape of the body. mostly require authentication by some form of identification such as password. Related Literature Overview of voting and voting systems A voting system provides a means for selection of officials in an election where more than one option exists. Biometrics refers to a unique body characteristic and is used to identify the input sample when compared to a template. The first characteristic to be used. This study attempts to design and develop an electronic voting system whose authentication and overall security system is primarily managed using a biometric access system as an authentication means. They are used in a certain cases to identify specific people by certain characteristics. still widely used today. The oldest traits that have been used for more than 100 years are fingerprints. y Behavioral are related to the shape of the body. is the more modern approaches are the study of keystroke dynamics and of voice Using such unique body characteristics which is a variable function of every single individual. hand and iris. In voting systems there exist rules for valid voting and means by which aggregate of voters are used to yield results and hence determine a winner.

For this study we shall be considering the plurality ballot. In a simple plurality ballot. In majority-based systems. y Proportional representation system: Voting results under this system are proportional to the number of votes received. . in approval ballot. the voter can cast his votes over multiple choices or options while in a commutative ballot. The handbook of electoral system design by Reynolds and Reilly (1997) lists the categorization of the systems below: y Plurality-majority systems: In the plurality based system. the candidate with a majority of votes wins.There are two major aspects of a voting system which are: y y Ballot Tallying The ballot describes the set of allowable votes during an election. This is to reduce the disparity between a party s share of the national vote and its share of the parliamentary seats. Most voting systems use an equal weight system i. The tallying specifies the procedure or the algorithm used to determine the outcome to which could be a single winner and in some cases multiple winners. the voter is only required and allowed to make one selection amongst a list of available selections. The weight of votes specifies the stock which each vote cast has in the total aggregate votes. if the major party wins 40% of the votes in the election. Categories of voting systems There are several categories of voting systems based on the tallying (the algorithm by which the outcome is determined).e. the voter can even mark the same selection (vote for the same person) multiple times(Wikipedia(2008b)). the candidate with the highest number of votes wins. and a minor party with 10% of the votes will also gain 10% of the parliamentary seats. For example. the party will be allocated approximately 40% of the seats. one person-one vote.

The most popularly known voting system is the plurality-majority type. In plurality-based system. This study does not cover any options or alternatives for any eligible voter who for any reason would have a defect with the unique body feature which the intending biometric system uses the finger. Electronic voting is a general term used to describe a variety of practices and technologies that can facilitate voting. recording and counting. Electronic voting system Electronic voting refers to the use of computers or computerized voting equipment to cast ballots in an election. . the suggested e-voting system will border around the school electoral system as a case study. there are typically a small number of candidates to be chosen and the candidate receiving most (not necessarily a majority) votes win. Also. Project Plan This work intends to address security issues in electronic voting systems by suggesting and possibly simulating an electronic voting system which uses a fingerprint biometric system for authentication.y Semi-proportional systems: This type of system is that which inherently translate votes cast seats won in a way that falls somewhere between the proportionality of proportional representation systems and the plural-majority systems. This is the voting system I shall bee implementing in the e-voting application.

y To design and develop an election voting interface. . y To collate results and also print out the results of the tallied voting process.Summary y To create and maintain a well structured and defined database of voters during the registration process which will in turn be used to authenticate authorized and legitimate voters during the election process. y To control authentication to the electronic interface using a biometric recognition fingerprint recognition (and secondarily using two knowledge based authentication).

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