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uaxlesi qarTuli yofis totemi da tabu 249

marine CitaSvili

uaxlesi qarTuli yofis


totemi da tabu

abstraqti: tabu Tavisi pirveladi SinaarsiT


Marine
akrZalvaa, romelsac aranairi racionaluri safuZveli
CHITASHVILI ar gaaCnia. kanonic akrZalvaa, romelic mTlianad daclilia
emocionalur - afeqturi anu iracionaluri muxtisagan
da mxolod logikisa da pragmatulobis miznebs
emsaxureba. kanonis pragmatizmi is aris, rom SeZlos
b., 1938., Ph.D., Professor maqsimalurad moawesrigos yvelasaTvis sasargeblo
at I.Javakhishvili Tbilisi Tanacxovrebis garemo. RerZi - tabudan kanonamde SeiZleba
State University, istoriisa da civiluri urTierTobebis gzad ganvixiloT.
Department of Psychology. tabus totemi mfarvelobs. kanons - saxelmwifos
Major works: monograph
lideri. totemi SiSiT manipulirebs. saxelmwifos pirveli
piri kanons icavs ara imis gamo, rom misi darRveva ar
- “Influence of Set in
SeuZlia, aramed imis gamo, rom `ar SeiZleba~. kanonis
Psychological Expe- uzenaesobas individis SigniT socializirebuli iraci-
riment”; articles: onaluroba ganapirobebs. sociumSi kanonis uzenaesobas
Cultural and Social uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifos samarTaldamcavi institutebi,
Role, Stereotypes and sasamarTlo, jari da policia. RerZs totemuri ti pis
Personal Behaviour lideridan - saxelmwifos socializirebul mmarTvelamde
Style’, “Person, , Social politikur liderTa zneobis evoluciuri gza SeiZleba
vuwodoT.
Role, Mask” etc.
gardamavali periodi Warbad itevs rogorc to-
Field of interests:
tems da tabus, aseve kanonebsa da mmarTvelebs. Tanamedrove
psychology, sociology, qarTuli yofa am orpolusiani RerZis SuaSia moqceuli
social issues. da awmyo-namyo drois konteqstSia moqceuli. moqmedeba
warsulSi moxda, Sedegi awmyoSia. gancda ar damTavrebula.
kognicia jer ver asaxavs realobas.

axali paradigmebi, #2, 1999


250 marine CitaSvili

leqsikonuri ganmarteba:

tabu - (polineziurad) 1) pirvelyofil adamianebTan religiuri akrZalva,


romelic edeba romelime sagans, moqmedebas, sityvas da a.S., romlis darRvevasac,
TiTqosda, zebunebrivi Zalebisgan aucileblobiT Tan mohyveba mkacri sasjeli
(avadmyofoba, sikvdili); 2) zogadad - mkacri akrZalva.
totemi - (inglisurad totem, indielebis enidan Semovida da niSnavs
`misi gvari~) 1) cxoveli, mcenare, sagani an bunebis movlena, romelic
tomisTvis aris religiuri Tayvaniscemis obieqti; TiToeul toms erqva Tavisi
totemis saxeli; 2) tomis gerbi totemis gamosaxulebiT.
totemizmi - adreuli Temuri wyobis religiis uZvelesi forma, romelic
xasiaTdeboda rwmeniT am tomis zebunebrivi da sisxlismieri kavSiris Sesaxeb
romelime totemTan, romelic, Tavis mxriv, iTvleba ara RmerTad, aramed
winaprad da megobrad (1).

winaTqma:

albaT, aTasjer naTqvams isev gavimeoreb - meoce saukunem ise Caiara


msoflios teritoriis meeqvsedisaTvis, rom mxolod sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis
Semdeg mogveca saSualeba, axlad aRmomCenebiviT gvesaubra bevr iseT Temaze,
rac dasavleTisaTvis karga xnis win ganvlili siaxle iyo. am TvalsazrisiT,
socialuri mecnierebebi, zogadad, da gansakuTrebiT ki socialuri movlenebis
fsiqologiuri interpretaciebi saerTod ucxo xili aRmoCnda Cveni ganaTlebuli
publikisaTvisac ki. yurismomWrelad aJRerda iseTi metaforebi, rogoric
aris erosi da Tanatosi, oidi posisa da eleqtras kompleqsi, arasrulfasovnebis
grZnoba Tu narcisizmi, faSizmi da homoseqsualizmi, Zalaufleba da seqsi
da a.S. Tanac, yvela am metaforam Cvens konteqstSi ratomRac dakarga Tavisi
metaforuli mniSvneloba da gadaiqca racionaluri mniSvnelobis mqone cnebad.
ucnauri ram moxda: xatovani azrovneba damaxasiaTebelia maTTvis, vinc nebiT
aparats ar flobs. sabWoTa daRis miuxedavad, Cven xom zrdasrul da
ganviTarebul adamianTa kategorias vekuTvnodiT, romelTaTvisac logikuri
operaciebi ucxo ar iyo. amis sabuTad isic gamodgeba, rom sabWour periodSi
swavlebis sistemas, logikuri aparatis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT, marTlac,
ver daemdurebodi. am ukanasknelis ganviTarebas sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebi
uwyobs xels. ra-ra da maTematikis, fizikis, qimiis, astronomiis, mogvianebiT,
biologiis swavleba, ideologiuri moTxovnebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT, yvelaze
ufro nakleb sakamaTo iyo. Sesabamisad, Cvenc cnebiTi aparatis mqone `Homo
Sapience~-ad vyalibdebodiT. Semdeg aRmoCnda, rom krizisuli situaciebis
daZlevisaTvis marto logikuri operaciebi da SemecnebiTi procesebi ar
yofila sakmarisi. krizisis gadalaxvas momwifebuli pirovneba axerxebs.
albaT, pirovnuli moumwifeblobaa is centraluri berketi, romliTac
uaxlesi qarTuli yofis totemi da tabu 251

Zalauflebis saTaveSi mosuli adamianebi sxvebis bediTa da cxovrebiT


mani pulirebas axerxeben
cnobilia, rom metaforas mxolod primitiuli tomebisTvis aqvs
racionaluri mniSvneloba da swored amitom maT azrovnebas xatovan azrovnebas
uwodeben xolme. xatovan azrovnebas cnebiTi sizuste ar gaaCnia da, Sesabamisad,
logikur kanonzomierebebs ver wvdeba, aramed maT mistifikacias axdens.
Tavisi fsiqikuri ganviTarebis gzaze xatovani azrovnebis periods yvela
adamiani gadis. daaxloebiT 13-14 wlis asakisaTvis is sabolood emSvidobeba
xatovani azrovnebis periods da logikur anu cnebiTi azrovnebis etapze
inacvlebs. adamianma SeiZleba nebismier asakSi mimarTos xatovan azrovnebas
da gamoiyenos is SemoqmedebiTi procesisaTvis, magram man ukve kargad icis,
rom realobaSi mxolod cnebiTi sistema muSaobs da sxva araferi. mistifikaciebi
sizmriseuli cnobierebis anu xatovani azrovnebis sferos ekuTvnis da yofaSi
Znelad Tu ikavebs adgils.
xalxTa didi gaTavisuflebis Semdeg SemoWrilma dasavluri azrovnebis
Zlierma nakadma, romelic, ZiriTadad, racionalizmis simbolodac ki SegviZlia
ganvixiloT, saerTod aria situacia. imis nacvlad, rom analizi da Tvla
(maTematika, gnebavT, statistika) gamxdariyo Cveni yofis arsi, rac vicodiT,
isic daviviwyeT da gamocxadebebis, winaswarmetyvelebis da meored mosvlis
eqstazSi CaviZireT. argumentad mxolod `bediswera~ da viRacis mier
`mofiqrebuli scenarebi~ davitoveT da axlad fexadgmuli yrmis xatovani
azrovnebis wiaRSi TavdaviwyebiT gadaveSviT. es procesi, ager, ukve meaTe
welia mimdinareobs da jer piri ar uCans, rom cnebiTi azrovnebisaken
motrialdes. arada, Tu Tanamedrove skolis programebsa da aqseleraciis
problemebsac gavixsenebT, marTla droa, rom gaWianurebuli infantilizmis
xana dasruldes da neba mivceT, imuSaos amerikeli eqspertis saocarma
frazam: `me xSirad meubnebian, rom zusti winaswarmetyveleba SemiZlia. me
maT vpasuxob: araviTari winaswarmetyveleba me ar SemiZlia. ubralod, me
bevrs vfiqrob da kargad viTvli~.
sinamdviles rom daTvla unda, amas jer kidev piTagora gvaswavlida.
berZnebma aRmoaCines isic, rom xSir SemTxvevaSi daTvla ar aris sakmarisi da
monacemebs interpretacia sWirdeba. amgvari interpretaciebis raodenoba ki
imdenia, Semecnebis ramdeni dargi Tu sfero arsebobs da kidev imdeni, ramdeni
ZiriTadi mimdinareoba da konkretuli moazrovne adamiani iZebnena TiToeul
maTganSi. post-sabWouri mentaliteti swored am interpretaciuli mraval-
ferovnebisaTvis ar aRmoCnda mzad. mxolod erTi - swori azris tabu da misi
mqadageblis totemi uZlevelad idga da, samwuxarod, dResac dgas sabWouri
mentalitetis adamianisaTvis. statiis mizania, warmoaCinos sinamdvilis, Cveni
socialuri yofis da uaxloesi warsulis fsiqologiuri interpretacia. igi
mxolod erTi rgolia interpretaciaTa jaWvSi, romelic SeiZleba politikur,
socialur, filosofiur, ekonomikur, eTikur da Teologiur xasiaTs atarebdes.
am werilis pretenzia is aris, rom igi sinamdviles gaiazrebs sruliad
garkveul tradiciaSi moqceuli CarCos mixedviT. yvela mosazreba, romelic
aq aris gamoTqmuli, miRweulia Semecnebis mxolod erT nakadSi wiaRsvliT.
252 marine CitaSvili

Sedegebi statistikur sandoobas Tu daakamyofilebs, magram veraviTar


SemTxvevaSi ver Sebedavs WeSmaritebis kriteriums. Tumc, es kategoria
mecnierebisaTvis Semecnebis miuwvdomel zRvars warmoadgens.

* * *

meoce saukunis yofisa da cnobierebis erT-erT centralur mimdinareobas


fsiqoanalizi da misiT ganmsWvaluli kulturuli memkvidreoba warmoadgens.
zigmund froidis pirmSom mravalmxrivi revolucia gamoiwvia. fsiqoanalizmma,
erTis mxriv, gansazRvra Tanamedrove fsiqologiis sagani da saxe, meores
mxriv, gamoyo fsiqoTerapia, rogorc calke, damoukidebeli dargi da or
axal sagansac daudo saTave. esenia: fsiqoistoria da fsiqobiografia. marTalia,
orive maTganis fuZemdeblad erik eriqsons ufro moixsenieben (misi
araCveulebrivi Sromebi - `martin luTeri~ da `mahaTma gandi~ fsiqobiografiul
klasikad iTvleba), Tumca, isic faqtia, rom pirveli aseTi fsiqoanalitikuri
fsiqobiografiis Semqmneli froidia, Tavisi `leonardo da vinCiT~ da amJamad
CvenTvis ufro mniSvnelovani SromiT, `Tomas vudro vilsoni, amerikis 28-e
prezidenti~, romelic, sxvaTaSoris, dawerilia baton bulitTan erTad, misi
TanaavtorobiT. buliti amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis elCi iyo 20-30-iani
wlebis sabWoTa ruseTSi da bulgakovis `ostatsa da margaritaSi~ aRwerili
volandis wveulebis siuJetSi swored baton bulitis mier gamarTuli erT-
erTi miRebaa gadmocemuli.
aranaklebi ostatobiT qmnis erix fromi fsiqobiografiul Tu fsiqois-
toriul kvlevebs. am TvalsazrisiT, saukeTeso nimuSad SegviZlia miviCnioT
`adolf hitleri da nekrofiluri xasiaTi~ da wigni `Tavisuflebisgan gaqceva~,
romelic iTvleba socialuri egzistenciis fsiqoanalitikuri interpretaciebis
Torad da Talmudad.
fsiqoistoriisa da fsiqobiografiis meTodologia Zalian martivia.
unda arsebobdes dokumentacia momxdari faqtis Sesaxeb, romelic exeba
istoriul movlenas da mis Sefasebas sxvadasxva adamianebis mier. yovelive
es SesaZleblobas iZleva maqsimalurad gamoiricxos movlenis ideologizi-
rebuli aRqma. fsiqoanalitikuri meTodologia pirovnebis ganviTarebis sruliad
garkveul sqemas gulisxmobs. fsiqoistoriis SemTxvevaSi igive struqtura
ukve metaforis saxiT gadaitaneba sociumzec. mkvlevris movaleobaa, kargad
Seajeros faqtebi da SeZlos maTi interpretacia. sul es aris.
erTi SexedviT, umartivesi saqme, rigi mizezebis gamo, zogerT kulturaSi
SeiZleba princi pulad miuRwevel problemad iqces. Tu kulturisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli ar aris istoriuli movlenis faqtobrivi aRwera, anu ar
gaaCnia momxdari movlenis sruli racionalizaciis, gaazrebisa da Sefasebis
kultura, maSin amgvari saqmianoba SeuZlebeli xdeba. sajaro yofis
TvalsazrisiT, samwuxarod, Cven zustad am ti pis kulturebs mivekuTvnebiT.
martiv magaliTs moviyvan. aleqsandre diumas cnobili romani `dedofali
margo~ (araferi ram vTqvaT analogiuri saxelwodebis filmze, sadac uzneobis
uaxlesi qarTuli yofis totemi da tabu 253

aqcentebi bevrad ufro gamZafrebul saxes iRebs da eyrdnoba kompilacias


hainrix manis, prosper merimes Tu sxvaTa istoriul romanebSi moyvanil
siuJetebs; igive iTqmis istoriuli faqtisa da avtoriseuli mxatvruli
interpretaciis Sesaxeb) Zalian gulaxdilad yveba safrangeTis samefo karis
realur cxovrebaze. am monayolis gamo arc erT frangs ar uCndeba erovnuli
Seuracxyofis gancda. araferi amis msgavsi ar icis qarTulma kulturam. me
vgulisxmob ara istoriul dokumentacias, aramed sakuTari warsulis
realistur mimReblobas. ratomRac aravis ar mosdis TavSi azrad, rom daviT
aRmaSeneblis gadawyvetilebas - qarTvelTa jaris ukan qvebiT CaexergaT
gasasvleli - sxva interpretacia miscemoda, vidre, is Tu ra Seupovari iyo
qarTvelTa brma Tavganwirva. gana ufro Rirseuli ar gamoCndeba mefe, romelmac
Tavisi WkuiT Teqvsmeti wlis asakidan - vidre didgoramde 30 welze met
xans nabij-nabij iara da racionaluri politikis wyalobiT ganadgurebuli
qveynidan wina aziis erT-erTi Zlieri saxelmwifo Seqmna. Tan imasac amboben,
ormoc karavs marto wignebs atarebdao. Zneli dasajerebelia, rom mwignobari
kaci ver gamoTvlida, aTasjer ufro Zlieri mtris danaxvisas sul lomguli
rom iyos adamiani, misi bunebrivi reaqcia ukan daxeva da gaqcevaa. gansakuTrebiT
maSin, rodesac is laSqris (anu Tanamedrove terminologiiT brbos wevria.
brbo umizezodac ki, Sinagani dinamikis safuZvelze, uecrad eqvemdebareba
panikas da sruliad ukontrolo masa xdeba). aseT SemTxvevaSi gzis amoxergva
erTaderTi racionaluri gamosavalia brZolis mosagebad. Tu gindoda cocxali
gadarCeniliyavi, unda gagemarjva. anu, faqtobrivad, qarTvelebma omi moiges
ara imis gamo, rom uSiSrebi iyvnen, aramed imis gamo, rom maTi sulieri
mdgomareoba da qcevis SesaZlo ganviTareba zustad iyo daTvlili da zomebi
winaswar miRebuli. didgori raciom moigo da mis Semdeg yovel jerze
emociiT ganmeorebuli mogoneba mis Sesaxeb axal brZolas aravis ar agebinebs.
piriqiT, uZlierebs ususurobis gancdas da zrdis mfarvelis povnis motivacias.
axla davsvaT kiTxva - Seicvleba ki brZolis mogebis faqti imiT, Tu
mogebis ZiriTad mizezad uSiSrobas ki ara sicocxlisTvis brZolas
davasaxelebT. faqti namdvilad ar Seicvleba, magram damokidebuleba da
movlenisadmi Sefaseba namdvilad sxva iqneba. istoriul movlenas, igavis
msgavsad, Tavisi morali aqvs. swored es morali aisaxeba fsiqoistoriaSi da
gansazRvravs xalxis mentalitets Tu yoveldRiur Semecnebas, rasac Tanamedrove
fsiqologiaSi sxva sityvebiT, socialur kogniciebs uwodeben. socialuri
kognicia eris is Sexedulebebi da damokidebulebebia, romlebic adamianebs
gaaCniaT imis Taobaze, Tu ras fiqroben isini konkretul sagansa Tu movlenaze.
Sesabamisad, fsiqoistoriaSi dafiqsirebuli Sefaseba anu socialuri kognicia
erTmniSvnelovnad xdeba mimarTulebis ganmsazRvreli. namdvilad ar vici, Tu
rogor fasdeboda didgoris gamarjveba maSin, magram is ki namdvilad vici,
rom Cemi cxovrebis manZilze ar momismenia raime gansxvavebuli Sefaseba, Tu
ara epiTetebisa da mefe daviTis da misi laSqris miTosad qcevisa. arada,
didgoris velze realuri adamianebi daiRupnen da maT sruli ufleba eqnebodaT
TavianT Sesaxeb gansxvavebuli azrebic moesminaT (rogorme amis Zala namdvilad
eyofodaT).
254 marine CitaSvili

qarTulma mentalitetma ar icis racios fasi da, Cemi azriT, es aris


centraluri tabu, romelmac warmatebiT aiTvisa Cveni teritoria da namdvilad
aris rusuli kulturis zegavlenis udidesi Rvawli. sabWoTa epoqamac racios
mimarT ganaxorciela tabu da totemad satrapi da yovlismcodne lideri
airCia. rogorc WeSmarit totems SeSvenis, beladis sikvdilisas msxverplSe-
wirvis ritualic sruldeboda. 1 aravis TavSi ar mosdioda azrad, rom
qveyanaSi socialuri yofa ise iyo gaukuRmarTebuli, rom adgili mxolod
micvalebulebs ekuTvnodaT pirdapiri da gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT. socialuri
aryofnis pirobebSi socialuri mecnierebebi ver iarsebebdnen da Cven, visac
unda gvcodnoda mTeli rigi kanonzomierebebisa, warmodgenac ki ar gvqonda,
sad iyo Cveni adgili. tabu Cvens cnobierebaSi budobs da mas gaxistebuli
azrovneba ewodeba.
1988 wels kolomnaSi gamarTul fsiqologiaSi momuSave axalgazrda
mecnierTa pirvel saerTaSoriso seminarze mowveulma sapatio leqtorma
petre Sixirevma, romelic amerikis SeerTebuli Statebidan iyo Camosuli,
ucxoeli kolegebis saintereso Sefaseba gagvacno: pirdapir gaocebas varT.
Cven sazogadoebis cvlilebebTan dakavSirebuli procesebis Sesaswavlad mcire
tipis laboratoriuli eqsperimentebisaTvis milionebs vxarjavT, rom krizisebis
periodSi sazogadoebis ganviTareba SeviswavloT da Tqven ki (anu gvexeboda
yvelas, vinc ki maSin sabWoTa kavSirSi vcxovrobdiT da vmoRvaweobdiT) arc
aqcevT yuradRebas am movlenebs, romlebSic cxovreba giwevT. es maSin,
rodesac sazogadoeba Tqvens win Suaze gaWrili mravalfeniani tortiviT
aris da yvela Sre Tu maTi uerTierTqmedeba mkveTrad ganirCeva.
Sixirevis mier Camotanilma ambavma araerTgvarovani reaqcia gamoiwvia
seminarze. kuluarebSi erTi jgufi msjelobda imis Sesaxeb, rom amerikelebma
ar ician, ra aris patriotizmi da romel kvlevebzea laparaki, rodesac
erovnuli gaTavisuflebis epoqa dgeba; meoreni eqspertebad acnobdnen Tavs iq
myof ucxoelebs, romlebic, Tumca, mxolod aRmosavleT evropidan iyvnen,
magram isev Soreuli ucxoeTis xatSi arsebobdnen; mesameni seriozulad
fiqrobdnen da msjelobdnen ucxoel kolegebTan urTierTobebze da samomavlod
kvlevebis dagegmvaze. Semdgomma wlebma TvalnaTliv aCvena, rom samive jgufs
am `gaWril tortSi~ Tavisi funqcia hqonda Sesasrulebeli. pirveli jgufis
wevrebi gardamavali periodis mTavrobebis - nacionalisturi iqneboda is Tu
zomieri - adgilobrivi eqspertebis cenziT sargeblobdnen da dResac
sargebloben; meoreni didi xania ukve ucxoeTSi arian da aramomgebiani
arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, sxvadasxva politikuri moZraobebis Tu,
saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, univresitetebSi, centrebSi, fakultetebsa Tu kaTedrebze
muSaoben, raTa ucxoelTa molodini maT Sesaxeb maqsimalurad kargad
daakmayofilon. mesameni ki amaod cdiloben adgilze Seavson 70 wliani
socialuri mecnierebis vakuumi.
TavisTavad socialuri mecniereba, anu gageba imis, Tu vin aris is
xalxi, romelsac Sens gverdiT uwevs cxovreba, iyo tabu. sazogadoebrivi
1
beladebis dasaflavebisas xalxis nakadSi gaguduli Tu dasaxiCrebuli adamianebi myavs
mxedvelobaSi.
uaxlesi qarTuli yofis totemi da tabu 255

azri tolfasi iyo oficialuri ideologiis. Sesabamisad, araviTari saWiroeba


ar iyo individualuri saxis anu konkretulad adamianuri arsebobis. Sesabamisad,
ar arsebobda dakveTa konkretul `me~-ze da me-s TviTcnobierebaze. arsebobda
mxolod `Cven~ TviTcnobiereba. me-s arsebobas tabu edeboda da samwuxarod
dResac Warbi presi awevs individualuri egos Tavisufal gamovlinebas.
komunisturi anu ganxorcielebuli utopiuri sivrcis rRvevam saaSkaraoze
gamoitana kolosaluri problema, romelsac aravin eloda da unda vaRiaroT
albaT yvelaze metad is xalxTa masebi, romlebic TavdaviwyebiT gadaeSvnen
liberalizaciis gamo dawyebul nebismier qmedebaSi da Seecadnen esoden
nanatri Tavisufali qveynebi aeSenebinaT. maT homo sovetikusisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli gaxleCili anu Sizofreniuli ti pis azrovnebiT daiwyes
sinamdvilis Semecneba da moqmedeba. realisturi politikis nacvlad utopiebis
mravalferovnebam dai pyro socialuri sivrce. utopiuri Teoriis avtori
sruliad jansaRi fsiqikuri struqturis matarebeli individia, romelic
Tavis utopias qmnis sruliad mowesrigebuli kanonebis mixedviT. SeiZleba ase
iTqvas, utopia maTematizirebuli modelia konkretuli individis warmodgenebisa
kosmosze, wesrigsa da harmoniaze (berZnulad es samive sityva erTi da igive
mniSvnelobis mqone Sinaarsia da RmerTis sinonimebad ganixileba). amitomac
utopiuri modelebis avtorebi Teologiuri metaforis avtorebadac SegviZlia
ganvixiloT. CvenTvis saintereso Tematikis pirveli komponentic es aris -
RmerTi (ufro sworad RmerTis saxe), romelic ormagi datvirTviT Semodis
qarTul cnobierebaSi. erTi, rogorc konkretuli pirovnebis socialuri
identobis simbolo da saxe, meore, rogorc damxmare saSualeba totemuri
tipis liderisaTvis sakuTari utopiis RvTis nebad gamocxadebis TvalsazrisiT.
rac Seexeba Tavad RmerTis Teologiur gagebas, igi saerTod ar muSaobs
socialuri urTierTqmedebebis sistemaSi. amis yvelaze naTeli dadasturebaa
1989 wlis 9 aprilis Ramis gamocdileba, rodesac Teologiuri aspeqtiT
uaryofili iqna RmerTis xma (patriarqis mosvla da misi Segoneba) da xalxi
darCa totemuri ti pis lideris mier SemoTavazebuli fsevdo-Teologiuri
koncepciis amara (i.wereTlis borZikiT warmoTqmuli `mamao Cveno~)1. nebismier
SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saqme gvaqvs brbosTan da ara struqturirebul erTeulTan,
Teologiuri koncefciis Tanaxmad, igi gadis wesrigisa da kanonis arealidan
da rCeba mxolod socialur kanonzomierebaTa sferoSi.
komunizmi iyo mTeli infrastruqtura rogorc ekonomikis, aseve politikis,
socialuri yofisa Tu adamianuri, pirovnuli egzistenciis TvalsazrisiT.
ganxorcielebuli utopia yofaSi, romelic atarebda utopiis yvela niSans:
Caketili garemo (rkinis farda Tu civi omis periodi mxolod izolirebulobis
saxecvlilebebia). mxolod am Caketil garemoSi moqmedi kanonebi, romelTac
aranairi ekonomikuri safuZveli ara aqvT (ara SromiT da misi anazRaurebiT

1
sagangebod minda aRvniSno, rom am SemTxvevaSi yvela lideris saxeli da gvari, misi
pirovnebis qceva CemTvis atarebs metaforis mniSvnelobas da sruli pasuxismgeblobiT SemiZlia
ganvacxado, rom TiToeuli maTgani sruliad SemTxveviTi pirovnebaa vidre es Cans. i.wereTeli
rom im wuTas avad yofiliyo iq mdgar liderTagan vinme aucileblad Seasrulebda igive
saqmes.
256 marine CitaSvili

miRweuli erovnuli Semosavali, aramed enTuziazmiT gamomuSavebuli Warbi


nawarmi). adamianuri egzistenciis sruliad garkveuli forma (rasac partia
moiTxovs, unda keTdebodes, radgan mxolod isaa swori). sakuTar mamaze
metad beladis avtoris aRiareba da morCileba; Tayvaniscemis rangSi ayvanili
totemi, romelsac xeli ar daedeba, rogorc WeSmariti ganxorcielebuli
utopia, romelsac TvalSeudgami monstris saxe hqonda Tavisi akrZalvebiT
arsebobda, romelTac wmindad tabus mniSvneloba hqonda - religiuri, mistikuri
akrZalvis elferiT. magaliTad: tabu iyo eWvis Setana imaSi, Tu rogor
SeiZleboda erT kacs scodnoda yvelaferi dedamiwis zurgze, imis mixedviT,
Tu ra ierarqiul safexurze iyo (cekas, raikomis komitetis, biuros mdivnebi).
umartivesi kiTxva, rom ar SeiZleba erTma adamianma warmatebiT gaarTvas Tavi
yvela sferoSi eqspertobas, umkacresi tabus qveS iyo moqceuli.
meore tabu, romelic arsebobda es iyo idealuris xelSeuxebloba
realuris sawinaaRmdegod, rac mravali struqturuli komponentiT
xorcieldeboda. ase, magaliTad, es iyo ideologiis prioriteti ekonomikaze,
warmosaxuli realobis prioriteti - realobaze (informaciuli vakuumi),
ganusazRvrelobis prioriteti - saxeldebasa da miTiTebaze, zedsarTavebis
gamoyeneba realuri faqtebis konstaciis nacvlad. erTi sityviT, tabu iyo
realobis danaxva da gacnobiereba da Tu vinmes amis survili uCndeboda,
informaciis ar arsebobis gamo, misi pirovnuli aqtivobiT moZiebuli,
konteqstidan amoglejili nafleTebiT Cndeboda da yalibdeboda disidenturi
moZraobis arqetipi sakuTari mixvedrilobis, gansakuTrebulobis, gamorCeulobis
gamo da xdeboda intuiciis prioritetis aRiareba Semecnebis procesze. rac
mTavaria, intuituri mignebis interpretaciis miwodeba, rogorc racionaluri
daskvnis da aqedan gamomdinare mesianuri suliskveTebis Camoyalibeba. rac
ufro susti iyo disidenturi moZraoba, miT metad iyo gamoxatuli TiToeuli
lideris ambicia sakuTari gamorCeulobis Sesaxeb. samwuxarod, tabu realobaze
kvlav ZalaSi rCeboda. aseTi tabuebiT akinZul qargas saTaveSi edga totemuri
ti pis lideri, romlis xelyofa, TviT sikvdilis mierac, saSineli tragediis
momaswavebeli iyo (nebismier lideris sikvdils Tan sdevda partiis fici,
rom is ar daibneva am mZime wuTebSi da saswrafo wesiT wamoayenebs axal
liders, romelic totemis adgils daikavebs da, rac mTavaria, daicavs yvela
am tabus).
xSirad mifiqria, ram gagvaZlebina am tabuebis tyeSi Cven, gviani
ormocdaaTiani wlebis Taobas mTeli am xnis manZilze da paradoqsalur
daskvnamde mivsulvar. nihilizmma, romelic Cven cxovrebiseulma gamocdilebam
gvaswavla. mxolod Cveni arsebobis manZilze Svidjer Seicvala saxelmwifo
ideologia anu tabuebis sistema. marto erTi cvlileba rad Rirs: aTeizmis
koleqtiurad motrfiale xalxis gardaqmna koleqtiurad morwmune netarad,
romelsac axla RmerTi amourCevia xelis Sesaxocad da sakuTari uvicobis
dasamalad, yvela sakuTari Secdoma RmerTis nebad rom aqvs gamocxadebuli.
nihilizmi cudi megobaria, radgan garemosa da adamianebisadmi undoblobasa
da uaryofas gvaswavlis, magram, Tu mis meore mxaresac ar daiviwyeb, e.i.
aravis endobi, maSin yvelaferi Seni gasakeTebelia da Seni Tavis patronic
uaxlesi qarTuli yofis totemi da tabu 257

mxolod Sen xdebi, urigo mokavSires ar iSovi. Cemis azriT, am met-naklebad


balansirebulma nihilizmma gadaarCina Taoba, romelsac am zomaze metad
saintereso epoqaSi mouxda cxovreba. agreTve balansirebulma narcisizmmac
da sakuTari sikvdilis klasikuri sasrulobis faqtis mimReblobamac.
erovnul-ganamaTavisuflebeli moZraobis konteqstSi liberalizaciis
procesi iZleoda efemerul imeds tabuebis drois vadagasvlobis Sesaxeb.
estonelTa `saxalxo fronti~, litvelTa `saiudisi~ da maTi racionaluri
politika amis molodins qmnida. samwuxarod, erovnulma moZraobamac ver
daaRwia Tavi cdunebas da tabuebis progresis dargSi kidev ufro Sors
wavida nacionalizmis, Seuwynareblobis, religiuri gamorCeulobis, erovnuli
gansakuTrebulobis, Tu gnebavT sxva sferoSi. yvelaze sakraluri tabu ki
mainc 1991 wlis 9 aprilis wvimian dRes Seiqmna. saqarTvelos maSindelma
mTavrobam zustad am dRes saqarTvelos damoukidebloba gamoacxada. maSin
jer kidev arsebuli `mxatvris saxlis~ win videqi da sixarulisagan
cremlebi Camomdioda. es pirveli SemTxveva iyo Cems cxovrebaSi, rodesac
oficialuri saxelmwifos gancxadeba da Cemi Sinagani damokidebuleba emTxveoda
erTmaneTs da me, rogorc socialuri erTeuli, harmonizirebul mTelad
viqeci Cems sindisTan. paradoqsi, magram faqti: mTavroba, romelic acxadebda
saqarTvelos damoukideblobas, Cems mier arCevnebSi uaryofil kandidatTa
bloks miekuTvneboda da mis SemadgenlobaSi mxolod 14 adamiani Sedioda,
visac me mxars vuWerdi. magram im cxra aprilis SuadRes ukve aranairi
mniSvneloba ar hqonda amas. rusTavelze wvimda. xalxi nel-nela ikribeboda.
jer mxolod erTi karavi iyo gaSlili da xuTi saaTisTvis mitingze Sesakrebeli
mowodebebi gaismoda. bednierebisa da socialuri erTeulis, damoukidebeli
saqarTvelos moqalaqisaTvis gaugebarma problemebma iCina Tavi. saqarTvelos
damoukideblobis pirobebSi, ra saWiro xdeboda mitingi da, rac mTavaria,
ra saWiro iyo damoukideblobis gamocxadeba zustad 9 aprils, romelic
saqarTvelos mosaxleobisaTvis erovnuli glovis dRe iyo ukve ori wlis
ganmavlobaSi.
adamians ar SeuZlia erTdroulad icxovros uerTierTsawinaaRmdego
SinaarsebiT datvirTuli gancdebiT. mowesrigebuli yofa gulisxmobs sruliad
garkveuli SinaarsebisaTvis garkveuli ritualebis Sesatyvisobas. magaliTad,
glovas panaSvidiT aRniSnaven, gaTavisuflebas - damoukideblobis zeimiT.
damoukideblobis gamocxadeba saxelmwifoebriv doneze aRar saWiroebs mitings.
mitingi opozicioneris iaraRia da radgan Sen, ukve xelisufali, opozicioneris
saSualebas iyeneb, es imas niSnavs, rom Tavad ar gjera Sens mierve gatarebuli
qmedebis. mitingis mowvevac mxolod maSin sWirdeba liders, rodesac surs
CaaxSos da damalos SiSi da daurwmunebloba imaSi, rasac acxadebs da amis
dasafaravad sakuTari Tavi aqcios gmirad, axali cxovrebis dasawyisTan
gaigivebiT. Svid saaTze gamosul mmarTvels ara Tavisufalma xalxma, aramed
Tavisuflebisagan gaqceulma brbom Sehkivla Tu SehbRavla: `zviadi, zviadi!.~
samwuxarod, liderma ver gaTvala, rom brbos ara hyavs da ar uyvars mudmivi
lideri. mas sanaxaoba uyvars da liderebsac xSirad icvlis. am survilis Tu
dakveTis ganxorcieleba ki Zalian advilad SeuZliaT imaT, visac Zalauflebis
258 marine CitaSvili

mopovebis survili Warbad aqvT da iaraRis moxmarebac SeuZliaT.


1991 wlis 9 aprils qarTulma erovnulma moZraobam socialur-
egzistencialuri aspeqtiT daamTavra Tavisi zigzagebiT svla Tavisuflebis
mopovebisaken da erix fromiseuli `Tavisuflebisagan gaqceva~ klasikur
totemad da tabud~ aqcia jer kidev Sardisagan auyrolebel rusTavelis
prospeqtze. im dResve srul zenitSi moeqca racios amkrZalavi tabu da
totemuri ti pis liderebisaTvis gza xsnili aRmoCnda. Semdeg ki yvelaferi
ise datrialda, rogorc balaganSi gamarTul iaffasian warmodgenaSi.
totemuri ti pis liders aucileblad samxedro Zalauflebis mqone
pirebi amxoben, romelTa parpaSsac Semdgom uxucesTa sabWo zRudavs.
Zalaufleba mxolod pirobiTad aris gadanawilebuli. avtoritetuli da ara
avtoritaruli umciresoba qveyanas mmarTvelad aRar hyavs, xolo TviTon
xalxi ki romelic darigebuli da kerZo sakuTrebaSi mqone miwazec ar ixdis
gadasaxads, kvlav ar iRebs pasuxismgeblobas damoukidebel arsebobaze, ar
scnobs sakuTar mes da gulistkiviliT hyveba zRapars sakuTari totemuri
warmoSobis Sesaxeb.
marTalia, totemi mokvda, magram misi arsebobis nostalgia jer kidev
Warbad aris masaSi. albaT, es nostalgiaa ase xelisSemSleli im realobis
dasanaxavad, romelSic mogvianebiT mosalodneli umartivesi metamorfoza
ukve momxdara: erT dros SemoqmedebiTi umciresoba, romelsac unda emarTa
qveyana ukve qceula mmarTvel umciresobad da axla korupciis boroti
tabus ideologiuri koncepciis SeswavliT aris dakavebuli.
sainteresoa, rodemde iqanavebs marTalia socialur yofaSi qanqara
tabuebsa da kanonebs Soris da vis sasargeblod gaaCereben mas, Tundac,
droebiT Zlierni ama qveynisani, romelTa yvela warmateba ratomRac maT
pirovnul Rirsebasa da gonierebas miewereba, xolo yvela Secdoma ki RvTis
nebas.

miTiTebuli literatura:

1.Ñëîâàðü Èíîñòðàííûõ ñëîâ. Ì. “Ðóññêèé ÿçûê”, 1988, gv. 494, 513


2.Ôðåéä Ç., Áóëëèò Ó. Òîìàñ Âóäðî Âèëüñîí, 28-îé ïðåçèäåíò ÑØÀ.
Ïñèõîëîãè÷åñêîå èññëåäîâàíèå, Ì., 1994.