Technical Interview Questions – Networking 1. What is an IP address? 2. What is a subnet mask? 3. What is ARP? 4.

What is ARP Cache Poisoning? 5. What is the ANDing process? 6. What is a default gateway? What happens if I don't have one? 7. Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? 8. What is a subnet? 9. What is APIPA? 10. What is an RFC? Name a few if possible (not necessarily the numbers, just the ideas behind them) 11. What is RFC 1918? 12. What is CIDR? 13. You have the following Network ID: 192.115.103.64/27. What is the IP range for your network? 14. You have the following Network ID: 131.112.0.0. You need at least 500 hosts per network. How many networks can you create? What subnet mask will you use? 15. You need to view at network traffic. What will you use? Name a few tools 16. How do I know the path that a packet takes to the destination? 17. What does the ping 192.168.0.1 -l 1000 -n 100 command do? 18. What is DHCP? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using it? 19. Describe the steps taken by the client and DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address. 20. What is the DHCPNACK and when do I get one? Name 2 scenarios. 21. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients? 22. Describe the process of installing a DHCP server in an AD infrastructure. 23. What is DHCPINFORM? 24. Describe the integration between DHCP and DNS. 25. What options in DHCP do you regularly use for an MS network? 26. What are User Classes and Vendor Classes in DHCP? 27. How do I configure a client machine to use a specific User Class? 28. What is the BOOTP protocol used for, where might you find it in Windows network infrastructure? 29. DNS zones – describe the differences between the 4 types. 30. DNS record types – describe the most important ones. 31. Describe the process of working with an external domain name 32. Describe the importance of DNS to AD. 33. Describe a few methods of finding an MX record for a remote domain on the Internet. 34. What does "Disable Recursion" in DNS mean? 35. What could cause the Forwarders and Root Hints to be grayed out? 36. What is a "Single Label domain name" and what sort of issues can it cause? 37. What is the "in-addr.arpa" zone used for?

38. What are the requirements from DNS to support AD? 39. How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? 40. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. 41. What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones? 42. You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV records in DNS. Name a few possible causes. 43. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones? 44. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding? 45. What are the differences between Windows Clustering, Network Load Balancing and Round Robin, and scenarios for each use? 46. How do I work with the Host name cache on a client computer? 47. How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server? 48. What is the 224.0.1.24 address used for? 49. What is WINS and when do we use it? 50. Can you have a Microsoft-based network without any WINS server on it? What are the "considerations" regarding not using WINS? 51. Describe the differences between WINS push and pull replications. 52. What is the difference between tombstoning a WINS record and simply deleting it? 53. Name the NetBIOS names you might expect from a Windows 2003 DC that is registered in WINS. 54. Describe the role of the routing table on a host and on a router. 55. What are routing protocols? Why do we need them? Name a few. 56. What are router interfaces? What types can they be? 57. In Windows 2003 routing, what are the interface filters? 58. What is NAT? 59. What is the real difference between NAT and PAT? 60. How do you configure NAT on Windows 2003? 61. How do you allow inbound traffic for specific hosts on Windows 2003 NAT? 62. What is VPN? What types of VPN does Windows 2000 and beyond work with natively? 63. What is IAS? In what scenarios do we use it? 64. What's the difference between Mixed mode and Native mode in AD when dealing with RRAS? 65. What is the "RAS and IAS" group in AD? 66. What are Conditions and Profile in RRAS Policies? 67. What types or authentication can a Windows 2003 based RRAS work with? 68. How does SSL work? 69. How does IPSec work? 70. How do I deploy IPSec for a large number of computers? 71. What types of authentication can IPSec use? 72. What is PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) in IPSec? 73. How do I monitor IPSec? 74. Looking at IPSec-encrypted traffic with a sniffer. What packet types do I see? 75. What can you do with NETSH?

76.

How do I look at the open ports on my machine?

What is an IP address? This definition is based on Internet Protocol Version 4. See Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for a description of the newer 128-bit IP address. Note that the system of IP address classes described here, while forming the basis for IP address assignment, is generally bypassed today by use of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) addressing. In the most widely installed level of the Internet Protocol (IP) today, an IP address is a 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packets across the Internet. When you request an HTML page or send e-mail, the Internet Protocol part of TCP/IP includes your IP address in the message (actually, in each of the packets if more than one is required) and sends it to the IP address that is obtained by looking up the domain name in the Uniform Resource Locator you requested or in the e-mail address you're sending a note to. At the other end, the recipient can see the IP address of the Web page requestor or the e-mail sender and can respond by sending another message using the IP address it received. An IP address has two parts: the identifier of a particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a server or a workstation) within that network. On the Internet itself - that is, between therouter that move packets from one point to another along the route - only the network part of the address is looked at.

IP V6 IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) is the latest level of the Internet Protocol (IP) and is now included as part of IP support in many products including the major computer operating systems. IPv6 has also been called "IPng" (IP Next Generation). Formally, IPv6 is a set of specifications from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). IPv6 was designed as an evolutionary set of improvements to the current IP Version 4. Network hosts and intermediate nodes with either IPv4 or IPv6 can handle packets formatted for either level of the Internet Protocol. Users and service providers can update to IPv6 independently without having to coordinate with each other. The most obvious improvement in IPv6 over the IPv4 is that IP addresses are lengthened from 32 bits to 128 bits. This extension anticipates considerable future growth of the Internet and provides relief for what was perceived as an impending shortage of network addresses. IPv6 describes rules for three types of addressing: unicast (one host to one other host), anycast (one host to the nearest of multiple hosts), andmulticast (one host to multiple hosts). Additional advantages of IPv6 are: Options are specified in an extension to the header that is examined only at the destination, thus speeding up overall network performance. The introduction of an "anycast" address provides the possibility of sending a message to the nearest of several possible gateway hosts with the idea that any one of them can manage the forwarding of the packet to others. Anycast messages can be used to update routing tables along the

line. Packets can be identified as belonging to a particular "flow" so that packets thatare part of a multimedia presentation that needs to arrive in "real time" can be provided a higher quality-of-service relative to other customers. The IPv6 header now includes extensions that allow a packet to specify a mechanism for authenticating its origin, for ensuring data integrity, and for ensuring privacy. What is a subnet mask? A subnet mask allows you to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network, and which part is available for host use. If you look at the IP address alone, especially now with classless inter-domain routing, you can't tell which part of the address is which. Adding the subnet mask, or netmask, gives you all the information you need to calculate network and host portions of the address with ease. In summary, knowing the subnet mask can allow you to easily calculate whether IP addresses are on the same subnet, or not. What is ARP? ARP is a very important part of IP networking. ARP is used to connect OSI Layer 3 (Network) to OSI Layer 2 (DataLink). For most of us, that means that ARP is used to link our IP addressing to our Ethernet addressing (MAC Addressing). For you to communicate with any device on your network, you must have the Ethernet MAC address for that device. If the device is not on your LAN, you go through your default gateway (your router). In this case, your router will be the destination MAC address that your PC will communicate with. What is ARP Cache Poisoning? ARP cache poisoning, also known as ARP spoofing, is the process of falsifying the source Media Access Control (MAC)

which means that Computer A will next be sending the data to a router. limiting its effectiveness only to networks connected with switches. It is a MAC layer attack that can only be carried out when an attacker is connected to the same local network as the target machines. Once you’re very familiar with subnetting and calculating ranges of addresses. What is the ANDing process? Notice that when the resulting AND values are converted back to binary.addresses of packets being sent on an Ethernet network. a feature of .64.56.168. not routers. use the ANDing process. a default network gateway is the device that passes traffic from the local subnet to devices on other subnets. recognizing local and remote hosts will become much more intuitive. Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? What is a subnet? What is APIPA? Short for Automatic Private IP Addressing.0. You should also notice that the ANDing process always produces the subnet ID of a given host. it becomes clear that the two hosts are on different networks. The default gateway often connects a local network to the Internet. hubs. What is a default gateway? What happens if I don't have one? In computer networking.168. although internal gateways for connecting two local networks also exist. Whenever you’re in doubt as to whether hosts are local or remote. determining local and remote hosts can be difficult. Computer A is on subnet 192. and bridges. Without ANDing.0. while the destination host is on subnet 192.

254.254. DHCP clients can automatically self-configure an IP address and subnet mask when a DHCPserver isn't available. APIPA is meant for nonrouted small business environments.0. it first looks for a DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address and subnet mask.254. an . What is an RFC? Name a few if possible (not necessarily the numbers. If the client is unable to find the information.0. With APIPA. just the ideas behind them) Short for Request for Comments. but the IETF decides if the document becomes an RFC. usually less than 25 clients. if it gains enough interest. The IP address range is 169.255. it may evolve into an Internet standard. according to Microsoft). If it detects a DHCP server on the network. When a DHCP client boots up.0. a series of notes about the Internet. Each RFC is designated by an RFC number.later Windows operating systems. The APIPA service also checks regularly for the presence of a DHCP server (every five minutes. Eventually. started in 1969 (when the Internet was the ARPANET).1 through 169. and the DHCP server replaces the APIPA networking addresses with dynamically assigned addresses.255. A client uses the selfconfigured IP address until a DHCP server becomes available. Once published. The client also configures itself with a default class B subnet mask of 255. it uses APIPA to automatically configure itself with an IP address from a range that has been reserved especially for Microsoft. An Internet Document can be submitted to the IETF by anyone. APIPA stops.

while forming the basis for IP address assignment.that is. In the most widely installed level of the Internet Protocol (IP) today. At the other end. an IP address is a 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packets across the Internet. in each of the packets if more than one is required) and sends it to the IP address that is obtained by looking up the domain name in the Uniform Resource Locator you requested or in the e-mail address you're sending a note to.RFC never changes.only the network part of the address is looked . 1) What is an IP address? This definition is based on Internet Protocol Version 4. When you request an HTML page or send e-mail. See Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for a description of the newer 128-bit IP address. On the Internet itself . the Internet Protocol part of TCP/IP includes your IP address in the message (actually. the recipient can see the IP address of the Web page requestor or the e-mail sender and can respond by sending another message using the IP address it received. An IP address has two parts: the identifier of a particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a server or a workstation) within that network. is generally bypassed today by use of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) addressing. between therouter that move packets from one point to another along the route . Note that the system of IP address classes described here. Modifications to an original RFC are assigned a new RFC number.

you must have the Ethernet MAC address for that device. gives you all the information you need to calculate network and host portions of the address with ease. and which part is available for host use. knowing the subnet mask can allow you to easily calculate whether IP addresses are on the same subnet. or not. especially now with classless inter-domain routing. your router will be the destination MAC address that your PC will communicate with. It is a MAC layer attack that can only be carried out when an attacker is connected to the same local network as the . is the process of falsifying the source Media Access Control (MAC) addresses of packets being sent on an Ethernet network. 2) What is a subnet mask? A subnet mask allows you to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network. Adding the subnet mask. For you to communicate with any device on your network. that means that ARP is used to link our IP addressing to our Ethernet addressing (MAC Addressing). In this case. If you look at the IP address alone. also known as ARP spoofing.at. For most of us. ARP is used to connect OSI Layer 3 (Network) to OSI Layer 2 (DataLink). 3) What is ARP? ARP is a very important part of IP networking. 4) What is ARP Cache Poisoning? ARP cache poisoning. In summary. If the device is not on your LAN. or netmask. you go through your default gateway (your router). you can't tell which part of the address is which.

not routers.168. and bridges. a default network gateway is the device that passes traffic from the local subnet to devices on other subnets.64. it becomes clear that the two hosts are on different networks. determining local and remote hosts can be difficult. The default gateway often connects a local network to the Internet. use the ANDing process. Whenever you’re in doubt as to whether hosts are local or remote. You should also notice that the ANDing process always produces the subnet ID of a given host. 6) What is a default gateway? What happens if I don't have one? In computer networking. Without ANDing. Computer A is on subnet 192. Once you’re very familiar with subnetting and calculating ranges of addresses. If it is having an intranet address a gateway . hubs. 5) What is the ANDing process? Notice that when the resulting AND values are converted back to binary.0. we can browse the internet. limiting its effectiveness only to networks connected with switches.0. while the destination host is on subnet 192. although internal gateways for connecting two local networks also exist.168. recognizing local and remote hosts will become much more intuitive.target machines. which means that Computer A will next be sending the data to a router. Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? 7) Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? If we are using public ip address.56.

subnets are created to serve as physical or geographical separations similar to those found between rooms. The APIPA service also checks regularly for the presence of a DHCP server (every five minutes. . a feature of later Windows operating systems. If it detects a DHCP server on the network. If the client is unable to find the information. DHCP clients can automatically self-configure an IP address and subnet mask when a DHCPserver isn't available. In many cases. APIPA is meant for nonrouted small business environments. buildings. A client uses the selfconfigured IP address until a DHCP server becomes available. or cities.254. it uses APIPA to automatically configure itself with an IP address from a range that has been reserved especially for Microsoft. 9) What is APIPA? Short for Automatic Private IP Addressing.254. The client also configures itself with a default class B subnet mask of 255.0.1 through 169. according to Microsoft).255. 8) What is a subnet? A subnet is a logical organization of network address ranges used to separate hosts and network devices from each other to serve a design purpose. and the DHCP server replaces the APIPA networking addresses with dynamically assigned addresses.254. When a DHCP client boots up.0. With APIPA.is needed as a router or firewall to communicate with internet. The IP address range is 169.255.0. it first looks for a DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address and subnet mask. APIPA stops. floors.

0. and third block is a set of 256 contiguous class C network numbers. Each RFC is designated by an RFC number.0 10. started in 1969 (when the Internet was the ARPANET).31.0.0.0. but the IETF decides if the document becomes an RFC. a series of notes about the Internet. just the ideas behind them) Short for Request for Comments.usually less than 25 clients.168.192. if it gains enough interest.16/12 prefix) 192. it may evolve into an Internet standard. Modifications to an original RFC are assigned a new RFC number. and to the third as "16-bit" block.172.255 (172.255 (192.168.168/16 prefix) We will refer to the first block as "24-bit block". Once published.0 . 12) What is CIDR? CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing. 10) What is an RFC? Name a few if possible (not necessarily the numbers.255. an RFC never changes. sometimes known as .255.255 (10/8 prefix) 172. 11) What is RFC 1918? RFC 1918 is Address Allocation for Private Internets The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private internets: 10. the second as "20-bit block". Note that (in pre-CIDR notation) the first block is nothing but a single class A network number.255.16. while the second block is a set of 16 contiguous class B network numbers.0 . An Internet Document can be submitted to the IETF by anyone.255. Eventually.

As a result. So of your 32 bits you would turn the last 9 off for host and that would give you give you a 255.will be the ip address of next range we can use 30 hostes in this network 14.115.103.0.103.103.115.94 192.103.00000000).96 .115.115.0 subnet mask (11111111.supernetting) is a way to allocate and specify the Internet addresses used in inter-domain routing more flexibly than with the original system of Internet Protocol (IP) address classes.255.254. .it is the broadcast address 192. Now that we know that we can see that you have the first 7 of your third octet turned on so to figure out how many subnets you have us the formula 2^7th= 128. You need at least 500 hosts per network.What is the IP range for your network? It ranges from 192.115.64 192.96 But the usable address are from 192.95 .103. So you can have 128 subnets with 500 people on them. You have the following Network ID: 192. 13. the number of available Internet addresses has been greatly increased. How many networks can you create? What subnet mask will you use? If you need 500 users then 2^9th would give you 512 (remember the first and last are network and broadcast).64 .11111110.192.11111111. 510 usable.103.115.103.0.112.115.64/27.You have the following Network ID: 131.

168. ) and see how long it takes. printer. Disadvantage Your machine name does not change when you get a new IP address. router. What will you use? Name a few tools winshark or tcp dump 16. And the -n 100 is saying to send it 100 times. The 192. DHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configurationDHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configuration 2. ) The -l 1000 is how big the packet should be in bytes. The default is 4. What is DHCP? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using it? Benefits: 1.15. if the -l parameter is not used. etc.You need to view at network traffic.1 -l 1000 -n 100 command do? The ping command will send roundtrip packets to a destination ( other PC. Reduced network administration.0.1 is the destination ( which.168.0. The default is 32. by the way is a typical default IP address of a router. when this parameter is not used. How do I know the path that a packet takes to the destination? use "tracert" command-line 17. What does the ping 192. The DNS (Domain Name System) name is associated . 18.

March 1997). Reduced network administration. October 1993) but the most recent update is RFC 2131 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. The IETF . * DHCP was originally defined in RFC 1531 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.Describe the steps taken by the client and DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address. 19. DHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configurationDHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configuration 2. Disadvantage Your machine name does not change when you get a new IP address. This only presents a problem if other clients try to access your machine by its DNS name. The DNS (Domain Name System) name is associated with your IP address and therefore does change. they request an IP address from the server. When clients log on. which is a pool of IP addresses that the server manages. Benefits: 1. This only presents a problem if other clients try to access your machine by its DNS name. and the server provides an IP address from its pool of available addresses. * At least one DHCP server must exist on a network. Once the DHCP server software is installed.with your IP address and therefore does change. you create a DHCP scope.

is asking for an address that doesn't exist on that subnet. Requested address on a different subnet:If the Address is from the same superscope to which the subnet belongs. Requested address from possibly the same subnet but not in the address pool of the server:This can be the failover scenario in which 2 DHCP servers are serving the same subnet so that when one goes down. and management of IP addresses and TCP/IP protocol stack parameters. I am listing down the possible scenarios in which the server should NOT issue a NAK.When a DHCP server receives a DHCPRequest with a previously assigned address specified. it first checks to see if it came from the local segment by checking the GIADDR field.The server will send a NAK EXCEPT in the following scenarios:1. . 20. DHCP server will issue a NAK to the client ONLY IF it is sure that the client. If it originated from the local segment. 2. DHCP server will ACK the REQUEST. What is the DHCPNACK and when do I get one? Name 2 scenarios. the DHCP server compares the requested address to the IP address and subnet mask belonging to the local interface that received the request. "on the local subnet". DHCP server issues a NAK to DHCP clients.Dynamic Host Configuration (dhc) Working Group is chartered to produce a protocol for automated allocation.For simplification purposes. This should give you a good understanding of DHCP NAK behavior. configuration. the other should not NAK to clients which got an IP from the first server.

. The DHCPInform message received by the remote access server is then forwarded to a DHCP server... START-->Administrative Tools --> Server Manager --> Roles (Right Click) --> Add Roles (Here a Add roles wizard will appear) --> Check the box of DHCP Server --> click next --> Next --> In IPv4 DNS settings Give the parent domain Name and DNS server IP address and validate it. The remote access server forwards DHCPInform messages only if it has been configured with the DHCP Relay Agent. While PPP remote access clients do not use DHCP to obtain IP addresses for the remote access connection. Windows 2000 and Windows 98 remote access clients use the DHCPInform message to obtain DNS server IP addresses. 24.. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients? Requests are on UDP port 68. ...... In Windows server 2008 . and a DNS domain name.. Go to.21. Describe the integration between DHCP and DNS.... What is DHCPINFORM? DHCPInform is a DHCP message used by DHCP clients to obtain DHCP options. Server replies on UDP 67 22. It is about how to install DHCP server. The DHCPInform message is sent after the IPCP negotiation is concluded. Click Next --> Add the DHCP scopes --> Disable DHCPv6. WINS server IP addresses. click Next --> Finally Click on INSTALL This was the process for installing the DHCP server. 23... Describe the process of installing a DHCP server in an AD infrastructure.

And integration of DNS and DHCP in the same database instance provides unmatched consistency between service and management views of IP address-centric network services data. while reducing administrative operations and costs. changing authorization rights for a particular user on a group of devices has meant visiting each one and making configuration changes. DHCP integration with DNS allows the aggregation of these tasks across devices. reducing the number of tasks required of network administrators. This integration provides practical operational efficiencies that lower total cost of ownership. What are User Classes and Vendor Classes in DHCP? Microsoft Vendor Classes . devices.What options in DHCP do you regularly use for an MS network? Automatic providing IP address Subnet mask DNS server Domain name Default getaway or router 26. DNS and DHCP servers have been configured and managed one at a time. and policies. for example. Creating a DHCP network automatically creates an associated DNS zone. Similarly. 25.Traditionally. enabling a company's network services to scale in step with the growth of network users.

Collapse this tableExpand this table Class Data Class Name Description MSFT 5.The following list contains pre-defined vendor classes that are available in Windows 2000 DHCP server.Microsoft Default Routing and Remote Access class All Dial-Up Networking (DUN) clients. and Windows 2000 DHCP clients. MSFT Microsoft options Class that includes all Windows 98. you can define other vendor-specific classes on the DHCP server.0 Microsoft Windows 2000 options Class that includes all Windows 2000 DHCP clients. Windows Me. make sure the vendor class identifier that you define matches the identifier used by the clients. When you define such classes. MSFT 98 Microsoft Windows 98 options Class that includes all Windows 98 and Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me) DHCP clients. Back to the top User Classes The following list contains pre-defined user classes that are available in Windows 2000 DHCP server. If you have non-Microsoft DHCP clients. Bootp Default Bootp class All Bootp clients . RRAS. Collapse this tableExpand this table Class ID Class Type Description Unspecified Default user class All DHCP clients that have no user class specified.

where might you find it in Windows network infrastructure? ootP (RFC951) provides * a unique IP address to the requester (using port 67) similar to the DHCP request on port 68 AND * can provide (where supported) the ability to boot a system without a hard drive (ie: a diskless client) Apple OS X 10. and Engineering departments have . Management.In addition to these pre-defined classes. What is the BOOTP protocol used for. The facility allows the Admin to maintain a selected set of configurations as boot images and then assign sets of client systems to share(or boot from) that image. For example Accounting. you can also add custom user classes for Windows 2000 DHCP clients. you must specify a custom identifier that corresponds to the user class defined on the DHCP server. When you configure such classes.How do I configure a client machine to use a specific User Class? The command to configure a client machine to use a specific user class is ipconfig /setclassid "<Name of your Network card>" <Name of the class you created on DHCP and you want to join (Name is case sensitive)> Eg: ipconfig /setclassid " Local Area Network" Accounting 28.* Server supports BootP (albeit) renamed as NetBoot. 27.

but it contains only 3 records viz .elements in common. 29. Linux. i)Forward Lookup Zones :This zone is responsible to resolve host name to ip. DNS zones – describe the differences between the 4 types. This will expand the number of BootP servers and multiply the number of images. use gigabit switches. and AIX RS/600 all support BootP. iii)Stub Zone :Stubzone is read only copy of primary zone. Startup is obviously network intensive. Dns zone is actual file which contains all the records for a specific domain. Windows does not support booting "diskless clients". but the productivity of 1 BootP server per 50 clients is undeniable :) Sunmicro. and beyond 40-50 clients. Todate. Performing upgrades and maintenance on three images is far more productive that working on all client systems individually. and host the images local to the clients to avoid saturating the network. ii)Reverse Lookup Zones :This zone is responsible to resolve ip to host name. the Admin needs to carefully subnet the infrastructure. but which can be unique from other departments.

_SRV Required for Active Directory. Important for forwarders MX Mail servers. Describe the process of working with an external domain name Serving Sites with External Domain Name Servers .the SOA for the primary zone. DNS record types – describe the most important ones. Type of Record What it does A (Host) Classic resource record.MX records required to deliver internet email. for example. Maps hostname to IP(ipv4) PTR Maps IP to hostname (Reverse of A (Host) AAAA Maps hostname to ip (ipv6) Cname Canonical name. NS record and a Host (A) record.FTP Server.such as Web Server.records. particularly for other domains. in plain English an alias. 31. gc = global catalog. 30. Chat Server NS Identifies DNS name servers. Whole family of underscore service. SOA Make a point of finding the Start of Authority (SOA) tab at the DNS Server.

3. you may want to set up your control panel's DNS server to function as a secondary (slave) name server: To make the control panel's DNS server act as a secondary name server: 1. Click Switch DNS Service Mode. 2. Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). To make the control panel's DNS server act as a primary for a zone: 1. 4. Specify the IP address of the primary (master) DNS server. The original resource records for the zone will be restored. switch off the control panel's DNS service for each site served by external name servers. 5. Click Add. Click Switch DNS Service Mode.If you host Web sites on this server and have a standalone DNS server acting as a primary (master) name server for your sites.a primary and a secondary). 2. If you host Web sites on this server and rely entirely on other machines to perform the Domain Name Service for your sites (there are two external name servers . To switch off the control panel's DNS service for a site . Repeat steps from 1 to 5 for each Web site that needs to have a secondary name server on this machine.

Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). Turning the DNS service off for the zone will refresh the screen. Click Switch Off the DNS Service in the Tools group. . 1. Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). 2. Parallels Plesk Panel will retrieve the zone file from a remote name server and check the resource records to make sure that domain's resources are properly resolved. The records will appear in the list. If you wish to validate the configuration of a zone maintained on authoritative name servers: 1. specify a name server. Click the records that you have just created.served by an external name server: 1. Note: The listed name server records have no effect on the system. so that only a list of name servers remains. Repeat the steps from 1 to 3 to switch off the local domain name service for each site served by external name servers. They are only presented on the screen as clickable links to give you a chance to validate the configuration of the zone maintained on the external authoritative name servers. and click OK. Add to the list the entries pointing to the appropriate name servers that are authoritative for the zone: click Add. 1. 2. Repeat this for each name server you would like to test.

Describe the importance of DNS to AD. 34. What does "Disable Recursion" in DNS mean? In the Windows 2000/2003 DNS console (dnsmgmt. When completing this process. This option is provided because a DNS server is required to locate this server or other domain controllers for members of an Active Directory domain 33. you are prompted with the option to install a DNS server.msc).The results will be interpreted and displayed on the screen.If during this process. you promote the server to the role of a domain controller for a specified domain. When you install Active Directory on a server. In order to find MX Records for SMTP domains you can use Command-line tools such as NSLOOKUP or DIG. under a server's Properties -> Forwarders tab is the setting Do not . 32. You can also use online web services that allow you to perform quick searches and display the information in a convenient manner.Describe a few methods of finding an MX record for a remote domain on the Internet. a DNS server authoritative for the domain that you specified either cannot be located on the network or does not support the DNS dynamic update protocol. you are prompted to specify a DNS domain name for the Active Directory domain for which you are joining and promoting the server.

• Some server-based applications are incompatible with single-label domain names. Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 is not supported in environments in which single-label DNS is used. Application support may not exist in the initial release of an application. For example. Windows Server 2003-based domain members. • Client computers and domain controllers that joined to single-label domains require additional configuration to dynamically register DNS records in single-label DNS zones.g. On the Advanced tab you will find the confusingly similar option Disable recursion (also disables forwarders). .use recursion for this domain. Windows XP-based domain members. Recursion refers to the action of a DNS server querying additional DNS servers (e. What could cause the Forwarders and Root Hints to be grayed out? Win2K configured your DNS server as a private root server 36. and Windows 2000-based domain members do not perform dynamic updates to single-label DNS zones. local ISP DNS or the root DNS servers) to resolve queries that it cannot resolve from its own database 35. • Single-label DNS names cannot be registered by using an Internet registrar. What is a "Single Label domain name" and what sort of issues can it cause? Single-label names consist of a single word like "contoso". • Client computers and domain controllers may require additional configuration to resolve DNS queries in single-label DNS zones. • By default. or support may be dropped in a future release.

What is the "in-addr. The name of the TLD comes from Address and Routing Parameter Area and it has been designated by the IANA to be used exclusively for Internet infrastructure purposes. The intent of this domain is to provide a guaranteed method to perform host address to host name mapping. why does there have to be a separate in-addr. Other classes may employ a similar strategy in other domains. . If you already have a zone file. 37. it is an important zone and an integral part of the inner workings of DNS. how can the world find your mail server unless the IP address of that server is associated with its hostname within a DNS database? However. The RFC for DNS (RFC 1035) has an entire section on the in-addr.arpa.com or . The first two paragraphs in that section state the purpose of the domain: "The Internet uses a special domain to support gateway location and Internet address to host mapping.• Some server-based applications are incompatible with the domain rename feature that is supported in Windows Server 2003 domain controllers and in Windows Server 2008 domain controllers.org.arpa domain.arpa" zone used for? When creating DNS records for your hosts. and to facilitate queries to locate all . A records make sense.arpa zone containing PTR records matching your A records? And who should be making those PTR records--you or your provider? Let's start by defining in-addr. PTR records aren't as easily understood. These incompatibilities either block or complicate the use of the domain rename feature when you try to rename a single-label DNS name to a fully qualified domain name. In other words.arpa is actually a TLD like . After all.

For example. Assuming an A record exists for a host." In other words. a missing PTR record may or may not impact on the DNS reachability of that host. responsible) for the host PTR records .e. a mail server will definitely be impacted as PTR records are used in mail header checks and by most anti-SPAM mechanisms. they appear to be unreachable through DNS. Note that both of these services are similar to functions that could be performed by inverse queries. it appears to be unallocated. Remember. the in-addr. and hence can guarantee that the appropriate data can be located without an exhaustive search of the domain space. depending upon the applications running on that host. But who should make and host those PTR records? Twenty years ago when you could buy a full Class C network address (i.arpa zone is concerned with delegated network addresses. Depending upon your web server configuration. 254 host addresses) the answer was easy: you. it may also depend upon an existing PTR record. If your assigned network does not appear in this zone. In other words.e. This is why the DNS RFCs recommend that every A record has an associated PTR record.gateways on a particular network in the Internet. this zone provides a database of all allocated networks and the DNS reachable hosts within those networks. the difference is that this part of the domain name space is structured according to address. the owner of the network address is authoritative (i. And if your hosts don't have a PTR record in this database.

10. When in doubt. the provider you purchased those addresses from needs to host your PTR records as the provider is the owner of (i. If you only own one or two host addresses within a network address space. authoritative for) the network address.arpa zone assumes a classful addressing scheme where a Class A address is one octet (or /8).168. Things are a bit more interesting if you have been delegated a CIDR block of addresses.arpa with these types of network allocations.associated with that network address space.0 or 192.e. it probably is not you. The in-addr. • If you own an entire network address (e. they should also host your PTR records. CIDR allows for delegating address space outside of these boundaries--say a /19 or a /28.g. you are responsible for hosting your PTR records.0. . a Class B is 2 octets (or /16) and a Class C is 3 octets (or /24).0. you are responsible for your own internal PTR records. Here is a summary regarding PTR records: • Don't wait until users complain about DNS unreachability--be proactive and ensure there is an associated PTR record for every A record.g. • If you are configuring an internal DNS server within the private address ranges (e.0. • Remember: the key to PTR hosting is knowing who is authoritative for the network address for your domain. a Class C address ending in 0). RFC 2317 provides a best current practice for maintaining in-addr. your provider should host your PTR records as they are authoritative for the network those hosts belong to. • If you only have one or two assigned IP addresses. • If your provider hosts your A records.0).

which provide the client with the names and IP addresses of the domain controllers. see DNS RFCs.38. In this context. enabling computers on the network to obtain IP addresses of domain controllers. the DNS zone must allow dynamic updates (RFC 2136) and the DNS server hosting that zone must support the SRV resource records (RFC 2782) to advertise the Active Directory directory service. you are updating a DNS zone hosted on a DNS server with the Locator DNS resource records and identifying the domain controller. To find domain controllers in a domain or forest. If the DNS server hosting the authoritative DNS zone is not a server running Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003. If the server does not support the required standards. contact your DNS administrator to determine if the DNS server supports the required standards. What are the requirements from DNS to support AD? When you install Active Directory on a member server. which are necessary for the successful functionality of the domain controller locator (Locator) mechanism. or . For this reason. the service (SRV) and address (A) resource records are dynamically registered in DNS. the SRV and A resource records are referred to as Locator DNS resource records. Active Directory uses DNS as the location mechanism for domain controllers. When adding a domain controller to a forest. For more information about RFCs. a client queries DNS for the SRV and A DNS resource records of the domain controller. the member server is promoted to a domain controller. During the installation of Active Directory.

msc rightclick on the zone you want to add srv record to and choose "other new record" and choose service location(srv). then modification is required to your existing DNS infrastructure.. 41. AD integrated zones are stored as part of the active directory and support domain-wide or forest-wide replication through application pertitions in AD. 5. 2. 39. 4. AD Integrated zones suport both secure and dmanic updates.. What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones? Advantages: DNS supports Dynamic registration of SRV records registered by a Active Directory server or a domain controller during . 1..the authoritative DNS zone cannot be configured to allow dynamic updates. 40. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. By creating AD. This reduces zone transfer traffic. 3. How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? this is on windows server go to run ---> dnsmgmt. AD integrated zoned all for incremental zone transfers which on transfer changes and not the entire zone. you can give easy name resolution to ur clients..integrated zone you can also trace hacker and spammer by creating reverse zone.

It supports both SRV record registration and Dynamic Updates. 1. Using Microsoft DNS gives the following benefits: If you implement networks that require secure updates. Exchange server needs internal DNS or AD DNS to locate Global Catalog servers. Active Directory Integrated Zone. 42. 4. Active Directory replication will take care of DNS zone replication also. If you want to take benefit of Active Directory replication. If your network use DHCP with Active Directory then no other DHCP will be able to service client requests coming from different network. you can use NT4 DNS with Service Pack 4 or later. Moreover. 3.promotion. Unauthorized access is denied. It is because DHCP server is authorized in AD and will be the only server to participate on network to provide IP Address information to client machines. 2. If you want to integrate DHCP with DNS for Low-level clients to register their Host records in Zone database. 5. You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC . With the help of SRV records client machines can find domain controllers in the network. DNS supports Secure Dynamic updates. If you have more than one domain controller (recommended) you need not worry about zone replication.

which are not needed when stub zones are used. which keeps them on the local server for the duration of their Time-to-Live (TTL) parameter. While you can also provide name resolution for a remote domain by either creating a secondary zone (which was a common approach in Windows Server 2000 DNS implementation) or delegation (when dealing with a contiguous namespace). In addition. Name a few possible causes.corresponding A records for each of the NS entries (providing IP addresses of the servers). such approach forces periodic zone transfers. The stub zone contains only a few records: . . Necessity to traverse network in order to obtain individual records hosted on the remote Name Servers is mitigated to some extent by caching process. . The machine cannot be configured with DNS client her own The DNS service cannot be run 43. for which a local DNS server is not authoritative. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones? One of the new features introduced in the Windows Server 2003-based implementation of DNS are stub zones. which are authoritative for the DNS domain represented by the stub zone.has not registered its SRV records in DNS. records residing .Start of Authority (SOA) record pointing to a remote DNS server that is considered to be the best source of information about the target DNS domain. Its main purpose is to provide name resolution in domains.one or more Name Server (NS) records (including the entry associated with the SOA record).

What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding? Conditional forwarding is a new feature of DNS in Windows Server 2003 that can be used to speed up name resolution in certain scenarios. you mean DNS Round Robin meaning the absence of a software or hardware load balancing device. This article will look in detail at how conditional forwarding works. Network Load Balancing and Round Robin.6) of Windows Servers and a low to moderate number of new connections per second. From the standpoint of scalability and performance. 44. Some would call this a "cluster". and scenarios for each use? I will make a few assumptions here: 1) By "Windows Clustering Network Load Balancing" you mean Windows Network Load Balancing software included in Windows Server software a. Microsoft NLB is designed for a small number (4 . but there are suttle differences between a clustered group of devices and a more loosely configured virtual pool. starting with different types of name queries. and 2) By Round Robin.k. or the concept of the Round Robin algorithm available in just about every load balancing solution. how to configure it. almost all hardware load balancing solutions are superior to this and other less . 45. But first.a NLB.. They can also be used to help companies resolve each other's namespace in a situation where companies collaborate a merger is underway. to provide distribution of web server requests to multiple servers in a virtual resource pool. let's briefly review the concepts of forwarding and forwarders in traditional DNS.in a stub zone are periodically validated and refreshed in order to avoid lame delegations. What are the differences between Windows Clustering. and when you might use it.

meant for small groups of Windows servers only on private networks. When you resolve an IP address that has more than one A record. TTL. and is dynamic in nature (takes into account availability of a server. and ranges from DNS to the default static load balancing method on every hardware device in the market. performance. is more generic. or any other metric and is completely static. Bright Tiger circa 1998].g. I stress the term "roughly" when I say it roughly results in an even distribution of resolutions to each of the addresses specified for a particular URL. "Round Robin". The basic RR algorithm is available in many software and hardware load balancing solutions and simply hands the next request to the next resource and starts back at the first resource when it hits the last one. static in nature (does not take into account anything but the resource is a member of the resource pool and each member is equal).g. DNS caching. It does not however. and in some cases performance). DNS Round Robin is an inherent load balancing method built into DNS. NLB is based on proprietary software. multiple DNS servers [authoritative or cached]). . Although there are several factors effecting the exact resulting algorithm (e.known software load balancing solutions [e. DNS hands out different resolutions to different requesting local DNS servers. DNS or otherwise. consider availability.

TCP/IP for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 also use NetBIOS name resolution methods for host names. click Clear Cache. On the Action menu. such as the Ping tool or Internet Explorer. as configured from the Computer Name tab of the System item of Control Panel. How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server? To clear the server names cache * Using the Windows interface * Using a command line Using the Windows interface 1. How do I work with the Host name cache on a client computer? A host name is an alias assigned to identify a TCP/IP host or its interfaces. The Hostname tool displays the computer name of your Windows–based computer. • • • • • 47. 2. and a host name can contain as many as 255 characters. Where? * DNS/applicable DNS server 3. A host name should correspond to an IP address mapping that is stored either in the local Hosts file or in a database on a DNS server. Host names are easier to remember than IP addresses. Multiple host names can be assigned to the same host. Host names are used in all TCP/IP environments. A user can specify host name instead of an IP address when using Windows Sockets applications. . Open DNS.46. The following describes the attributes of a host name: • The host name does not have to match the NetBIOS computer name. click the applicable DNS server. In the console tree.

If the computer is joined to a domain. Open Command Prompt. you must be a member of the Administrators group on the local computer. see WINS replication overview WINS server group address. As a security best practice. click Control Panel. click Start. Using a command line 1. Type the following command and then press ENTER: Dnscmd ServerName /clearcache 48. Used to support autodiscovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers. Used to support autodiscovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers. or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority. the primary means for client . What is the 224.0.1. * To open DNS. members of the Domain Admins group might be able to perform this procedure.Notes * To perform this procedure. What is WINS and when do we use it? In the Windows Server family. For more information. and then double-click DNS. double-click Administrative Tools. 2.24 address used for? WINS server group address. consider using Run as to perform this procedure. 49.

use network basic I/O system (NetBIOS) names for network communication. using a WINS server is essential for any Windows client computer at Indiana University that intends to use Microsoft network resources. WINS was designed to speed up information flow about the Windows workstations in a network. 51. clients that use older versions of Windows. 50. Can you have a Microsoft-based network without any WINS server on it? What are the "considerations" regarding not using WINS? Yes. Using a WINS server is essential for any Windows client computer to work with other Windows computers over the Internet.0. you must insert into your TCP/IP networking configuration the IP address of the WINS servers you wish to use. Using NetBIOS names requires a method of resolving NetBIOS names to IP . Describe the differences between WINS push and pull replications. a push partner. Some applications that run on Windows Server 2003 may also use NetBIOS names for network communication. It will work without it. such as Windows NT 4. notifying them that it has new WINS . To use WINS services. To replicate database entries between a pair of WINS servers. or both with the other WINS server. you can. However. * A push partner is a WINS server that sends a message to its pull partners. In addition. and most networks do not utilize WINS servers anymore because it is based on an old protocol (NetBUI) which is no longer in common use.computer to locate and communicate with other computers on an Internet Protocol (IP) network is by using Domain Name System (DNS). you must configure each WINS server as a pull partner.

these additional records are not fully removed. What is the difference between tombstoning a WINS record and simply deleting it? Simple deletion removes the records that are selected in the WINS console only from the local WINS server you are currently managing. Also. records that are simply deleted on only one server can reappear after replication between the WINS server where simple deletion was used and any of its replication partners. marked locally as extinct and immediately released from active use by the local WINS server. that is. When a WINS server's pull partner responds to the message with a replication request.database entries. * A pull partner is a WINS server that pulls WINS database entries from its push partners by requesting any new WINS database entries that the push partners have. The pull partner requests the new WINS database entries that have a higher version number than the last entry the pull partner received during the most recent replication. This method allows the tombstoned records to remain present in the server database . Tombstoning marks the selected records as tombstoned. 52. If the WINS records deleted in this way exist in WINS data replicated to other WINS servers on your network. the WINS server sends (pushes) copies of its new WINS database entries (also known as replicas) to the requesting pull partner.

as well as obsolete routable protocols such as IPX. the WINS client sends a request to the next server in the list. Windows XP. In this situation. Describe the role of the routing table on a host and on a router. decisions of hosts and routers are aided by a database of routes known as the routing table. if a NetBIOS name is not found in the primary WINS server's database. Each replicating WINS server then updates and tombstones 53. and Windows Server 2003. However.51 and later versions of the Windows operating system. you can specify up to 12 WINS servers.for purposes of subsequent replication of these records to other servers. a Windows-based client does query the secondary WINS server if a NetBIOS name is not found in the primary WINS server's database. Windows 2000. Windows NT 4. 54. . Windows 98. When the tombstoned records are replicated.51. If a Microsoft Windows NT 3. In Microsoft Windows NT 3. Additional WINS servers are useful when a requested name is not found in the primary WINS server's database or in the secondary WINS server's database. Windows Millennium Edition.5-based client does not query the secondary WINS server. Windows 95. Name the NetBIOS names you might expect from a Windows 2003 DC that is registered in WINS. During the process of routing. a Windows NT 3. the tombstone status is updated and applied by other WINS servers that store replicated copies of these records. it queries the secondary WINS server to resolve a NetBIOS name. Depending on the routable protocol. Host-based routing tables are optional for the Internet Protocol. The routing table is not exclusive to a router. Clients that are running the following versions In Windows NT 3.5-based client computer does not receive a response from the primary Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) server. hosts may also have a routing table that may be used to decide the best router for the packet to be forwarded.

A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors. the choice of the route being done by routing algorithms. from Ethernet. RIP and EIGRP. Some of the available configurable items are logical . which similarly disseminates topology information between routers. such as OSPF and IS-IS. Each router has a prior knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. and then throughout the network. For a discussion of the concepts behind routing protocols. routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network. see: Routing. What are routing protocols? Why do we need them? Name a few. 56. This way. such as BGP. Many routing protocols used in the public Internet are defined in documents called RFCs. two major classes are in widespread use in the Internet: link-state routing protocols. disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network. and Token Ring to Serial and ISDN ports.55. and path vector or distance vector protocols. Fast Ethernet.[1][2][3][4] Although there are many types of routing protocols. What are router interfaces? What types can they be? Routers can have many different types of connectors. The term routing protocol may refer specifically to one operating at layer three of the OSI model. A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate with each other.

NAT can work in several ways: Static NAT An unregistered IP address is mapped to a registered IP address on a one-to-one basis .10. For example.98. A single external address is used on the Internet so that the internal IP addresses are not shown. In Windows 2003 routing. a computer 192.168.156.56. or other media types. it maps multiple unregistered IP addresses to a single registered IP address. what are the interface filters? NAT actsas a middle man between the internal and external network. The media type is Ethernet. FastEthernet.121 will translate to the first available IP in a range from 212.168. bandwidth. IP address 192. A table is created on the router that lists local and global addresses and uses it as a reference when translating IP addresses.IPX).150. packets coming from the private network are handled by NAT and then transferred to their intended destination. Overloading A form of dynamic NAT. GigabitEthernet. A 100Mb Ethernet interface is called a FastEthernet interface and a 1000Mb Ethernet interface is called a GigabitEthernet interface. Overlapping This when addresses in the inside network overlap with addresses in the outside network .56.the IP addresses are registered on .which is useful when a device needs to be accessed from outside the network.addresses (IP.122:port_number (212. and administrative commands.121 will be mapped to 212. Token-ring. but in this case uses different ports. Serial.128. Interfaces are configured in interface mode which you get to from global configuration mode after logging in.128. 57. For example. Dynamic NAT An unregistered IP address is mapped to a registered IP address from a group of registered IP addresses.98.122:1080).156. media types. You must keep in mind that a 10Mb Ethernet interface is the only kind of Ethernet interface called Ethernet.10.100 to 212.

This will bring up the properties window giving you the option to change settings such as packet filtering and port blocking. The screenshot below shows the routing and remote access mmc. The router must maintain a lookup table of these addresses so that it can intercept them and replace them with registered unique IP addresses. The remote router (set up previously) properties box is shown below.showing what actions have taken place. Configuring NAT Configuration of NAT takes place from the Routing and Remote Access mmc found in the Administrative Tools folder in the Control Panel or on the start menu. It is also a means of saving IP addresses by having one IP address represent a group of computers. Press next to continue. Setting up NAT To setup NAT you must start by opening the Configure your server wizard in administrative tools and selecting the RRAS/VPN Server role. Select which interface you wish to configure and double click it. as well as enabling/disabling certain features. . after which the finish screen will be displayed . The screen below shows the Internet Connection screen in which you must specify which type of connection to the Internet and whether or not you want the basic firewall feature to be enabled. Now press next and the RRAS setup wizard will open.another network too. such as the firewall. When a computer on the network attempts to connect to a website on the Internet: the header of the source IP address is changed and replaced with the IP address of the NAT computer on the way out the "destination" IP address is changed (based on the records in the table) back to the specific internal private class IP address in order to reach the computer on the local network on the way back in Network Address Translation can be used as a basic firewall – the administrator is able to filter out packets to/from certain IP addresses and allow/disallow access to specified ports. How NAT works A table of information about each packet that passes through is maintained by NAT. The installation process will commence and services will be restarted. The NAT/Basic Firewall tab is selected.

NAT and the basic firewall option have also been enabled. 58. he would be refused access. go to the Services and Ports tab. Thus. You will be asked to specify the name. For example. This section can prove to be very useful for any sized networks. This is useful if. That concludes this article.You are able to select the interface type – to specify what the network connection will be. As you have seen. TCP and UDP port number and the IP address of the computer hosting that service. if the computer was configured as shown in the image above and a client computer tried to connect to an ftp site. For further firewall configuration. With the advent. Press Add to bring up the window that will allow the creation of a new service or select an available service and press Edit to modify that service. you wanted to reject all packets coming from a blacklisted IP address or restrict internal users access to port 21 (ftp). You can also add more services by specifying details such as the incoming and outgoing port number.to medium-sized organizations with private networks to access . for example. Network Address Translation is a useful feature that adds diversity and security to a network in a small to medium sized company. If the services in the list aren’t enabled then any client computer on the Windows 2003 domain will not be able to access that specific service. The list of services shown in the above screenshot are preset. In my example I have selected for the interface to be a public interface connected to the internet. As per your instructions. certain TCP packets will be dropped before they reach the client computer. What is NAT? Windows Server 2003 provides network address translation (NAT) functionality as a part of the Routing and Remote Access service. Here you can select which services you would like to provide your users access to. making the network safer and giving you more functionality. NAT enables computers on small. but especially small ones. The inbound and outbound buttons will open a window that will allow you restrict traffic based on IP address or protocol packet attributes.

html Configure Routing and Remote Access To activate Routing and Remote Access.com/articles_tutorials/NAT_W indows_2003_Setup_Configuration. Click Start.resources on the Internet or other public network. follow these steps: 1. or a medium-sized business. 60. NAT allows you to translate or map one IP address onto another single ip address. PAT on the other hand is what is most commonly referred to as NAT. point to Administrative Tools. The computers on a private network are configured with reusable private Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses. that uses Routing and Remote Access NAT technology to enable computers on the internal corporate network to connect to resources on the Internet without having to deploy a proxy server. What is the real difference between NAT and PAT? Take NAT (Network Address Translation) and PAT (Port Address Translation). How do you configure NAT on Windows 2003? http://www. .windowsnetworking. A typical deployment is a small office or home office (SOHO). and then click Routing and Remote Access. rarely at present. 59. In a PAT system you have a single or group of public IP addresses that are translated to multiple internal ip addresses by mapping the TCP/UDP ports to different ports. point to All Programs. This means that by using some "magic" on a router or server you can get around problems that you might have with two web browsers sending a request out the same port. Internet Protocol version 6 [IPv6]) addresses. the computers on a public network are configured with globally unique IPv4 (or.

Examine the selected options in the Summary box. click Network address translation (NAT). and then expand IP Routing. Click to select the Automatically assign IP addresses . To do so. 5. point to Administrative Tools. At this stage you have the option to reduce the risk of unauthorized access to your network. Configure dynamic IP address assignment for private network clients You can configure your Network Address Translation computer to act as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server for computers on your internal network. 5. In the Routing and Remote Access Setup Wizard. Click Use this public interface to connect to the Internet. Right-click NAT/Basic Firewall. Right-click your server. Click Start. and then click Routing and Remote Access. and then click Finish. 2. click the Address Assignment tab. follow these steps: 1. click Next. 4. Expand your server node. 3. To do so. point to All Programs. and then click Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access. click to select the Enable security on the selected interface by setting up Basic Firewall check box. and then click the network adapter that is connected to the Internet.2. and then click Properties. 3. 4. and then click Next. In the NAT/Basic Firewall Properties dialog box.

by using the DHCP allocator check box. 4. and then click OK. You can keep the default values. Right-click NAT/Basic Firewall. Configure name resolution To configure name resolution. click the Name Resolution tab. 2. In the NAT/Basic Firewall Properties dialog box. Repeat step b for all addresses that you want to exclude.0 with the subnet mask of 255.0. Click Start. point to All Programs. follow these steps: 1. 3.0. or you can modify these values to suit your network. . point to Administrative Tools.168. Click OK. If you use a demand-dial interface to connect to an external DNS server. and then click the appropriate dialup interface in the list. Notice that default private network 192. click Add.such as for domain controllers or for DNS servers -. follow these steps: 1. 2.255. click to select the Connect to the public network when a name needs to be resolved check box. Click Exclude. 4. To do this.0 is automatically added in the IP address and the Mask boxes. 3. Click to select the Clients using Domain Name System (DNS) check box. 6. In the Exclude Reserved Addresses dialog box. and then click Properties. type the IP address.exclude those IP addresses from the DHCP pool. and then click Routing and Remote Access. If your internal network requires static IP assignment for some computers -.

It allows remote computers to act as though they were on the same secure. or as a network-layer foundation of a defense-in-depth strategy. local network.61. Your authentication strategy must be well defined and implemented for the potential security provided by IPSec to be realized. And some of the . because authentication verifies the identity and trust of the computer at the other end of the connection. 62. because it cannot protect against attacks from within established and trusted communication paths. What's the difference between Mixed mode and Native mode in AD when dealing with RRAS? When you are in Mixed mode certain options in the dial-in tab of the user proeprties are disabled. 64. What is VPN? What types of VPN does Windows 2000 and beyond work with natively? L2TP (layer 2 tunneling protocol ) vpn server is also know as L2TP server in native mode & in PPTP in mixed mode PN gives extremely secure connections between private networks linked through the Internet. It's used by for configuring centralised authentication using RADIUS server. Do not use IPSec as a replacement for other user and application security controls. How do you allow inbound traffic for specific hosts on Windows 2003 NAT? You can use the Windows Server 2003 implementation of IPSec to compensate for the limited protections provided by applications for network traffic. What is IAS? In what scenarios do we use it? IAS is called as Internet Authentication Service. 63.

What are Conditions and Profile in RRAS Policies? The conditions and profiles are used to set some restrictions based on the media type. So if used matches those conditions mentioned in the profile then he can allowed / denied access to RAS / VPN server. group membership and lot more. IMAP (mail server). What types or authentication can a Windows 2003 based RRAS work with? It supports authentication methods like MSCHAPv2. 67. This is the high level protocols such as HTTP (web server). 65. and FTP (file transfer).RRAS policies are also disabled. This high level protocol then processes the request through . SPAP. 66. EAP. Determining which outer layer protocol will handle the request depends on the type of request made by the client. connection method. How does SSL work? Internet communication typically runs through multiple program layers on a server before getting to the requested data such as a web page or cgi scripts. Digest authentication. ( You can check it by going to properties of your server in RRAS ) 68. So if you want high level security with all the advanced feature then change the AD to Native mode. MSCHAP. What is the "RAS and IAS" group in AD? Used for managing security and allowing administration for the respective roles of the server. The outer layer is the first to be hit by the request.

and confidentiality as data is transferred between communication points across IP networks. IPSec provides data security at the IP packet level. Depending on the SSL setup on the server. If the client requested a secure connection the ssl layer initiates a handshake to begin the secure communication process. How does IPSec work? IPSec is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard suite of protocols that provides data authentication. What types of authentication can IPSec use? Deploying L2TP/IPSec-based Remote Access . integrity. it may require that a secure connection be made before allowing communication to pass through to the TCP/IP layer in which case a non-secure request will send back an error asking for them to retry securely (or simply deny the non-secure connection). 69.the Secure Sockets Layer. 70. IPSec protects against possible security exposures by protecting data while in transit. How do I deploy IPSec for a large number of computers? Just use this program Server and Domain Isolation Using IPsec and Group Policy 71. If the request is for a nonsecure connection it passes through to the TCP/IP layer and the server application or data. A packet is a data bundle that is organized for transmission across a network. and it includes a header and payload (the data in the packet). IPSec emerged as a viable network security standard because enterprises wanted to ensure that data could be securely transmitted over the Internet.

What is PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) in IPSec? In an authenticated key-agreement protocol that uses public key cryptography.Deploying L2TP-based remote access VPN connections using Windows Server 2003 consists of the following: * Deploy certificate infrastructure * Deploy Internet infrastructure * Deploy AAA infrastructure * Deploy VPN servers * Deploy intranet infrastructure * Deploy VPN clients Implantando L2TP/IPSec-based Acesso Remoto Implantando L2TP com base em conexões VPN de acesso remoto usando o Windows Server 2003 é constituída pelos seguintes elementos: * * * * * * Implantar certificado infra-estrutura Implantar infra-estrutura Internet Implantar infra-estrutura AAA Implementar VPN servidores Implantar intranet infra-estrutura Implementar clientes VPN 72. perfect forward secrecy (or PFS) is the property that ensures that a session key derived from a set of long-term public and private keys will not be compromised if one of the (long-term) private keys is compromised in the .

. What packet types do I see? You can see the packages to pass. 74. data origin identification and protection against replay attacks. use IPSec Monitor. 73. since the term perfect has been controversial in this context. However. but you can not see its contents IPSec Packet Types IPSec packet types include the authentication header (AH) for data integrity and the encapsulating security payload (ESP) for data confidentiality and integrity. The authentication header (AH) protocol creates an envelope that provides integrity.future. IPSec Monitor (Ipsecmon. AH also provides limited verification of it by not allowing changes to the IP header after packet creation (note that this usually precludes the use of AH in NAT environments. at least one reference [2] distinguishes perfect forward secrecy from forward secrecy with the additional property that an agreed key will not be compromised even if agreed keys derived from the same long-term keying material in a subsequent run are compromised. It authenticates every packet as a defense against session-stealing attacks.exe) provides information about which IPSec policy is active and whether a secure channel between computers is established. Forward secrecy has been used as a synonym for perfect forward secrecy [1]. Although the IP header itself is outside the AH header. Looking at IPSec-encrypted traffic with a sniffer. How do I monitor IPSec? To test the IPSec policies.

It can also be used in a null encryption mode that provides the AH protection against replay attacks and other such attacks. modify or script the network configuration of a computer that is currently running. display. ESP packets use IP protocol 50. without encryption or IP header authentication. This can allow for achieving some of the benefits of IPSec in a NAT environment that would not ordinarily work well with IPSec. and type: netstat -a Linux: Open an SSH session and type: netstat -an . AH packets use IP protocol 51. The encapsulating security payload (ESP) protocol provides the features of AH (except for IP header authentication). 76. either locally or remotely. plus encryption. How do I look at the open ports on my machine? Windows: Open a command prompt (Start button -> Run-> type "cmd").which modify packet headers at the point of NAT). What can you do with NETSH? Netsh is a command-line scripting utility that allows you to. 75.

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