You are on page 1of 31

HAMnPEC

HaCJlOB na oparanano'r:

Principles of Archaeology T. Douglas Price

Original edition copyright © 2007 by McGraw-Hill, an imprint of McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Macedonian edition copyright © 2009 by Nampress. All rights reserved.

ITPHHI..V1llH aa apxeonorajara T. Ilarrrac Opajc

113gaBa: HAMIIPEC

Ilpeson: AHAPujaHa IIam!K, Caanpa Toprescxa Pel1eH3eHT: AHnJl. ApXeOJlOf BaCUJIKa iJ:HMMTpoBcKa Ja3U'IHa penaxnaja: Cnarana TOIIIHK

Ile-rar: Haanpec, Cxonje

0pUrHHaJlHO asnatrae © 2007 by McGraw-Hill. C1lTe npasa ce 3aAP)!(aHH. Maxenoscxo U3Aam!e copyright© 2009 by Nampress. CUTe npasa ce 3aAP.lKaHM.

HHeAeH AeJl OA OBa u3AaHHe He CMee ga ce perrponyirnpa, 'IYBa BO CJ.lCTeM sa B'IHTyBafbe, HHTy npeaecysa, BO HMeAHa cpopMa MJlM cpe),(CTBO, 6e3 npeTXOAHO onotipenae OA J.l3AaBa'lOT.

Kopaua: Ha npemrara H 3aAHaTa crpaarma ce npaxaxaaa cepnja apXeOJIOIIlKM cnean. IIpeAHa KOpUl.\a (rope): 3JIaTHa norpeoaa MaCKa OA 6p0H3eHOTO ),(06a OA rp1.JKHOT noxamrrer Mnxeaa, IIpBH1.JHO ce MIiCJleJIO netca

e MaCKaTa aa AraMeMHOH. © Nimatalah/Art Resource, NY. Flpenaa xopmta (rpa MaJIH cpOTorpacpHM, OA JIeBO KOB necno): KHHeCKM apXeOJI03M 'lHCTaT OCTaTOl.\H OA KO'IIDI11 KOIhI1 BO HOBOOTKpl1eH rpo6 011 6pOH3eHOTO npeve 6mf3Y Aajaar, Knaa. © ReuterslLandlov; Zahi Hawass, paKOBOp;HTen ua ErIDleTCKHOT BpXOBeH COBeT sa aHTUKBl1Tem, acmrrysa 6PMJll1jaHTHO 060eHa MJ'MFIja crapa ncscxe 0112.300 ronnna. © AP/Wide World Photos; Kelly Knudson aa paoora BO Jlaooparopaiara sa apxeonounca xeanja nonrorsyaa eMajJTHpaHII npavepotra sa H30TonCKa aaanasa. © Brraronapxocr Jason Knudsen. Ilpenaa xopmra (ronesra rpororparpaja): Casterigg Stone Circle 0),( KepaMH1.JKa Ba3Ha 0;0: KJlaCII'!.HlIOT nepaon aa MaMTe. © Justin Kerr/Kerr Associates. 3ap;Ha KopHI.J;a

© Mehmed Gulbiz/ Images&Stories.

111ITepHeT anpecare HaBe)1eHH BO TeKCTOBHTe 6ea TO'IHH BO BpeMeTO na rry6Jl!1J{}'BlliheTo. COlWlKIDIaTa Ha BeG crpaaa He 3Ha'IH ileKa e nonnpscaaa 0.0: aaropare IfillI Merpo Xnn, II Merpo XHn He ja rapaarnpa npel1l13HOCTa na HHcpopMaI(HTe npe3eHTlIpaHH aa OBHe cajroan.

Cll' - Karanorasaunja BO ny6J1HKal\Hja

Hal\HOHaJlHa Ii YHlisep3HTeTCKa 6H6J1HOTeKa "CB. KJlMMeHT OXPHilCKU", Cxonje

902

TIP AJC, Ilarnac T.

TIpHHLlHnH 80 apxeonorajara I T. Ilarnac IIpajc ; (npeson AHIIPHjaHa TIaTIIIK, Caunpa I'opraeacxa). - Cxonje : Haarrpec, 2009. -pa3J1. nar.: IlJJyCTp. BO 60ja ; 24 eM

Ilpeson aa )1MOTO: Principles of Archeology / T. Douglas Price. -

EH6JlHOrpacpHja KOH nornaejara. - Du6nuorpacpHja: CTp. JI-l - JI-l9. -

Pe'lHIIK: CTp. P-l . poll. - Perncrap. - COIIPJKIIII: Ilonaro« 1-2

ISBN 978-9989-682-45-2

I. Price, Douglas T SIIIIII TIpajc, Ilarrrac T. a) Apxeonornja

COBlSS.MK-ID 79096330

Ilpearoaop xix

3a aBTOPOT xxv

Ilperaen xxvii

- KpaTKa COAP)K~Ha

~EJ11 BOBEA 1

nOrJlABJE 1 BOB~ BO apxeonomjsta 3

nOrflABJE 2 Pa6orejKI'I apxeollorl1ja 29

nOrnABJE 3 KiPSTKS I1cT,opllja Ha apxeononljara47

~EJ12 OTKPHTHE 67

nOrnABJE4 nOrnABJE5 nOrnABJE6

ApxeonOIllKII npawatt.a 69

ApxeonowKII3anlic 101

TepeHcKa pa60Ta 141

AEJ13 AHAI1~3A 177

nOrnABJE 7 KnacllrjlllKaLll!ja]ll rjlam 179

nOrJlABJE 8 Aarl!paJbe 215

nOrllABJE 9 reoapxeonofllja 245

norllABJE 10 AHal1113a aa KaMeHor 271

nor IlABJE 11 AHaIlM3a Ha KepaMI!KaTa 297

nOrJlABJE 12 Apxeo30ononlja 323

nOrJlABJE 13 Apxeo6oTamtKa 349

nOrllABJE 14 61!oapxeonorl1ja 317

nOrllABJE 15 ApxeoMeTpllja 415

AEJ1 4HHTEPnPETHPAl-bE 445

norflABJE 16: 06jacHveatt.BTO 80 apxeonorlljaTa 447 nGrllABJE 17: OAfOBOPHCllCTII 477

,qO,!IA TOK 1 AO,!IATOK2

KpaTKa I!cTopllja Ha '10SeKOBOTO MIIHaTO A-1

IMepKl111 HIIBHI'ITe eKBI'IBaneHTI! A·24

Pesaax P-l

Bu6JIuoI'paqJHja B-1

IIpU):IOHeCD II-I Hll)l;eKC B-1

nor llABJE

AHanl!13a Ha KaMeHOT

BOBEg: KAMEHV1TE AnATKV1 V1 YOBEYKOTO OgHECYBAI-bE

EgHocTaBHHTe KaMeHl'I 3J13TKH ce IIpBHTe 'IOBe'IK~1 aprerpaxr» KO'" rI1 npoyuysane apXe0J103f1Te, Hajnpno BO A(ppliKa npen OKOJ1Y 3 UJ1H 2 MI1J1HOHH rOl\HHH 6f[JIe xptuena Maml 06JIYT0l1H aa ga ce uanpasar ocrpu pa60B}L aepojarxo nOBp3aHO co roneuara Bal!<HOCT koja ja HMaJIO Mecuro BO 'IOBeKOSaTa ncxpaua. Pa60sHTe na osne OCTpH OA6I1TOl\1l fl 06.nyT0l1l1 ooesocnysane npncran AO CI1POBOTO Meco ua l!<1'iSOTHIITe, OB03MOlKYBajKIi 11M aa npnnre nyre ga ja nporinjar l!<HJlaB3Ta KOlKa II Aa ro orcrpauar MPCHOTO TKI1BO' nejcrnnja KOf! 611J1e HeB03MOlKHlf oeaaercoj BHA OCTpl1 opynaja. HCKOII KaMCHli aJ1aTKlI l!MaaT OCTpH pa60BII KON ce KOPl1CHI1 sa OHHe B11)10SI1 KOII neuaar Hwry ocrpu 3a61{ unry K3HUl1 aa na ro ace-tar MeCOTO ua nap-nnsa.na ro pacnapranar 3eJ1CwIYKOT "nH na xonaar. Kaxo WTO peKOJ1 HIIKoJlac TOT OA YHHBep3HTeToT 111l)1HjaHa, "KaMefhaTa CO ocrpn pa60BH 6l1Jle eKBlmallCHTHI< na necjanu H KaTHJ1l\llTe (3a6H sa pacexynaa,e H<1 MecoTO). a noreurxnre KaMe}ba CJ1YlKeJle KaKO BIIJ1HUH sa xpure+se HB KocKHTe."

Flpen nojanara ua nuen.ero na MeTaJ1lne rtpen OKOJlY 5 000 rO)1I1Hl1, nosexero anarx« co ocrpu pa60BH 6HJ1e aanpascxa 0)1 KaMeH. Haxo noseeero OA KaMCHI1Te apTeqJaKTI1 npomaenenn BO KaMeHOTO ).\063 61me CPYHKUHOHaJ1HIJ 11 He MHory BOJ6YAJ1.IIBH 3a OHKe KOII He 61lJ1e DO Taa 06J1aCT. nocrojar onpenen 6poj MHory pacxounra KpeMeHII. Ilpnuepa OA TaKBll o5jeKTII ce n03HaTII oA Hajpa3.nWIHII nepnonn H MeCTa, HO HeKOl1 on nOBne4aTJll1BHTe noaraar OA Cesepna Enporta.

EpOH3eHflOT rrepnon BO CKaH)1HHaB>Ija rO 6eJ1elKl-I npSOTO rtojanyaaa,e Ha 6pOH3eHHTe anarxu co OCTpH patiosu. HajMHory 60llelKI111 CeKHpl1. oxuny 2500 r.n.n.e. Cena«, nonro npeve onne MeTaJIHl1 apreqiaxru 6HJIe peTKII Il Mopa na 611JIe MHory CKanH. Hajnena ce cauo so rp060Bl1Te na nOMOKHlITe 4J1eHOBI1 aa saemmuara. Eo HCTO speue. BO oonacra nponcnsoore IW ce npasar 60l\e)K>I H cexapn 011 KaMeH, Kaxo IIJTO naj -recro ce CJIY'IYBa «ora nocaxysauare npOnYKTII ce peTKH, KonHIITe ce npaaar 11 011 npyrn MaTepHj3J111. Eo cny-rajor co 60Ile)KHTe, CK3H)UlHaSCKJ1Te neJIKa'lH aa xpevcu 6Hlle cnoc06HI1 na nponsnena r nesepojarnn nynmlKaTH HB 6pOfneHI1Te oparnnana. Bo npiorepor npHKalKaH TYKa, KaJleneHOTO nuen.e npll npaaersero Me'raJlHH 601lelKJ1 e peuponyxunja narrpaaena 80 IIYXOT ua xonaja'ra ou xpevea. OSlIe 60)lelKH 6HJ1e HaMeHeTII aa rnenarse, a He sa ynorpefia. Tile ro lIoKYMeHTHpaaaT rpaxrcr nexa xaueunre anarxa nonexoraur 6Hne '3HaQajHI1 nap-nnsa na 3aHaeT'l[aCTBOTO II 3HaqajHH crarycaa caM6onM.

KaMeHoT 6l1ll, II ce YWTe e, aua-rajao npuponac cpencrao we TO ynorpetiysan 'IOBCKOT. Hajrrpocrara nocrarrxa aa ynapaa,e KaMeH co KaMeH aa aa ce CKPlI.I}J HeWTO 6URa erten ~1Hory ycneurea nponajnox, II ce xopacrena nonro apcve npen na 6l1l1aT OTKpl1eml MCTaRIITe. OCTpl1Te rpparveur« on KaMeH CC najsepojaruo aaj-recrure upaacropnceu aprediaxrn na sevjara. Ilpuare H3pa60TeHH npenuern 0)1 KaMell 6HJle nponajneau BO IICTO'lHa Arppuxa II narapaar 0).\ npen 2,6 MI1JllJOHI1 rO)1l1HH. 11 H8WI1TC I1peBHH npennn MO)Ke6E KOpIICTeJ1e nap-unea npso Ellll KOCKH sa anarxn, HO

CO,QP)t(IIIHA HA nornABJETO

BOBEA: KAMEH~TE AIlATK~ ~ YOBEKOBOTO OAHECYBAHJE

MEXAH~3M~ HA KPWEfbE

~ CYPOB~HCK~ MATEP~JAIl~

nPABEfbE KAMEH~ AIlATK~ AABAfbE CM~con HA KAMEHMTE

AIIATK~ 277

T ,"onomja 278

CHHV'p Ha onepa4"' 280

Cnojy,,",e 281

• APXEonOWKO PA3MHCnV3AIDE KaMeHfne anaTKlI! ill nOB4i11Te-co6~palJlo1

oA 3an"l1Ha HeB(lAa 282

271

272

274

<1JYHK4.0HaJlH. aHaJl"" 284

• APXEOnOwKO PA3Ml1CnY8AIbE' KonKY MHOry cnoesa? 285

• HAYKATABOAPXEOnOr~JATA:

KaMeH"e anaTK" xpaaara 287

ITPMMEP: BHHMaTemmOT ,n;eJlKa'q na xpejren 287

APyrM KAMEH~ APTE<PAKTM 290 3AKJlYYOUil 290

IDIiIDI KaMeHIITe anaTKII H axrepu-

KaHCKaTa nenpecaja 293

www.mhhe.comlp.icea.ch 1

3a MaTepVljamn8 38 OBa nornasle, nornensere BO 3a!mYLJOKOT H8 nornaejero, KYC3T8 Co,qp>KItlHa VI uenare BO eauaor oanaj- 06pa30seH L\eHTBp.

Tu. fl030paBY6iLJ1 cui#e 1/CueOmflU otinuuu nacexaoe ... If ua cume ocuianaiuu Wa.M. y nexaoe, fllLljflama e oa ZU lupeCHeilie KaM.el-bama eoen oo oPyl,M.OM.4,U.

- Ilarnac AAaMc~ 8BTOP

0Ao"Bafb.'Kpwelbe HaMep<o oTCTpaHysaHoe Ha cep'ia 0110HTOqM, paOOTe" KaMe" (eAH.K'O co 4enKOlbe)

0A0",OK TKO Ka KaMeH aprecpaKT A06,aH co orctpanvaaue Ha Ae" oA jaAPOTD Ha KaMe HOT no

nar Ha AeflK.lbe 'fl' oAoKSaHoe, OA OA6,ro4'Te ce npaaar HaJpa3mtYHIr1 nlnOB~ anaTKM ~JlIII cs xopaerar nOPBAIil "U1BHIilTe OCTplr1 pa6oBIA'

mtT~l(a 3ae,(\HV!'-IK~ TepMwi sa KaMeH~Te aprecpaKH1 80 apxecnonqara, a nocneylo1<p).o1"'!HO sa A8flKaHI1T8 K8M8HI..1 apre(j)aKTIo1.

Mex:aH~3MH Ha Kpl.!Je:l-\:le (()11314Kara Ha KPW8tb8 Ha M8replr1janoT

Kp~nTOl(p~CTan~ KaMeH co Mlt1KpOCKOnOKIil KpIACram1, C03Aa;:I8H OA Cl4flJ1KaTI1 no~ npvIH1COK 60 MOPCK~T€ uacnara, K8KOKsapLj, pOI'Kl-ieq, speue«,

HOAY na He06pa6oreHK nap",,,,a KaMeK, eypO.'Ha sa npaeef-be KaMeHiIl anaTKI/I

jaAPo KaMeH OA KOI ce OTCTpaHeTK APYrK AefloBK

'"" OAO"T04", J8APOB'AH'Te anaTKK ce 06n"KYBaaT Co OTcTpaHysat-be fia OA6~TO~I.1Te.

KpeMeH. WapCT, Cl"in~KaTeH KaM:eH KOj ce KPW~

Ka npeAB"An's H""" sa Aa ce A06,jar ocrp« OA611TO~vt, nOSHaTa CypoBIolHa sa KaMetil/i anaTKVI so npa,cTop'jaTa

pO)l(He4fcMJlI>I4MT KpVlnOKpl1CTailVifi KBapLJ co mJ1eM~ A14MeH3V11rf.~ nplo1MeCIr1 KO~ My naaaar 60ja !II npOS"pHOeT,

272 rnaea 10 Auannsa Ha KaM9HOT

Tile He ycneane ~a npe scusear. OCHOBIlUTa npn-rmra nopana xoja npmrre nyre CHIIHO rll ynnpane KaMelhaTa 611J1a sa l1a HMaaT OCTpl1 pa60BII sa ceueu,e. EBoJlYlIHjaTa He JII1Wl1Jla OA nonrrrre KaHI)H 11)]11 rOJJeMIHe 3a611 KOIl rH KOp"CTeJle )J(HBOTHlITe aa Ita paCKlIHYBaaT Meeo HJlkI na ce OA6paHaT. npB06I1THIlTe nyre Mopalle na ja KOpl1CTaT csojara mrrennrennaja 33 /.\8 C03~aAaT pa60BII sa ce-rerse OA UBPCTI1, TpKalle3HII KaMelha.

KaMeHOT MO>Ke na 6HAe 0611HKYBaH na najpaamr-ru» Ha<lHHI1, KaKO na npl1Mep co nemcaa,e, ce-rersc, Ma3Helhe, nonnpan,e, nepdiopnpau.e/nymen,e 11 xpureise. OBa norrrasje ce <j:loKycnpa aa H3MepHoTo nerncaa.e aa KaMeHOT aa na ce aanpaaar aJJaTKH. 3a Aa ceo ODHWaT rrpaacropncxare KaMeHIl 3JlaTKW II lla'II1IUlTe H3 KOil rue ce npase.ie ce xopncrar Hajpa3JIII<m TepMIIHH. Texnaxara 33 npasen,e KaMeHII anarxn eo HaMepHO OTcTpaHYBalhe MaJll1 0A6I11'OUII ce HapeKYB3 nenkaise IIJJII Oll6HB3lbe/KpmelLe. Oll6HTOK e cexoj /1eJJ KOj e HaMeHCKI1 OTCTpaHeT BO npouecor. Jlyrero KOIi /1eHeC rll npaaar KaMeHilTe aJJaTKH najsecro ce HapeKYBaaT KaMeHOpeCUI1 1IJ1" nenxaxa. 33 apTe<j:l3KTI1Te KOI1 ce 06JJI1KYBaHI1 011 KaMeH, apXeOJl0311Te najsecro nenar nexa ce JlIITJlK3, I1JlII KaMeHl1 aprerpaxru.

OBa nornasjc e pacnopeneao 80 .HeKOJlKY lIe1!OBI1 KOI! ce OAHeCYBaaT na rtpasen.ero II npoysynan.ero Ha KaMeHI1Te aJJaTKH. IToBeKeTO KaMeHIl anarxn 611J1e aanpaaemr co xpurerse xapna, npBI10T nen ce onnecyaa ua OCHOBIlTe aa H3pa60TKa, BKJlY'IYBajKI1 m MexaHII3MlITe na xpuie-se 11 CypOBITHCKHTe MaTeplljaJlII, KapaKTepl1CTHKIITe aa 01l6I1TOllHTe II TepMI1HOJJorujaTa, BTOPl10T lIeJl ce 3aHilMasa co l106HBafhc aa KaMeHlITe aJlaTKI1 J.f pa3JJH'IHI1Te SIlIlOBII KaMeHH aJlaTKI1 BO MI1HarOTO H KaKO Tl1e 611J1e npasena. TpeTI10T nen - ,,)J,aBalhe CMl1COJJ na KaMeHIlTe aJlaTKI!" - orrauryea HeKOIl MeT0)111 aa npoyxyearse na KaMeHI1Te aprediaxrn, !lOI1HOnalleOJIIUCKIlOT JlOKallHTeT Meep HII OB03MO>Kyea npoyvynasse na mn'Il'IKIlTe aHallH311 11 acrpaacyaan,e na ejuro MaJlO pacrrpcxyaan.e 011 KpeMeHH aprerpaxrn Bp3 enen rreco-ieu HaHOC BO Benrnja; roa e IIH<j:lopMaUl1ja sa l13MIIHaTI1Te '10Be~KH aKHlSHOCTH. Ha xpajor lIaKpaTKO ce 06pa3110)KeHil KaMeHIITe aJIaTKH nanpaseaa no nar ua neprpopapau.e/nyn-rea,e, Ma3Hefhe, no.raparse H co HeKOIl upyra MeTOI1H, Ma3HCTHTe KaMellli aJlaTKI1 - uanpasen« co kopacren.e na osne MeTolIH - ce BTOpaTa rnasna xareropnja aa KaMeHl1Te apretpaxm.

MEXAHV13MV1 HA KPWEH,E V1 CYPOBV1HCKV1 MATEPV1JAnV1

Kny-ror .sa npaaetse KaMeHIl anarxu e ynorperiara H3 cyponnna xoja 611 ce lIeJIKaJIa aa npellBI1I1I1l1B ua-unr sa na ce cosna.te ocrap pari. Ilprrroa ce KOPHCTII KaMeH 3aWTO e eAeH 011 HajTBPAI1Te xrarepnjam BO npl1po~aTa, a 6H ro 3aAp>KaJJ CBOjOT ocrap xpaj, MeX3Hl13MOT na xpureise e KOHlIerrT KOj ce KOPI1CTI1 33 lIa ce onmue KaKO ce Kpw3T MaTepl1jalll'JTe. Hajaoopure cypOBI1Hl1 611Jle 1I0S0JlHO xpesxa sa lIa ce cspurar, a )10BOJIHO lIBpCTIf II Ma3HII aa na 06e36ellaT pa6 KOj Ke ce-re. KaMeHOT, IlCTO raxa rpeoano na 611~e CllTHO-3pHecT sa l1a ce CKPWII 80 npeABIIilJJI1ll3 <j:lopMa, pe3yJJTIIpajKII CO ronevn OA6I1TOUll, HaMeCTO CO CTOTIlIIJiI pacnpcxanu <j:lparMeHTII,

Bo ocsosa, OBa 3Ha<JIIAeKalleIlKa~I1Te na KaMeHll aJIaTK1I6apaJle UBpCTII, CHTHO- 3pHecTH, Kp"CTaJIHI1 xapna. Haj<JeCTO ynorpeoynamror MaTepIljall 611JI BO <j:lopMa na KpHnOKp"CT3JleU anapn, OBOj MaTeplljaJl liMa MHKPOCKO[]CKII Kpl1CTaJlI1 xon ce cosnaaeaa 011 CIIJlIIKaTI1 non rrparacox BO MopcKHTe aacnarn, Ilocrojar noaexe sanon« BaKOB MaTeplljaJl KOIl ce pa3JIIIKYBaaT no 60jaTa, ronesoorara xa Kpl1cTaJl0T, aa-raucr na nospsyaau,e IIIIPyrll xapaxrepacraxn. Kasien.ara KOII Haj~eCTO ce KOplICTCJle sa ana'rxn BKJlY<JYBaJle 6a3allT (rapna SYJlK3HcKa JJaBa), oncanajaa (BYJJKaHCKO CTaKJIO), jacnnc, KBapu, poaoreu " KpCMeH, EO 3aBI1CHOCT OA JlOKaJIHaTa 1t0CTanHocT. Ilapsero cypOBI1Ha sa npaBefhe KaMeHIl aJlaTKI1 Bo06[{'1aeHO ce aapexyna janpo 111111 HOIIYJla, HOI1Ylll1Te ce lIe06pa60Teuil nap-nusa KaMeH; jaupara llMaaT HeKOI1 0l1611TOUil KOII ce BeKe orcrpanera.

Kpejaeuur unn poxneuor, 611J1 eneu olt najynorperiynamrre MaTeplIjaJlII.

PO>KHelloT e KplInOKpl1CTaJleH xsapu CO MaJlKY noronexia IIHMeH31111 011 ApYrHTe KBapllOBI1 l1 onpeneun npHMeCI1 KOI1 My nasaar ooja It nposapnocr. TepMIIHoT poscneu Haj<)eCTOCe KOPIlCTIl BO Cenepaa Avcpaxa. Kpeneaor, cnopen HerOBHOTMI1HepOJlOWKl1 CT8TYC. e ennocranao lIPH PO}l{Hell, Ho TepMIIHoT xpeveu sa OBOj MaTepIljan ce KOP"CTII nonexe BO crapaor CBeT (CJlIIKa 10.1) II aajsepojaruo noara 011 nacnarare lIPH xpevea BO AHfIIl1ja KOj ce KOpHCTeJl 38 opy«ja KaKO nYWKaT8 KpeMeHapKa, OA BpeMeTO na eaponcxara excnaasnja BO weCHaeCeTTl10T II CeIlYMHaeCe'ITIlOT sex,

~ nor nell onosropa

-===

=D

CTpaHW18H nornea

KOHYCOT e OCI1060lleH

TIpellBHIlJIHBOTO «pureu,e e Ba)KHa KapaKTepflCTHK3 ua OBOj MaTepHjaJl, na saroa 1l0C3KYBaHwre CPOP"fI MO)Ke na ce )106HjaT co nensaise. Hajsepojaruo Haj)l06pHOT Ha'UlH A3 ce BII3yeJll1311pa OBOj npouec aa «puierse e na ce 3aMIICJll1 urro ce CJlY"YBa xora CI1THO KaM'le Ke Yl1PH BO nposopeu,

Bo I"(OBeKeTO cny-ran, MaJl KOHYC 011 CTaKJlO =e 01l6weH 011 aaneopeuiaara crpaua uasnarpe (Cnuxa 10.2). Oaoj KOHYC ja nOKalKYBa nOBpWllHaTa na rppaxrypara xaj KpHnOKpI1CTaJ1HOTO I.\BPCTO CTaKJlO 11 xpesreaor.: (!JopMaTa aa nOBpwHH3Ta e ormuraaa KaKO KOIIXOII)13J1H3 (cjlopMa xa WKOJlKa). a KOHYCOT caM no ce6e nonexoraur ce uapexyna Xepuon KOHYC. Orcrpanyearsero OAOHTOK 011 noroneero napse KaMeH rtJ nxny-iyaa acnrre rrpJilHl\HrIlL Teacos npenve'r ynnpa Bp3 «peuexor C03)1asajK}I KOHXOHllaJ1110 rrpekpuryeaa,e. EHllejKH ynapor e HaCOyeH KOH pa60T na KaMeHOT, cauo acn 011 KOHYCOT e so KaMeHOT, nonexa YII8POT ro oTCTpaHYBa cavo OAOWTOKOT, HO He H uennor KOHYC.

TIopaAH MexaH113MHTe H3 xpiueu,e H npnponara aa ca« HOT MaTepHjan.

OJ\OIITOl\11Te HMaaT ronexr opoj pa3JlJil'IHH KapaKTepl!CTlIKII. npHKa)KaHil aa Cnuxara :10.3. QpHefIT31111jaTa -ra OA611TOKOT e ueonxonna sa Ha6lbYilYBafbe na OSHe KapaKTepl1CTHIUL BpBOT ua OA6I1TOKOT. MeCTOTO xane ce npasreayna cana aa J\a ce orcrpanu upyr OJ\6HTOK. ce napexyaa ynapna nJlaT<IJOpMa. Hannopeuraara nonpunraa ua OIlOHTOKOT. xoja M02Ke}.la liMa ny3HII 011 0116 [,ITOI.\II KOH npeTXOI1HO 61.[J1e orcrpaaern, ce napcxysa )lOp3aJlHa crpaua. HOBaTa BHaTpewH3 nonpumaa aa 01l611TOKOT ce uapexyea BHaTpewH3 IIml. aea'rpanaa crpana, Pa60BIITe sa OAOllTOKOT All nopaannara u Bel-rrp3J1H3Ta crpasa, ce OCTpy!. KOH BPBOT H3 sexrpamra crpaua ce nojaayaa 6yOJlYCOT IInl1 TO'IKaTa na ynap, Ey6J1yCOT e npeocraaaraor nen 011 KOHYCOT KOj uacrauysa npu Y)lllpalbeTO, a KOj ce raeaa KaKO IIcnaKHYB3lbe Aa K3MeHHOT M3Tepllj3Jl. BeHTpaJlH3T3 crpasa MOlKe IIU COIlP2K.H 1·[ npyru KapaKTeplICTHKH no611eHH npu ocrparrysau,e H3 O}.l6HTOKOT, BK,lY'IYBajKII ru rparure all 6paHOBH H KOHl\eTpH'!HWTe npCTeH11. Jlysaara

CJlII"a 10.1 Kpeaenn aprerpaicr» 011 KaMeHOTO BpeMe HajlleHH np» ucxonysae,a so jY)KH3 III sencxa. I'onevoro ce-runo so lIeHTapOT e nonro OKOllY JOCM.

CJlI1K3 10.2 MeXaHH3Ml<Te aa xpureu,e sa KpimToKpHCT3JlHWre lIBpCTH craxnecrn MaTep"janH, oncunajax H KPeMeH. Fonesraor npenuer 011 J1CSaTa crpana e oIl6HTOK, a fO noxaacyaa Xepl\OBJ.!oT KOtlYC "JIll 6yJl6ycOT sa ynapor.

KOHXO"AanHa <ppaKTypa <l>opMa Ha WKonKa Ha anarpeusera nOBpW!o1Ha OA O,q6~TOKOT; weMa Ha npeKpwysal-b8 BI'IA8Ha npVl ,qem(aHle I-!a KaMeHIi1Te anaTK~

Xep40B .OHYO ~Me sa T04KaTa Ha YAap Ao6"eHa np" xpureee Ha KpltlnOKp~CTanH~Te M8Tepi1janl1

map"a nn,,<popM' PaMHa nO'pW"Ha Ha J .... POTO K'lie ce aauecyaa YAap 3a Aa ce orcrpaaa OA6HTOKOT. B"An", Ha 'P'OT OA OA5HTOKOT AOp3i1nHa crpaaa H0S,4BOpeWHaTa nOBpWltlHa H8 OA6111TOKOT

•• HTp.nH. crpaua (6yn6ycHa) Bsarpeun-a nOSpW"Ha Ha OA6"TOKOT

6yn6yclTo .. S Ha YAapOT /1en OA KOHycor Ha npeKpwy,s"e KOj ce m"Aa OA SHaTp"WHaT. no.pW.H8 Ha OAb"TOKOT KaKO cnaeo KpylKHO "CnaKHY"" •• n. 6yn6yc

MexaHV13M~ Ha «puie-se l.-1 CYPOBVlHCKll'l MaTeplt1janlA 273

Cnnxa 10.3 rrraBll" KapaKTepHcTHKH ua OA6HTOKOT

Aen.a",e co YAap (nep,yc"ia) TeXH"KaJa Ao6"BaH>e KaMeH" apTe(jJaKT. "peKY YA'palbe .n. R€IlK81iJ8 H8 Kp~CTaneH K8M8H co TBPA 101J11<1 M8K '-l8K8H. Blo1A8T9 ~ A8IlKal-b8 GO npVlfl.1COK

Aei1J(8I'be co np~TIo!COK TeXH!-1Ka 33 Ao6l11sal-be K8MeHl-1 apre¢aKn1 npeKy OTcTpaHysal"b8 H8 OA6.TO~" OA KaMeHOTO iaAPO CO "p'T"KaH>e ,aW"neH' 0PYA'ia. 8'Aem , AenKaHoe CO YAap.

TBPII4eKaH Te,"""a CO nepKY"Ja sa npa"Hoe K8M9HI1 anaTKI!1 co YAl!1pal-be KaMeH I'1J1II1 jap,po, co APyr KaM8H, 1iln&.1 Y8KaH. B~,lIeTe ~ T8XHIo1Ka CO M8K Y8KaH'.

nepKyreplYA"paH KaMeH KOj ce kopacren 38 AenK.Hoe OA6"T04" OR ja,qoro; Ren OR ana"". Ha eAe" Ka.eHope3e4

HeKaH "HaKOB."H. T eXH .. a Ha AenK8Hoe co YAapl nepKyc'ia • TBPA HeK8" Koi BKnYHYBa YA'paHo" "a caMOTO jaAPo (48Kali) HaCnpOTiI1 ron8M KaM8H f.la 3eMjaTa (Ha.oBanHaTaloa Aa ce cO'Aa,qe oA6HTOK MeK 4eK3H TeXHIilK8 1-18 ~el1Kaf-b€foA6"Bal-be Koja BKnyL.fyea ynorpena HB 48K8H OA par, KDCK8 Io1fllt1 IWeD, HaMeeTO K8M8H. BlotA8Te 101 T9XHV1K8 co TapA yeK8H

MeA"ia1Oplnocpe,qHHK napyeOA per, KDeKa on, ApsO Kop,cTe< KaKO 06ieKT nOMery HeKaHOT " i'ApOTO sa Aa nOMorHe np. oTcTpaHYBaHoe Ha OA6L1TOKOT

Ael1Kal-be KpeMeH Ae.m<arts 101111-1 Op,6V1SaI'b8 KaM8H .sa,ita ce HanpaBar anaTK!.1Ii1,Llpym apr8¢1aKH1

anarxa Cexoe Opy,qL18, onpeMa, npej\M8T l-IaMeHCKIo1 MOA'(jJ"4HpaH OA nyceTo sa Aa ce npOMeH. OKo.nv1l-l8r8 oKony 1"U,1B

omaA TepM"H KOj ce 0AHeeYB. Ha C"Te napH"Hoa

" OA6"TO~" KO" ce npoH'BeAeH" np"' "paBeHoeTO K8M8HIr1 anaTKII1, HO He VI KOPIo1CT8HIo1; HapeyeH 101 ry6pe

ry6pe [debitaqe- <ppaH~yc."J TopM.H KOj ce 0AHecysa Ha CI1T8 nap4VH-ba V1 Ot\6I1TOU.~ KOI1 ce np0l'13Bep,eHI1 npl1 npaae-eero KaM8HII1 anan::I1J HO He 101 KOpIr1Cr8HI-I: Hape48HO It ornaq

C8H""0 Cne4'janeH '"A H'Aon,"eH OA6"TOK CO ABe napan8JlHVI CrpaHIr1lr1 co p,om+(l.1H8 HajManKY ABa naTI-1 nororesa 0,0, Wl-1plr1HaTa Ha nap-ere. PeryJ1apHOTO npOVl3BO_,ll,CTBO Ha C8l.Jlo1na ro KapaKTepl-13t1pa ADIIH140T naneOfll.1T; co e¢lVlKBceH H84i.1H sa ,.qo6V1Bal-be r0I18M KB8HIo1H1T8T H8 pa60BIoITS 38 C8'-1€1-b9

YH~cjlac~jane"leA"OCTpaH TepM"H KOj ja On"i!JYBa 1-13Aem<aHar8 .K8MeHa anarka Ha KOJa t1 C8MO eAHaTa crpaaa e perYWi1paHa 38 A8 ce HanpaBI1 ocrap p.a6

6.¢aC"janeHIABOCTpaH TapM'H Koi ja O",WY.8 ~3,QenKal-laTa K8MeHa 8!l8TK8 H8 Koja ABere crpaH~ ce peTYW"paH" sa Aa ce A06,e nOTeHKB anarxa w,ne4/Bpe OA npo.'''n r eH.p'~KO HMe sa "Hory CPOjlM~ 14 MaTep14jaJll1 KOp!1Cr9HVI sa Aa C9 Hanpa6Ji! QCTap pa6 Ha oPYA'jaTa KaKO crpona naKOSH, ~lo1mnV1, KOllja 101 GJlMYHQ (CI1HOHIo1M: CTpenVlYKM).

274 rnaea 10 Auanaaa Ha KaM9HOT

J1Y3Ha all,. 6yn6ycoT

p,apHa nnardiopv

6paHOB~ ./

):Iop3al1Ha crpasa

01l6YJ16ycOT, BO SfW: ua Marra cj:mcypa xoja ce rnena nnpex'rno na caM"OT 6yJ16yc, MO?Ke 118 Hil nane )lOKa3 H aa ynorpeoara H3 CIlJJa.

Oaae KapaKTcpHCTIIKIlMOll<el1a r" npoaasenar n EleKO" rtpnponna CHJm (OAPOHII ua KaMeH, ASH>KClbe na sonara, Mpa3 0[1 rneseprrre), HO TaKB"Te npHMepH ce perxn BO npapona'ra. Ha TOj Ha'lJ1H, KOM5"Hal.\lljaTa na OBHe pa311"'lHIl KapaKTepllCTHKII II OTKpf1BalbeTO aa rOJ1eM 6poj 1'3KBIl 01\6MTOl.\M tra el1eH JlOKaJJIlTeT ce ~1Hory nooap IlOKa3 33 QOBe'!KOTO BKJly'lyealbe BO npaaea.ero H3 01\6M1'OUHTe,

Bo HeKOH BpeMeHCKII uepnonn H3 pa3nJ1~HH nenoeu BO cBeTOT, .HJ1CKO· xnanareriurre p0>KHel.\H 6"J1e 3arpeB3HH sa na ce nonocprr H"8HHOT KBaJlI,TeT npn nemcau.ero, nOCTerreHOTO aarpeaaa,e aa HeKOH xpanoxpncrarmn MaTepllj3rrH rM MeHysa OC0611HI1Te na K3MeHOT, BKrrYQYB3jKII 3r0J1eMYB3Ibe aa cjajrrocra, xce e qeCTO npOCJ1eAeHO co pa3HI'! npoxeau BO 60jan. KaKO nononnynan,e na roa, Ma1'epHjarroT CTaHYBa nonecea sa nenzaae, C03p:aBajKI1 npuroa 1l0JTrll 11 nOTeHKH 0116111'01(11, Osoj TpeTMaH sa saronnyaaae HaKaMeHOT 33 npaaen,e On6I1TOK, najsepojarao 3anO'IE3.n BO rr0/1011Hell<HIlOT naJ1eOJIllTCKH nepnon.

nPABEf-bE KAMEHIt1 AnATKIt1

O/l511TOK01' MO?Ke na ce O1'CTpaHI1 011 MaTWIHI10T KaMeH, 1IJ1}] janporo, co ynap IWI! co nparucox. TeXHIlK3TJ na ynapaa,e aa K3MeHOT sa crcrpanyaaa.e H3 On6111'OKO'1' ce aapexysa lleJ1Kalbe co yaap (nepsycaja) (Cnaxa lOA): lIeJIll3lhe co npHTIlco.K e TepMI'IH KOj ce KOPI.JCTIl sa D;a ce onmnar oTCTpaHYBalb8Ta uanpaacna no nar aa rtpaurcxaac aa IJJllneJ.\OT Bp3 pa60BI!Te O!1ja!1pOTO. Ilocrojar napnjaurn « na I(B3n MeT0I13.

Ynapor (nepxycsjara) MO?Ke I\a ce nanpasu co xopncren,e TBPII QCK3H, 'JeKaH f{ HaKOB3JJHa "rrH MeK nexau. TepMIIHOT mBpa -tetca« ce OAHeC),Ba na yncrpeoa aa 'leK3H co ennaxea I1JH! nOrOJ1eMa Te)f(IIH3 011 onaa aa janporo a xajsecro ce aapexyaa nepxyrep/ynnpaa. MeT0}10T co 'leRall II H3K0l1BaJ1113 e cnetrajanaanpana TeXHHK3 co TBPA qeKaH. Toj ro apaxa aauaaan HOPM3J1HIIOT npouec aa YllHpalbe ua MaTl1'lHf{OT KaMeH co 'leKaH. Bo onoj MeTOA, MaTll'lHaT8 xapna JilJIII janpo ce IIPll<H SO paKaT3 11 ce Yl\lIpa nacrrporx KaMe HOT KOj e <:jJIIKCllpaH ua 3eMjaT8 (uaxoaanaara) sa 113 ce OTCTpaHH 01l6HTOKOT.

MeR '1eKaIl3Ha~l1ynoTpe6a na nepxyrep/ynnpa-r on nonecen, nOMeK Marep"jan, najsecro porOBII, lCOCKa, na I\YPl.J II UpSO, 33 na ce OTCTpaH3r On6HTOlU!Te. MOll<e61! narnena 113Hefra1\YBa'lKIi AeKa MeKUOT 'feKaH MOll<e na ce KOPHCTH 33 A061!BaH,e Ol\6HT0l1H 011 KaMel!, HO r'yrca e noaaxora npnvenara aa cnna OTKOJ1KY Tell<l1HaTa na '1eKaHOT. Ynorpecara na MeK qeKaH peaynrnpa co orcrpanyaan,e na rrO!lJl!pOKIITe H 1I0TeHKH oA6IlTOl.\I!.

Ilepxycnjara MOlKe na 611/lel1l!peKTHa Hll1'f HIIlll1peKTH.a. Ilxpexraara nepxycnja 3H3'1II nexa 4eKaHOT YI1"pa !1HpeKTHo BO jaI1POTO; "Hl1l1peKTHaTa 3Hacm nexa nen 011 porOBIITe, KOCK3Ta IIrrH [1PBOTO ce Kop"CTaT KaKO sauranena npeneuern napevenn Mel(lIj'lTOPII rrovery 'leKaHOT 11 janporo 33 na nOMOmaT npn OTCTpaHYBalbeTO ua 01161;11'OWITe. 11!lIlf1peKTHaTa nepxycaja !103B0J1YB3 KpeMeHO·lIeJlKa~OT lin [1Ma norcnesra xorrrpona aa MeCTOTO na orcrpauynan-e.

Ilenxan.ero CO Yl\ap axnyvysa ynorpeea aa aaumneua anarxa, aaj recro Oil KOCKa 1IJ1" por aa l1a rrpl1TI1CKa na pa60T 011 janporo npa orcrpanysaa-e aa MHory 11011rl1, TeCHIl 0/16111'0111'1 (CJlI1Ka 10.5). Ilonexoraui KaKO 33WIJrreH3 aJ1aTK3 ce KOpl!CTeJJ riaxapor. 61l[1ejxlI MeTaJlOT 06e36e[1YBRJI l\o6ap sarpar Bp3 ocrpsor pa6 on janporo. Ilosexero npe<:jJI1HeTII KpeMeHII 3naTKH 61'!rre aarrpaseaa npexy 01l61lB3lbe co npuracox.

J

Y.qapHa nnarrpopua TOYKa Ha y.q~patt.e \_ -

nY3Ha O.q O.q6~TOKDT

Llenra sa npancropncxaor neaxax aa KaMelha OHJ1an3 ce nanpanar aJ1aTKH KOH 15M MOlKeJIe na ce KopMCTaT 33 pa3J1H'IHII aKTlfSHOCTH. ElI)lejKH lIeJIKau.eTO KpeMen e npouec rrpa KOj ce 01l3eMa xeurro, nparoa ce c03A8sa MHory OTnaAeH MaTepHjaJ1, KaKO CTpyraHHl111 OA paoorara co IIpSO. Ce npaBH pa3JJHKa noxrery aJIaTKnTe KOH ce navepen llPOAYKT ua npDH3S0l\HIIOT rtpouec, M OT1I3110T, KOj e neynorpeoea M81'epl1jan )lOOHeH IIpM IICT1I0T IIPOl1ec. <ppaHllYCKMOT 360p debitage (ryope) ce KOPHCTH 'IeCTO aa )la ce oname osoj ornaneu MaTepHjan. Osoj 01'[1811 sxnyvyna MHory 01l611T0I1I1, nap-usa.a xpesreu H CHTHH HBepKIL HBepKI1, oruan HJJil fy15pe ce TepMIlHH KOH ce KopHCTaT 33 MliOry MaJIM lIeJJ'IHlha aeynorpeoeuu KpeMeHH KOII ce c03AaBaa1' npa paoorea.ero CO KaMeHOT. CHTe OBHe npoAYKTH - H 06pa601'eHI1Te JIap'll1a.a Il OTnal\OKOT - ce aprediaxrn, npoH3BoAJ.! KOI! rn nanpannne nyrero.

ITOCTOI! ynrre enna xopncna pa3JIHKa noaery 01l6f!TO[ll1Te H cevunara, nponajnox 011 AOUHI10T naJ1eonHTCKVI nepnon. Ce-raaara ce eIlHOCTaBHH, 1I0JIrl1, TeCHH OA6IIT0l1Ji KOI1 MOJl(e na ce orcrpanysaar napuajanno 011 nO)lrOTBeHOTO janpo, Ha Ha'mH KOj e CJlWreH ua nyneu.e MOpKOB. Cesanara ce llpen03HaTJTIIBH 11 no HI1BHaTa H3AOJIlKeHa cjJopMa II no npouecor aa HRBHO rrpanen.e, KOj 15apa Cnel1HjaJJHO nonrorseno janpo. THe MOlKe lIa 611)1aT aaupaeean Il co nnpexen 1-l co I1HI1HpeKTeH yaap (Cnnxa 10.6). Ilorperien e nOMaJIKY xpevea aa na ce HaIIpaBaT OCTpH pa60BH; CeQHJJaTa noroa MOlKe na 6HllaT naupaseau BO pa3nH'IHII SI1)10BH aJIaTKIl KOI1 ce onauranu nonony; AOJIraTa ¢opMa na ceuanara rt1 rrpaan nonoronm- aa npurxn OTKOJJKY on6V1Tol(HTe.

Bo 3aBHCHOCT OA TelK)1HaTa na 0pYIlHeTo ynorpeoeno KaKO '1eKaH, MOlKe Aa ce H)1eHTHqlHKYBaaT )lBa 81l)1a aa ce'IHJJa. Ce-ranara AOOl1eHH CO TBPA 'IeKaJi ce ynapaar AHpeKTHo co KaMeH -rexau II lIMaaT nonmpoxa ynapna nJ1aT¢OpMa, HCIIaKHaT 6yJI6yc aa yaapor 11 JJY3H11 aa rosxara sa ynapor. Ce-mnara A06HeHII co MeK '1eKaH rcxeparmo ce nOAOJJrI1 H nOTeHKH, co TeCHa YIIHpHa nJ1aT¢OpMa 11 CJIa6 6yJJ15yc na ynapor (Cnnxa 10.7).

AJJaTKI1Te <reCTO ce npenosaanaar H KaKO aJI8TKH OA jaJlPOTO - rOJTeMa aJ1aTKa 1I06HeHa co OTCTpaHYBaa.e na OA611To[lHTe 3a)la ce oonaxyaa - 1IJ111 OA6I1TO'[I111 aJIaTKI1, IIJJI1 anaTKI1 Bp3 01l611TOI(I1, IlJJH Ce'lIWeCTH a!laTKII npaaerra Bp3 ce-mna. )J,pyra pa3JIHKa e aanpaaena nOMefy YHHlj>acnjaJIHIITe aJJaTKH 0l'ipa60TeHI1 caao 01\ enxara crpaaa IInH 6m!>aclljaJI.HUTe aJ1aTKM 015pa60TeHI1 OA )1BeTe CTpaHl'1. Burpacnjanarrrc aJIaTKI1 ce '1eCTonaTII 3a1JHI!leHI1 opynaja KaKO IlIHJTUH T,e. BPBOBU 0)1 lIpoeKTIIJIH. reHepl1QKHOT TepMHH uuuzelj UJ1U BPB 00 iipoetciiiu« ce KOPHCTH sa pa3JIH'IHHTe BUIIOSR apTe¢aKTII xoa MOlKe Aa ce KopHCTaT KaKO OCTap xpaj aa xonje, CTpeJIH I1JII1 !laKOBI1. CTpeJ1I1'1Klne ce enen TaKOB BIIII aa BPBORII 011 npoex-rana.

AnaTKHTe ce 4eCTO HaMepHO OOJJHKYB8HII BO cneO;Hq,I1'1Ha q,opMa co BTopOCTeneHO nenxarse. TeXHIIKaTa na 1I0HaTaMOiliHO 06JJI1KYRalhe aa oA6I1TOUHTe,

Cm.-"a 10.4 Texuaea-ra na

nenxan,e axrrysysa yrrorpetia

tra cuna nacnporn ja)1pOTO 0)1

KaMeH aa na ce coanane 01l6HTOK. OTCTpaHYBal-beTO na 01l6HT0l111Te OCTaBa rpara na rroapumsara 011 janporo. YAHpHa1'a nnarrpopaa e MeCTOTO kane ce aasecysa Yllapo1' Bp3 janpo-ro. Cepnja 01l6111'Oljl1 MOlKe na ce oTCTpaHI1 on jaIlPOTO. OBOj npIlMep anycrpapa nertxau,e co ynap (nepxycaja).

CJIHKa 10.5 ,[(eflKal-be co I1l1peKTeH IlPI1TI1COK 11 ynorpeoa aa aauraneaa KOCKa aa na orcpaaar npaBI1JJHI1, MaJ1H, gOJIrll H TeHKW 0116111'01111 OA 6l1cjJacHjaJ1HaTa ana'rxa

CJIHKa HI.6 Orcrpaayaarsc aa Ce'lI1JIOTO all nortrorseno jaupo sa cevnna, co nOMOlU H8 HHUHpeKTHa TeXHI1Ka co Mel1l1jaTop. Bo osoj cnyuaj, MeAwjaTopoT 011 samanea por ce YAMpa co nepxyrep sa na ce 1I061le 1I0JJrO CeqHJJO.

npaS8t-b8 KaMeHt.1 anaTKI.1 275

CJIIIKa 10.7 Tpa nornena aa CeYHJIO Ao611eHo co Mel{ \;leKaH_ CC'i"Jl3Ta ce l13AOJllKCHl1 On6"1'OI.lI1. KapaKTCp"CTlIKII1'C aa 0)10IlTOKOT ce BIIAnHBI1 aa OBI1C aprediaxrn, BKnY'lyBajKH ro 6y6nYCOT all. nepxycajara, 6paHOBIITwre "

ner ar asare 0[.1. nperxonmrre nenxan,a. OBa ce-mno 1106HeHo co MCK 'leKaH I1Ma ~lHory 1'eHKa ynapaa nnarrpopua II paMeR 6y6nyc 011 nepxycnjara.

CJlUKa 10.8 Ce-ranara ce KOPIICHH npa¢opMH rum T10Il.JlOnl sa npasea-e ~JHory npyru TllnOSIi apTe¢aKTII

co perynmpaa,e. Ha osoj uprexc

ce npI1K3)J(3HH HCJ:(OW pa3JlI:'I:~IB:.H TMnOBM anarxa Bp3 ce-rana KOW ce n03H81'II yWTC 011 npaacropajara. TeMHIITC patiosa na osae aprcrpaxr« ra nOKalKYBaaT PC3YJTTaTilTC 011. perynmparsero, KaAC onpenen

Gpoj 011 nOMaJTIITe OA611T0l11f ce orcrpaueru aa aa ce n0611e 06mlKOT H3 xpajaara 3J1aTl(a_

~.~ peTyw~paH!le 06m1KYBatt€ liIl1\o1 ocrpeae Ha KaMSH"Te apTeljJaK" npeKy nspKYC"la "n" APo~e",e nOA npIo1TIo1COK; reXHIo1Ka HB KpeMeHO APo6eH:JB

npa<jlopMa ("OWlora) OCHOSHO nap-e on, nOlVlora, ynoTpe6eHO Aa ce HanpaBIo1 cne4~¢WieH ran Ha saspweH npo.3soA Tep""HOT e ynoTpe6eH BO ,muW"IKvne npoyyysal'ba sa Aa ce onmuar paHIHe q,a3' BO npo'3BOACTBOTO Ha oApeAeH< T,"O", anaTK", 'aKO Ha np""ep w.n4. r.e. BpBDe" 04 npoeKTUn •.

276 rnaea 1 0 Aaanusa H8 K8M9HOT

~@ru@®~®@~ @~~ ~~~~~lbQn 0ffiID~~

ce-ntnara JoI ApyrJolTe o6jeKTw BO cne~II¢JoIt[HII ¢OPMI1, ce aapexyaa peTywllpalhe, crcrpanyaan,e aa AonOnHIfTeJTHIITe 01l6MTo~JoI 38 na ce MOIIMcj:>l1l.1l1pa opnrnaanacro napse. Tlonexoraru OBOj npouec e eIlHOCT8BeH, KaKO H8 IlpllMep ocrpea.e enex pa6 H3 on611TOKOT aa MeCTOTO xajurro ce IIPlKJI npCTOT IInll nOSTopHO ocrpeu,e ira pariormrre paoonu 011 anarxara. Ilonexoraiu osoj npouec e cncxea I{ BKnY'lYS8 roneu opoj 'leKopII sa p;a npouasene Cne~JoI¢H'IHa ronevuaa II ¢OpM8. Msory 011 ceKYH)1apHI1Te On6MTOUJol 11 OTll81WUI{ ce coananenu so osoj npouec, Ce4HJ1aTa Bo06H'IaeHO ce pCTylmrpaaT BO Hajpa3JTl1YHH ¢OPMM (CJlI!Ka 10.8). Ha osoj Ha'fIIH, ce-mnara ce nonnora "JIH npercrasysaar npatpopxa 38 M3pa60TK8 H3 npyru, Hajpa3nH'IHII BHAOBH 8J13TKH.

MIIKpO):lJIeTO TeXHIIKal'a e cneuajanuaapaa npouec KOj sxnyxysa cepnja sexopn sa )13 ce i\051ljaT MaJlIl lUllJlI1H T.e. BPBOOIl aa npOeKTHJlM, naj-tecro CO reOMeTpHCKa cpopMa (CJlI1Ka 10.9). Ce'lI1J10TO e xopacreno K3KO nonnora sa npascae aa ¢){HaJlHHOl' rrpOH3BOi\. (a) Ilae jaMIl'lKH, r.e. DIlJla6HYBa!ba ce peryumpaar i\OJl)[( pa500HTe H3 Ce'II1J10TO (5) Ce'Il1J10TO roraur ce KPWH xaj jaMH'lKUTe sa na ce C031(a)1aT reosrerpacxu cerverrrn 0)1 cpenanara H3 ceuanoro (8). ODa Tp"arOJlHO HJIfI POM60HIIHO napse noroa ee peTywfIpa no 1I0Jl)[(IIHara aa cxpnreanre pa60BII 331(3 ce KOMnJIeTHpa neroeara reoxrerpacxa cpOPM3.13Hl1ejKII 08){e rrap'lll!ba naj-recro ce M3J1H no roneMIIH3, nouexoraur ce aapexysaar reOMeTp"CKII MnKpOJIUTII (M3JIH K3WIHfb3). Ce npeTnOCT3SYB3 aexa BaKBHTe MIIKpOJlHTII ce xopncrenn .KaKO llIHJIl111 T.e. BPBOBI1 011 npOeKTHJH1. TepMIHIOT MHKpOi\JIeTO ce 0AHeCYBa Ha TeXHI1KaTa xora ce YIIHpa ce-ianoro xaj jaMII'IKaTa, HO II na pa500HTe on Ce'l.fIJIOTO KOB ornaraar KaKO OTrJaIlOK BO OBOj npouec (II). IIpHcycTBOTO aa OBHe MIIKpOI1JIeTa YKa)!{YBa lIeKa MI1KPOJHITI1Te 6,me npasean Ha CaMI10T JIOKamITeT.

CMVlcon HA KAMEHVlTE AnATKVI

Ilocrojar ~-IHory Ha'mHII i\a ce npoy-rysa npal1CTOpllCKOTO npOll3BOACTBO na KaMeHHTe anarxa. Bo05H'l3eHI1 ce excnepawerrrannare npoy-rynan,a; apXeOJI031'1Te rII npasar 11 nI KOp.HCT3T KaMeHIITe aJ13TKl1 aa nonoopo lIa r!I pasbepar rrpouecor 11 pcsyrrrarnre. n paeersero KOnll1'! aa CTapHTe qJOpMH 11 TeXHIIKIl, npnroa xopxcrejx» pa3JIII'lHI1 CypOBI~HH, e MOKeH npouec aa npoy-rysaa,e. TIOCTOj3T MHory TeXHI1KII 33 npOY'lyo3fbe ua uanpaneunre 11 KOpl'ICTeHIITe aJIaTKHTe, a roa e 06p33JIO)[(eHO so osoj lIeJI.

T"nOJIOrl'ljaT3 e KOHBeHI1110H3J1eH npncrarr 33 KJ1aCl1cpl1L\l1pafbe ua KaMeHI1Te aJIaTKII. 3a cexoj J10KaJ1ell apxeonor e neonxonao na rlI rroanaaa TRIIOBI1Te KaMeHH apTe{jJaKTI1. TIPOY'IYBafbeTO H8 npouecor H8 npaeen.e KaMeml aJ1aTKII, BKrrY'lysajKl1 nt 11 roroanre 8rraTKH II HanpaBeHIIOT ornan, 'IeCTO BKJIy'lysaaT KOHL\enT IlJI" MeToA n03HaT KaKO CIIHI.lIlP onepauan (chan oh-PAIRah-twar), KOj rn BKJIY'IYBa CIITe cTallllYMl1 aa np0I130011CTBOTO II ynorpeoara. Tloeiuopuoiiio ciiojyetuoe ){n11 coeanxyaaisero, e TepMI-IH KOj ce KOPHCTIl 33 na ro onaure nOBTopflOTO cnojysasse aa OpllTllH3JHlIlTe MaTH'lH}I janpa co aJIaTKHTe KOII 611Jle KopHCTeHI1 II 1131(eJ1KaHII na JIOKaJ1MTeTOT. XOp"30HTaJlHara MeCT0l10Jloll<6a xa OBHe nosropuo cnoemr nap-nnsa e ~IHory HH{jJopMaTJ10Ha. <l>YHKL\HOH3JIHara aHaJIH3a e ei\Ha 011 Haje{jJHK3CHHTe TeXHHKH KOI1 ce KOPHCT3T sa npoy-rynarse sa rca K3KO 6HJIe KOpliCTeHl1 K3MeHHTe aprediaxru. OBl1e aHaJIH311 BKJlY'lYBaaT MIIKpOCl(onCKI1 npoy'lyBafb3 xa OIllTeTYBal-b3Ta I-I normpan.ero 1i3 paeosnre 01\ K3MeHwre apreqiaxrn KOH rn OTKpl1BaaT M3Tepllj3JII11'e «on 611JIe 06pa6oTYB3HI1. Oane acnetera H3 KaMeHilTe aHaJIII311 ce 06pa3nO)[(eHII rronony,

Orxora KaMeHI1Te aprerpaxrn ce IIC'IIICTeHl1 H 1136poeHII, sano-nryaa npOL\eCOT H3 coprupaa,e, KJIaCM{jJIIKal1l1ja, Mepefbe M aaaunsxpaa,e. TIPBOTO coprspaa,e aaj-recro ce 633lIpa H3 eAHOCTaBHI1Te TeXHOIlOWKIl Blif110BH janpa II 01(6111'01111 11 aJIaTKH, HO BO npeJl.BHII ce 3eMeHH II PaJHI1 npyra KpliTepnyMI1, BKJ1Y'fYB3jKiI rlI II CypOBl1HaT3, sarpeeaaero HJIII ropeu.ero, narnnauajara H ~1Hory )1PYflI. TIaTI1Haql1jar3 e epO)1l1pa'IKII npouec KOj nocreneuo ja MeHYBa noapumaara sa xpeaesor 011 cjajrra 00 M3THa II H3j'leC'I'0 01( enaa 60ja BO npyra,

nOHeKoraIII Op3 5a3a na npncycrso aa H31(BOpelllH3 nospumna na KaMeH3T3 HOI1YJJa, ce npasa yurre enna pa3JIHKa. TIospwIIHaT3 na HOI1YJla1'3 0)1 pO)!{HeJ.( I1JII1 xpexrex e najxecro epomspaaa II narapana, HO nocrapare noapurana l1MaaT KOp'TeKc,

emma 10.9 Ilpouecor H3 MHKpo,UJ1eTO TeXHHKa J1

npoIIYKTI{Te; (a) Ce'IHJIO co jaMJ<'IKa (BIIJIa6HYBafbe) 011 perynnspan,e;

(15) ynap Bp3 jaMW!KaTa 33 na

ce npousseue (8) reOMeTp"CKI1 MI<KpOJJHT H (r) pa3J1H'leH oTn311eH MaTepl1jaJl noanar K3KO MI1KpOIlJIeTo.

www mhhe.comlpricearch1

3a AononHIofTeflHl1 aKT"'BHOCT~ aa Cl1HI,lIo1POT onepa4101Io1, nornenaere r~ Be)!(6~Te 80 aawI!10T oHnajH 06pa30seH ue-rrap.

Mf'lKpOAneTO (1) T eXH\1Ka H3 npaB8tbe M8J11<1 reOMeTM P"CK" nap4"",a ("""PO"""') oA cerMeHT" Ha cey"nara: (2) OTnill\H.Te npo"3soA" oA npouecor Ha M"KpoAfleTOTo "CTO TaKa ce sapesyaaar M"'poAfleTa

MHKpommf Man~ CBLJl1na \01 reOM9rpl1CKItI CPOPMI1

Ha KaM8HI'1 anaTK~, HajyeCTO rioe.p3yeaHI1 co Me30""TCKMT nep"oA sa CTap"OT cser

C"HV"P onepa4"" (chaine operatoire -ljlpaH4YC'": ceKBeH4a Ha npoK3BoACTBO) Pa3fl"4-H.Te CT"I\"Y"" Ha npO"'BOIlCTBOTO, Oil cHa6AYBa-

",eTO eo eypo",H" AD Ijl"HBIlHOTO HanY"lTa",e Ha noca'YBaH"T. "'""" y"oTpe6eH' npeA"eT". naT.Ha4.ja EpOA"pa4'" np04ec HOj nOCTeneHO

ja M8HYBa nOBpWl-1HaTa Ha KpeMeHoT oA cjaJH'a BO MaTHa " Haj4ecTo Oil eAHa 60ja SO APyra co TeKOT Ha apeM8TO; HOBaTa nOSpWI1Ha e Onl-1WaHa KaKO naruaa.

KopTe<c «opa) TeWKo npOMeH"""a nO"pW"Ha

aa HilI\"OpeWHOCTa OA KpeMe"Te HOAY"" "n" HOAyn"Te OA pOlKHe4. np"CYCTBOTO Ha OBOj «oprexc e Kp",ep"YM sa Kopr."BIleH 0A6",oK.

CJlHK3 10.10 TpHlIMMeH3HOllaJleH onac ira 611¢acHj8J1ell aprerpaxr Oil Texcac, Osaa cnaxa e aanpasena co KOM6liH8111lja OA 3-.0: J18CepCKO cxeaaparse " rpororpasrerpaja.

~ KOpr"KaneH O~6"rOK DA6.roK co ManKY H'Asap.WHar. nospW.Ha (KopreKc) np.cyrHa Ha K8ueHBTa HOl1yna.

nacra Ha TltnQBi'I 36'-1pKara H3 nmOBI-1Te apTe¢aKTH '3 oApeAeHa 06nacT.

palieH KnHH KapaKTepUCTHl./eH aprecpaKT o,q nanef)· naror: roneaa KaMeHa MaTKa BO cpopMa Ha coma, fiHq,a"ianHO AenKaHa KaKO lU.ne~ 011 9,IlHam crpa-a " co now'po,a OCHOBa OA APyraTa; aa orurra npH"eHa.

KaMeHa 36HpKa KOMnneTeH 36.p oA KaMeH. apreq,aKT. npoHaiAeH. Ha eAeH apxeonowK. nosanarer.

278 r'naea 10 AHanH3a ua KaMeHOT

TeWKO npOMeHJlHB8 nOBpWHHa xa nansopeunrocra 011 KaMeaOT. IIpl1cYCTBOTO aa osoj xoprexc e Kpl1TepUYMOT 38 KOpTI1KaJleH OIlOI1TOK. II ponopunjara xa KOPTHK3J1B1ITe 0IlOUTOIIII BO 36HPK8T8 011 KaMellH an8TKH e nOKa38TeJl H8 rOJleMHHaTa ua HOAYJlI1Te KOH ce ynorpeoysane Ha JlOKaJlIlTeTOT - KOJIKY nosexe KOpTIlKaJlHII Ol<O!!TOIIII, TOJIKY DOMaJlIl HOAYJll1.

3a A3 ce anycrpapaar xapaxrepacrnxnre ua aprerpaxrure J1 AeTaJlHTe 011 npOll3BOilCTSOTO It ynorpetiara, ~eCTO narn e HeonXOAHO e 118 ce naupraar KaMeHHTe anarsa, TaKBHTe IlJlYCTpallHU nouexoraur ce BHCTIlHCKO YMeTHll'lKO neno, a nOTpe6HH ce rcnev ranesr, BeWTIIHa Ii I1CKYCTBO aa A3 ce nanpasar T8KBHTe anycrpauan. Pa'fHHOT KJlIIH npaxaxcaaa na CnHKaTa 10.11 e npOH3BOl( aa IlJlYCTpllpa'IKH ranenr.

Ilenec, KOMOlIHal\HjaTa 011 nacepcxa II clJoTo rcxaonoruja rH 38MeHYBa YMeTHl1'fKaTa paxa Il OKO sa na rH 3aOeJle)KH AeTaJlHTe Ha npaacropacxrrre aprerpaxrn (CJlIlKa 10.10). Osaa rexnonornja, xoja KOPI1CTIl 3-,!.( nacepcxo cKeHllpaH>e 11 rpororpanerpaja, MO)Ke Aa 3a15eJle)f{1I lIpeAMeTH 011 CKOPO CHTe rOJleMIiHIl 01< apxnrexrypa'ra AO aprediaxrnre co aaoenexorrenna TO'fHOCT 11 jacnocr.

TlllnOllOrfr1ja

ApxeOIl03HTe fI! xareropasupaar 11 npeopojysaar xaveuare aprerpaxra nponajnesa rrpn ucxonyaan.ara. Oane xareropan ce 'feCTO pe3YJlT8T aa nonraor rrpouec na npenosuaaaae II liAeHTH¢"Kal(Hja H3 Hajpa3J1H~HH ranosa, pa3sHeHII on HeKOJlKY reuepauna IlCTpa)({ysa'lll. Tanonornjara e npoyxyaaise H ne¢HHHpaH>e aa THnOSIITe aprecpaxra, 15e3 pa3J1HKa lIaJlIl ce nanpasean 011 KaMeR, KepaMIIKa, KOCKa, MeT3JI IlJlH HeWTO Apyro. JI.ICT3T3 U3 TunOR.1 e 36HpKa Oil TlinOSHTe aprediaxrn aa onpenena clIeQIl¢H~Ha 06J1aeT. L1,eJlTa H3 15eJle)KefheTo lIa TlllIOBI1Te e ila ce nojae AO cranaapmopan Ha4MH na maecryeaise 38 nponajnouare Hila MO)KaT na ce cnopenar co npyrare J10KaJlHTeTH. TMnoBHTe IICTO 'raxa aocar Ba)KHH ¢YHKl\HOHaJlHH, CTHJlldCTll'IKl1 H XPOHOJlOWKIi I1H¢OPMal1I1M.

Ha npnxep, paqUHOT KIIUH e xapaarepacravex THII na aprerpaxr. Toj e enna rOIleM3, 6H¢acHjaJlHa ja)1pOBHIIHa anarxa co KapaKTepHCTH'fHa ¢opMa - saumnen ua eAIIIlOT xpaj, 3a06J1eH ua npyraor, perynrapan )10 nocaKYBaJIaT8 rOJJeMIlHa, clJopMa If Te)f{IlHa. <J:>YHKI1HOHaJlHO, paQHIlOT KJlHH 15IlJI anarxa sa cexaxna lIaMeH8, novery ApymTo aajsepojarno KopliCTeH H sa cesea.e, naneise, .KODaH>e H nynsene roneua AynKIl. CTIlJlJICTM'IKIl, nocrojar pa3J11l4HIl BHAOSIl pa'IHff KJlHHOB}f KOIl m 1I0Ka)({YBaaT perHOH8JJHUTe pa3JJRKH BO J1cTOQHa Acj:>plflca. ApxeOJJOrOT nrea Hcax npeTfJOCT3BIIJI lIeKa BMCOKO MHAllsllAyaJlHlloT xapacrep na noaexero aprerpaxr« aa JlOK8J11lTeTOT Onoprecaj (oh·lorg-ah·SIGH-lee) MO)f{ella rn pedineicrapa CTI1J10BldTe aa IlHIIIlRHA8J1HIlTe rpyn" Homo erekrus.

IIOCTOIl H npyr 6HTeH p83S0j aa paxaare KJlI1HOBII KOH 15eJle)Kene lIpOMeHH co TeKOT xa speaero. 3a speste na neaeraaecerraor BeK, pamrre npaacropasapa coozpane pa'iHIl KJlIlHOBM 6J1l13y rpanor CeHT Auten BO jysora <J:>paHQllja. HMeTo aa rpanor ro nonynapasapa TepMIlHoT AU!eJleli, KOj ce ylIoTpe15yB3J1 33 na ee onanre

nepnon 011 naJleOJll1TOT. I'pyonre pa-mn KJll1HOBl1 co HerrpaBl1J1HH pa60EH 11 CHJlHH HeraTIIBI1 na HIIBHaTa nOBpll1l1H3 611J1e nponajneua na nOBHCOKI1Te, noerapa pe'lHI1 TepaCI1. Pa'lHI1Te IOIHHOBIi 01\ nOI1I1CKHTe, nOMJl31\1I repacn MM3J1e nOCIiMeTpH'IHI1 ¢OpMH co nOrrpaBI1JIHH pa60BH. Ilcjasara H3 nenxan,e CO MeK 'IeK3H pe3ynTllpan3 BO rrOnpaBIIJlHU ¢OPMI1 H3 paxanre KJlIIHOBH II pa3JlII'feH XPOH0J101llKU npxxas 33 )J.OIJ;HHOT naJleOJlHTCKH nepnon. Pa'lHIITe xnanosa aanpaseaa co MeT0)10T H3 nenxarse co TBPJ1 '1eK3H, rrOKalKYB33T CHHYCOHAHH HJlH 6paHOBHIIHH, flCrrpaSHJJHI! pabos« (Cnnxa 10.11).

J.il3I1BOCHI1Te apTe¢aKTII ce aajxecro c0611paHII KaKO nOellHI!He'lHlI aaona BO nejaaxor, a K3MeHilTe anarxu u ornanauor MaTepnjaJl uaj-recro ce rrpoaajnena aacnuo na apXeOJlOlIlKHOT JIOKaJlHTeT. 3611POT 011 KaMeHH aJlaTKH 01\ enen JIOKaJlIITeT ce uapexysa KaMeHa 3lhfpKa. 3611pKaTa aa KaMeHIlTe aprediaxra 011 onpenen BpeMeHCKlI nepaon ce xapaxrepncraxa 33 apxeonourxare KYJlTYPH. TlIrrOBlITe KaMeHH apretpaxrn ce onaecysaar H3 CneIJ;HCpHCIHH BI1)10BH aprerpaxra.

HeKoH TlIlIOBH aprerpaxrn 011 uarrcomrrcxsor nepaon ce HJJYCTpHpaHil aa CnIlKaT3 10.12. AWeJleHCK3Ta 36HpKa 011 J(0l1H110T IIaJJeOJJilT ce KapaKTepH3HIIpa co pa'tI1lf KlllfHOBJI If K.lTHBepff, no BR.lTY'TyBa 11 upyrn l"OJIeMI1 opyp.}~ia Bp3 OPDflTOQI1, RaKO npl'raJla If opYlIFrja co .jaMJ1'rKa. CpellflO rraneOJIflTCK8Ta 3DHpK8 ce K8p8KTepH311pa co 'mOUlTBO opYl\l1ja Bp3 0)16I1TOIJ;Il, crpyrana, IIJIeTa, IlIHJIIJ;1I saenrro co pa'IHH KIlIlHOBIl ~ .rpyrn 611¢aclljaJlHH aJlaTKH. Texaonornjara co ce-rnna ro «apaerepmapa t(O.QffffOT naJJeOJlHT xoj sanousan npen OKOJlY 40 000 rOI\I1HH. 011 OBOj nepnon ce nosaara IT nonexe BHIIOIlIl aJl3.TKl111 HOSH CYPOSHH.H (KOCKlI, CJ10Hosa KOCKa, pOrOBl111 I\PBO).

Ilocrojar 3Ha'lHTeJIHH pa3J1I1KI1 novety TlinOBI1Te apTe¢aKTII 0)1 HOBI10T Caer II Crapuor CBeT. IIoBeKeTo 011 J106po 113pa60TeHH're aprediaxrn BO panara npancropnja aa HOBHoT Cser 6uJJe 6H¢a.CI1, HajMHory BO ¢opMa aa WIIJlIJ;1l3a xonja, a

CJJUKa 10.11 YMeTHllCJKl1l.\pTe)l(

na pa"-:IeH KJ1HH on JTOKaJIHTeTOT Onoprecaj so Kerruja. 3a6eJ)e)f(eTe ):IeK8 pa60T e HerrpaBI1JIeH, noco-rysajKI1 na nenxarse co TBp)1 -rexan.

CJIHKa 10.12 AJI8TKI1 OU naJJeOJIllTCKI10T nepaon:

1-3. pa-rea KlIl1H au paH Ilaneornrr; 4-6. cTpYIlIKa, nasaoeao cexano

II Jleaanoa U1I1JJe'1 OA cpeUHlIOT IIaJleoJlI1T; 7-18. anarxa 0)11101.\H110T IIaJleOnIlT: 7. umneu 011 xpeuea;

8. crpyrano Bp3 cexano; 9. Ha3a6eH KOCKeH xaprryH; 10-11. U1I1JIl1l1 on xpesren; 12. Ha3a6eH xapnya on por; 13. HO)l( co sararryaan,e; 14. xpesren IlII1JJe'1; 15. KOCKeH WHJlel1;

16. neprpoparop Sp3 cesmno;

17. KOCKeHa arna; 18 KOCKeH U1I1JleIJ;.

www.mhhe.com/pricearch1

Sa ,QonOnHI1TenHa.1 aKn'BHOCT~ sa anarxnre OA Auienea, norneAH8Te rl1 e8>K61-1Te BO SaWa.10T oHnajH o6pa30BeH ue-rrap,

CJlUKa 10.13 Hexo« 011 OCHOBHIITe TlinOBH KaMeHH aJ]aTKH Boo6H4aeHM aa nosexe lIeJlOBH BO Crapnor Caer:

C'fpyWK3, crpyrano, neprpoparop, LUI1JJett I1 JJ;JI'eTO.

www.mhhe.com/prlcearch 1

3a Aonon"'~TeJlHt'1 8KTIABHOCTIi1 38 anatxare o,q ,QOljHI10T naneomn BO ¢opaH~L-1ja, nomeaaere rl-1 Be:?K6vrre BO BaWVlOT oHllajH oopa30aeH ueurap.

~ .q.neTO KaMElH8 MaTKa CO pa3m1'-lHH pa6m1l1, Koja KOM6"H"pa pa6 OR 90"" «ceo 06n"Y8"H paool.H paD.

280 rllaBa 10 Aaanaaa Ha KaMe HOT

~ ~~& t~ ~~

O!,--==---=::::J!I--!5 em

J10A0I1Ha 3a JlaKOBU)j crpenn, «OIlBO Anepaxa 1I0lIlJle ~!HOry IIOI1Ha. Hajl'OJleMIlOT 6poj YHlHjJaclljaJlHIl apTe¢aKTII 011 ApxaWIHIlOT II BYllrreHA nep"OIIIITe ce co nenpasnnna ¢opMa. OA611T0I1HTe,HCTO raxa npeOBJIaAYB33T BO IIHAYCTpilllTe aa HOBlIDT Cner; ce surrara He6wJle OA r onevo 3HaqeHoeCel10 n0l10l.(HelKHHTe nepaona na npancropajara Ha Llearpanaa Auepnxa I!I apKTH'lKHOT peruon.

HeKoJiJ Bo06I'!QaeRll BMAOBH apreqiaxrn BO CTapMOT CBeT ce npnxaxcan« aa CJlHKan 10.13. OBHe T!mOBIl axrrynyeaar crpyrana IT CTPYIllKff. CTpyraJlOTO II cTpYIIlKaTa ce OA611T0l111 HJIII ce nma co Te)!(OK, CTpMeH pao aa KOj ce MlicneJlO }:(eK3 ce xopucren 33 06pa60TKa aa KO)!(a, KOCKa IiIJI" I1pBO. IiI nacre, cTpYIIlKaTa BP] roneu Oll6HTOK II cTpyranoTo Op3 ce-mno ce npH(3)!(3HII HB I!JlYCTpaIJ,HjaTa. Ilepqioparopor, IIJlH CSPlleJlOT Sp3 Ceq!lJlOTO ce KOpHCTeJl3a npaeeae lIynKI! na pa3J1HQHH Ma'replfjaJlH. Illnneuor MlJl! BpBOT all npoexrnnnre npHKa)!(3H aa anycrpauujara e co spar MnH samanea nen sa crasaise IlPIIlKM FI e TMIlHqeH sa AOI.(HIlOT DaneOJlMT 80 Cesepna Esporra. JJ;JleTOTO e npen03HaTJlIIBa arrrecra anarxa sa crpysceae non 90' II pa60TeH paf non KOC aron. Ce npernocraeyna AeKa nnerara 611ne anarxa sa cevea.e Ii rpaauparse na TeWKlI MaTepnjaJlH KaKO KOCKaTa. Manara CTpeJlW[Ka na I.(pTe)!(OT xaj ~JleTOTO noxascyaa xane 611Jl OTCTpaHeT MaJl 01l611'rOK 01\ KpeMeHOT sa na ce nanpaaar pa31111'IHFlTe pa60BM.

Bo Cesepna AMepHK3, BO TIlITOJlOtHIITe Ha K3MeHM.Te aJl3TKH, yeCTO 1l0MBHH· paar THrrOBHTe sa IIDIJII1H. DOBeKeTO AP)f(a))M lIJln pcraosu IlMaaT TYInOJlonrja sa WI-fJl- 1.(11 33 JlOKaJlHHTe co6l1pa'llll1a MO)f(3T l1a ja HCKOPlfCT3T 33 IIl1eHTH¢lIKysaEbe lIa BpCMeHCKHOT nepHOI1 na KOj npunaraar panna-mare rOJleMHHII}1 cj:lOPMII. Ilpuuep H3 T3K· nara rurtonornja sa ceBep03an31\HHTe paMHHHI1 aa eM e npaxascaaa aa CnHKaTa 7.8.

CI4HI,U4P Ha Ollepa41414

Ilpoysynan.erc sa IlPOll3BOl\CTSOTO H3 KaMeRIi anarxn 06e36eAYB3 auauajna I1HcjJOPMa1U1ja 33 TeXHOJlOrl1jaTa, )f(lIBOTHaT3 acropnja ua aprerpaxrnre H 'IOBeKOBO'fO OAHeCYB3Ibe. <ppaHI.(YCKI10T TepMIIH chaine opratoire (CI1HI,IIlP sa onepauaa) ce onaecyaa HS xekopa're 80 npouecor na lJPO!!3BOIICTBOTO. Toa. e enea xopaces KOHuenT KOj ce 0l1HeCYB3 na rrpaHCTopHCKHTe aKTllBHOCTlI KaKO WTO ce npOll3B0l1CTBOTO na KaMeHHTe aJIaTKH HnB KepaMHKaTa. Cnnunpor H8 orrepauna e Ae¢HHllpaH npexy pa3JlHYHHTe CTaAHYMIl aa npOIl3B0I1CTBO, 01\ 1\0611SaHoeTO CypOBHHCKIl MaTeplljaJl 1\0 KOHe'IHOTO nanyurrarse aa nOC3l<yB3HIITe I1/WJlII xopacrennre npem-rern. ,l],0}leK3 runonorajara ce cjJOKYCllpa cauo Ha xpajauor npO!;3B0I1, npoy-rysaisara aa CHHUHpor H.a onepauau nanaar rrpernen aa ueJlOTO rtponasoncrso H ,0 KopHCTaT peAOCJlCI\Or. TaKBM1'e npoy-tyaan.a ce dioxycnpaa'r sa ornannaor MaTepHjaJl, cnojysaa.ero, croBeQKIITe MOTOPHH cIloc06HOCTil H BeWTHHI!, 1l03HaBaHoeTO II IICKYCTBOTO, KaKO Il xpajnure nponsnona na npouecor (anarxnre).

PeKoHcTpYKI.(HjaTa na pel10CJleAOT aa onepallllll rII nOKa)!(YBa 1I36opwre KOH rll npasene rtyrero BO cexojuexop na nponecor. Oaaa peKOHCTPYKIJ,Hja 06e36ellYBa 6110rparjJuja IIJlH )!(UBOTHa ncropaja na aprerpas-ror. Hcropnjara aa KaMeHHTe apTerjJaKTIIBKJlYYYBa QerHpllrJ[aBHH CTaI1IlYMII: cHa611yaaHoe COCypOBIIHCKII M3repMjaJl, TeXHOJlOrHjaTs xoja ce KOplICTeJIa aa npaserse aJIaTKH, «OpIlCTeIDe aa anarxara,

Pa3M8Ha Mery Kymyp~Tel pa3MeHa Ha nOAap04~

I TeXH"YK~ TpaA~4~~

I I I I I

AKTV1BHOCH1, npeAM8T~ Kop~CTeH~ Ha nOK8mnen1Te

MeCTa Ha aKT~BHOCT~, ecjJeKT~ no pacnara-sero

M orrppnarsero OA anarxara. P06epT Tpejc OA YHHBep3HTeTOT BO Ecexc, Aarrnrja, ro naupran osoj penocnen ua CnHKaTa 10.14. Bo OBOj rpaqnnco«, rexsonorajara e noneneua BO rrpHMapHa pe)1YKIIHja, cexyanapaa pe)1yKI1Mja H TMIIonorHja. Ha IIHOTO aa rpadiaxonor ce nonpenenn nexou 011 BI!)10BHT8 apxeonourxa HHCPOPMBIIHH KOII MOlKe na rH 06e36ellH CIIHIJHpOT na onepatraa.

Ilpyra npenxocr sa npoyvyean,e na -rexopnre BO onepauajara e WTO OB03MOlKYBa CBeCHocT sa BpCKHTe nojrery KOMrrOHeHTlITe BO peIlOCJ1e)10T. 1'!360p1iTe KOll ce nanpaneim so enea CTa)WYM anajaar Bp3 0AJJYKI1Te aa CJJeIlH"OT. )J,OCTanHOCTa aa CypOBIIHCKIIOT MaTeplljan MO)!{e Aa ra orpaHH'11I BHAOBHTe aJJaTKH KOH MOlKe Aa 6"lIaT npOI13BelleHII. )((eJl6ara na ce npOH3Be)1e cnel\loIqll1QeH THIl na anarxu c03AaBa rtorpetia 01\ onpenean CypOBIIHeKR MaTep"jaJJH 11 TeXHO]JOrHja.

Hanepaara ynorpeoa aa aprerpaxrare HMa rOJleMH nOCJJeAHl\1l 38 CHTe npyra nexopn BO penocnenor. Ilocroen.e+o pa3JIRKH Mery KOpllCHHTe Ii nOMOWHIlTe 8JlaTKH KOH rH nocosan nyuc EHHCPOPA, H" no Mara na ja pasbepeuc npcxara. KOpllCHIlTe anarxa ce aanpasexn 6P30, HCKopHCTeHH H OTcppJJeHH. CYPOBHHCKHOT MaTepRjaJl aa OBa npOlol3BOACTBO e nocpoaeu, TeXH0J10rHjaTa nOe)(HOCTaBH8, npO"lBOACTBOTO AOCTa 1l06p30, HCKopHCTeHH ce 38 noorrnrra HaMeHa H senaaur ce OTCPPJleHII. KOpHCHHTe aJJaTKlI ce rroBo06H'l8eHH sa JJHTWIKI1Te 36HpKI1 H uasaara npOCTopHa )lHCTPIl6Yl\"ja e noxoxoreua BO KyIrTypHlfTe CJ10eBIf OA J10KaJHfTeTOT.

nOMOWHHTe aJI3TKH, nax, ce Hajl.IeCTO J1HCTpYMeHTH co cneunjanna aasreaa KOI'! oapaar cneUHcj:JHqHlI CypOBlfHCKH MaTepHjam[ II 3HaQHTenHO BpeMe 11 pa60T3 BO npoH3BoACTBOTO. Tile ce H3MeHeTH na ce xopacrar nOIlOJIr rrep"oA. MOlK3T 11 A3 ce rroIIp3BaaT HIHI npepaoorynaar, HO ce oTCPPJlaaT roraur xora ce I1CTpOWeHH, r.e. 113aBeHH. Ha TOj H8'HlH, novounnrre anarx« najuecro ce peTKI{ so nHTl{'lKHTe 36HPKH, VIaKO MO)Ke)l.3 6H,[(3T nocra Ba)KHll BO 1.JOBeKOBaTa aKTHB}f'OCT.

36HpKHTe 011 JJHTW[KH aprerpaxra ce pe3YJJTaT na 'IOBeQKaTa aKTllBHOCT H MefyopHOCOT co npnponara. npHMeHaTa na KOH'1enrOT 011 CHHI,mpOT ua OlTep'lIHIt My novara ua apxeonoror na ro paaoepe AHf{aMU'IKHOT rrpouec BKJ1y'[eH BO npasen.ero ua KaMeHHTe aJlaTKH H npyrnre aprerpaxrn,

Cnojysarse

)J,pyrBHAJlHTItYKI1 aHaJIH)" ro sxnyvyaaar "CTpa)!{YBa>beTO na XOpH30HTaJlHaTa pacnpocrpaserocf na aprerpaxrirre npexy cnojyaaise Hnll 1l0BTOPHO 3ae)1HO COeAHHYsan.e na KOJlKY llITO e MOlKHO nonexe CKpweHH nap'lwtba (Cmrxa 10.17). Cnojysan.ero ua osae AeJJl-[JiJlha BO H1IBHHTe OpHTVlH3JIHI1 janpa 11 MaTIfqHH Kapnl1 6apa seIlITHHa Ii rpnenne. Toa e KaKO na ce 06'IAYBaTe II" pewlITe TpHIIHMeH3110HaJ1Ha CJTOlK)'BaJlKa 6e3 CJ1I1Ka 11 co MHory lIeJJOBH KQl. nenocrnraa'r. 3a BaKBa pafiorae norpefino MHorYBpeMe. Ho, nOBTopHOTO CKJlOnYBaa,e ua npeAMeTI1Te o6e36eAYBa COJleMl1eJl O)lHHCPOPMallHHTe sa J10KaJH1TeTOT Ii aKTHBHOCTH'Te ua nyrero BO MMH3TOTO. Cnojysaa.ero e nanpaseno co Hajpa3JlHl-IHI1 apXeOJIOlliKH Ma'fepHjaJIM, HOHajBoo6Hl.laeHI1 ce KaMeHOT, KepaMI1KaTa H KOC.K3'ra,

I1Hcj:JOpMalllljara xoja e )106HeHa OA cnojysaa.ero H npoy-rysas-ero aa penocnencr na nenxaisc HnH xpurerse e xopncna OA noronev 6poj IIPH'IHHH.

CJlHI<3 10.14 Ilnjarpaa ua IIpTelK fia CI1HUHPOT aa onepauna,

KOj rn rrOKa}J(YBa sernpare

rJJaBHI1 CTaJlHYMH: cnaonynan,e

co CypOBHHCKH MaTeplfja.n, rexuonoraja, ynorpetia " orrppnan,e. Texnonoraja-ra IIJ1H npmnBO.QCTBOTO e J1CTpa)J()'BaHO ua TP" HJo[Boa: op"MapHa penyxuaja, eeKyH,IIapHa penyxuaja " TIHTOJIOWKa aapajauaja.

KOp~CH~ anaTKM OpYAMja KOIti ce HanpaBBHI-1 6P30, ~CKOpI1CTeHI1 It! orCPPJ1efU;, TeXHonorl-1ja 8 Aocra 8AHocrasHa, npm13Bo,.&cT80TO ncepso, ynoTpe6aT8 noonurra, a oTcpp.nal-b8TO Io1HcraIHHO, CnpOrlt!BHio1 oA IlOMOUJI-IMTe ana7KJ.1

nOMOWHM allaTKM OpYA~ja co cns4V1jallHa

HaMeHa KOlr1 oapaar cne4~qHl"'1HV1 CYPOBMHCKIt Marep\IIjamt 101 3HaLJ~TenHO BpeMB 101 paoora BO np0I13BOAGTBoro. LJecTO MO>KB Aa 0l1,£1.8r nonpae8HI1 I1nl-1 npepa6oryaatUIItI, cexaso, ce orrppnaar caec sora ce I1CTpOWeHM, CnpO-H1BHO na KOPIiICHL-1 anaTK!I1.

cnojYBaltle TeXH!I1Ka Ha nOBTopHO coel1~HyBal'be

Ha paccppneHI-1Te nap'1V11"b8 ot! KaM8H, KepaMIo1Ka.

M1111 KOCKItI H8 apxeonounorre nOKaJlI1TeT~ sa Aa ce npoy-ar WeMl1rB Ha npQl.13BOACTBO l<1 orcpp.na~e

CMlllcon Ha KaMeHIIIT8 anaTKIII 281

APXEOJlOWKO PA3MIiICJlYBAtbE

KaMeHlolTe aJlaTKH H 1l0Be'lKO-co6Hpa4KHTe 3ae,qHH4H BO Jana,qHa HeBa,qa

KaMeHI>1Te anaTKI>1 'leCTO r~ npe>+<~BYBaaT gecTpYKT~BHI>1Te cl>1n~ Ha BpeMeTO ~ npl>1pogaTa 11 06s36egYBaaaT r011eM lien 011 lIoKa3~Te aa np~CYTHOCTa Ha '-IOB8KOT Ha nOBeK8TO MeCTa 80 C8BTOT 80 M~HaTOTO. Apxeonosare ~CTO raxa 3aBI1CaT 11 011 KaMeHI1Te apTe!jJaKTI1 sa I1H!jJopMa411I1Te 33 0IlHecYBalbeTO xa] n08e4Ko-co6l1pa4KI1Te 3aeIlHI14". Ce npernocraaysa lIeKa <jJopMaTa 11 ynorpetiara Ha KaM8HI1T8 anaTKI1 rl1 pe!jJ11eKTl1pana aKT~BHOCTilITe aa nOBe4KOC0611pa'lKI1Te 3aeAHI4". Bo I'ICTO BpeM8 8 T8WKO ,qa C8 06e36eA~ oaaa I1H!jJopMa4~ja 6~AejKI1 nocrojar Hajpa311~'lHI1 <jJaKTOp~ BKnyyeHIl BO npO~3BOACTBOTO Ha a11aTK~T8. OBI18 !jJaKTOp~ BK11y4yBaaT CTI111, <jJYHK4I1ja 11 CYPOBI1HI1, ~ C~Te TI18 I1rpaaT 88.)1(Ha Y110ra BO 3aSpWeHI1TB aprerpaxra. CT~nOT BKnYYYBa TPag~4~OHanHI1 ~n~ KynrypHI1 Ha4~H~ aa roa KaKO ce HanpaBeHI1 pa60T~Te. Mo>+<e Aa r~ pe!jJneKT~pa nOTCBeCH~Te eTHI14K~ I1n~ ~HA"Bl1l1yanHI1 pa3nI1K~l1n~ Aa 611A8 HaM8pHO AD,!\ag8H3a Aa [0 I1AeHTI1<jJI1KYBa apTe<jJaKTOT. <l>YHK4I1jaTa ce rpl1>+<~ oxony HaMeHCKaTa uen Ha apTe!jJaKTOT 11 sa e!jJeKntTe 0A. cypoaauare, OAHOCHO KaKO Mo>+<e Aa 6"Ae oopaooryaaa " 06n~KYBaH K3MeHOT, HO 11 HerOBI10T <jJI1HaneH 113rneA.

P06epT KenJol OA YH~Bep3I1TeTOT BO BajoM~Hr rl1 ~cm1TYBan KaMeHI1Te a11TK~ ua npaI1CTOp~CK~Te 110BeYKOC06~paYK~Te 3aeAH~l1~ BO per~OHOT Ha KapCOH C~HK BO sananaa Heeana, To] npernccraeasan AeKa WeMI1Te aa rexaonorajara ua KaMeHI-ITe anaTKL1 6", o6e36eA~11e

BI'ICOKO

Bl'ICOKO HVICKO

MOOYlflHOCT aa HaCeJleHllleTO

CnlolKa 10.15 Teopercka spcxa nOMery nocroiauare npecenyea-sa (KonKY lIIecTO ce npecenysa eAHa rpyna) L1 pa3HOB~AHocTa Ha apTe<jJaKTI1Te (6pOjOT Ha pa3111-1Y-H~ BI4AOBIiI anaTKI1 KO~ ce np~CYTHIiI Ha 11oKan~TeToT).

"'H<jJopMa4~ja aa npl1pOAaTa Ha sacenyea-sero ~ rOA~wHoTO l1~pKynl-lpalbe Ha nOBeYKO-c06L1paYK~Te 3aeAH~4L1 BO oaaa oenacr, Kenl1 6L1n noceoso 3a~HTepeCL1paH sa BpCKL1Te noMery KaMeHI1Te an3TKL1 ~ YOBeKOSar8 M06Ii1nHOCT, Apxeonounorre noxanarera ce nojaeysaar H8 HIiICK~ HaAMOpCKJol BI-ICOY~H~ na AHOTO Ha AOnI1H~Te, HO ~ Ha nOBL1COK~ HagMOpCKI1 B~C0411H~ BO OK011H~Te nnaHL1HI<!. nOBeYKOc06~paYKI1Te 3aeAH~4'" HajYeCTO ce cenene ce30HCK~ aa Aa rl-l "'CKop~cTaT MeHYBalbaTa Ha 061111HOCTa Ha 113BOp~Te 11 nocranaocta BO OBl1e 30HI1. 6!<fAejKJol M06"'nH~Te 11yfe Mopane Aa rlil noaecar co ce6e HL1BH~Te pa60TI1, anaTKI1Te KO~ m 3eMane Mopane Aa 6~AaT BH~MaTenHO oA6paH~.

KapCOH CI>1HK

XOPH30HTaJ1f!aT3 pacnpocrpaacrocr aa napvan.a noxaxysa Kane ce CJlY'IYBaJJe nejcrsajara II najausoaor aa 061IaCTa «oja 6HJJa BO ynorpeoa. TIPHCYCTBOTO na rrapxaa.a on IfCTHOT oparaaanea MaTepMjaJJ BO pa3n114HII KOHueHTpaUl1l1 e nooap noxasaren 38 rrOBp3aHOCTa H COBpeMeHOCTa noaery KOHueHTpaUI1IlTe. ,D,eJJOBII on HCTHOT opnraaaneu npenner nponajnenu 3ae!(HO co Hero npennaraar nexa HeMano MHory npeaprysan,a so )J;OOOJlHI1TeiIHJolTe ranoacea,a na JJOKanI1TeTOT. Jlap-nnsara £(011 He)lOCTHraJJe on opnraaanor KOj ce cnojysa, nOKalKYS88T KaKBil BH)lOBM aJJ8TKl1 611JJe narrpaaenu 11 OTCTpaHeTH 011 JJOKaJJJ.!TeTOT, TIPOY'lYB8fbeTO na penocnenor aa OTCTpaH)'BaEbe n nenxaae on 3611pKaTa janpa xoja ce cnojysa OTKpllB8 MHory noeese 38 TeXHHK8T8 ua npOll3BO)lCTBO na KaMeHaTa anarxa II CHHI,Il1POT Ha onepanaa aa IIOKaJJMTeTOT.

PacnpOCTpaHeTOCT8 aa CnOel111Te anaTKII e npnxascaaa na CJJUKaTa 10.18. OBOj npnaep noara on )lOUHO-rraJJeOJHlTCKHOT JJOKaJJIITeT CI1Tpa BO ceaeposananen Ernner, KOj ro npoysysane 011 EpBHH '{He3Jla H PY)lOJJcjJ Kynep, TIJJaHOT aa JJOKaJIHTeTOT ja noxaxcysa pacnpocrpaaerocra na pa3JJH'IHHTe THrrOB" apreqiaxra, 33eJ.1Ho co 01(6I1ToUIITe., Ce'IMJlaTa, janpara, IIlIeTaTa 11 MIIKpOI1JJeTaTa. MIIl<pOIIJJeTaTa ce MalIlI

BCYWHOCT, nOCTO~ jacua SpCKa nOMefy ,qOlllKl<tHaTa na Sp9MeTO npa xopacre+se ua 1l0KaJll1Te;rOT ~ 6POjOT j,1 Tl<tnOSHTe Ha anarxa KOH ce npHCYTfI'" Ha aero. AonroTpajHHTe aacenyea-ea HMaaT roneua pa3HOSI1,qHOCT na apT91j1aKTI1Te H THnOSIH8 anarxa. Osaa ncspsaaocr e weMaTCKI<t npaxalKaHa Ha CIlHKaTa 10.15, a 6a3HpaHa Ha no,qaT0411 0,£1 eTHOrpaljlcKI1 n03HaTHT8 rpynH Ha 1l0Be4KO-c06I1pa<lKj.1Te 3ae,qHj.1ljl1.

KellH rl1 HcnHryBan OBH8 BpCKH Kopl1cTejKH rl1 I1HqJ0pMaljl1l<tT9 0,£1 aanaqaa HeBa,qa, na ce qJOKYCHpan Ha apT8(jJaKTI1Te n03HaTH KaKO ,,6I1cpacH" - allaTKIH8 KOI1 611ne peryllll1paHI1 aa ,qBBTe CTpaHI1 (HIlI1 cpaljl1ecl1) - BO cne4111j1H4Ha cpopMa. KBIlj.1 06pa3JlOlKj.11l ,qeKa OHcpaCI<tTe 6j.1lle 0,£1 ,qsa ij.1na, j.11lj.1 jB,!lpa sa ,q06l<tBatbe Ha O,q6HT0411 I1IlH ,qonroTpajHH ananca sa cese-ee KOI<I MOlKelle ,qa 6H,qaT nOBTopHO 06IlHKYBaHI1.

Kell~ rl1 npecaeran aprediaxrare I<t rl1 saoenexan Tl1neBHTe CYPOBHHH 0,£1 cepnjara 1l0KalllHeTI1 BO perl10HOT HB Kapcos C~HK. aKOIlH~Te nllaHj.1HI1 I1Mane 11306111ll1e Ha j.13BOPI1 Ha CypOBHHCKI1 MaT8pHjalll1 BO cnope,q6a CO IIHOTO Ha ;qonI1HWFB. Taoenara 10.1 rl1 npl1KalKYBa paSlll1KHTe BO npo~3Bo,qCTBOTO Ha aprerpaxra nOMefy ,qBeTe oonacra. 5pojKlne BO sarpanare ja nosaxysaar npouearyansocra Ha nmOBHTe apTecpaKTI1 SO cexoja 061lacT. OA oeoj AOK83, jacao e AeKa 6HljlacI1janHHTe aprerpaxrn ce np8SeHI<I 11 KOpI<ICTeHI<I npeeucraeno BO nllaHI1HI1Te, a e,qHOCTaBHI1Te ananor Bp3 0,q6HTOljl<l ce HajBo06H<laeHI1 BO ,qHBTa Ha ,qoIlI1HHTe: OKOIlY 47% oA ananorre BO ,qonl1HaTa ce e,qHocTaSHj.1 apTeljlaKTH Bp3 0,q61<1T041<1; 57% 0,£1 anar-orre Ha nllaHj.1HI1Te ce 6111j1acl1.

Ha nllaHHHCKIlTe noxarurrera nocroena jacua pasnaxa nOMefy 6HljlaCilTe KOI1 6111le Hanpas8HW I<IIlH nonpaaaan 11 KOpI<ICTeHW KaKO anarxa, 11 MeCla Ka,qe WTO 611ljlaCI<IT8 611n8 KOpl1CTeHI<t Ka~o jaApa. Oaaa paanaxa MOlKe Aa ce BI1,qH npH cnopenoara Ha 6pojK~Te Ha ynoTpe6eHI1Te 0A6I1TOljl1 0,£1 6111j1acHTe (,qoKa3 0,£1 ynorpeea ua ja,qPOTO) 11 0,q6I1To4V1Te 0,£1 AellKatb8TO Ha 611ljlaCI1T8 (np0I13S0ACTBO ~1l11 ocrpe-se) Ha Cnaxara 10.16. KeIlH 06pa3IlOlKYBa ,qeKa 611ljlaCI1T8 611f]e KOp"CTeHI1 KaKO anaTKI1 aa nocrojaanre MeCTaTa Ha lKI1S8etbe 11 ynoTpe6yaaHI1 KaKO ja,qpa Ha KpaTKoTpajHI1T8 1l0Be'lKI1 H C061-1pa4KI1 KaMnOBI1. Oeaapaaruncaianpocnenyea ,qI1XToHoMl1jaTa nouery KOpI1CH~Te H nOMOWHI1Te anarka sa

"
cr
0
l-
S
'8:
0
S
:I:
'"
'"
·s
0
'"
~
-o
"
:I:
ttl
'"
e-,
-c
"
Co
I-
0
~
0 Cll11K810.16 Ha6Jby,qyaaYKI1111eMH Ha ynorpe6eHI1T8 6l1ljlacl1janHI1 OA611T041111 AOKa3 Ha 611ljlacHjanHo A8nKatbe KOI1 rl1 pa3Ill1KYBaaT nocrolaaars KaMmBl111 nOBpeMeHI1Te KaMnOBI>I.

WTa CS ,qI1CKYTl1paW8 np8,xo,qHO. 511cpacHjanHI1Te anarxa Ke 61>1AaT KOPl1CT9HI1 noaonro speue OA nOMOWHI1Te, AO,q8Ka OA6HT0411T8 oTcTpaHeTI1 0,£1 6HljlacI1jallHI1Te ja,qpa 6HIle KOPl1CHI1T8 anaTKI1 KOI1 ce ynorpeoysane 11 oropnane 6p3e.

npOyyys8tbeTO Ha Kell'" ja AOKYMeHTHpa ynorpseara Ha KaMeHI1T8 anaTKI1 KaKO 113S0P Ha I1HljlopMalj~11 sa npal1CTOpl1CKHTe 1l0Se4KO-c06~pa'lKI1 3a8AH11411. Kellil 61111 cnocooes Aa rio! npeneasae pa31l1o!YHI1T8 a~AOBI1 1l0Kan11TeTI'I - nocroiaaa HaCnpOTI1 nose-norre 111111 co611pa4KI1Te noxaIll1T8TI1 - BO nllaH~H~Te Ha 3anBAHa HeBeAa, 6a311paHil aa ynorpeoara Ha 611ljlacI1janHI1T8 apT8cjilaK'rI>l.

ClIlIK3 10.17 Peuocnen aa crrojysaae na 0)16I1TOI.(HTe H aJlaTKIITe 0)1 Ilaneonxr BO Ernner.

CJlHK3 10.18 Pacnpocrpaaerocr

ua KaMeHlI aprerpaxrn na nOAOT

01\ AOLlHO-lIaJleOJlHTCKlIOT JJOKaJlMTeT CHTpa BO ceaepoaananea Eruner. JIHHllHTe rtr nOJ<a>KYBaaT nospaysaa.a-ra novery cnoeanre lIeJlOBlI. Ha arnarrre on nnanor

na JTOKamneT ce npxzaxcaan rp" Cnel1Hc!JwlHH nplIMepli aa cnojynau,a. 060eHHTe JllllIHll ra nOKa>K)'BaaT OElIe .plI cnel1l1qlll'IHH cnoj yaaisa

aa HIIBOTO na )KIlBeelhe so Cnrpa. JIeretlllaTa rope necao fll noxascyaa CIIM6oJ1J&Te KopHcTeHIi aa pa3JIHQHl1 THTIOBI1 3naTKH.

284 rnasa 1 0 AHaJl~3a Ha KaMe HOT

o

KnY4 r:I Ja,qpo • OA6"TOK 0 I4neTo

I Ce4"nO I M"KpOAfleTO

o

MeTp~ 10 CTanK~

.,. I I

I

I

I

j I

Q--~

I I

+

-N-

I

OTKPlllOUll KOH ce OTCTpaHeTll xora ce npasx enao AJJeTO. Pa3n1I'IHIlTe JJMHIHI ro noxaxysaar cnojysaaero aa Tile napxmsara 3aeAHO na caMIlOT noxamrrer. Jacno e nexa aprerpaxrare ce rrOBp3aHI1 npexy uenaor nosanarer. TPH cneUlI<jJH'lHH npHMepl1 aa cnojysaa,e ce npllK3)1(aHil H3 arrnrre na nll3HOT H3 1I0KallllTeTOT. OBa ce anarxn co rronpaseau pa60THH paoosn l1nll nnera co. MHKpO)1JlCTaTa. 060eHilTe JJHHVlH TO IIOK3)1{YBaaT crrojyaan.ero aa onae rrap-raa,a. CKpIIleHHOT pa6 HJJI1 MHKpOllJlerOTO H3jBepoj3THO ce nOCTaBelIl1 OH3MY sane IIlTO 6HJla ynoTpe6YB3H3 3naTKaT3, A0l1eK3 cauara ana'rxa rro nexoe apexre 611JJ3 orrppnena.

BepTHK3JJH3T3 pacnpocrpanerocr aa cnoearrre nap-ran.a e IlCTO raxa KopMCHa HHc!JOpM3U;Hja sa npoysynau.e aa rrpou;eCOT aa c03A3S3lhe ira JlOKaJlIlTeTOT H Bep0)10CTojHocTa na crparnrpadmjara. Ce npernocraaysa nexa aprediacrnre KOVl ce sxnonysaar BO HerOTO MaTIl'lHO janpo ce 011 HCTOTO BpeMe. HIlBH3Ta XOpI1301lTa!lHa pacrrpocTpaHeroCT ja 0l16eJlelKYBa 06!13Cra sa aKTl!BtlOCT K311e 6UllO H3BpwYBaHO nenxarsero xpexea. HI!BHOTO seprzxanao npocrapan.e Oil rperiano na e MHory OrpaHII'leHO, 61lllejKH npenuernre 611 OlllIe rrOCT3EeHH na MeTO nuao na >KJ1BOT. L\:SRlKelbeTo aa apretpacrure xoe e pe3Y!lTaT aa paaaecysaaero xoe ro npaear )J(IIBo.THIITe, H!lH 611oTypOaI1Hja, Ke nosene AO onpeneau pa3J1HKH BO HHBHaTa BepTIIKaJJHa pacnpocrpairerocr aa JlOK3JlHTeTOT.

<!>YHKlIIliOHaIlHM aHaIllll3111

EIIHO 011 npnvapnare npamaa,a sa npaacropacxrrre KaMeHH BlIaTKH ce omrecyaa na roa xaxo OllJ1e KopIlCTeHH. ApXeOJl03HTe H3cTojYBaaT l1a ru axreaysaar pa60TlITe KOH rM npoaaoraar. Maory BHIIOBH KaMeHH ana'rxa rH 1106MJle IIMHlbaTa KOM ynarysaar na aexoja BMII aa ynorperia: paxaa cexapn, cTpyraJJ3, crpena, na npavep (CJlIIKa 10.20).

Ho, BCYIIlHOCT, BllCTHHCKaTa yrrorpeoa na MHory 0)1 OPYAIlj3Ta e Hen03HaTa.

TepMIlHo.T panna cexupa noara 0.11 c!JpaHI1YCKll 360p KOj KalKYBa nexa cexnpara 611JJa I1p)KeHa BO paxara, no onoj KapaKTepHCTIlQeH 6eller na naneonarcxaor nepnon

APXEonOWKO PA3MII1CnYBAl-bE

KonKY CnOeBII1?

np~MepOT Ha cnojys8I'be H npOL-IeCOT i-a cj:JOpMHpal"be Ha nOKanHTeTOT AOaraaT oA pasc-naneonatcxaor 1l0KanHTeT Tepa AMaTa Ha M8AHTepaHcKHoT 6per so <l:>paH4L1ja. Bo c8pHja Cll08SH oA cj:JocHnHH neC04HH HaHOC>I H Kpaj6pe)K8H MOPCKH neCOK 6Hne npoHajAeHL1 KaM8HH aprerpaxra H )KHSOTL1HCKH KOCKL1. CnL1Kara 10.19 Il'I HaseAysa MHoryre pa3nHYH>I cn08SH neC04HH HaHOCH Ha AHH>I, nn8)KH >I HHCKL1 necoua Ha Kpaj6pelKjeTO, 06ene)KaHH co ancjJaHYMepHYKH 3HaljL1. Bo epeaero ua HCKonysa!-beTO, C8 np8rnocTasysano ABKa 08>1e pa311~YHL1 cn08SH rl1 np8TcTaBYBaaT MHoryre pa311L14H>I enL130AH Ha YOS84KHTe aKTL1SHOCTH Ha osoj Kpaj6ps)K8H nOKanHT8T crap 250 000 rOAHHH. BHHMaT8nHoTO cnojys8I"b8 ua KaM8HL1T8 ananot oA nOKanHT8TOT 011 crpaaa Ha naona Bnna oA YHL1S8P3HT8TOT so Konopaao noK8)KaJ10 HarnaC8Ha S8pTHKaJ1Ha pacnpocrpaaerocr Ha COCTaS8HL1T8 A8110BL1. KpaTKI1T8 XopH30HaTanHL1 I1HHHH Ha CnHKaTa 10.19 npercrasyeaar HHA>lS>lAYaJ1HL1 KaM8HH apT8cjJaKTH so oAp8A8H cne] a S8pmKaJ1HHT8 nHHHI1 nOK8)KySaaT A8Ka napYHt-baTa C8 BKnOnYBaaT 3a8AHo. Bo HeKOnKY cnyYaH, oApeA8H 6poj SepTHKaJ1H>l11 XOP"30HTaJ1HH nl1Hl111 ce rpvnnpaH>I, noco4yeajKI1 ro 6pOjOT Ha cnojysat-ba Ha HCTOTO MaTHYHO j8Apo. Bp3 oasa aa npoyYysa!-beTO Ha cnolysa-sara, C8 Aoara AO C03HaHH8 A8Ka nocroene cave ABa 110 Tpl1 nepL10AH so KO>l61111a S03MO)KHa aKTL1BHOCT Ha nOKanHT8ToT. HaCnpOTL1 npSH4HOTO MI1Cn8tb8 A8Ka CS H3BpW8HL1 MHOry noseK8 aKTHSHOCTH.

DJ
DK
DL
DM
DM2
DO
DP
DO
DR
,l1~Ha DS
OT
DU
DW
OX
DY
DZ2 DZ3 DZ4 DZ5

{~2~

Pl

nn8)Ka P1B P2 P3

{P4

M2 H~30K M4·M4G n8COK MS M7'CG

Cll~Ka 10.19 W8MaTcK~ npernea Ha pacnpccrpanorocra Ha KaM8HI1T8 aprerpakra so pa3nH4H~Te ell08SI1 Ha Tepa AMaTa. V1HAHsHAyaflHL1TeCI108s" KO~ 6~l1e npenosaara eo ~cKonyBatbaTa ce I1M8HysaHI1 np8KY KOM6HHaL1~L1 oA 6YKSI'I H 6paesl1. 36HPOT OA e8pn1Kal1H~Te L1 XOp~30HTaI1HHT811L1HH~ oAA8CHO noxaxyea K8A8 61'1ne npoHajA8HL1 cnojyea-sa oA KaMeH~ apT8q,aKTI1, noap3ysajKL1 r~ oAAenHHTe Cfl08SH. <l:>aKToT A8Ka Cn08HI1T8 A8110BI1 oA ~cnlOT aprediakr ~nl1 ja,qpo C8 npoHajA8HL1 Ha pa311114H~ Ana604HHH L1 Ha pa311~4HH Cn08SI1, 8 y68AI111B AOKa3 A8Ka apretpakrare C8 np8M8CTI1n8 S8pmKal1HO no HHBHOTO npso TanO)K8tb8.

611n najaepojarno KOpl1CTeH sa pa3JJI14HII uenu, enen SI1)1 iuaajuapcxn scea HOlK 011 KaMeHOTO notia, Ha npl!Mep, 111I1JTe[(OT MOlKeJ1 l1a 611)1e xopncrerr aa xonarse I1JTU nnafiea.e, pa60BI1Te sa ceueise, a TelllKIIOT sanen nen aa CI1THelhe flllM 3a6l1safbe. Crpyranara ce aaj-recro rOJleMH anarxn co l1eOeJI, CBHeH pari. I1MeTo «axysa AeK8 611JIe KopliCTeHI1 sa crpyrarse II ce npernocraaysa uexa ce ynorpeoyaane aa '1HCTeH,e aa )KflBOTI1HCKHTe KOlKl1. QSHe aJIaTKI1 MOlKe611 ce KOpl1CTeJIe 11 sa Hajpa3JIH'IHIt lien" noxpaj crpyraisero. Cuipenwoca e3aeIlHll'lKOTOHMe sa IlHlJIeCTHTe KaMeHH aprediaxrn, HO, BCYlllHOCT, MHory OA T.H. crpennvxn BO Cesepna Auepnxa aajaepojarno 6ltJIe nOCTaBeHH aa pa50THHoT xpaj na xonjara linn ce KOpltCTeJIe KaKO HOlKeBIi.

Ilopann oaae rrp06J1eMI1 BO pasriapancro aa <jJYHKl1l1jaTa ua KaMeHHTe anarxa, I1cTpalK)'BaQI1Te pasaane HOBI1 MeTOII"3a na ce rrpoYQHKaKO ce KOpHCTeJIe osae opynaja. EIlHa 0]1 osae TeX1HH(J1 e <jJYHKl1ItOHaJIHaTa aHaJIH3a It ja BKJlY'IYBa ynorpeoara aa MHKPOCKOlIl1Te sa npoy-ryaan.e sa pa50BIITe sa KaMeHltTe aJlaTKII. QBOj BHA xa aHaJIH3a sano-raan BO sropara nOJIOBIIHa aa )1BaeCe'ITIIOl' BeK, xora PYCI1HOT Ceprej CeMeHOB ro aano-man neran.aoro npoysryaan,e sa pa60Sl1Te na apTe<jJaKTIITe. TeXHI1KaTa 611J[3 nOA06peHa co ynorpetiara aa MOKHH MHKpOCKOnl1 11 npenosaaaaac aa paamrsnare cjaes-a H3 pa60BHTe ua aJIa'l'KHTe, a rl1 nosen Jlopeac Kmm 011 YHHBep311TeTOT BO IIJ]l<HORC (CJJlIKa 10.21). EKcnepllMeHT3JIHHTe npoyuyaajea, xopncrejxa KaMeHH 3JlaTKR xa n03HaTH MaTepl1jaJlH, KaKO cysa KOlKa, Meeo, JlPBO H paC'PlTeJIHO BJIaKHO,

~ CPYHK4110HanH3 aHamt3a MI-1KPOCKOflCKIoI np0yYYBarba Ha owr8ryBal-bara 11 CjaJOT ua pa60B"'.OA ,aMeH". ap,e¢a,," sa Aa ce oTKplIljaT MaTep~Jam1Te KOJ.1 6).1J1e o6pa6orysaHH.

CMII1CO.n Ha KaM9HL<1Te anarka 285

CJlHK310.20 MOlKHH cpYHKl(I1H na H'eKO'H naneonarcxn KaMeHH arrarxa, Ilosexero 0)( aasenemrre ynorpefia ce nperuocraseaa, OTKOJlKy !IITO

e HaBMCTHHa n03H.aTa HHBHaTa ynorpeca.

4eKaH

06nyroK CcjJepol1,1J,

Jagpa

):lepe fbe KOlKa

0,06111TOl<

'{onep Flonaenap ,UI-1CKOl-1tl Ctpyrano

TeWKO KaCanefbe

neCHO xacane-se

%) ®e

Crpyganica Bp3 ,l:\lIIcKOIoojA 0,[l,6I-1TOK

Kpwefbe KOCKa

Op6IATOl( Orpytuka apa 0,Q6I1TOK

KIlIAH Krll.1eep Pick

TeWKa o6pa60TKa H8 APBO

'-IeK;;.t1!-l: VI i..!onep

H8KosanH8

Jlecaa otipacorxa Ha APBO

-lonep Crpyrano Km1H

Knaeep Pick

,Qepe fbe KOlKa

Kpuie-se nyurna OA nnO,QOBH

av () QP f{?
.
Flake Flake Crpyunca Crpyrano
(acute (steep spa
edge) edge) O.o.51ilTOK a.

CJlHKa 10.21 <IIYflKl(HDHaJlHa aHaJTM.3a 11 nOMOillHH 3JJ'aTKl1 on .QOQHo-naneOJTHTCKM JJOKaJIHTeT 80 Aacrpnja. (a) LIHCTD aaotinysan.c ua pa60T noll. Mano 3fOJTeMyealbe (30x). (6) VlCTOTO MeCTO ua paoor, co 200, aroneaysan.e, nOKalKYBajKI1 rpyoo cjaetse H H3apa3i1YBafbe.

286 rnasa 10 AHamtl3a Ha KaMeHOT

OA6mOK CTPYWI(8 Bp3 KmtH O.Ll6~TOK

6.

11M n03BOJTlme lIa IICTpa)((),Ba'lIlTe ill m oxapakrepaanpaar cjacs.ara cneUHcpH4HII aa onpeneu« BHI(OS!! MaTepHjalI1I H aKTIIBHOCTH.

"CnenIITe" recrapaa.a ce B3)K.eH nen 011 OBa ucrpaxyaan,e. <IIYHKUllOHanHIlTe aH3lJ1I3!1 cneaar npOTOKOJT BO KOj rH HileHTHcj:mKYBaaT cjaeu.ara aa cepaja npnnepouu KOII H.e ce []03Hanl nperxonuo, TIoTeKJTOtO H3 cexoj cjaj Ii e n03HaTO aa cexoja JIH'lHOCT xoja [H I1PlKH non KOHTpOJTa omre npuvepona, HD He II aa aH311IlTII'lapH"l"e. i1).leHTHcpIIK3L(lIjaTa HR cjajor e TeWKa, a Y'leH,eTD sa n3 ce pacIl03H3BaaT pa3JlII"IHI1Te eapajairr« 6apa spcsre. MCTpa)J(),Ba4IofTe K0I1 ~1O)KaT na m HUeHTllcpHKYBaaT OBHe cjaeisa "Ha cneno", J3 nOKa>KYBaaT csojara BeWTIIHa II snaen.e.

DOBCKeTO KaMeHH anaTKll611J1e aajaepojarao xopacrean aa MHory aKTHBHOCTH, HD He orpamorysaar BO O/lHOC aa rca KOJIKY MO.>KeMe A8 HaY'IMMC OA CPYIlKl(110HaJiHa-ra auanasa. Her TaKOB e M cnyuajcr sane KaMeHIITe a.naTKII 611JTe 'leCTO KopHCTeHIl sa na ce aanpasar npyru an3TK~ au KOCKH, porosa, JlPBO H npyrn MaTepflj3nl1. Oane, ce

Ifill ..

HAYKATA eo APXEOnOrlllJATA

KaMeH~Te anaTKM 11 xpaaara

cDYHKlIl1oHanHI1Te aHan~3~ 069:l6eAl1ne B8lKHI1I1H(jJopMalll1l1 OKOilY ynoTp96ara Ha KaMeHI1Te anarxa. Kl1lll1 KOpl1CTen MOlKeH MI1KpOCKOn sa AaTI111Cnl1ryBa pa60BHT9 aa KaMeHI1Te apTe(jJaKTI1 oA 1.5"Ml1llI10HI1 crapaor noxanarer K0611 <Dopa BO Y1CT04Ha A(jJpI1Ka. Herosara 8KCn8pI1M8HTqJlHa paeora noxaxana A8Ka pa3nl14HI1T8 MaTepl1janl1 ocrasane pa3nl14HH BI1AOBI1 rpara BO (jJopMa Ha cjaj Ha pa60BHTe 0A KaMeHl-1T8 anaTKI1. Co 3roneMYBaibe Ha Mokra Ha 400, Kl1nl1 rl1 Ha6JbYAYBan MI1KpOCKOnCKI1~e cja81b8 11 oWT8rysalba, noco4YBajKI1 ro C84elbe Ha MeCOTO, ce4elbeTO Ha nap411lba Ha MeKI10T paCTI1T8n8H MaT8pl1jan H CTpYlK81b8rO 11 cese-eero

,£IpsO Ha OKOilY 10% oA oA6~rOllI1Te:':,lIsa OA611ToKa co 'AoKa3 sa ceyelbe Meco 6io1ne npoHajA9HI1 BO CK110n"Ha 1M OA roneua xep611BopHa xooca, 113nolKysajKI1 rl1 nparoa aacexyaareara. EAHa JaKBa acolll1jalll1ja ro nO/lAPlKYBa' KOPl1CT8fb8ro Ha 'OBI18 KaMeHI1 apTe(jJaKrI1 KaKO M'8capCKI1" anarKI1. ,lI0Ka30T sa .oopaooncara Ha APBO:ro 1 cyrepapa AeKa 611ne 113pa60ryBaHI1 11 APBeHI1.an;rrKI1, .HajB.8pojaTHo rpy611 CranOBI1 sa korraise I1l)pOHaOrat£e' KOpeHI1.I1.Kprynl1, Oaaa I1HA"peKTHa I1H(jJopMalll1ja e ep,I1f1CTB,eHI10T. AOKa3 sa ynorpeeara I1lll1 KOHCYMalll1jaTa ua p.aCTI1TenHI<tTe MaTep~11 BO OBOj pas nep"oA'oA 40BeKOBaTa:npal1cTOpl1ja. •

SCYUlHOCT opynnjara KO" 6ea BO npBII'JHIIOT MeryoUHoc co npHp0)1aT3, npaaejxa ro noreurxo acrpaxynan.ero aa 40se'IKOTO nejcraysaae npa npaseu.ero aJlaTKIL Eea ornen na ce, CPYHKIIIlOHa."HHTe aHaJl1l3J! HYAaT eneu OU eA"HcTseHHTe lfa41lHH aeponocrojno na ce pasbepe ynorpeoara Ha KaMeHI1Te aJlaTKI1.

[!]rrPHMEP

npETnA3m1B~OT AEnKAY HA KAMErbA

MHory 0,11 AOllHD·nan80n~TCK~Te ~ Me30nl1TCKI1Te 110Kalll1T8ni so ceaeposanaqaa Espona AeHec ce np8TCTaB8H~ co eAHo Kyn4e KaMeHIl anarxa Il OTn8,!l (Cm1Ka 10.22). 60 HeKOIl cny4a~. MO)Ke Aa ce COYyBaH~ nap41llba APB8H [arnen. HO HI1WTO nOBeK8. OB~e llOKanl1TeTI1 ce npeAI13BI1K aa OCTPOYMHocTa aa apxeonoaure, Aa HaY4aT HeWTO APyro OCBeH np1l6111l)KHaTa soapacr «oja ce oaaapa Ha B~AOT Ha npoHajAeHIlTe anaTKI1. WHCPOpMalllljara aa 6pOjOT aa )K~T8nIlTe ~ aKTI1BHOCTt.1Te KO~ ce cny-yeane aa DBa MeCTO 6t.1 6~ne enoxanso OTKpIlT~e.

MeCTOTO Hap84eHO Mep (MERE) e eAHo raKBO Mano Kyn48 OA KpeMeH BO 0611acT co CPOCllilHIl neCOYHIl HaHOel1 so Ceaepua 6enr~ja. MecToTo AaT~pa OA npez; oxony 8000 r.n.H.e. 11 npanara ua MHory ,lI04HIlOT Ilaneonnr eo caaa 0611aCT. WCKonYBalb9TO Ha nosanareror MHOry BHI1MaTenHO ro ~3Bpwlln tilpaHlIllC BaH HOTeH, a nparua 611lla AOKYMeHTl1paHa TOYHaTa MeCTon0110)K6a Ha ceko] aprerpakr, raxa WTO noxanareror MO)Ken Aa ce pexoxcrpynpa ~ npoy-iysa nerarsso. Ha H~SOTD aa lKllBeefbe Ha nOKan~TeTOT, 611118 npenoa-ar» yen1pl1 pa3lll1YHil rpyna apretpaxre.

3a cpeKa, apxeonosare (,lIaHllen Ka8H 0,11 Kpancxnor MY38J so 6enrllja Il Jlopeuc K~nll) npoY4ysajKIl rl1 MaTepl1janllT8 OA Mep, paeorene AOl1ro ~ uanopuo aa Aa ro paaospar OBOj nOKaI1IlTeT. EAHO oA npBI1Te npaura-sa KOIl rpeoano na ce oqrosopar 61lno Aal1l<1 ce aprerpaxrare Ao611eH~ 0,£1 eAHo npecrojyaa-ss I<!lll1 noxanareror 611ll noceryean noseKe naTI1. nOSTopYBaHI1T8 nOC8TI1 HajBepojaTHo 6~ aava-ucane 6~llO KaKB~ npOCTOpHI<! weMIl Ha aKTI1BHOCTa. Pacnpocrpaaerocra aa KpeM8HI<IT8 aprediaxru BO neCOYH~Te AI1HIl H8 ro norapnane cny-ajor aa eAHa nocera. ApTe(jJaKTIlTe 6~lle npoHajAeHIl npexy BepTI1KallHO pacrojauae oA 45cM so ceA~MeHTIlTe. no H8KonKY Mecell~ Ha cnojyeaa,e Ha MallllT8 Aen4~lba. ce nojasuna nopasoapneea CI1I<1Ka. napY~lba OA KpeMeH 0,11 rOpHI1Te Il AonH~Te AenOB~ Ha neC04HIlTe ral10)Kelba MO)Kene Aa C8 COCTasaT nosropao, nOKa)KysajKI1 AeKa apTe(jJaKT~T8 ce npevecryaane SepTI<IKailHO eo n8COKOT npeky npapomurre npouecu, OTKaKO ce HaTallO)Kene. CnojysafbeTo ja AOKYMeHTl1pa aepruxanaara ~ XOpI130HTanHaTa LlenllHa Ha noxanareror 1<1 cseAOYW A8Ka nocroeno eAHO aacenyea-ee Ha Mep (Cnuxa 10.23).

Mep

CMIIICOIl Ha KaMeHIo1Te a.naTKIo1 287

CJ1IfK8 10.22 K yn'IMlba KaMe"H aJIaTKH, KaMelba II KOCKH OKOIlY ABe ornanrra H3 p;OU;HO-rraJIeOJ]HTcKHOT JlOKaJJl1TeT DHHceBaH BO q,paHI1Hja. Ynorpeoara 11 pacnpocraaerocra aa TaKBIITe aprerpax-r« II KynOBJ.l 6HJIO QeHTpaJIH3T3 TOT.fKa 80 npOY'lY8albeTO Ha Mep, HO uenocrnrane KOCKliTe.

Cluuea 10.23 BepTIIKanH3 I\HCTPI16YI111ja aa KaMeHHTc aprexpaxr« na Mep. CnojY831hCTO nOMery najropanor J.l HajllOJIHIIOT lIeJI na BepTIIKaJlHaTa IIllcTp"6Yl(l!ja ynarysa l\eKa .Il0KamneTOT npeTCTaBYBa el1HHCTBeHa enasona 011 HaCeJIYBalbe. HaMeCTO cepuja pa3J1Il'lHIl nocern. BepnlKaJIHHTe OCKIl ua I\HjarpaMoT ja nOKalKYBaaT IlJIa6o'JI1HaTa na aprerpaxrnre aa JTOKaJlHTeTOT; XOpH30HTanHHTe OCKH rll nOKalKYBaaT pa3JIJ.I'lHHTe rpyna cncexu apTe¢aKTII.

288 rnasa 10 Aaanaaa Ha KaMeHOT

"
Q.
....
'"
::;;
"
>-
:c
'"
o 21
0
'" 24
OJ
:c 27
,.
:r 30
0
>D 33
'"
c; 36
t::[
39
42
45 Apxeonoaure roraur ce CPOKyc~pane Ha eAHa Mana KOHLleHTpaLl~ja H8 aprerpakru Ha nOKan~TeTOT, ossa-reaa KaKO KOHLleHTpaLl~ja IV ~nl1 CIV , oxonv 3.5-4M so npeYH~K co npocrop OA 11 M' (roneMI1Ha Ha npocesua coca) , Ha CeBepHl10T Aen OA CIV I1ManO Mana Kpy>KHa rpyna tj:JparMeHTI1 0,11 KYMYP, llITO HajsepojaTHo 611n OCTaTOK 0,11 OrHI1WTS. 1500-Te apTe¢aKTI1 ce pasnaxyaane 3Ha4ajHo 0,11 OHl1e so APymTe KOHlIeHTpaLll111 Ha nOKanI1TeTOT. nOCToene roneM 6poj AneTa 11 anaTKI1 sa nep¢opl1paH>e 11 HeKonKY wl1nljl1 sa npOSKTl1nl1 I1nl1 ornaa 0,£1 HI1SHOTO npase-ee. nOSsKe 0,£1 nOnOSI1HaTa 0,£1 KpeM9HI10T MaTsp"'iall 6'1119 Mfiory Malll1 Op,6I1TOL(I1, noseKero oa p,OnOIlHI1TeIlHoro nonoeees« Ha anaTKI1T9. OBI1S MHory Malll1 napYI1H>a ynaryeane AeKa Ha osoj nOKaJ1I1TBT ce cny-ysane AejcTSl1jaTa BO KOI1 ce ynorpeoysane KaMeHl1T9 anaTKI1. OrpoM9H Aen 0,11 anaTKI1Te 11 ornaqor BO CIV MO>Ke Aa 6l1AaT Cn08HI1. yWT9 BAsH apryaenr AeKa Tl19 611n9 npaseua 11 Kop~cTeH~ Ha OBa MeCTO (Cnl1Ka 10.24). Oaoj AOKa3 ynarysa 11 Ha aKTl1BHOCTI1T9 KOI1 HajBspojaTHo ce cny4ysane xparxo BpeMe, 6l1,L1€jKl1 SpCKI1Te nouery apTe¢aKT~Te rnasao ccrauane H90WTSTeHI1.

ApXeOSn03I1Te aepyeaar ASKa KOHl1sHTpalll1jara I 611na orinacr aa >KI1S99H>e npercraseaa co MHory pa3n~YH~ ,lIH9SHl1 aKTI1BHOCT~, cnpoHIBHO 0,11 cne~,.,janHI1Te

aKTWBHOCTH BHl1eHH BO CIV (Cnaxa 10.25). <t>YHKLlHoHaIlHHT9 aHallH3H H cnojyaa-eero 06836911HIl8 110Kaa KOj noxaxyea 118Ka CIV 6HIl cjloKycl4paH Ha 143pa6oTysat-be KOCKeHH anarxa H anarxa 011 por. Tpars maBHH l1ejcTBVlja KOI1 KOPl1CT81l9 KaMeHH anarxn 6HIle rpaaapa-es (npaee-se Alla6HaTHHH), crpvra-se (HIlVl paMHet-b8) .. lIynyesaH>e. Bo ananorre Mo>+<aT Aa C9 npsnoaaaar H pa31ll1KH nOMery cjlHHHTe H rpy6HTe l1ejcTsHja. I!1cTpa>+<YBaYHre aepysaar 118Ka OBOj AOKa3 nosaxysa l1eKa I<IHIIHBHl1yallLlHTe KOVI paoorene ryica n.1 nerucane 11 061ll1KYBalle rpy6wTe nap-unea ("HIlH npacjlopMwre") Ha poroaure 11 KOCKlne npeq aa rH aaspurar co 143Ma3Hysat-b9 14 AeKOpVlpat-be.

Apxeonoanrs roraui ce 06HI1yeaJle Aa oaoenar KOJlKy HHl1wswAYH Haj6BepojaTHo paoorens 80 CIV. Manara roneMHHa Ha MeCTOTO ro OrpaHI<IYYBa 6pOjOT Ha He noeexo 011 Y9rBOpl4L1a nyfe, VI 611 614Jlo TeWKO aa nOBeKe 0,£1 rpojua Aa GeAaT OKOIlY orHOT Ha cesepaaor nen. BCYWHocr, HCKonYBat-baTa OTKpt.1Jl8 I1se nonYKpy>+<HI4 rpynH KpeM8HW aprerpaxru OKOIlY OrHI1Wr8ro, KOI<I oyrepepaar A8Ka MecrOTO 9 npeuano sa rpolua.

[loroa, KaeH 1<1 KHJlH rl1 HcnHryeane nepcpoparopare, KOVl61;fJl8 Vl3B14eHH H HaMeHeTH Aa uanpaaar MallH AynKH BO KOCKaTa H poror. EI1Ha rpyna SaKSI4 neprpoparopa 6141la BO npaseu Ha YaCOBHI1KOT. a APyram BO CnpOTIIIBHa HaCOKa. Tue CMeTaaT l1eKa osaa

CJIUK3 10.24 Cnoenn aprerpaxru na Mep npaxascaaa CO JIIIHI!I! KOI! ra nospayuaar CnOeH)1Te l\eITOBI1.

Ha OBOj I1pTe>K ce npMKa>KHI! xerupa KOHQeHTpaL(1!1l H8 KaMeRI! apTetjlaKTII (C[-ClV) 3ael1HO co serapare ornmnra 01\ JlOK8JlI1TeTOT. Osaa uHtjlopMaUl1ja, sa ql!e )106I1BaJ"e 6Hne nOTjJe6HI1 Meceu", 11M novoruana aa apXeOJIOJHTe

)18 pasfiepar KaKBH AejcTSfo!j8 ce cnysysane R8 1T0KalTl!TeTOT.

CJIHKa 10.25 06Jl3CTH co aKTHBHOCTH lIJ1eHTl<cjlI<Kys3Hfo!

BO Mep npexy npoyvyeaaero !fa xaxemrre aprediaxra II HllBHaTa I1IlCTPH6Ylll1ja. Pa3JIIl'lHIITe 06JlaCTI1 ra BKJ1Y"YBaaT "'MBeaJlHIIlTaTa (nosraumaor AeJI) II MeCT3Ta 33 06pa6oTKa na KO)J{a, KOCKH " porosn, npaaetsero aJIaTKH (06pa6oTKa

H3 jaI1POTO) 11 orrppnaaero H3 OTnaAHIlOT M3Teplljan.

CMII1COn Ha KaMeH14Te anarxa 289

weMa e pesyrrrar ua BeWH1HaTa Ha pauere Ha ,qB8Te~H,q~B~,qy~ KO~ r~ xopacrene OB~e anarxa. 6~AejK~ B~,qOT Ha OB~e KpeMeH~ 6~n paana-rea, MOlKenO ,qa ce ~Cn~Ta KaKO cexoja 0,£1 OB~e ~H,q~B~,qy~ m npasena CBO~Te anarxn BO CIV. neByyapOT 6~lle BH~MaTelleH, CKOPO npel11ol38H BO paoorara CO KpeM8HOT 3a,qa ,q06~8 npaelo1nHIol anarxn, AO,qeKa ,qeCH~yapOT 6~n HeTpnemle ~ np~n~4HO HeBH~MaTeneH cnope,q roa KaKO 6..,n aanpaeesa Iol KopIolCTeH~ ananorrs.

AeTaJbHara paoora Ha apxeonosare Ha Mep OB03MOlK~na H8BepojaT8H auarpeures nomen BO e,qHO 0,£1 Mam1T8 KynYlolfha KpeMeH KO~ ro ooenexyaaar nejsaxor BO cesepoaanaqaa Espona. Apxeonosare ja 3aKnY41oln8 HIolBHaTa cTy,q~ja CO [acao pe3~Me. T ae uanaurane:

"EAHaw o,qaMHa, npez; oxony 9 000 rOA~H~ eo 6enr~cKlo1oT KaMn~H, rpyna nOBI1Io1- c06~pa4'" ro ocaoeane csojor KaMn Ha e,qHa crapa neCOYHa ,qIolHa xoja ce "'3A~rHana HaA oenacr 0,£1 6ap~ Iol WyM~. E,qeH ,qeH, 4neH Ha oaaa rpyna, ,qecH~yap, oruuron ManKY nonaneky 0,£1 HerOBOTO lK~Beall~WTe, sananan oraa, ce,qHan Kpaj Hero 11 no-manna npasn anarxa. Hekoa 0,£1 anaTKI1Te KO~ r~ aanpaean r~ ,qOHen co Hero. AOHen ~ 06nyT04~ 0,£1 KpeMeH Ha KO~ nonrorean HeKO~ 0,£1 nnartpopuare .., ~3AenKan 0,£1 HIo1B 0,q6I11T0I1'" KOIol rl1 npepaoornn BO anarxa .. KoplolcTejKIol r~ care OB..,e anaTKYI, TOj no-n-an na Ayn411' ,qna611 101 crpyra KOCKI1 Iol poros» .. Ao,qeKa paooren, APyr yneH oA rpynara, neeysap, ce,qHan nokpe] Hero 6n~3y ,£10 orHOT. QBOj nesy-rap c~ AOHen co Hero nperxonso nonrorseuo ja,qpo oA «oe ~3,qenKan H8KonKY 8neraHTH~ 0,q6I11TOI1'" 11 r~ peryumpan BO anarxa. n04Han Aa r~ Ayn4~ ~ ,qa ,qna6~ KOCKa. no HeKoe BpeMe neay-rapor C~ 3aM~Han, 3eMajK ~ ro co ce6e HeroBoTo ja,qpo. AeCHl1yapOT ;tCTO raxa C~ 3aM;tHan, 3eMajK;t co cece HeKonKY anarxn, HeKOIlKY OA6"T0I1" Iol eAHo nonrorseuo ja,qpo. Toj ce sparan Ha3a,q Ha MeCTOTO Ha )K~Beefhe 3aWTO ce CT8MHJ;[no ~nJ;[ sepojarao nopana rca WTO se-epara 6~na rorosa, a ceMejcTBoTo ro 04eKYBano (~n~ He ro o-rexyaano) Aa ce spara. no naTOT TOj r~ Ilospwysan aerosure KOCKeH~ npe,qMeT~ BO !jl~HaneH 06n~K ~ r~ YKp3cYB3n."

290 rnasa 10 AHaJl"38 H8 K8MeHOT

APyrV1 KAMEHV1' APTE<tJAKTV1

KaMeROT ce ynorpecysan aa pa3IIH'!HH Ra'!HRH BO npaacropnjara, HO C3MO HeKOI1 axnyxysane 06Ju!Kys31he H3 K3MeHOT co p;enKalhe 38 113 H3np3B3T KOP"CHI1 3ll3TKII. Bane ynOl'pe6yB3HII If p;pynr pa3HOSl1)1HII TeXHIIKH 33 )13 ce oomrxyna K3MeHOT 33 npyrn nena. Ha npauep, 6nOKOBH 011 K3MeH - MepMep, rpaseprnu 11 npyrn K3Melh3 33 rpanea,e - 61me BaLleHH OLl KaMeHOllOMIITe xopacrejxn oraa II BOlla, rnoreae II CJIII'lHII MeTOIlI1, no WTO 6RJJe OOJJIIKYB3HI1 BO 6ll0KOBII 33 rpaneae IlJJlllleJlKalUI co nnera BO CT3TYIl.

Kaaesor 61111 00l111KYS3H 11 BO BIlIl H3 KOPIICHI1 3pTe¢3KrH. TepMI1HOT Ma3Heiil KaMeH apiiierjJaKiil ce rrpaxreuysa sa onLUT3T3 «areropaja npesocnnan K3MeHH npenver« K3KO YKP3CHII cT3TyeTKI1, B33HH, OOKallH II Cnll'lHI1 Ca)10BII, MellHH'IKH K3Me1h3, nepna, opysqa 11 npyra Hajpa311I1'1HII !jlOpMH. 3a na ce nanpasn ¢IIHallHIIOT npOAYKT uajsecro ce xopacrena KOM611113Ul1ja 0)1 TeXHIIKH - YLlllpalt.e co 4CKaH, HC'lYKYBalt.e, Menelhe, 11/111111 nonapaa,e. Heo6pa6oTeHI1Te 6110KOBH 0)1 6a33llT 61111e noxauar« co '1eKaH, 3 ncroa 061IIIKYBalUI BO Hajpa3HoBHIIHH !jlOPMM 33 )13 06e36ell3T Bop;eHII'!KII KaMeH BO I1peBllaT3 Me303MepMKa II aa na ra rrpersopar 3pH3Ta nxemca BO 6paLUHO (CIIlIK3 10.26). Toneau HOP;YlllI 0)1 xpcuex 61111e 11311enK3HH BO rpy611 ¢OPMI1 11 noroa 113M33HeTII BO npeKpacHII CeKHpl1 BO HeOnl1TCKIIOT nepaon BO CK3H)1l1HaBllj3. TIPOY'lYB3H>a H3 M33HeTHTe KaMeHH MaTKII ce Bo0611'l3eHII BO apxeonouncara nareparypa, a HeKonKY 0)1 HIIB ce aasenena BO 611611llorpa!jlJ1jaTa na osaa xaara,

3AKnY40~V1

Kaueaor Tpae CKOPO sacexoraur, a oopaooreanre lIenOBII KaMeH ce BHCOKO ueaer MaTepllj3n3a apxeonosnre. KaMeHoT ce KOpl1CTell sa aajpaannxter uena so MIIHaTOTO, He caxo sa npasen.e 311aTKII,. TyKY II. aa rpanen.e, 33 caLlOBII, cT3TyeTKH H crarya, Melle,lt.e n'leHJ11.l3 IIJJII 06JJIIKYB3lhe na npyrnre MaTeplljallH. KaMeHJ1Te apre<jlaKTH gOMHI!l!pane BO KaMel!OTO BpeMe H npesoraeane 6e3 TeLUKOTl111 110 ceraLUHOCTa. Bo noee-

OA r apH t\apCOH

"na WTO e OBa? n06apaB yeKaH! 'ieKaH!

QBa e' nonYKpYlKeH BItHT! ... na, MOlKe61t roa e'teKaH .

... no raaonare co oaae KBMeHIl anaTKI1!"

KeTO lIeJlOB" on cseror, BO 3eMjoneJlcKilTe nOJIII1Da H H8 OTBopeHH 3eMjeHH noapunmn ce YUlTe MOl!W 118 ce npoaajnar KaMeHH aprediaxra.

AJIaTKHTe 06e36eAYBaaT COO)1HOC nosrery nyrero n CpeAI!H8T8, OB03MolKYBaj· in HI!)13 MaHHrrynl1paMe" na ja MeRYBaMe RalIIHTe OKOJlIl}!a. EAHa on uajaneuar-raeure pa60TH sa K8MeHHTe 3JIaTKI! e HHBecTIHIHj3Ta xoja ja npeTCTaBYBaaT - BM3Hja sa I!IIHI!HaTa, yqeCTBO BO a KlIuja. Ilpenaeror ce npasen na enno MeCTO BO enno spexe, najsecro CO HaMepa HeKaKO na 6l1ne I!,CKOp"CTeH nO)(0IlH8. KaMeHJ{Te 8J18TKI! AOKYMeHTHpaT nexa HaWIITe npenua ja rrJl3HMp311e HAHHHaTa.

CJIHK3 10.26 Ea38JITHa MeJlHHlIa J1J1M Ma3HeT KaMeH 0/\ lI,eHTpaJUlO MeKcMKO. ,i:(OJllKJ1H8 32cM.

Anerea OA o6nyrmc

6i11 \IIMana 5 eM raboten tab.

Knaxor Gill iIIMan OKOflY 30 em raboten rab

Cpe,QHO naneortarcsure

anaTKI-1 Sp3 OA6i11TOllIII 6j.1 I "Mane osonv 90 em raboten rab: _

.oOIlHonaneOnj.1TCKOTO npm13BO,!lCTBO Ha ceqana 61-1 iIIMano osony

14 m raboten rab.

\1«IlllllIIlllll!1l11lll1l11lmlllllllllllll!m®

ClmK310.27 113,HocoT aa pa6oTHHoT pa6 01\ O.5Kr KpcMeH BO pa3JTl1'lHI1 naneOnHTCKI! nepaonn An a-rxa 01\ o6nYToK 511 IIMana OKOJlY SCM pa60TeH pa6. EAHa pano-naneonnrcxa pasna cexnpa

611 [{Mana oxony 30CM panores pafi, Ilecer cpenno-naneonurcsn anarx« Bp3 OA5HT0l1H 5" }!Mane oxony 90CM pa60TeH pa6. YeTHp"eceT JlOl.\HOnaJJeOJIMTCKH ceuana MO)f(e6H HM3JJe BKynHo OKOJTY 14M pa50TeH pa6.

292 rnaaa 10 Auanasa Ha KaMeHor

Floronevnor nen 01\ apxeonornjara rra pSHHTe npenun ce onnecysa ua npoaemrre K3j KaMeHIITe anarxa. Osne upoxcna ce eBIIAeHTHIl npexy 6pojHl1Te TpeH/lOBIl 38 apeue ua naJJeOJl.IITCKJ10T nepaon. OnWTO 3eMeHO, co TeKOT Ha spevcro aJlaTKHTe crauysane nOMaJJJ1 H co nocneuajannsapaua HaMeHa. nOCTOeJlOH Apa"aTIl'lHO aronevyaarse sa etiJHKaCHOCTa co ynorpefiara aa CypOBMHI1Te KOH. xpajcr aa IIaJJeoJJHTOT, xora ce nojanana rcxuonorujara H3 ce-nrna, nporcrnn aa MaCOBHa TeXHIIK8 38 npOI!3BO)lCTBO, Oaaa BeWTIlHa na ynorpeoa MOlKe na ce cnopenn co OHS WTO ce CJJY'IYBa co Haj6p30 l106lleHJ1Te nap-nasa CypOBlIHCKlI MaTepHjaJJ (Cnnxa 10.27). EIlHa anarxa 011 06J1YTOK co MOlKe6H SCM pa60TeH pa6 611na aanpaseaa TOKMY 011 osa napse KaMeH rrpen 2 Ml1nI!OHa ronllHII, EJ\H3 pa-raa cexnpa co 2S-30CM. pa60TeH pao 6t{JJa uanpaseaa 33 speue aa PaHIIOT naJJeOJIIl'r. 3a speue HB CpellHIIOT Ilanconar aajaepojarao 61lJle npoassenenn oxorry 15-20 OA6HT0l111 H 06J11IKYBaHlI so Hajpa3J1H'[H1I BHAOBII aJJaTKIl co 90-120cM pa6. Ilojasara aa rexnonorajara aa ce-runa, cenax, saase.ra nexa Mo)!(e6n 011 IICTaTa KOJJH'II1Ha KaMeH 6ltne uarrpanenn 100 ce-mna co lO-14M pa60TeH pa6, WTO e fOlIeMO sroneayaatse aa KOp"CHocr3,

Bo OBa nornanje sMlloBMe KaKO ce uanpaaenna KaKO ce KOpYlCTeHil KaMeHilTe 3I1aTKIJ. nO'IeTOl1H1'e na l\eIlKa!heTO KpeMeH BKJlY'lYB33T ynupan,e sa KPIIITOKpJ1CTaJleH KaMeH co 'teKal{ sa na ce npouaseaar 0116)1T0I1I1 11 CeYHJla. PeTYWOT ce KOpl1CTelI 33 Ita ce 06mtKYBaaT OBHe aprediaxru BO 33SpWeHI{ aJlaTKII co najpaanaxea Cl1eKTSp HS <POpMI! Il <PYHKl1J1H. ApXeOlI031lTe KOpJ1CraT ronev 6poj M€TOIlH BO npOY'IYBalheTO na KaMemlTe anarxu, TYKa ja 06pa3n0lKJ1BMe THlToJlomjaTa H KOHl1enTOT aa CIIHI,IIIPOT na onepauau KaKO ABa npncrana sa aaamranparse 11 KnaCIHpHUHpa!he aa KaMeHIITe apredxucrn. Ynorpeoara H3 cnojyaan.e 06e36enYB3 oalKHa IIHcjJOPM3Ulija 33 roa xane ce KopHCTen€ II OT<pP1I3ne aJlaTKHTe, KaKO II lIeTaJJII sa npOl1eCOT na coanasau.e KOj cjJYHKII,IIOIJilpalI na JlOKaJlHTeTOT. <lJYHKl1I10H3J1HHTe aH3Jll13H KopHCTaT Bl1COKH 3fOJleMYB3!ha 3S na rll npoy-rar npOMeHHTe ua paooairre 011 anarxnre co l1eJJ na ru onpenar BHIlOBllTe laTepl1j31I1J KOII ce 06pa60TeHH l1 cjJYHKl1l1jaTa Ha CaMIITe KaMCHII opynnja,

BalKHO e Aa ce 3anOMHl! AeK3 KaMeHRTe apTecjJaK1'l1 HII fH 06e35eAIIlIe HajBa)KHJ1Te 3n3TKH 33 noaexe 011 ABa MHJlIJOHII rOIlIlHII. OBHe aprerpaxrn ce otieaeacje 3a 'IOBeWTBOTO KaKO WTO ce BCCIIeHCKaTa CTaHt1l1a HlIlJ BaWHOT KOMnjYTep. KaMeHI1Te aJl8TKH, 1'iJ1.QejKH rrpexaneane, MCTO raxa otiesoenyaaar noeexe >JHcjJOpM811,1I1J KOH ce xopacrar sa I1paHCTOpJ1jaTa H3 HaWJ1Te BMI\OSII. Ha M'~ory YHl.fBep3I1TeTII ce OAp)!{ysaaT apxeOnOWKIJ xypceaa sa KaMeHIlTe aHalIlI3H. Flosexero apxeonosn ce 3an03H3TJ1 co KaMelUlTC apretbaxra II fH n03HaBaaT OCHOBHJ1Te xapaxrepncruxn ira OBJ1e M31'epHJ3nl1, J\OK33 sa HMBH3Ta BalKHOCT BO aaurara rparrxa.

IIROEKT

KAMEHVlTE AnATKVI VI AMEPVlKAHCKATA AEnPECVlJA

HeOAaMHa 6HlIe HCKOnaHII 'IeTHpH 1I0Kam1TeTlI BO perHOHOT aa AMepHKaHCKara ,QenpeclIja Kaj pexara MHCHCHITII. Oaaa ofinacr e CARa 011 HajIIJloAHHTC 80 CA,Q H GIIJIa HaCeJIeHa MHory MIineHIlYMIl. Floneke 11HQ:lOpMal.(IiI1 33 osaa 06J1aC1' 11M3 BO Ilornasjero 3 Ha FAI-270 npoes.ror.

Ilperxoaaoro HCTpa)l(YBaH>C DO AMepMKaHCKara Ilenpecnja 11 COCeJ1f1I1TC perIiOHI1 BOcilOCTaSHJ!O roneu 6poj <jJaKTII KOl:! KC Ell 110MOrHar na onrosopare aa CJleAHMSe npauran,a.

1. 3a npeue aa apxanvunrrr nepnon nyrero rtpasene rOneMI1 WII!IlU'! sa xonje, nonexa nax sa spcve na Macncnna nepnonor nvrero npOH3l3eJ1YBalIe 1l0MaJ!l:! WHJll(H KaKO pe3YlITaT ua nojanar a na J13KOT H crpenara.

2. EKcrrepHMeHTMp3H>eTO " lj:>YHKl(MOHaJIHMTe aHaJlIl~I1 aa ourrerynau.ara H3 pa60BHTe K3j noaexero 3J13TKM HM noaorxane H3 apXeOJl03MTe /13 fH onpenar diasare na npOH3B0/1CTBO H Aa rI1 Ha3Ha'I3T onW1'HTe lj:>YHKI.\HH 33 noroncauor 6poj xareropan,

3. Ilpoy-rynatsero na "M01'I1'llllbaTa" ro I'IAeHTHlj:>IIKYBalIo pa3JlW1HI101' cjaj KOj ce J\O.IT)I(eJl na KOHCTaHTH01'O crasas.e BO 3eMjaTa. Haxo H3 MOTII'llflhaT3 JIM 6HJIe OTCTpaHeTIl 0I16IITOl(HTe, cenax ro 33!1p)l(aJle Cnel.(Hlj:>H4HI10T cjaj.

4. 3HaeMe nexa IIBa rnna KaMeH>a npouajnena Ifa ReKOR 0/1 OBHe .ijOKamITeTH noaraar 0/1 pa3JIH'IHI1l\elIOSH ua CA)J,. OllcHI1HjaHoT noara Oil jyrosartamnrre aMepHKaHCKI1 3eMjH. 3 HOS3KYJII1TOT (UBpCT KaMeH noronen aa nenxau,e) noara 01\ jY)I(eH I1nI1HOI1c.

5. Kareropuure H8 aprerpaxrrrre K3KO OI(6I[TOL\HTe. janpara ,I KOPTHK3JIHIITe 01l61-[T01.\11 ce pe3YJlTaT sa npsare lj:>a3H aa npOIl3BO)(CTBOTO xa KaMeHI1 anarxa, Kalle CypOBHHCKHTe Ma1'epHjaJlH 6Hne npernopena 80 nOKopHCHH nap-uusa. 01l6>1TOIjHTe ce H3I1e.ijKaHH, HO Heo6pa6oTCHI1 /1eJlOBIi na CypOBI1HCKIiOT MaTepHjaJl. KopTHKalIHHTe 0/16>11'01\H ce geJIOBH CO MaJlKY aannopeuren KopTeKC I{JlH xopa 01\ HOAYJIaT3 xoja e npncyrua na IIHCTaJlHIlOT xpaj, HeHCKOpl1CTCHHTe 0l16jITOUH 11 ce-ncra MO)Ke!13 6HII31' Om81leH ",HepHjaJl HJlH nOTeHUHjaJlHH a)1an(H.

Ta6eJIaT8 10.201 npl1Ka>I<YBa BKynHHTe npecverxn H3 pa3HOBHI\Hl1 H311elIKaHH K..aMeHM npoxsaonu aa qeT.MpH srecra.

KpeC4eHT XI111C Ayno
Pe3aHKIl 75 3 0 0
Ja,qpa 45 10
KopTIlKanHIl 0,q61lT041l 89 1(3 2
YnoTpe6eHIl 0,q61lT041l 5 45 51 20'
HeynoTpe6eHIl OS611T041l 97 30 12 4
YnoTpe6eH.Il. ce'lllna 1 11 15' 4
HeynoTpe6eHIII Ce4llna· 0 10 0 f
Man!! wlln4111 1 12 2'0 b
rbneMI1 W1l114111 2 0 0 12
MOTIl'llllba Q 6 7 0
Bi(ynHO 315 143 10V 44 KaKO JlIITWIKH ananrrnorap.

BI1e rpetia Aa m ncrpaxvaare CJH::,UHHTe Tetvm:

1. HI1BOTO Ha I1POH3BOI\CTllO

aa KaMeHIl aJIaTKM xa J(OKaJlHTeTOT (He3aEYlCHO lIaJlI1 ce pa60TH 33 npOH3B0/1CTBO IlJlH ynorpeoa)

2. <l>YHKl.(l1jaTa H3 anarxare, a na TOj HaqI1H onCTaHOK01' H eKOHOMCKa1'a opnearauaja aa cexoj JlOKaJlI1TeT.

3. Horexuajanaare nOBp3YBaiM nOMery cexoj JlOKalIl1TeT 11 OKOJlHMTe peruoaa.

4. BpeMeHcKHoT nepnon aa cexoj JlOKaJIIiTeT (na np., Apxanx HJI" MHCHCHIII1).

Bp3 OCHOBa aa cnoaenarare nonarouz H nmailHHCKIITe !!HcjJOpMaUHII, 011 rOB opere ra CJIe,llHlIBe upauraisa. 3arrOMHeTe nexa apXeOlJOl1lKHTe 1I0)1aT01-\H He ra nonnpscysaar cexoraur lIeqJl1HHTIIBHHTe 3aKnY'lOU1" na aaroa npesenrupajre ja csojara aajnoopa npoueuxa. Baunrre OgfOBOPH rpetia na 61111aT KpaTKH 1l)13 ce npanpscyaaar 110 revara, aa nOBeKeTO npauian,a rpetia na ce saseae caxo I1MerO H3 noxarrareror KaKO O)1rOBOp. AKO '1YBcTBYBaTe norpetia na ro IJOTKpemITe saiunor O)1rOBOp, ae xopacrere noseKe O)1I1Be pe'leHHUII.

l.TIPOlI3BOIICTBO na KaMeRIl aJJaTKIl

KOI1 CTaAI1YMH aa npOIl3B0)1CTBO Il ynorperia 611J1e n03aCTarreHII aa pa3J1I1'1HIITe JlOlCaJlHTeTl!? H)1eHTlnjJIIKYBajTe ro JlOK3J1l1TeTOT(I!Te) ua KOI!:

a. Jlyrero Ba)1eJTe cyposana, 06JlHKYBaJle HOIlYJl!! BO janpa, HO He xopucrene MHory aJl3TKM H3 JlOK3JlHTeTOT;

a.flyfeTo H8 rrOKaJTMTeTOT najaepojamo rn npasene u rn xopncrene K3MeH,ne aJI3TKH;H

s.Jlyrero rJl8BHO rH KOp"CTeJle aJlaTKIITe co MHory M3JJKY 1I0Ka3fI sa HllBHOTO f1POIl3BOIICTBO.

2. I'enepanna CPYHKL\l!ja na nOKamlTeTOT (onpenenena 01( 361lpKaT8 3J18TKH) Koj noxannrer aajnoopo ce nOBp3YBa co OIlHCHTe nonony? 3eMeTe rH BO npennnn 6pojor aa apretpaxrare II BHIIOBIlTe 3.JlaTKl1 KOf! ce npacyraa.

3. Flpaspeven JlOBe'lKH KaMIl.

a. 3eMj0)1enCKa uacenoa co 110K83 38 nose-se.

B. MeCTO 33 rrpennanaapanre cjJa311 BO nenxas.ero xpeveu, najsepojarno aJJIlCKlllIO 113BOPOT xa CypOBllHCKIlTe M3TeplljaJTH.

3.BHaTpeWHo-pemOHaJlHa cnopenoa

HeKOIl 0)1 aprerpaxrare H3 ropecnoueaarare J10KaJlIITeTII f10KalKYBa3r IIOSpaysan,a co IIPyrll peraonu, KOI! MeCT3 ce nOBp33HH co cocemrare peraoaa sa

a. jyrosanan _

a.HCTOK _

B. IIBeTe _

4. BpeMeHcKH IlepHOI1

Hexon 0;:( osne aprerpaxra HCTO raxa nosaxyaaar BpeMeHCK8 acouajaunja co ApX81lK IlJlII co MllCHCHillI IlepIlOAOT. Koe 011 osae MeCTa ce qllllil nexa e

a. MIICHCI!IJR

6. Apxaux

B. Koj JlOKaJlHTeT e TeWKO 113. e CMeCTIl BO enna 011 onne spexencxa CP331l Il 30WTO?

294 r naaa 10 AHaIlM3a Ha KaMe HOT

nPAWAf-bA:

www.mhhe.corrupricearch l

1. 30lUTO e KaMeHOT TaKa BalKeH MaTepl1jaJl 33 npanejse aJl3TKI1?

2. Kaxos Sl1il aa HHcpopMalll1l1 ce rrpacyrnn SO K3MeHIITe 3Jl3TKII?

3. KOI1 ce r1l3SHHTe TpeHAoBII BO enonynnjara H3 KaMeHIITe anarxn?

4. Kaxo ce KOpHCTeJIe KaMeHHTe aJIaTKH 80 MI1HaTOTO?

5. Kaxo rl1 KOpl1CTaT apxeortoaare K3MeHlITe 3113TKI1 33 Aa ro pasoepar 'IOBeKOBOTO OAHecYB3fbe?

3a nononsarene« MaTep~ja.n VI npauia-ea, nornenaero rl1 T8CTOBI-1Te BO eauaor oHnajH oopasossn ueutap.

m1TEPATYPA

Adams, Jenny L. 2002. Ground Stone Analysis: A Technological Approach.Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

Andrefsky, W., ed. 2001. Lithic Debitage: Context, Form, Meaning.

Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

Bamforth, D. B. 1986. Technological efficiency and tool curaticn American Antiquity 51:38-50.

Bradley; B. A. 1975. Lithic reduction sequences: A glossary and discussion. In Lithic Technology: Making and Using Stone Tools, edited by E. Swanson. The Hague: Mouton.

Keeley, Lawrence H. 1980. Experimental Determination cf Stone Tool Use: A Microwear Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Schick, Kathy, and Nick Toth. 1993. Making Silent Stones Speak. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Whittaker, J. C. 1994. Funtknapping. Milking and Understanding Stone Tools. Austin: University of Texas Press.

www mhhe.com/prlcearch l

3a AOnOnH(.1TenH~ ~HTepHeT MaTepl1janl1 noapsaaa co oea ncrrtaeje, norneAHeTe rlt1 m1HKOBIo1re 60 eaWlI10T oHnajl-l 06pa30BeH ue-rrap,

Ilpuuuuiiu na apxeonoiujaiua HYIlII IIHTepeCeH, IIl1peKTeH II 60raTo 1!J1YCTPllP3H aosen sa apXeOJlOIIIKI!OT MeTOll1I reopaja. TeKCTOT ja onrpaxa B036YIIJIIIBOCTa II KOMrrneKCHOCTa aa nonero CO rpoxycapatse na Tpll B3}l{H1l TeMIl, BKJlY'IYBajKII K3KO apxeonosnre paaaacaysaa« II y'I3T sa MIIH3TOTO, eTIIKaTa II qYBalheTO na MIlHaTOTO, Il ynorara na HaYKaTa BO apxeonornjara. Hornasjara HYaar npasraxnaaa cveca na jacaa II ceornparaa III1CKYClIja aa cyrrIT.IIHCKI! nacnosa, rrpOBOKaTIlBHa aHaJIII3a aa rrpllMepH H rrpaKTlI'IHH rrpmrena IIITO HM OB03MO)KYBaaT aa CTYlleHTHTe).(a pa3MIlCJlYBaaT K3KO 3pXeOn03.11.

o 6eJIe:lKj a

• Harepecnnre BOHellH HYllaT rrper nell aa norrraajara II rll BOBellYBaaT CTYlleHTIITe BO HaCJlOBl!Te na rrornanjara co dioxycapan.e na pa3nll'!HlI CJlIlKl! Hnll xonasor na cnHKH IIITO ja OTKpHBaaT B030y).(nIlBOCTa na none'ro.

• <paCQllHaHTHIl npHMepH sa apxeonornjara BO axunja ce pacrppnena HH3 nornaajara Il nynar ananma aa rrpaxepn aa BalKHH apxeoaonrxa IlCTp3)KYBalha HIl3 CBCTOT.

• YHIlKaTHIlTe 061l):lIl-Ce-CaMHOT npoexrn, IIITO ra rrOTTIlKHYBaaT CTYlleHTIlTe na pasvrrcnvaaar KaKO apXeOJl03II, MO)Ke na ce aajnar na xpajor na nor.nanjara II rll anrascnpaar CTYlleHTIiTe co apxeonolllKIi nOll3TOQ.II II npanrarsa.

• TpH Blilla paMKH, KOH HI oxparipynaar CTYlleHTIITe na rll 3eMaT npellBl!lIl1enoKyrrHIITe TeMH na TeKCTOT Il KaKO ce nOBp3aHH IlCTIiTe co cneuatpasuara coIIP)KIIHa na uornasjero, ce pacrrpCKaHH HIl3 nenaor TeKCT.

no«iJaJI6u sa Ilpunuuiiu ua apxeoJl.oiujaiiia

YHHK3THaTa COIIP}!{IlHa lIM HYIIH na CTYlleHTIlTe ceoiuparen npefJIell na nponecor aa apxeonorajara BO Ilcrnasje 2, npen na rrpOIIOJI}!{aT co neramrre BO CJIellHIITe norzrasja, 6l1TeH lien sa CTaTIlCTHKaTa BO Hornasje 7 II QeJIO nornasje 33 apxeoverpajara BO Ilornasje 15.

o 3a nOJIeCHO na ce cnpaBaT co KOMrrJIeKCHaTa cOIIP}!{l!Ha na npemeercr, na CTYlleHTIITe 11M CTOII na pacnOJIaralhe uen II11jarra30H KOPIICHII neuaromxa 06enelKja (BKJlY'!YBajKII BOBe):l BO nenor, KyC nperncj; aa rrornaajcro, QIITaTII II pe'IHIIK BO MapfllHnre, nosrour aa 113fOEOP, 3aKJlY'lOQII, npaman.an nareparypa).

o Ilosexe 011 SOD crrex-raxynapnn IlJIYCTpal1l!lI, BKJIyqYHajKII rpororparpaa, I1pTe}!{II, KapTIi (uosesero co opaearauxoaa rnoeyca), nJIaHOBII II KapIlKaTYpll, OB03MolKYBaaT ronesra jacaocr II maoapenea upaxas na pa3HoBH!1HocTa II cjajor aa apxeonornjara.

Gila e MHOlY lleWYfm"FW KHUla «oja «e tiuoe epeoeu ooOaiUOI(; aa 606eOliaiUa nuiuepatuypa aa apxeonozuja. Yuoiiipetiaiiiana unyciupupauu upuuepu. HU3 uenauia «nuza «oja U.Ma aa '-{eJ! oa lU iipeiiiciiiaeu KJ!Y"Huwe tcouueiiiiiu. 60 nea e H06UHa, U 2U i10wiUUKHYBa cwyoeHwuwe oa ce anzascupaaiii; a iipuiiioa U.M oaea ilOUHWU.MHO 'iYllciUllO aa iiioa iuiiio iipewcwa6YIla apxeonotujaiua u miUo paooiaaiu apxeonosuiiie. C02J!eOY6ajli:u oexa MHolY ocuuuuiiiuc iUeKciUollu ce tpoxycupaaiii na icpunu-tno cyllu oediuuuuuu oee BIiU.MaHUe ua KOHtUeKciUotU ua paaJ!U'iHUWe KOHu,ei1WU U wexHUKU, 001{tUOP Ilpttjc ustipa MHOiy oociuaiina U oiiucua pacxasna ipopua co «o]a ja 006J!UJlCYBa apxeonoiujaiiia 00 ctUyoeHwoiU.

- Illoa M. Pa¢epTII, YHI!Bep311TeT BO AJI6aHII, SUNY

[llpIlHQIIIII! aa apxeonornjara] e iUOKMY oua uaiio jac 20 tiapau: 1l0BeOeH tuexcui m.tUo nainacyea KaKO apxeonosuiue ooioeapaaiii iquuuan.a, a He upupaweu« aa ueiuooosoeuia UJ!U UaK KYC i1pe2J!eo ua cBeiUcKaiUa upauauopuja: Kuueaiuu e 6HU.MaiUeJ!HO cociiiaeena; co coooeeiiua: BeJK6u aa ciUyoeHiUuiUe, KOU ce uaoiaaiu. ua tcpajoiu ua ceKoe iioisuusje. BuctUuHcKaiUa Mali: AeJICU 80 paKiUotU oexa 3a cexoja iiiesu: ce oaoeHu iipU.Mepu 60 uoznaeiaw.a, a He ce U30/1UpaHU BO uocetiuu paMKU.

- ,Il,oHaJlII EJIejKCJlII, ,Il,p)l(aBeH YHIIBep311TeT BII'lIlTa

HAMnPEC

Cxonje, 2009 www.nampress.com.mk

ISBN 978-9989-682-45-2

nOCC [C [C ta BCo C []1dH[1[\,)1 a ua Flpajc Hd www.mhhe corn'pricearch I