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SEMINAR #: ____ _____ - ________

WIRES & CABLES:


APPLICATIONS ON LOW
VOLTAGE FEEDERS &
BRANCH CIRCUITS

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A TYPICAL LARGE
CORPORATE OFFICE BUILDING

I: GENERAL
ORIENTATION
ON BUILDING &
INDUSTRIAL
WIRES & CABLES

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GENERAL ORIENTATION
ON BUILDING &
INDUSTRIAL
WIRES & CABLES
Building Wires in the Philippines are
usually rated at 600 v which include:

THESE ARE ALL


Common in the BASICALLY
Philippines are: THERMOPLASTIC
INSULATED

TW, THW, THHN


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TW, THW, THHN building wires
are used in residential,
commercial and industrial
buildings for general-
general-purpose
power, lighting, appliance, motor
circuits & sometimes in controls
applications.

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TW, THW, THHN

 The “T” in these wire designations stands


for thermoplastic insulation,
insulation,

 The “H” for heat resistant,


resistant,

 The “N” for nylon,


nylon,

 The “W” stands for water-


water-resistant.
resistant.

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 TW (60 deg C): Thermoplastic, Water-
Resistant

 THW (75 deg C): Thermoplastic, Heat-


Heat-
Resistant, Water-
Water-Resistant

 THHN (90 deg C): Thermoplastic High Heat-


Heat-
Resistant, Nylon Coated

 THWN (75 deg C): Thermoplastic High


Water-
Water-resistant, Nylon Coated
TW, THW, THHN wires may be installed
in conduits, duct, wireways or other
raceways, but not on cable trays.
trays.

TW, THW, THHN cables are suitable in


conduits, duct or cable tray use.
use.

Cables for use on cable trays may be


identified with the optional UL marking
“For CT Use”.

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TW, THW, THHN wires may be
installed in conduits, duct,
wireways or other raceways, but
not on cable trays.
trays.
Cable Trays as Ladder or Trough
types are for cables, NOT for wires.

TW, THW, THHN cables are suitable in


conduits, duct or cable tray use.
use.
Cable Trays as Ladder or Trough
types are for cables, not for wires.

TW, THW, THHN cables are suitable in


conduits, duct or cable tray use.
use.
When can a
wire be called,
a Cable?

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 If an ordinary wire (TW, THW or THHN)
is 1/0 AWG (50 mm2) and larger then it
becomes a cable.

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 Smaller wires can qualify as cable if the same
are in multi-
multi-core construction. Thus, we have
so-called ‘control cables’ or ‘multi-
the so- ‘multi-conductor
cables’.

 Others with special construction such as:


‘welding cable’, ‘co-
‘co-axial cable’, ‘power cable’,
etc.

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CABLES GALORE

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FACTS ABOUT
WIRES & CABLES

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SOME MEANINGS OF WIRE &
CABLE DESIGNATIONS

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FACTS ABOUT WIRES & CABLES

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NEC 2008 Edition

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FACTS ABOUT WIRES & CABLES

 A wire with a combination “THHN/THWN”


rating can be installed in 90°C dry or in 75°C wet
locations. The “T” stands for Thermoplastic, the
“H” for heat resistant, the “HH” as high heat
resistant, the “N” for nylon. The “W” in the
designation stands for water-resistant.

 “THW-2” rated wire can be installed in both


90°C dry or wet locations. The “-2” is for a 90°C
rating in both wet and dry locations.

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NEC TABLE 310.16

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NEC TABLE 310.16

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NEC TABLE 310.16
NEC TABLE 310.16

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NEC TABLE 310.16

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NEC TABLE 310.16

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EUROPEAN LV
WIRES & CABLES

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EUROPEAN LOW VOLTAGE
WIRES & CABLES

There is no such thing as “TW”, “THW”


or “THHN” in Europe.

 In Europe, today’s common insulating


materials are:

 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC),


 Polyethylene (PE),
 Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE)
 Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR).
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EUROPEAN LV WIRES
& CABLES

 Smaller European wires & cables for


low voltage branch circuits are
predominantly using thermoplastics &
rubber-plasticizer combinations in its
insulation and are generally called “PVC
Insulated”.

 For low voltage feeder application,


European installations go for PE, XLPE
or EPR insulated cables rated at 1000V.29
EUROPEAN LV WIRES
& CABLES

 In the Philippines, the minimum size of


conductors for motor application is # 12 or
3.5 mm2. In Europe 1.5 mm2 is permitted for
smallest household circuit and fractional
motors in industries.

 Single core conductors are usually not


used in Europe for motor and control
applications. Instead, multi-conductor
cables are employed.
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STANDARDS IN EUROPEAN
LV WIRES & CABLES

 It must be noted that there is no direct


equivalent of the mm2 cross-sectional area of
the conductor per Philippine manufactured
wires or cables to the European cable sizing
scheme.

 In like manner that the ampacities of


European cables are not same as the usual
cabling practices of Filipino engineers.

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COMPARISON OF WIRES & CABLES:
PHILIPPINES Vs. EUROPEAN

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EUROPEAN LV WIRES
& CABLES

 Derating of ampacities in European cables are


also of different parameters as the North
American or Filipino practices.

 This is on top of the correction factors for


ambient temperatures.

 Note that EU cable derating/correction as to


ampacities are stricter than North American
norms.
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IMPORTANT !!!

 USA did not metricate their wires & cables. US


cable manufacturers and the NEC maintained
the AWG/KCMIL method of sizing.

 Although the Philippines is using American


type cables, Philippine manufacturers and the
PEC did metricate the wires & cables.

 Care must be considered by the design


engineer in referencing wire & cable sizes viz-a-
viz ampacities, because they are not the same as
with the Philippine-made cables.
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COMPARISON: NORTH AMERICAN, PHILIPPINE
& EUROPEAN MANUFACTURED CABLES

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STANDARD EUROPEAN LV WIRES & CABLES

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STANDARD EUROPEAN LV WIRES & CABLES

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STANDARD EUROPEAN LV WIRES & CABLES

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STANDARD EUROPEAN LV WIRES & CABLES

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STANDARD EUROPEAN LV WIRES & CABLES

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STANDARD
EUROPEAN LV
WIRES & CABLES

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STANDARD
EUROPEAN LV
WIRES & CABLES

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STANDARD
EUROPEAN LV
WIRES & CABLES

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END…

THANK YOU
THANK YOU
THANK YOU

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