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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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f01_11

Separation Processes

• Absorption – Solutes removed from a gas into a liquid

• Solutes removed from liquid into gas is called stripping or desorption

phase generated from liquid

immiscible liquid B (a solvent)

(liquid, dense gas, or supercritical fluid)

-porous film) or porous physical barrier

• Filtration – Suspended solids separated from a liquid or gas phase using a

porous membrane

2

Vapor-liquid equilibria...

(e.g. ideal, methanol-water system)

BP diagram at const P (ideal) x-y diagram at const P

Methanol more

dew-point

volatile than water

x=y

Pm > Pw

(1 component)

bubble-point

Pm > 1 atm

3

Vapor-liquid equilibria...

(e.g. non-ideal, n-hexane-ethanol system)

Low T

Ethanol more

volatile

γePe > γhPh

at 58oC volatile

γePe < γhPh

High T

4

f02_18

Getting into separations

x-y diagram at const P

separation

x=y between the

equilibrium and 45o

line, the easier the

separation

yA / xA yA / xA α AB x A

α AB = = yA =

yB / xB (1− y A ) /(1− x A ) 1+ (α AB −1)x A

PA if α AB = 1, y A = x A

α AB =

PB

5

€

€

Simple flash distillation

(single stage; heated to T, phase split)

x-y diagram at const P

separation

F =V + L x=y between the

equilibrium and 45o

FxF = Vy + Lx line, the easier the

∴ FxF = Vy + (F − V )x separation

€

V, y

F, xF separator

heater

L, x 6

Binary distillation of components A & B

(A is more volatile, e.g. methanol (A)-water (B) system)

Near yA = 1 @ TB,A

(light boiler)

liquid condenses

some or the vapor

Enriching section

Liquid Vapor

depleted of enriched

A in A

Where liquid is

stripped of A by

raising vapor from

reboiler Near xB = 1 @ TB,B

Stripping section (high boiler)

7

f01_11

F = D + W (molar flow)

Fx F = Dx D + WxW

D x F − xW W xD − xF

= , =

F x D − xW F x D − xW

€

Vn +1 = Ln + D

Vn +1y n +1 = Ln x n + Dx D

Ln D

y n +1 = xn − xD

€ Vn +1 Vn +1

€ Vm +1 = Lm − W

Vm +1 y m +1 = Lm x m - WxW

Lm W

y m +1 = xm − xW

€ Vm +1 Vm +1

W

8

xW

Approximation - Constant molal overflow

(top) and stripping (bottom + feed plate) sections

– Ln=Ln+1=Ln+2… Vn=Vn+1=Vn+2…

– L and V, rectifying; L and V, stripping

Ln D Lm W

y n +1 = xn − xD y m +1 = xm − xW

Vn +1 Vn +1 Vm +1 Vm +1

9

€ €

Variables

column, etc. (later)

• Cooling in condenser

– Liquid returned to top of column

(reflux)

• Heating in reboiler

– Vapor returned to bottom of column

• Location and conditions of feed

– Cold? Hot? L or V or L-V?

10

Ln Vn +1 − D

R= = (overhead product, L at B.P.)

D D

R 1

€

y n +1 = xn − xD

R +1 R +1

condenser condenser

11

Heating and cooling requirements

V λ

ms = m +1 λs = latent heat vapor mixture

λs

Vm +1 = vapor flowrate from reboiler (stripping section)

€

• Condenser with cooling water

€

c p,w = heat capacity cooling water

Vn +1 λ

mw = (T2 − T1 ) = Temp change in cooling water

(T2 − T1 )c p,w

Vn +1 = vapor flowrate into condensor

12

€

€

Feed conditions

moles L in stripping section from feed

q>1 q=1 0<q<1 q=

(sub-cooled L) (@ BP) (L-V) moles feed

HV (D.P.) − H F

q=

HV (D.P.) − H L (B.P.)

q=

HV − H L

€

Lm = Ln + qF (stripping)

Vn = Vm + (1− q)F (rectifying)

q 1

q=0 q<0 y= x− xF

1− q 1− q 13

(@ D.P.) (superheated V)

McCabe-Thiele Method - # of ideal plates

McCabe & Thiele, Industrial Engineering & Chemistry Research, 17 (1925) 605.

y=x (P=Pi at each tray)

14

Rectifying section

xD ≡ design condition

R ≡ design variable

R 1

y n +1 = xn − xD

R +1 R +1

15

Stripping section

Lm W

y m +1 = xm − xW

Vm +1 Vm +1

€

16

Feed conditions (feed line)

R 1

y n +1 = xn − xD

R +1 R +1

@ B.P.

q 1

y= x− xF

1− q 1− q €

@ D.P.

Lm W

y m +1 = xm − xW 17

Vm +1 Vm +1

Putting it all together…

Ln D

y n +1 = xn − xD

Vn +1 Vn +1

q 1

y= x− xF

1− q 1− q

Lm W

y m +1 = xm − xW

Vm +1 Vm +1

18

Stepping off stages (start at xD)

operating equilibrium

x = xF

x = xW

4 stages + reboiler

What we want in

bottoms product What we want

19

in

(start here) overhead product

Minimum # of plates

Fenske equation :

x D (1− xW )

ln

(1− x D ) x W

Nm =

ln α av OR

*includes rebioler

V=L (op lines = 45o)

€

1/ 2

xB xD

α av = (α Aα B )

€

20

Minimum reflux

(occurs @ pinch point, P)

Rm xD − y'

=

Rm + 1 x D − x '

R€ 1

y n +1 = xn − xD

R +1 R +1

21

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