Mohammed Ahmed Organisations as a whole constitute a team of people working together individual ly or collectively by sharing responsibilities to achieve agreed

aims and object ives (Procter & Mueller, 2000). According to Rabey (2003) teams achieve performa nce and overcome obstacles through synergy. The performance of any project team is therefore dependent on the perfect combination of complementary skills to ach ieve a common purpose (Kreitner et al, 1999) EFFECTIVE TEAM WORKING The successes of major multinational companies have been derived from effective team work and the capacity for organisation to successfully manage the skills of employees by tapping into their creativity. This has enabled such companies to command leadership positions by achieving amazing business success globally (Pet ers & Waterman, 1982). A team is therefore a combination of two or more people w orking together in harmony to achieve a common goal (Daft, 2006). Work based tea ms are groups of people assembled by circumstance or need with a varying degree of experience and ability urged to develop and coordinate their own efforts to m aintain continuously high standard of output, led by an effective manager with a dequate leadership skills (Rabey, 2003, Kharbanda and Stallworthy, 1990). Belbin (1993) is of the opinion that effective teams help organisation coordinate and develop strategic information links that help improve performance. Team work tak es a continuous effort to develop and a conscious effort to maintain (Maddux, 19 88), so undermining the initial processes of team forming denies team leaders an d managers the opportunity to understand individual needs that motivate members. However Maddux (1988) concluded that effective team work knows no level, it is important for the survival of an organisation across all cadre of which its abse nce could lead to poor performance or productivity and eventual failure. Teams p lan to overcome problems through the improvement of dependent work processes, un like groups in which individual efforts is independent of the other members. MOTIVATION PROBLEMS IN THE TEAM Motivation is the internalised drive towards the prevailing thought of any momen t (Rabey, 2001). Oxford dictionary (2001) defines motivation as the reason behin d ones actions or behaviour. In simple terms, it is the force that makes people do what they do. The case suggest that the team members are ‘‘highly specialised and talented individual’’. Different needs may motivate them individually or collective ly which is incumbent on the project leader to recognize. According to Linstead et al (2004) needs deficiency theory of motivation suggest that if managers coul d understand the needs of employees, they can manipulate or influence employees to improve performance. Weightman (2001) on the other hand stated that understan ding the needs of team members and what motivate them is important for a manager to get the best out of them. Manager use goal setting to motivate members of a work team by guiding their actions and responses, directing behaviours and perfo rmance thereby leading to feedback on the progress of task (Mullins, 1985). With reference to the case study, it has been gathered that the team members are not motivated as observed from the following reasons: • Poor time management • Lack of effective communication • Ignorance of the urgency of project purpose • Poor cultural and emotional intelligence among members • Inadequate or absence of involvement in meeting proceedings • Quality problems • Absence of customer-supplier relationship LEADERSHIP According to Caldwell (2004) effective leadership is helping others reach their full potential. Kotter (1988, cited in Caldwell, 2004) believes that it is a pro cess of leading people in a direction that yields desired goals in a non-coerciv e manner for the benefit of an organisation. Form the case study, the Operations Director is required to discuss the purpose and milestones to be achieved in a

clearly defined project charter on the inauguration of the team and also explain ing the challenges in working in cross-functional teams. This would involve taki ng the team members through the basic stages of team formation; forming, stormin g, norming and performing (Tuckman’s theory cited in Kreitner et al, 1999). Divers ity of people on projects teams creates diversity of perspective (Caldwell, 2004 ), therefore a well connected team would realise strength in their differences. The Operations Director acting as a unifying leader is to facilitate coaching on cultural and emotional intelligence such that all members becomes culturally an d emotionally aware of the natural differences existing in the team which would foster a sense of belonging thereby bringing out the best in delivering the proj ect on schedule. Purcell et al (2003) suggested that teams perform better in sol ving problems when members are able to work with colleagues in harmony. Creating an atmosphere of fellowship where each members of the team feels comfortable, r espected and connected is pertinent for the achievement of the product developme nt on schedule (Robbins and Finley, 1998). According to (Topchik, 2007), assigni ng team members with roles and responsibilities with the expectation to deliver and also identifying and appreciating those who participate actively (Crosby, 19 84) to encourage the involvement of every member of the project team would allow members to actively participate. Establishing maximum level of cooperation whil e discouraging and rejecting every form of competition among members helps dynam ic teams achieve results without conflict (Evans, 1999). The quality issues according to the case would be addressed by adopting a total quality management approach throughout the stages of production. Creating the aw areness of making a quality product right the first time (Crosby, 1984) through training and education would reveal to the team members the monetary value assoc iated with creating defective products. The formation of quality circle within t he project team responsible for inspecting the raw materials, processes and the output of the various stages leading to the production of the prototype will pre vent any further disagreement the TQM manager and the Ops manager. In relation to the case study, establishing a supplier-customer relationship thr ough an effective supply chain network would guarantee a continuous supply of th e major component for the project. According to Hugos (2006) certifying and inte grating suppliers into the production process of a product assures a successful execution and completion of projects. Blanchard (2007) reported that the failure of Hershey Company to integrate suppliers into its supply chain network, cost t he company loses up to $150 Million in 1999. The inability of the supplier to st ay in business could be nipped in the bud through partial acquisition or merger, bailout loan or direct investment to keep the supplier in business. In addition, effective communication would unravel the numerous problems delayin g the progress of the project. As the leader of the project team, continuous com munication through progress report would avail the team the opportunity to quick ly address areas requiring attention before they become unmanageable. Communicat ion with team members would eliminate the problems of lateness, non-participatio n and absence from meetings. Also it would help solve the problem the supplier f ace in business. Robbins and Judge (2007) suggest that communication helps a gro up or organisation to share information, control and motivate individuals. Effec tive communication as Winbow (2002) puts it enhances organisational setting whil e acting as an important ingredient for efficient operations. As the Operations Director, it is expected that a delegative leadership approach is adopted where team members are empowered to make decisions through responsib ility and authority (Townsend and Gebhardt, 1990) while assuming the role of a m entor directing the team to achieve the project on schedule within budget. SELF REFLECTION The Greek mythology has it that Leo is the king of the beast with much boldness and the willingness to lead in any situation. As a Leonian, born in the month of August, astrologists suggest that I possess leadership qualities and always wan ting to be the centre of attention. The BTO module gave me the opportunity to ac tually see the true nature of my innate characteristics as a true leader. Before the module, I had always preferred to be a team player. The theories ranging fr om communication, leadership, emotional intelligence up to decision making taugh

t on the module showed me that I was under utilising the natural qualities I was born with. The module has helped me sharpen the skills necessary to manage peop le and resources. As much as I have realised these leadership qualities, I have also realised that without a good followership no leader can be successful (Druc ker, 1994). As the student representative of the cohort, I represented the class , organised the class and also moderated or intervened between different groups and nationalities whenever conflict of interest came up. As the leader of the cl ass, I was always conscious of my conduct especially in class as I had to lead b y example. Trying to be the centre of attention in a group used to be a quality people disl iked about me. As a last child in a family of ten now nine, I have always been s hown much attention by my family. The module has improved me professionally, th at it is possible to get more admiration within a group when you let others expr ess themselves without fear of intimidation. I have developed the skills of lett ing others see the brighter side of a colleague whose ideas maybe rejected due t o perceived lack of substance. The skill of being listened to is listening effectively to others as they expres s themselves in their own words or world. The module has taught me that everybod y has something to offer when given the chance. My colleagues admired me for thi s quality such that when they encountered problems in their groups, they approac hed me for advice or intervention. To the best of my ability I was able to succe ssfully intervene in such situations with the confidence of a conflict resolutio n expert. Lastly, being in a class of people from diverse cultures and traditions, I have developed emotional and cultural intelligence skills in dealing with people duri ng meetings or discussions. The module has taught me that it takes an emotionall y and culturally intelligent person to understand people’s perspective on issue es pecially when there is a lag in communication. In relation to the self appraisal log, I scored myself 65%. I actually should sc ore more than this because of my willingness to improve the necessary organisati onal behaviour required to become successful manager. I have observed that in st riving to improve, there should be a continuous communication and regular apprai sal with ones’ inner self to determine the level of progress being made. Further reading to be found on the appendix. CONCLUSION With reference to the case study, it has been observed that the most appropriate remedy to the problems observed is effective communication. According to McKenn a (2006) effective communication including active listening and feedback is the life blood of any process or project in an organisation. Kreitner et al (1999) i s of the opinion that great benefits lies in teams of culturally diverse individ uals, but such benefits cannot be realised unless managers and team members lear n and adopt cross cultural communication skills. Robbins and Judge (2007) confir med that clear communication fosters motivation among teams and also help organi sation save cost on operations.

References Belbin, R. M., 1993. Team roles at work. Blanchard, D., 2007, Supply chain best practices. Caldwell, C. M., 2004, Leadership skills for managers, 4th Edn. Crosby, P. B. 1984, Quality without tears; the art of hassle-free management. Daft, R. L., 2006. The new era of management, international Edn. Drucker, P. F., 1994, The frontiers of management: where tomorrow’s decisions are being shaped today. Evans, J. R., 1999, The management and control of quality 4th Edn. Hugos, M., 2006, Essentials of supply chain management, 2nd Edn. Kharbanda, O. P. & Stallworthy, E. A., 1990, Project teams, the human factor. Kreitner, R., Kinicki, A. & Buelens, M., 1999, Organisational behaviour 1st Euro pean Edn. Maddux, R. B., 1988. Team building, an exercise in leadership, 2nd Edn. McKenna, E., 2006, Business psychology and organisational behaviour, 4th Edn. Mullins, L. J., 1985. The process of motivation, emerald back files. Oxford dictionary, 2001, current English, 3rd Edn. Purcell, J., Kinnie, N. and Hutchinson, S. 2003, Inside the black box, People Ma nagement, 15 May. Peters, T. & Waterman, R., 1982. In Search of Excellence, Harper & Row. Procter, S. & Mueller, F., 2000. Team working: management, work & organisation. Rabey, G. P., 2001, Motivation is response, Industrial and commercial training, Vol. 33 No 1 pp. 26-28. Rabey, G., 2003. The paradox of teamwork, industrial and commercial training, Vo l. 35 No 4 pp. 158-162. Robbins, H. & Finley, M., 1998, Why teams don’t work, what went wrong and how to m ake it right. Robbins, S. P. & Judge, T. A., Organisational behaviour 12th Edn. Topchik, G. S., 2007, The first time manager’s guide to team building. Townsend, P. L. & Gebhardt, J. E., 1990, Commit to quality Weightman, J., 2001. Managing people, CIPD. Winbow, A., 2002, The importance of effective communication, the international s eminar on maritime English, March 20-22.

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