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**Bull. Korean Math. Soc.
**

Vo\. 13, No. 1, 1976.

THE STONE-CECH COMPACTIFICATION OF A LOCALLY

COMPACT SEPARABLE LINDELOF SPACE

By ]EHPILL KIM

Let X be a pseudocompact normal Hausdorff space and let U be a C*-em-

bedded dense subset of X, Assuming the continuum hypothesis, it is shown

that X=f3U if U is locally compact, separable and Lindel6£.

In this papzr, all spaces are completely regular and Hausdorff. We assume

the validity of the continuum hypothesis to the effect that every set with car·

dinality c can be made into a well ordered set in which initial segments are

countable sets. This point is essential in proving the following result, which

m'ly serve as an alternate definition of the Stone-Cech compaetification f3U for

U satisfying the conditions listed in the title of this paper.

THEOREM (CH) Let X be a pseudocompact normal space and Let U be a

C*-embedded dense subset of X. If U is locally compact, separable and

Lindelof, then X is compact.

Here and in what follows, (CH) means that the result is true under the

continuum hypothesis. The letters U and N will always be used to denote

the space U of the above theorem and the discrete space of integers, respec-

tively.

LEMMA 1. A space X with UCXcf3U is pseudocompact if and only if it

meets every nonempty zero set of f3U-['.

LEMMA 2. Every Lindeliif subspace Y of f3U-U is C*-embedded in f3U.

These are trivial results. For. the first, observe that there is an unbounded

fEC(X) exactly when X is disjoint from some zero set of f3U=f3X on which

the Stone extension of f assumes the value 00. The second follows from the

Tietze theorem since Y must be closed in the Lindel6f space UU Y.

LEMMA 3. (CH) If P is a point of {3U-U, there is a collection {Za} of

48 Jehpill Kim

.;:;ero sets of {3U-U containing p indexed by all countable ordinals a such that

(1) ZacZT if a>r, and (2) for any neighborhood Vof p, there is an a

with Zac V.

rroof. Since {3U-U is a C*-embedded zero set of fJU as U is locally

compact and Lindeli:if, separability of U implies that there are at most c zero

-sets of f3U-U containing p. But p is not a Go-point [1, Corollary 9.6J, and

there are exactly c such zero sets. Then, by the continuum hypothesis, they

can be put in one to one correspondence with all countable ordinals. For our

purpose, it is enough to let Za be the intersection of those zero sets correspon·

<ling to the ordinals v with v::;;a.

The following is a sharpened version of a result of Hindmann [2, Theorem

2.2]'

LEMMA 4. (CH) If P is a point of fJN- N, there is a collection V of pair.

wise disjoint open subsets of f3N- N with I VI =c such that if V, Ware dis·

tinct members of V, then P is the only limit Point shared by V and W.

Proof. By Lemma 3, there is a nested collection {Zal of zero sets of f3N-

N indexed by countable ordinals such that (1) if a >r then PEZaCZ

1

, and

(2) for each neigborhood V of p, there is an a with Zac V. We choose by

transfinite construction pairwise disjoint cozerosets V

a

of f3N- N as follows:

Let a be a countable ordinal and suppose that we have already chosen pair·

wise disjoint nonempty cozero sets V

T

with VTCZ

T

- {pJ for all r less than a.

Deleting these cozero sets from Za, we obtain a zero set Za' containing p.

Since Za' has nonempty interior [1, 6S8], we can choose a cozero set V

a

con·

tained in Za- {p} disjoint from all V

T

, r<a. By [I,6QJ, each V

a

contains

nonempty cozero sets Vat of {3N-N with t running over the real numbers

such that Vas and Vat are disjoint whenever s=l=t. For each t let V

t

denote

the union of all Vat and let V denote the collection of disjoint open sets V " ~

By construction, p is a limit point of every V,. If Vs and V" s=l=t, had a

common limit point other then p, it must be a common limit point of Vs-Z

and Vt-Z for some zero set neighborhood Z of p. Accordingly, to complete

the proof, it suffices to prove that Vs-Z and V,-Z have disjoint closures in

fiN for every zero set neighborhood Z of p. But, since every neighborhood

The Stone-Cech compactification of a locally compact separable Lindelof space 49

--of p must contain all but countably many Vas and Vat. both Vs-Z and Vt-Z

.are cozero sets of {3N-N. Hence, Vs-Z and Vt-Z have disjoint closures

by Lemma 2, completing the proof of Lemma 4.

CoROLLARY. (CH) Let X be a normal space with NcXc{3N. If X-N is

dense ill. {3N-N, then X={3N.

In other words, a pseudocompact dense subspace of j3N is {3N if it is nor-

mal.

Proof. If there is a point p in j3N- X, choose by Lemma 4 disjoint open

subsets V and W of {3N- N such that p is the only limit point shared by V

and W. Since X- N is dense in {3N- N, the sets V nX and WnX can not

be completely separated although they have disjoint closures in X. This

proves the first statemnst of the lemma. The second statement follows from

Lemma 1 since every nonempty zere set of f3N- N contains a nonempty open

.subset of {3N- N by [1, 68].

With these preparations, we proceed to prove the main result.

Proof of Theorem. Since U is C*-embedded and dense in X, we have fiX

={3U. If there is a point p in {3U- X, let {Za} be a collection of zero sets

of {3U-U with properties described in Lemma 3. Using induction, we con-

"struct a monotone collection of discrete subsets D

a

of X-U as follows. Let a

be a countable ordinal and suppose that we have already chosen zero sets Zr'

of (3X-U with pEZ/ C Zr and points qr of X from Zrr' - {p}, r<a, in such

a way that (1) p is not a limit point of D

r

= r<a, (2) {3<r im-

plies Zp'-:.:JZ/ and (3) Z/ is completely separated from the union of all D

fi

,

13<r. It is clear that the sets D

p

r<a, as well as their union UDr are

discrete and countable. Since the pseudocompact space X is countably compact

by normality, UDr must have a countably compact normal closure in X. But

"the countable discrete space UDr is C*-embedded in X by Lemma 2, and it

must have compact closure in X by the Corollary to Lemma 4. Therefore, p

"is not a limit point of UDr' Accordingly, Za contains a zero set of {3X-U

containing p which is completely separated from UDr- Let Za' be the inter-

-section of this zero set with all Z/, r<a, and let qa be a point of X lying

in Za'- {p}. It follows that The set D

a

={qr I r :S;;a} is also a discrete set

:'failing to have p as limit point. This completes our transfinite construction

50 Jehpill Kim

and we have the proposed sets D

a

• Let E and F be uncountable disjoint.

subsets of UDa- Since any uncountable set is confinal in the set of all count-

able ordinals, p is a limit point of E and F. To see that E and l!' do not

have any common limit point other than p, let W be a neighborhood of p.

Since W contains all but a countable number of points qa, the disjoint discrete

sets E- Wand F- Ware both countable. Hence, E- W and F- W have

disjoint closures in f3X={3U by Lemma 2. We have shown that P is the only

limit point shared by E and F. That is, the subsets E and F of X have dis·

joint closures in X but not in f3X. Since this contradicts to the normality of

X, it follows that X={3X, completing the the proaf.1

Reforences

[1] L. Gillman and M. Jerison. Rings of continuous functions, Van Nostrand, 1960•.

[ 2] Neil Hindman, On the existence of c-points of j3N"'N, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc.,.

21(1969), 277-280.

Seoul National University

and (2) for any neighborhood Vof p. Corollary 9. separability of U implies that there are at most c zero -sets of f3U-U containing p. By [I. rroof. and (2) for each neigborhood V of p. it must be a common limit point of Vs-Z and Vt-Z for some zero set neighborhood Z of p. Then. But. Deleting these cozero sets from Za. there is a collection V of pair. we obtain a zero set Za' containing p. since every neighborhood .2]' 4.48 Jehpill Kim .ero sets of {3U-U containing p indexed by all countable ordinals a such that (1) ZacZT if a>r. r<a.. and there are exactly c such zero sets. they can be put in one to one correspondence with all countable ordinals. we can choose a cozero set Va con· tained in Za. Theorem 2.a. (CH) If P is a point of fJN.:. there is an a with Zac V. there is an a with Zac V. wise disjoint open subsets of f3N. it is enough to let Za be the intersection of those zero sets correspon· <ling to the ordinals v with v::.6J. Since {3U-U is a C*-embedded zero set of fJU as U is locally compact and Lindeli:if. there is a nested collection {Zal of zero sets of f3NN indexed by countable ordinals such that (1) if a >r then PEZaCZ1 . each V a contains nonempty cozero sets Vat of {3N-N with t running over the real numbers such that Vas and Vat are disjoint whenever s=l=t. Ware dis· tinct members of V. But p is not a Go-point [1. We choose by transfinite construction pairwise disjoint cozerosets Va of f3N.6QJ. it suffices to prove that Vs-Z and V. For our purpose. had a common limit point other then p.N with I VI =c such that if V.{p} disjoint from all VT.{pJ for all r less than a. then P is the only limit Point shared by V and W. Since Za' has nonempty interior [1. by the continuum hypothesis. LEMMA Proof. p is a limit point of every V..-Z have disjoint closures in fiN for every zero set neighborhood Z of p.N as follows: Let a be a countable ordinal and suppose that we have already chosen pair· wise disjoint nonempty cozero sets VT with VTCZT.N. If Vs and V" s=l=t.. By Lemma 3. to complete the proof. The following is a sharpened version of a result of Hindmann [2. For each t let V t denote the union of all Vat and let V denote the collection of disjoint open sets V"~ By construction. 6S8]. Accordingly.

If there is a point p in {3U.{p}. If there is a point p in j3N. With these preparations.N. Since X .{p}. Let a be a countable ordinal and suppose that we have already chosen zero sets Zr' of (3X-U with pEZ/ C Zr and points qr of X from Zrr' .N is dense in {3N. choose by Lemma 4 disjoint open subsets V and W of {3N. CoROLLARY. Hence.The Stone-Cech compactification of a locally compact separable Lindelof space 49 --of p must contain all but countably many Vas and Vat.X. Since U is C*-embedded and dense in X. Using induction. let {Za} be a collection of zero sets of {3U-U with properties described in Lemma 3. r<a.:JZ/ and (3) Z/ is completely separated from the union of all Dfi . completing the proof of Lemma 4.r}.Let Za' be the inter-section of this zero set with all Z/. This completes our transfinite construction .N such that p is the only limit point shared by V and W. In other words. Proof of Theorem.N contains a nonempty open . (CH) Let X be a normal space with NcXc{3N. UDr must have a countably compact normal closure in X. It follows that The set Da= {qr I r :S. The second statement follows from Lemma 1 since every nonempty zere set of f3N . If X-N is dense ill.are cozero sets of {3N-N. in such a way that (1) p is not a limit point of D r ={q~I7):S. Vs-Z and Vt-Z have disjoint closures by Lemma 2. But "the countable discrete space UDr is C*-embedded in X by Lemma 2. Za contains a zero set of {3X-U containing p which is completely separated from UDr. Since the pseudocompact space X is countably compact by normality. 13<r.N by [1. as well as their union UDr are discrete and countable. both Vs-Z and Vt-Z . then X={3N. 68]. {3N-N.a} is also a discrete set :'failing to have p as limit point. It is clear that the sets D p r<a. r<a.subset of {3N. we con"struct a monotone collection of discrete subsets D a of X -U as follows.. and it must have compact closure in X by the Corollary to Lemma 4. we have fiX ={3U. Proof. we proceed to prove the main result.X. r<a. and let qa be a point of X lying in Za'.. a pseudocompact dense subspace of j3N is {3N if it is normal. This proves the first statemnst of the lemma. (2) {3<r implies Zp'-:. the sets V nX and W n X can not be completely separated although they have disjoint closures in X. p "is not a limit point of UDr' Accordingly. Therefore.

the disjoint discrete sets E. Van Nostrand. Soc. 21(1969). Seoul National University . Rings of continuous functions. Since W contains all but a countable number of points qa. Math. E. Since this contradicts to the normality of X. 1960•. subsets of U Da. p is a limit point of E and F.50 Jehpill Kim and we have the proposed sets Da • Let E and F be uncountable disjoint.Since any uncountable set is confinal in the set of all countable ordinals. it follows that X={3X.Wand F.Ware both countable. 277-280.W and F. completing the the proaf. Amer.W have disjoint closures in f3X={3U by Lemma 2. To see that E and l!' do not have any common limit point other than p. We have shown that P is the only limit point shared by E and F. Gillman and M... On the existence of c-points of j3N"'N. Hence.1 Reforences [1] L. That is. let W be a neighborhood of p. [ 2] Neil Hindman. Jerison. the subsets E and F of X have dis· joint closures in X but not in f3X. Proc.

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