Algebra 2

8.1 & 8.2

Name:_________
 x1 + x 2 y1 + y 2  , . 2   2

Midpoint Formula: If a line segment has endpoints at (x1,y1) and (x2,y2), then the midpoint of the segment has coordinates 

Example 1: A graphing program draws a line segment on a computer screen so that its ends are at (5,2) and (7,8). What are the coordinates of its midpoint?

The Distance Formula The distance between any two points (x , y ) and (x , y ) is given by:
1 1 2 2

Example 2: Find the exact distance between the given points. a. (-2, 1) and (5, 7) b. (-3, -11) and (8, 4)

CONIC SECTIONS: A conic section is defined as any figure that can be formed by slicing a double cone with a plane. A double cone is two cones connected at their points. 1

Algebra 2

8.1 & 8.2

Name:_________

If the plane intersecting the double cone is parallel to the top and bottom and intersects only where the two cones meet, the figure is a point. If the plane intersecting the double cone is parallel to the top and bottom and intersects the cone anywhere but where the two cones meet, the figure is a circle. If the intersection of the double cone and the plane are such that the plane only passes through one side of one of the two cones, the figure is a parabola. If the intersection of the plane with the double cone is not parallel with the top and bottom and passes through the top cone only or the bottom cone only, the figure is an ellipse. If the intersection of the plane with the double cone is perpendicular to the top and bottom and does not pass through the point where the two cones meet, the figure is a hyperbola.

2

Algebra 2 Parabolas

8.1 & 8.2

Name:_________

A parabola is the set of all points (x, y) that are the same distance from a fixed line (called the directrix) and a fixed point (focus) not on the directrix.

The midpoint between the focus and directrix of the parabola is called the vertex and the line passing through the focus and vertex is called the axis of the parabola. The vertex is the point of intersection of the parabola and axis of symmetry. The standard form of the equation of a parabola with vertex at (h,k) and axis of symmetry x – h is y= a(x – h)2 + k. If a>0, k is the minimum value of the related function and the parabola opens upward. If a<0, k is the maximum value of the function and the parabola opens downward.

Example: Write y = –2x2 – 4x + 3 in standard form. Identify the vertex, axis of symmetry, and direction of opening of the parabola. y = –2x2 – 4x + 3 y = –2(x2 + 2x) + 3 y = –2(x2 + 2x + _) + 3 – (–2)(_) side. y = –2(x2 + 2x + 1) + 3 – (–2)(1) the square y = –2(x + 1)2 + 5 y = –2[x – (–1)]2 + 5 Original equation Factor –2 from the x–terms. Complete the square on the right The 1 added when you complete is multiplied by –2. (h, k) = (–1, 5)

The vertex of this parabola is located at (–1, 5), and the equation of the axis of symmetry is x = –1. The parabola opens downward.

3

Algebra 2

8.1 & 8.2

Name:_________

Example 3: Write y = -x2 – 2x + 3 in standard form. Identify the vertex, axis of symmetry, and direction of opening of the parabola.

Example 4: Write y = 2x2 – 12x + 6 is standard form. Identify the vertex, axis of symmetry, and the direction of opening of the parabola.

Example 5: Sketch the graph of the parabola with the equation y = -2x2.

4

Algebra 2

8.1 & 8.2

Name:_________

The latus rectum is a line segment that is perpendicular to the axis of symmetry and passes through the focus. Its endpoints are on the parabola. The length of the latus rectum is
1 a

units.

Summary: Form of equation Vertex Axis of Symmetry Focus Directrix Direction of opening Length of Latus Rectum y = a(x – h)2 + k (h,k) x=h
1    h, k +  4a   1 y =k− 4a

y = a(y – k)2 + k (h,k) y=k
1   ,k h + 4a   1 x =h− 4a

Upward if a>0 Downward is a<0
1 a

Right if a>0 Left if a<0
1 a

Example 6: Graph 4x – y2 = 2y + 13

5

Algebra 2

8.1 & 8.2

Name:_________

Example 7: Write and Graph an Equation for a Parabola Write an equation for each parabola described. Then draw the graph. a. vertex (–2, 1), focus (0, 1)

b. focus (–2, 2), directrix y = 4

6

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