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ÑAÏI HOÏC QUOÁC GIA TP HOÀ CHÍ MINH
TR¡ONG OA¡ HOC KHOA HOC XA HO¡ VA NHAN VAN







G¡uo trInh











Toâ Minh Thanh









NHAØ XUAÁT BAÛN ÑAÏI HOÏC QUOÁC GIA TP HOÀ CHÍ MINH – 2003
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LO¡ NO¡ OA¡


CIao frình Hình thaùi hoïc tieáng Anh duoc hình fhanh dua fron fu IIou
da duoc gIang day frong fhoI gIan qua cho sInh vIon chuyon ngu cua Khoa Ngu
van Anh. Truong ÐaI hoc Khoa hoc Xa hoI va Nhan van - ÐaI hoc Quoc gIa
Thanh pho Ho Chí MInh. CIao frình nay duoc bIon soan nham frang bI cho
sInh vIon cach fIop can mang fính fhuc hanh mon hoc day fính Iy fhuyof nay.
CIao frình Hình thaùi hoïc tieáng Anh frình bay mof cach co ho fhong mof so
khaI nIom co ban vo hình fhaI hoc va nhIou kIou phan fích fu vung fIong Anh.
Ðon canh do. gIao frình nay cung chu y don ca kof cau noI faI Ian y nghIa bIou
daf cua chung. NoI mof cach khac. faI IIou nay co IIon quan foI:
c Hìnb oi. tba bìnb oi. tu oung va cac ticu /oai cua chung frong fIong
Anh hIon daI;
d Cac quy trìnb bìnb tbanb va cac quy tac pban ticb fu vung fIong Anh.
Trong qua frình bIon soan gIao frình nay chung foI da fham khao va
frích dan nhIou fu IIou da duoc cong bo. dac bIof Ia cua ArnoId |1986). Jackson
|1980) va Sfagoborg |1965). Co fho noI. muc fIou duy nhaf cua chung foI khI
bIon soan gIao frình nay Ia nham cung cap cho sInh vIon mof Iuong fhong fIn
can fhIof vo IInh vuc fhu vI va fhaf su co ích IoI nay duoI suc op cua mof fhoI
Iuong hof suc khIom fon van fhuong danh cho mon Hìnb tbai boc ticng Anb.
Chung foI xIn duoc fho hIon Iong bIof on chan fhanh doI voI Ticn sì
Nguycn Ticn Hung vo nhung dong gop va pho bình phan bIon fích cuc cua ong
danh cho gIao frình nay.
Ðay Ia Ian dau fIon gIao frình nay duoc xuaf ban. han khong franh khoI
saI sof. Chung foI mong nhan duoc nhIou y kIon dong gop cua ban doc do gIao
frình ngay cang hoan fhIon hon. Y kIon dong gop xIn guI vo: HoI dong Khoa
hoc va Ðao fao Khoa Ngu van Anh. Truong ÐaI hoc Khoa hoc Xa hoI va Nhan
van – ÐaI hoc Quoc gIa Thanh pho Ho Chí MInh. 10-12 ÐInh TIon Hoang. Q.1.
dIon fhoaI: 8243328.


Thanh pho Ho Chí MInh. ngay 30 fhang 7 nam 2003.
To M¡nh Thunh


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CONTKNTS

PreIuce ................................................................................................................................3
Tuble oI notut¡onul symbols...........................................................................................7
!nIf ono: MORPHKMKS....................................................................................................9
1. ÐofInIfIon – CharacforIsfIcs ............................................................................................9
2. Hov fo dIsfInguIsh Morphomos from Phonomos. SyIIabIos and Words7 .....................9
3. CIassIfIcafIon of Morphomos .........................................................................................11
3.1. Iroo morphomos vs. Ðound morphomos.................................................................11
3.2. Ðasos |aIso caIIod Roofs) vs. AffIxos .......................................................................12
4. VarIafIons of Morphomos — AIIomorphs .....................................................................14
4.1. ÐofInIfIon .................................................................................................................14
4.2. SoIocfIon of AIIomorphs: ..........................................................................................14
4.3. Typos of AIIomorphs ................................................................................................15
ÐXÐRCISÐS........................................................................................................................16
ÐXTRA RÐAÐINC .............................................................................................................36
!nIf fvo: OKR¡VAT¡ON ANÐ ¡NFLKCT¡ON ..............................................................41
1. ÐorIvafIon.......................................................................................................................41
1.1. ÐofInIfIon..................................................................................................................41
1.2. Typos of ÐorIvafIonaI AffIxos..................................................................................41
1.3. MorphoIogIcaI ruIos..................................................................................................41
2. InfIocfIon .......................................................................................................................45
2.1. ÐofInIfIon..................................................................................................................45
2.2. VarIous KInds of InfIocfIon......................................................................................45
3. Hov fo dIsfInguIsh ÐorIvafIon from InfIocfIon............................................................46
3.1. ÐorIvafIon.................................................................................................................46
3.2. InfIocfIon...................................................................................................................47
ÐXÐRCISÐS........................................................................................................................47
!nIf fhroo: ¡MMKO¡ATK CONST¡T¡KNTS ¡N MORPHOLOGY.............................65
1. ÐofInIfIon........................................................................................................................65
2. Somo RocommondafIons on IC dIvIsIon........................................................................66
3. ÐIagram..........................................................................................................................66
ÐXÐRCISÐS........................................................................................................................67

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!nIf four: WOROS.............................................................................................................89
1. ÐofInIfIon........................................................................................................................89
2. CharacforIsfIcs ...............................................................................................................89
2.1. IndIvIsIbIIIfy ..........................................................................................................89
2.2. InfornaI sfabIIIfy and PosIfIonaI mobIIIfy...........................................................90
3. CIassIfIcafIon..................................................................................................................91
3.1. CIassIfIcafIon of vords accordIng fo fhoIr sfrucfuro: ..........................................91
3.2. CIassIfIcafIon of vords accordIng fo fhoIr vord-formafIon
procossos: coInago. borrovIng. compoundIng. bIondIng. cIIppIng.
acronymy. convorsIon. affIxafIon and back-formafIon. .....................................94
ÐXÐRCISÐS......................................................................................................................109
ÐXTRA RÐAÐINC ...........................................................................................................121
Answer keys...................................................................................................................123
B¡bl¡ogruphy ..................................................................................................................140















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NOTAT¡ONAL SYMBOLS

Mosf of fho symboIs usod In fhIs foxf foIIov convonfIons. buf sInco convonfIons
vary. fho foIIovIng IIsf IndIcafos fho moanIngs assIgnod fo fhom horo.

n = noun
|!l = uncounfabIo
|Cl = counfabIo
p/ = pIuraI
sing = sInguIar
aJj = adjocfIvo
aJo = advorb
prcp = proposIfIon
o = vorb
phr o = phrasaI vorb
sfh = somofhIng
sb = somobody
mono-frans = mono-fransIfIvo vorb
compIox frans = compIox fransIfIvo vorb
ofc = ct cctcra moanIng “anJ otbcr simi/ar tbings” or “anJ so on”
fIg = fIgurafIvo
osp = ospocIaIIy
usu = usuaIIy
/m/ = formaI
in/m/ = InformaI
Jcrog = dorogafory. InsuIfIng
attrib = affrIbufIvo
prcJ = prodIcafIvo
Brit = ÐrIfIsh
abbr = abbrovIafod
I = InfransIfIvo vorb
Ipr = InfransIfIvo vorb + proposIfIonaI phraso
Ip = InfransIfIvo vorb + advorbIaI parfIcIo
Ia = IInkIng vorb + adjocfIvo |phraso)
Tn = fransIfIvo vorb + noun |phraso)
Tn.pr = fransIfIvo vorb + noun |phraso) + proposIfIonaI phraso
Tn.p = fransIfIvo vorb + noun |phraso) + advorbIaI parfIcIo
Cn.f = compIox fransIfIvo vorb + noun |phraso) + to-InfInIfIvo
phraso
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UNIT ONE
MORPHEMES

1. DEFINITION – CHARACTERISTICS
What is a morpheme?
• ‘A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language.’
[Richards, Platt & Weber, 1987: 183]
• ‘A morpheme is a short segment of language that meets three criteria:
c It is a word or part of a word that has meaning.
d It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of
its meaning or without meaningless remainders.
e It recurs in different verbal environments with a relatively stable meaning.’
[Stageberg, 1965: 85]
Ex.1: The English word unkind consists of two morphemes: the base kind
the lexical meaning of which is ‘friendly and thoughtful to others’ and the
prefix un– the lexical meaning of which is ‘not’; the English word talks
consists of two morphemes: the base talk the lexical meaning of which is ‘say
something’ and the suffix –s, which has no lexical meaning and which is used
to show that the verb talks is in the third person singular present-tense form.
In other words, we can recognize a morpheme by either its lexical or its
grammatical meaning.
Ex.2: Straight is an English adjective meaning ‘without a bend or curve’. By
dividing straight, we get smaller meaningful units of trait /tre1t/, rate
/re1t/and ate/e1t/; but their meanings violate the meaning of straight. We
also get the meaningless remainders: /s–/, /st–/ and /str–/. Therefore, straight
must be considered a morpheme, the smallest meaningful unit in English.
Ex.3:

Bright means ‘light’, and brighten means ‘make light’. This leads us to
conclude that –en means ‘make’. We also know that –en recurs with a stable
meaning in words like cheapen, darken, deepen, soften, stiffen, etc. Therefore,
–en must be considered a morpheme.
2. HOW TO DISTINGUISH MORPHEMES FROM PHONEMES, SYLLABLES
AND WORDS?
2.1. MORPHEMES vs. PHONEMES
A morpheme differs from a phoneme in that the former has meaning
whereas the latter does not. Although phonemes have no meaning, they have
distinctive features that help to distinguish meaning.
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Ex.1: The initial consonant of bitch is [− aspirated] while that of pitch is
[+ aspirated].
Ex.2:

The vowel of pin is [+ close] and thus [− open] while that of pan is
[+ open] and thus [− close].
A morpheme may consist of only a single phoneme like the /–z/ in goes. But
the phoneme /z/ and this morpheme are by no means identical. The phoneme
/z/ occurs many times where it has nothing to do with this morpheme. For
example, zoo /zu:/ and rose /r6υz/ both contain /z/ but the /z/ here has nothing to
do with the morpheme realized as /–z/ in goes.
Morphemes are generally short sequences of phonemes: the morpheme {of}
consists of two phonemes — / 4 / and / v /.
Most English morphemes are intermediate in size between {of} and
{strange} and consist of about two to six phonemes.
2.2. MORPHEMES vs. SYLLABLES
A morpheme happens to be identical to a syllable, e.g. the morpheme
{strange} and the syllable /stre1nd2/; and so are many English morphemes.
However, any matches between morphemes and syllables are fortuitous. Many
poly-syllabic words are mono-morphemic.
E.g. lion /’laI6n/: two syllables – one morpheme
crocodile /’kr4k6da1l/: three syllables – one morpheme
Connecticut /k6’net1k6t/: four syllables – one morpheme
On the contrary, both /g6υ/ and /–z/ in goes /g6υz/ are morphemes, though
altogether they are but a single syllable. That is, goes is mono-syllabic but
poly-morphemic.
Briefly, in some cases a morpheme may consist of one syllable or several
whole syllables. In other cases, it is only part of a syllable. In fact, to form a
morpheme, some phonemes are usually combined together without any regard
to their status as syllables.
In English, a morpheme is not identical with a syllable. The syllable is a
phonological unit whereas the morpheme is the basic unit in morphology.
2.3. MORPHEMES vs. WORDS
Words are made up of morphemes. In other words, morphemes are the
constituents of words.
A word may be composed of one or more morphemes:
One morpheme: boy, desire
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Two morphemes: boy + –ish, desir(e) + –able
Three morphemes: boy + –ish + –ness, desir(e) + –abil + –ity
Four morphemes: gentle + man + –li + –ness
un– + desir(e) + –abil– + –ity
More than four morphemes: un– + gentle + man + –li + –ness
anti– + dis– + establish + –ment + –ari + –an + –ism
3. CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES
It is always found that morphemes can be grouped into certain classes, each
with a characteristic distribution. There are two basic classes of morphemes:
free morphemes and bound morphemes. Affixes are almost always bound
whereas bases can be either free or bound.
3.1. BOUND MORPHEMES vs. FREE MORPHEMES
3.1.1. FREE MORPHEMES
• A free morpheme is ‘one that can be uttered alone with meaning’.
[Stageberg, 1965: 87]
• A free morpheme ‘can be used on its own’.
[Richards, Platt & Weber, 1987: 31]
• Free morphemes ‘may stand alone as words in their own right, as well as
enter into the structure of other words’.
[Jackson, 1980: 53]
E.g. Drink is a free morpheme which occurs as a word on its own and as a
free base in drinkable, undrinkable, drinking-water, drinking-fountain, etc.
3.1.2. BOUND MORPHEMES
• A bound morpheme ‘cannot be uttered alone with meaning. It is always
annexed to one or more morphemes to form a word’.
[Stageberg, 1965: 87]
• A bound morpheme ‘is never used alone but must be used with another
morpheme’.
[Richards, Platt & Weber, 1987: 31]
• Bound morphemes ‘may occur only if they combine with another
morpheme’.
[Jackson, 1980: 53]
E.g. the English suffix –ing /–17/ must be used after a verb form: writing,
living, driving, etc.
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3.2. BASES (or ROOTS) vs. AFFIXES
3.2.1. A BASE (also called A ROOT) is ‘that morpheme in a word that has
the principal meaning’ [Stageberg, 1965: 87-88]. It is the central morpheme,
the basic part of a word. There are two kinds of bases:
A FREE BASE is a base ‘which may be a word on its own right once the other
morphemes have been stripped away’ [Jackson, 1980: 53].
E.g. break in unbreakable, act in deactivated, friend in friendship, etc.
A BOUND BASE is a base (i.e. it is the basic part of a word and has the
principal meaning) which can never occur on its own but can only be joined to
other bound morphemes.
E.g.

The bound base of audience, audible, audition, auditory, auditorium,
etc. is audi–; that of suicide, patricide, matricide, infanticide, etc. is –cide; and
that of suspender, pendant, pendulum, etc. is –pend or pend–.
3.2.2. AN AFFIX is a morpheme (usually a bound morpheme) ‘that occurs
before or behind a base’ [Stageberg, 1965: 87].
3.2.2.1. Classified according to their POSITION in words, affixes have
three main subclasses:
• PREFIXES ‘occur before a base’ [Stageberg, 1965: 91] as in import,
prefix, reconsider, unkind, understate, over-react, etc.
• SUFFIXES ‘occur after a base’ [Stageberg, 1965: 92] as in shrinkage,
noisy, quickly, nails, dreamed, mouse-like, etc.
• INFIXES are inserted within words, e.g. the infix –um–in Tagalog,
which shows that a verb is in the past tense: sulat (to write) Æ
sumulat (wrote).
Affixes may be added directly to bases or to constructions consisting of a
base plus one or more (either free or bound) morphemes. Thus we have:
work + –s = works
worker + –s = workers
workshop + –s = workshops
3.2.2.2. Classified according to their FUNCTION in words, affixes have
two main subclasses:
• INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES, ‘which are always suffixes in English, perform
a grammatical function; they are representatives of grammatical categories’.
[Jackson, 1980: 53]
The only eight inflectional suffixes in English are:
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c the noun plural morpheme {–S
1
}: book–s, apple–s, box–es, etc.
d the noun possessive morpheme {–S
2
}: man–‘s, girl–‘s, students–‘,
Alice–‘s, etc.
e the verb third person singular present tense morpheme {–S
3
}: walk–s,
find–s, mix–es, etc.
f the verb present participle morpheme {–ing
1
}: play–ing, typ(e)–ing,
dig(g)–ing, etc.
g the verb past simple morpheme {–D
1
}: flow–ed, work–ed, creat(e)–ed,
drank, broke, thought, show–ed, etc.
h the verb past participle morpheme{–D
2
}: flow–ed, work–ed, creat(e)–ed,
drunk, broken, thought, show–n, etc.
i the adjective or adverb comparative morpheme {–er
1
}: small–er, saf(e)–er,
thinn–er, long–er, fast–er, hard–er, etc.
j the adjective or adverb superlative morpheme {–est
1
}: small–est, saf(e)–
est, thinn–est, long–est, fast–est, hard–est, etc.
• DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES, ‘which may be prefixes or suffixes in English,
have a lexical function; they create new words out of existing words or
morphemes by their addition’.
[Jackson, 1980: 53]
Derivational affixes may be of two kinds:
c Class-changing derivational affixes change the word class of the word to
which they are attached: –al added to nation makes an adjective out of a
noun.
d Class-maintaining derivational affixes do not change the word class of
the word to which they are attached. Derivational prefixes are usually
class-maintaining: re–mark, dis–enthrone, un–refined, etc.
There is not usually more than one prefix in a word in English and from
what was said in the previous paragraphs, it is clear that English prefixes are
always derivational. There is never more than one inflectional suffix in
English words and it always comes last. A number of derivational suffixes may,
however, occur. Derivational suffixes need not close off a word; that is, after a
derivational suffix one can sometimes add another derivational suffix and can
frequently add an inflectional suffix. The relative order of morphemes in the
English word is, then, as follows:
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derivational prefix – base – derivational suffix(es) – inflectional suffix
Generally speaking, bases are central and affixes are peripheral. In
English, affixes are almost always bound morphemes and bases are nearly
always free.
4. VARIATIONS OF MORPHEMES — ALLOMORPHS
4.1. DEFINITION:
An allomorph is ‘any of the different forms of a morpheme’.
[Richards, Platt & Weber, 1987: 9]
E.g. In English, the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S
1
} is often shown
in writing by adding –(e)s to the end of a singular noun, e.g. cat /k`t/ → cats
/k`ts/. Sometimes this morpheme is pronounced /–z/, e.g. dog /d49/ → dogs
/d49z/, and sometimes it is pronounced /–Iz/, e.g. box /b4ks / → box /’b4ks1z/.
It is believed that /–s/, /–z/, /–Iz/ are three allomorphs of the inflectional noun
plural morpheme {–S
1
} because:
c They are in complementary distribution:
/–s / occurs only after the voiceless consonants /p, t, k, f, θ/;
/–Iz / occurs only after the sibilant consonants /s, Z, ∫, 2, t∫, d2/;
/–z/ occurs after voiced sounds, including all vowels and voiced
consonants except /z/, /2/, and /d2/.
d They all have the same meaning, either lexical or grammatical:
/–s/, /–z/, /–Iz/ all refer to ‘plurality’ and all mean ‘more than one’.
Thus, an allomorph can also be defined as a variant of a morpheme which
occurs in a certain definable environment. And a morpheme is a group of two
or more allomorphs which conform to certain, usually rather clearly definable,
criteria of distribution and meaning. The concept of morphemes and
allomorphs is one of the most basic in descriptive linguistics. Its importance
both as a tool and as an insight into the operation of language can hardly be
underestimated.
4.2. SELECTION OF ALLOMORPHS:
The three allomorphs /–z/, /–s/ and /–Iz/ of the inflectional noun plural
morpheme {–S
1
} are phonologically conditioned since each can occur only when
a certain clearly defined condition occurs. In this case, the conditioning factor
is the phonetic nature of their preceding phoneme: /–s/ occurs only after the
voiceless consonants /p, t, k, f, θ/; /–Iz/ occurs only after the groove fricatives and
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affricates /s, z, ∫, 2, t∫, d2/; and /–z/ occurs only after voiced sounds, except the
three voiced sibilants /z, 2, d2/:
cat /k`t/ + –s /–s/ → cats /k`ts/
voiceless
dog /d49/ + –s /–z/ → dogs /d49z/
voiced
box /b4ks/ + –es /–1z / → box /’b4ks1z/

sibilant
We may, therefore, say that /–s/, /–Iz/, and /–z/ are three phonologically
conditioned allomorphs of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S
1
}. This
means that, if we understand the facts of distribution, we can accurately
predict which of the three will occur in any place where any one of them could
occur.
The selection of allomorphs may also be morphologically conditioned. In
this case, the selection is determined by the specific morpheme or morphemes
forming the context, rather than by any phonologic feature: the plural of ox
/4ks/ is oxen /‘4ks6n/; /–6n/ is a morphologically conditioned allomorph of
the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S
1
} which is used with this stem /4ks/:
ox /4ks/ + –en /−6n/ → oxen /‘4ks6n/

sibilant

If a morpheme has numerous allomorphs, as many do, it is awkward to
have a list of all of them every time the morpheme is mentioned. Instead, it is
desirable to have a single symbol to indicate a morpheme, comprehending all
the variant forms in which it can appear. For this purpose we use braces {}.
The braces {} indicate a morphemic representative in which one arbitrarily
selected symbol is used to represent each morpheme and comprehend all its
allomorphs. It does not directly give any information about pronunciation. For
instance, {–S
1
} can be used to refer to the inflectional noun plural morpheme
and all of its allomorphs.
4.3. TYPES OF ALLOMORPHS
c ADDITIVE ALLOMORPHS:
To signify some difference in meaning, something is added to a word. For
example, the past tense form of most English verbs is formed by adding the
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suffix –ed which can be pronounced as either /–t/, or /–d/ or /–Id/: ask + –ed
/a:sk/ + /–t/, liv(e) + –ed /lIv/ + /–d/, need + –ed /ni:d/ + /–Id/.
d REPLACIVE ALLOMORPHS:
To signify some difference in meaning, a sound is used to replace another
sound in a word. For example, the /1/ in drink is replaced by the /æ / in drank
to signal the simple past. This is symbolized as follows:
/dr`7k/ = /dr17k/ + / 1 → ` /.
e SUBTRACTIVE ALLOMORPHS:
To signify some difference in meaning, something is deleted from a word.
For example, the letter a is deleted from zopa to signal that this Russian noun
is in the plural form of the possessive case.
f SUPPLETIVE ALLOMORPHS:
To signify some difference in meaning, there is a complete change in the
shape of a word.
For example, go + the suppletive allomorph of {–D
1
} = went;
be + the suppletive allomorph of {–S
3
} = is;
bad + the suppletive allomorph of {–er
1
} = worse;
good + the suppletive allomorph of {–est
1
} = best.
g THE ZERO ALLOMORPH:
There is no change in the shape of a word though some difference in
meaning is identified. For example, the past tense form of hurt is formed by
adding the zero allomorph of {–D
1
} to this word.

EXERCISES
A. THE EXERCISES OF MORPHEMES
EXERCISE 1: Identify the number of the morphemes in each of the given
words. Complete the table given below.

1 play 1 11 keeper
2 replay 2 (re– and play) 12 able
3 date 13 unable
4 antedate 14 mahogany 1
5 hygiene 15 rain
6 weak 16 rainy
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7 weaken 17 cheap
8 man 18 cheaply 2 (cheap and –ly)
9 manly 19 cheaper
10 keep 20 honest

EXERCISE 2: Identify the bound morpheme(s) in of each of the given words.
Complete the table given below.

1 speaker –er 6 delivery
2 kingdom 7 intervene inter–, –vene
3 phonemic 8 revise
4 idolize 9 dreamed
5 selective 10 undone

EXERCISE 3: Underline the base in each of the given words. Complete the
table given below.
1 womanly 6 lighten 11 unlikely
2 endear 7 enlighten 12 pre-war
3 failure 8 friendship 13 subway
4 famous 9 befriend 14 falsify
5 infamous 10 Bostonian 15 unenlivened

EXERCISE 4: Identify the meaning of the affix in of each of the given words.
Complete the table given below.
1 antedate The prefix ante– means ‘before’.
2 replay
3 manly
4 keeper The suffix –er means ‘a person who …’.
5 unable
6 rainy
7 cheapest
8 subway
9 import
10 maltreat

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EXERCISE 5: Identify the meaning of the bound base in the given sets of
words. Complete the table given below.
1
audience, audible, audition
and auditorium
The bound base audi– means ‘hear’.
2
suicide, patricide, matricide
and infanticide
The bound base –cide means ‘killing’.

3
oral, orate, oration, oracle
and oratory

4
aquaplane, aquarium,
aquatic and aquaduct

5
mortuary, moribund, mortal
and immortal

6
corporation, corporeal,
corps and corpse

7
tenable, tenant, tenure and
tenacious

8
pendulum, suspender,
pendant and impending

9
manuscript, manacle,
manual and manicure

10
eject, inject, inject, reject
and projectile

NOTES:
1. The bound base audi– means ‘hear’.
- audible /‘0:d6bl/ adj that can be heard clearly: Her voice is
scarcely audible above the noise of the
wind.
- audibility /,0:d6‘b1l6t1/ n [U] capability of being heard clearly.
- audition /0:‘d1~n/ n [C] trial hearing of a person who wants
to perform as an actor, a singer, a
musician, etc.: I’m going to the audition
but I don’t expect I’ll get a part.
- audition v 1. [I] take part in an audition: Which
part are you auditioning for? 2. [Tn]
give an audition to sb: None of the
actresses we auditioned is suitable.
19
- auditory /‘0:d6tr1/ adj of or concerned with hearing: the
auditory nerve.
- auditorium /,0:d1‘t0:r16m/ n (pl~s) part of a theatre, concert hall,
etc. in which an audience sits.
2. The bound base –cide means ‘killing’.
- suicide /‘sju:sa1d/ n 1. [U] killing oneself intentionally: to
commit suicide; 2. [C] act of this: There
have been three suicides this week.
- patricide /‘p`tr1sa1d/ n 1. [U, C] (act of) killing one’s own
father: to commit patricide; 2. [C]
person who guilty of this.
- matricide /‘m`tr1sa1d/ n 1. [C, U] (act of) killing one’s own
mother: to commit matricide; 2. [C]
person who does this.
- infanticide /1n‘f`nt1sa1d/ n 1. [U] crime of killing an infant: to
commit infanticide; 2. [C] person who
kills an infant.
3. The bound base ora– means ‘mouth’ or ‘speak’.
- oration /4‘re1~n/ n [C] formal speech made on a public
occasion esp as part of a ceremony: a
funeral oration.
- oracle /‘4r6kl/ n [C] priest(ess) giving the answers: to
consult the oracle.
- oratory /‘4r6tr1/ n [U] (art of) public speaking, esp when
used skilfully to affect an audience:
Some politicians are famous for their
oratory.
- orator /‘4r6t6/ n (fml) (a) person who makes formal
speeches in public;
(b) person who is good at public
speaking.
4. The bound base aqua– or aque–means ‘water’.
- aquaplane /‘`kw6ple1n/ n [C] board on which a person stands
while being towed across water by a
ship or boat.
20
- aqueduct /‘`kw1d∧kt/ n [C] structure for carrying water across
country, esp one built like a bridge over
a valley or low ground.
- aqueous /‘e1kw16s/ adj of or like water, produced by water:
chemicals dissolved in an aqueous
solution.
- aquarium /6‘kwe6r16m/ n [C] (building containing an) artificial
pond or glass where live fish and other
water creatures and plants are kept.
- aquatic /6‘kw`t1k/ adj [usu attrib] 1. (of plants, animals, etc.)
growing or living in or near water:
Many forms of aquatic life inhabit
ponds. 2. (of sports) taking place on or
in water: Swimming and water-skiing
are both aquatic sports.
5. The bound base mor(t)– means ‘death’ or ‘dead’.
- mortuary /‘m0:t~6r1/ n [C] room or building (e.g. part of a
hospital) in which dead bodies are kept
before being buried or cremated.
adj [attrib] (fml) of death or burial:
mortuary rites.
- mortal adj that must be die; fatal; causing death: a
mortal wound/ injury.
n [C] human being: ordinary mortals.
- immortal /‘m0:tl/ adj living for ever, that will not be dead.
n [C] immortal being, god.
- moribund /‘m4r1b∧nd/ adj at the point of death; about to come to
an end: a moribund civilization,
industry or custom.
6. The bound base corp– means either ‘the whole physical body of a
human being or an animal’ or ‘group of people working or acting as
a unit’.
- corps /k0:(r)/ n (pl unchanged /k0:(r)z/) [CGp] 1. (a)
military force made up of two or more
divisions: the 6
th
Army Corps (b) one of
the technical branches of an army: the
21
Royal Army Medical Corps; 2. a group
of people involved in a particular
activity: the Diplomatic Corps, the
press corps.
- corpse /k0:ps/ n [C] dead body esp of a human being.
- corporation /,k0:p6‘re1~n/ n [CGp] 1. group of people authorised to
act as an individual, e.g. for business
purposes. 2. group of people elected to
govern a town; council.
- corporeal /k0:‘p0:r16l/ adj of or for the body; material; bodily.
7. The bound base ten– means ‘hold’.
- tenable (for…) adj [pred] (of an office or position) that can
be held for a certain time: The
lectureship is tenable for a period of
three years.
- tenant n [C] 1. person who pays rent to a
landlord/ landlady for the use of a
room, a piece of land, etc.; 2. person
who occupies a particular building or
piece of land but does not own it.
- tenure /‘tenjυ6/ n [U] holding of an office, a piece of land
or other property.
- tenacious /te‘ne1~6s/ adj resolute; keeping a firm hold on
property, principles, life, etc: She’s
tenacious in defence of her rights.
8. The bound base pend– means ‘hang’.
- pendulum /‘pendjυl6m/ n [C] weight hung on a cord from a fixed
point so that it can swing freely.
- pendant /‘pend6nt/ n [C] ornament that hangs from a chain
worn round the neck.
- suspender /s6s‘pend6(r)/ n 1. [C esp pl] (Brit) short elastic strap
for holding up a sock or stocking by its
top; 2. suspenders [pl] (US) = braces.
- impending /1m‘pend17/ adj about to happen: his impending
retirement, visit, arrival, departure, etc.

22
9. The bound base man– means ‘hand’.
- manicure /‘m`n1kjυ6(r)/ n [U, C] treatment for the hands and
finger nails: have a manicure once a
week; do a course in manicure.
- manuscript /‘m`njυskr1p/ n (abbr MS) 1. thing written by hand:
[attrib] a manuscript copy of a typed
letter; 2. author’s written or typed work
which has not been printed yet: submit
a manuscript to an editor.
- manacle /‘m`n6kl/ n (usu pl) one of a pair of chains or metal
bands for binding the hands or feet.
- manual /‘m`nυj6l/ adj done with or controlled by the hands:
manual labor; n [C] keyboard of an
organ, played with the hands.
10. The bound base ject– means ‘throw’ or ‘shoot’.
10.1. The prefix e− means ‘out(ward)’:
- eject (from sth) v 1. [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sb/sth (from sth) (fml)
force sb/sth out, expel sb/sth: The noisy
youths were ejected from the cenima; 2
[Tn] send (sth) out, usu violently or
suddenly: lava ejected from a volcano; 3
[I, Ipr] ∼ (from sth) be thrown quickly
from an aircraft in an emergency, so
that one can descend by parachute: As
the plane fell quickly toward the
ground, the pilot had to eject.
10.2. The prefix in− means ‘in(ward)’ or ‘into’:
- inject v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sth (into sb/sth); ∼
sb/sth (with sth) force (a drug or other
liquid) into sb/sth with a syringe or
similar implement: inject peniciline
into sb’s arm, leg, etc.
10.3. The prefix pro− means ‘forward’:
- project v 1. [I, Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sth (into sth); send
or throw sth outward or forward: an
apparatus to project missiles into space.
23
- projectile /pr6‘d2ekta1l/ n [C] object to be shot forward, esp from
a gun;
adj 1. that can be sent forward through the
air, water: projectile missiles; 2. that
can send objects: projectile force.
10.4. The prefix re− means ‘back(ward)’:
- reject v 1. [Tn] refuse to accept (sb/sth): He
rejected my job; 2. [Tn] put (sth) aside,
throw (sth) away as not to be used,
chosen, done, etc: reject over-ripe fruit.
EXERCISE 6: Identify the meaning of the bound base in each of the given
words and then give as many words with the same bound base as you can.
Complete the table given below.

1
revise

–vise = ‘see’
devise, visible, visionary, (tele)vision,
visibility, (audio-)visual, supervise, etc.
2
contradict

–dict = ‘say’
dictate, dictator, dictation, diction, dictum,
contradict, contradiction, contradictory,
contradictorily, etc.
3 regress



4 intervene



5 recur




6 inspect




7 oppose




8 rodent




24
9 portable




10 rupture




11 annual




12 bigamy




NOTES:
1. The bound base –vise/ vis– means ‘see’.
- revise v [Tn] re-examine sth in order to
improve or correct it: revise a
manuscript before publication.
- devise v [Tn] think out (a plan, a system, a tool,
etc); invent: devise a scheme for
redeveloping the city center.
- vision n [U] power of seeing, sight: have a
perfect vision, poor, blurred, etc. vision.
- visionary adj having or showing foresight or wisdom:
visionary leaders, writers, paintings,
ideals, etc.
- visible adj ∼ (to sb/sth) that can be seen, in sight:
The hills were barely visible through
the mist.
- visibility n [U] fact or state of being seen.
- visual adj concerned with or used in seeing:
visual images, effects, etc.
- audio-visual adj using both sight and sound: audio-
visual centers.
2. The bound base –dict/ dict– means ‘say’.
- contradict /,k4ntr6‘d1kt/ v 1. [I, Tn] say sth that conflicts with
(sth said or written) by (sb): That is
25
true but don’t you dare contradict
(me)?; 2. [Tn] (of facts, evidence, etc) be
contrary to sth; conflict with: The two
statements contradict each other.
- dictate sth v [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ (sth) to (sb) say or
read aloud (words to be typed, written
down or recorded on tape): The teacher
dictate a letter the class.
- diction n [U] style or manner of speaking or
(sometimes) writing: Clarity of diction
is visual for a public speaker.
- dictum n (pl ∼s or –ta /–t6/) saying; maxim: ‘Knowledge is power’ is
a well-known dictum.
- dictionary n [C] book the lists and explains the
words of a language: an English
dictionary.

3. The bound base –gress means ‘go’.
- regress v [I, Ipr] ∼ (sth) (fml) return to/ cause
(sth) to go back to an earlier or more
primitive state or form.
- regressive adj making a continuous backward movement.
- regression n [U] moving backward.
- progress /’pr6υgres/n [U] onward or forward movement: The
walkers were making slow progress up
the rocky path.
- progress /pr6’gres/ v [I] cause (sth) to move forward: The
work is progressing steadily.
- progressive /pr6’gres1v/ adj making a continuous forward movement:
a progressive step.
- progression /pr6’gre∫n/n [U] ∼ (from sth) ∼ (to sth) moving
forward, developing.
- egress /’1: gres/ n 1. [U] (law) (right of) going out; 2. [C]
(dated fml) way out, exit: a means of
egress.
26
- ingress /’17gres/ n [U] (fml) going in; (right of) entrance: a
means of ingress
4. The bound base –vene means ‘come’.
- intervene /,1nt6’vi:n/ v [I] come between others in time:
during the years that intervene.
- intervening adj coming between: when she came back,
she found that much had changed in
the intervening years.
- convene /k6n’vi:n/ v 1. [Tn] summon (people) to come
together: convene the members; 2. [I]
come together (for a meeting, etc): The
tribunal will convene tomorrow.
- contravene /,k4ntr6’vi:n/ v [Tn] act or be contrary to (a law, etc),
break (a law, etc): You are contravening
the regulations.
- supervene /,sju:p6’vi:n/ v [I] (fml) occur as an interruption or
change: She was working well until
illness supervened.
5. The bound base –cur means ‘run’.
- recur /r1‘k3:(r)/ v [I] occur again, happen repeatedly: a
recurring problem, error, illness.
- recurrence /r1‘k3:r6ns/ n [C, N] (instance of) recurring; repetition:
the recurrence of an illness, problem,
error.
- current /‘k∧r6nt/ adj happening now, of the present time:
current issues, problems, prices.
- current /‘k∧r6nt/ n [C] movement of water, air, etc flowing
in a certain direction:
- currency /‘k∧r6ns1/ n [U, C] money system in use in a
country: gold, paper currency; trading
in foreign currencies; a strong currency.
6. The bound base –spect means ‘look’.
- inspect /in‘spekt/ v [Tn] examine (sth) closely: The customs
officer inspected my passport suspiciously.
27
- spectacles /‘spekt6klz/ n [pl] (usu fml) specs = glasses = a pair of
lenses in a frame used to help a person
eyesight.
- spectacle n [C] impressive, remarkable or interesting
sight: The sunrise seen from high in the
mountains was a tremendous spectacle.
- prospect /‘pr4spekt/ n [C] 1. (dated) wide view of a landscape: a
magnificent prospect of mountain peaks
and lakes;
2. picture in the mind or imagination,
esp. of a future event: She viewed the
prospect of a week alone in the house
without much enthusiasm.
- prospect /pr6‘spekt/ v [I, Ipr] ∼ (for sth) search for mineral,
oil, etc: a licence to prospect in the
northern territory; The company are
prospecting for gold in that area.
- perspective /p6‘spekt1v/ n [C] view, esp. one stretching into the
distance: get a perspective of the whole
valley.
- prospectus /pr4‘spekt6s/ n [C] printed document, leaflet, etc.
giving details of and advertising sth:
prospectus from several universities.
7. The bound base –pose means ‘place’ or ‘put’.
- oppose v [Tn.pr] ∼ sth to/ against sth put
forward as a contrast or opposite to sth
else: Do not oppose your will against
mine.
- depose v [Tn] = dethrone = remove a ruler, a
king, etc from power.
- propose v [Tn] put forward sth for consideration:
The committee proposed that new
legislation should be drafted.
- deposit v [Tn] put money into a bank, esp to
earn interest: The cheque was only
deposited yesterday, so it hasn’t been
cleared yet.
28
- impose v [Tn] place (sth unwelcome or unpleasant)
on sb/sth: impose restriction, limitations,
restraints, etc (on trade).
8. The bound base –rod/ rod– means ‘gnaw’.
- rodent /‘r6υdnt/ n [C] animal which gnaws things with
strong teeth.
- erode v [Tn esp passive] (of acids, rain, wind,
etc) destroy or wear (sth) away
gradually: Metals are eroded by acids.
- erosion n [U] process of eroding or being eroded:
the erosion of the coastline by the sea.
- erosive adj having a tendency to be eroded.
9. The bound base –port/ port– means ‘carry’.
- portable adj that can be carried by hand: a portable
television set.
- deport /d1‘p0:t/ v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sb (from …) legally force
(a foreigner, criminal, etc) to leave a
country: He was convicted of drug
offences and deported.
- transport v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sb/sth (from …) (to …)
carry or take sth/sb from one place to
another in a vehicle: transport goods by
lorry.
- portage n [U] (cost of) carrying goods.
10. The bound base –rupt/ rupt– means ‘break’.
- rupture n [U, C] (fml) (instance of) breaking
apart: the rupture of a blood-vessel,
seed-pod, membrane.
- erupt v [I] (of a volcano) break out: This
volcano has erupted twice this year.
- abrupt adj (of speech) not smooth, disconnected,
disjoined: short and abrupt sentences.
- corrupt adj (of languages, texts, etc) containing errors
or changes: a corrupt manuscript.
29
- interrupt v [Tn] break the continuity of sth
temporarily: Trade between the two
countries was interrupted by the war.
11. The bound base ann– means ‘year’.
- annual adj yearly.
- annuity /6‘nju:6t1/ n [C] fixed sum of money paid to sb
yearly.
- annuitant /6‘nju:6t6nt/ n [C] person who receives an annuity.
- anniversary n [C] yearly return of the date of an
event; celebration of this.
12. The bound base –gamy means ‘marriage’.
- bigamy / ‘b1g6m1/ n [U] custom of having two wives or
husbands living.
- polygamy /p6‘l1g6m1/ n [U] custom of having more than one
wife at the same time.
EXERCISE 7: Which of the following items is an English word? Support your
choice?
(1) ationizealnationde (ation–ize–al–nation–de)
(2) alizedeationnation (al–ize–de–ation–nation)
(3) denationalization (de–nation–al–ize–ation)
ANSWER:
Among the three items mentioned above, only (3) is an English word.
The order of morphemes in English words is:

derivational prefix − base − derivational suffix(es) − inflectional suffix
Analysing (3) we find out that the following morphemes are in correct
order: ‘de−’ is a prefix meaning ‘doing the opposite of’
‘nation’ is the free base, which is a noun.
‘−al’ is a derivational class-changing adjective-forming suffix
‘−ize’ is a derivational class-changing verb-forming suffix
‘−ation’ is a derivational class-changing noun-forming suffix
This morphemic analysis proves that (3) is an English word. The items
numbered (1) and (2) are not because their constituents are not arranged in the
above-mentioned order. The arrangements of the constituents in (1) and (2)
30
break all the rules concerning the internal stability and uninterruptability of
English words.
In other words, it is impossible to divide English words by the insertion of
any other elements. Also, English word formation does not enable us to move a
certain morpheme in a word to any position we like.
In conclusion, our conscious knowledge of the English language allows us to
identify (3), not (1) or (2), as an English word.

B. THE EXERCISES OF ALLOMORPHS
EXERCISE 8: Explain why ‘a’ and ‘an’ are two allomorphs of the same
morpheme.
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
EXERCISE 9: Identify the allomorphs of the inflectional verb past simple
morpheme {−D
1
} in the verb ‘be’. How are they conditioned?
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
EXERCISE 10: What are homophones? Give examples. Do they belong to the
same morpheme?
ANSWER:
c Homophones are commonly used to refer to words which sound alike
but have different meanings.
• Homophones may have different written forms: the verb mete (in mete sth
out meaning ‘give or administer punishment, rewards, etc.’), the verb meet
(‘come face to face with sb’) and the noun meat (‘flesh of animals, esp.
mammals, used as food’) are all pronounced as /mi:t/; the second person
pronoun you and the noun ewe (‘female sheep’) are both pronounced as /ju:/; etc.
Homophones may have the same written form: the adverb too
1
(‘more than
should be’) and the adverb too
2
(‘also’) are both pronounced as /tu:/; the noun
31
bear (‘large heavy animal with thick fur’), the verb bear
1
(‘give birth to’) and
the verb bear
2
(‘tolerate’) are all pronounced as /be6(r)/; etc.
d Homophones may also be allomorphs of different morphemes. Compare
the allomorph /−z/ of the noun plural inflectional suffix {−S
1
} like in those
frogs (1) with that of the noun possessive inflectional suffix {−S
2
} like in John’s
book (2) and with that of the verb inflectional suffix {−S
3
} like in It feels good
(3).
The two above illustrations show that homophones can never belong to the
same morpheme.
EXERCISE 11: Identify the following homophones and try to look for a few
more appropriate examples to illustrate their distinction.
(1)a. The inflectional verb past participle morpheme {−D
2
}: the departed
guests, edited manuscripts.
(1)b. The derivational class-changing adjective-forming morpheme {−D
3
}: a
very devoted wife; a rather neglected girl; he was even more excited
than I (was).
(2)a. The inflectional verb present participle morpheme {−ing
1
}: I saw a
house burning; I saw a burning house.
(2)b. The derivational class-changing noun-forming morpheme {−ing
2
}:
droppings (n., pl) = excrement of birds or animals; findings (n., pl) =
things that are discovered as the result of an (official) inquiry; He
attended the meeting; I make my living by teaching.
(2)c. The derivational class-changing adjective-forming morpheme {−ing
3
}: a
very exciting film; you can’t expect a more charming companion than
he.
(3)a. The derivational class-changing adverb-forming morpheme {−ly
1
}:
complete (adj.) + −ly → completely (adv.);
happy (adj.) + −ly → happily (adv.).
(3)b. The derivational class-changing adjective-forming morpheme {−ly
2
}:
coward (n.) + −ly → cowardly (adj.);
gentleman (n.) + −ly → gentlemanly (adj.).
(4)a. The inflectional adjective comparative morpheme {−er
1
}:
tall (positive adj.) + −er → taller (comparative adj.);
happy (positive adj.) + −er → happier (comparative adj.).
32
(4)b. The derivational class-changing noun-forming morpheme {−er
2
}:
read (verb) + −er → reader (noun);
teach (verb) + −er → teacher (noun).
(4)c. The derivational class-changing verb-forming morpheme {−er
3
}:
chat (noun) + −er → chatter (verb);
wit (noun) + −er → witter (verb).
NOTES:
chat /t∫`t/ n [C, U] friendly informal conversation:
I had a long chat with her (about her
job); That’s enough chat — get back to
work.
chatter /‘t∫`t6(r)/ v [I, Ipr, Ip] (away/on) (about sth) talk
quickly, continuously or foolishly about
unimportant matters: Do stop chattering
on about the weather while I’m trying to
read.
wit /w1t/ n [U] ability to combine words, ideas, etc.
so as to produce a clever type of humor:
I admire her for her wit;
[C] person who has or is famous for
this, witty person: a well-known wit.
witter /‘w1t6(r)/ v [I, Ipr, Ip] (on) (about sth) (infml, usu
derog) speak in a lenthy and annoying
way about sth unimportant: What are
you wittering (on) about?
EXERCISE 12: Give the morphemic structure of each of the following words.
Identify the allomorph of the inflectional suffix in each word. How are the
allomorphs involved conditioned? (morphologically or phonologically?)
1. ox → oxen /‘4ks6n/ = /4ks/ + /−6n/
/‘4ksn/ = /4ks/ + /−n/
/−6n/ or /−n/ is a morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of the
inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S
1
}.
2. brother → brethren /‘bre5r6n/ = /‘br∧5r6 → ‘bre5r−/ +
/−6n/
33
child → children /‘t~1ldr6n/ = /t~a1ld → ‘t~1ldr−/ +
/−6n/
/−6n/ is a morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional
noun plural morpheme {−S
1
}. It is added to a stem which has previously
undergone some change in form: from /‘br∧56/ to /bre5r−/ or from /t~a1ld/ to
/t~1ldr−/.
In other words, /−6n/ is added to the allomorph /t~1ldr−/ of the morpheme
{child} or the allomorph /bre5r−/ of the morpheme {brother}.
3. deer → deer /d16/ = /d16/ + / - /
sheep → sheep /~i:p / = /~i:p/ + / - /
/-/ is the morphologically conditioned zero allomorph of the inflectional noun
plural morpheme {−S
1
}.
The following group of names of edible animals, game animals, fish and
birds also takes the zero allomorph of {−S
1
}: SWINE, BEAR, ANTELOPE, BASS,
PIKE, CARP, PERCH, PICKEREL, QUAIL and GROUSE.
4. man → men /men/ = /m`n/ + / ` → e /
goose → geese /gi:s/ = /gu:s/ + /u: → i:/
/` → e/ and /u:→ i:/ are two morphologically conditioned replacive
allomorphs of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S
1
}.
The following limited group of nouns also takes a replacive allomorph:
WOMAN → WOMEN, TOOTH → TEETH, FOOT → FEET, LOUSE → LICE and MOUSE →
MICE.
5. wolf → wolves /wυlvz/ = / wυlf → wυlv−/ + /−z/
calf → calves /ka:vz/ = / ka:f → ka:v−/ + /−z/
mouth → mouths /maυ5z/ = /maυθ → maυ5−/ + /−z/
path → paths /pa:5z/ = / pa:θ → pa:5−/ + /−z/
In the above cases, before the phonologically conditioned additive allomorph
/−z/ of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S
1
} is added to change a
singular noun to a plural noun, that singular noun has previously undergone
some change in form: from /wυlf/ to /wυlv−/, from /ka:f/ to /ka:v−/, from /maυθ/
to /maυ5−/ or from /pa:θ/ to /pa:5−/.
In other words, /−z/ is added to the second allomorph of the stem: /wυlv−/,
/ka:v−/, /maυ5−/ and /pa:5−/. Some common nouns that may have the same
analysis are: WIFE − WIVES, KNIFE− KNIVES, HALF − HALVES, SHELF − SHELVES,
34
SCARF − SCARVES, BATH − BATHS, LOAF − LOAVES, SELF − SELVES, OATH −
OATHS, etc.
6. house → houses /haυz1z/ = /haυs → haυz−/ + /−1z/
/−Iz/ is a phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of {−S
1
} which occurs
after one of the sibilant consonants /s/, /z/, /~/, /2/, /t~/, or /d2/.
7. hurt → hurt /h3:t/ = /h3:t/ + / - /
put → put /pυt/ = /pυt/ + / - /
/-/ is the morphologically conditioned zero allomorph of either the
inflectional verb past simple morpheme {−D
1
} or the inflectional verb past
participle morpheme {−D
2
}.
8. drink → drunk /dr∧7k/ = /dr17k / + /1 → ∧/
/1 → ∧/ is a morphologically conditioned replactive allomorph of the
inflectional verb past participle morpheme {−D
2
}.
9. break → broken /‘br6υk6n/ = /bre1k → br6υk−/ + /−6n/
/‘br6υkn/ = /bre1k → br6υk−/ + /−n/
speak → spoken /‘sp6υk6n/ = /spi:k → sp6υk−/ + /−6n/
/‘sp6υkn/ = /spi:k → sp6υk−/ + /−n/
/−6n/ or /−n/ is a morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of the
inflectional verb past participle morpheme {−D
2
}. It is added to a stem which
has previously undergone some change in form from /bre1k/ to /br6υk−/ or
from /spi:k/ to /sp6υk−/.
10. go → went
/went/ = /g6υ/ + the morphologically conditioned suppletive allomorph of the
inflectional verb past tense morpheme {−D
1
}.
11. wash → washes /‘w4~1z/ = /w4~/ + /−1z/
switch → switches /‘sw1t~1z/ = /sw1t~/ + /−1z/
/−1z/ is a phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of either the
inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S
1
} or the inflectional verb present tense
third person singular morpheme {−S
3
}. The allomorph /−1z/ only occurs after
one of the sibilant consonants /s/, /z/, /~/, /2/, /t~/ or /d2/.
12. see → saw /s0:/ = /si:/ + /i: → 0:/
begin → began /b6‘9`n/ = /b6‘91n/ + /1 → `/
bite → bit /b1t/ = /ba1t/ + /a1 → 1/
give → gave /9e1v/ = /91v/ + /1 → e1/
35
/i:→ 0:/, /1 → `/, /a1 → 1/ and /1 → e1/ are morphologically conditioned
replacive allomorphs of the inflectional verb past tense morpheme {−D
1
}.
EXERCISE 13: Write the base morpheme and its allomorphs in each case.
How are the allomorphs conditioned?
1. house /haυs/, houses /haυz−/ + /−1z/
The base morpheme {house} has two morphologically conditioned
allomorphs, /haυs/ and /haυz−/, according to context: /haυs/ occurs when there
is no other morpheme occurring; /haυz−/ occurs in combination with /−1z/, a
phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional noun plural
morpheme {−S
1
}.
2. child /t~a1ld/, children /‘t~1ldr−/ + /−6n/
The base morpheme {child} has two morphologically conditioned
allomorphs, /t~a1ld/ and /‘t~1ldr−/, according to context: /t~a1ld/ occurs when
there is no other morpheme occurring; /‘t~1ldr−/ occurs in combination with
/−6n/, a morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of {−S
1
}.
3. strong /str47/, strength /stre7−/ + /−θ/
The base morpheme {strong} has two morphologically conditioned
allomorphs, /str47/ and /stre7−/, according to context: /str47/ occurs when there
is no other morpheme occurring; /stre7−/ occurs in combination with −th /−θ/, a
derivational class-changing noun-forming suffix.
wide /wa1d/ width /w1t−/ + /−θ/
broad /br4:d/ breadth /bret−/ + /−θ/
able /‘e1bl/ ability /6‘b1l−/ + /−6t1/
divine /d6‘va1n/ divinity /d6‘v1n−/ + /−6t1/
supreme /s6‘pri:m/ supremacy /s6‘prem6−/ + /−s1/
4. atom /‘`t6m/, atomic /6‘t4m−/ + /−1k/
The base morpheme {atom} has two morphologically conditioned
allomorphs, /‘`t6m/ and /6‘t4m−/, according to context: /‘`t∂m/ occurs when
there is no other morpheme occurring; /6‘t4m−/ occurs in combination with −ic
/−1k/, a derivational class-changing adjective-forming suffix.
feast /fi:st/ festive /fest−/ + /−1v/
destroy /d6‘str01/ destructive /d6‘str∧kt −/ + /−1v/
offend /6‘fend/ offensive /6‘fens−/ + /−1v/
repeat /r6‘pi:t/ repetitive /r6‘pet6t−/ + /−1v/
36
sympathy /‘s1mp6θ1/ sympathetic /,s1mp6‘θet−/ + /−1k/
energy /‘en6d21/ energetic /,en6‘d2et−/ + /−1k/
5. do /du:/, does /d∧−/ + /−z/
The base morpheme {do} has two morphologically conditioned allomorphs,
/du:/ and /d∧−/, according to context: /du:/ occurs when there is no other
morpheme occurring; /d∧−/ occurs in combination with /−z/, a phonologically
conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional verb present tense third
person singular morpheme {−S
3
}.
6. have /h`v/, has /h`−/ + /−z/
The base morpheme {have} has two morphologically conditioned allomorphs,
/h`v/ and /h`−/, according to context: /h`v/ occurs when there is no other
morpheme occurring; /h`−/ occurs in combination with /−z/, a phonologically
conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional verb present tense third
person singular morpheme {−S
3
}.
7. fame /‘fe1m/ infamous /‘1nf6m6s/
famous /‘fe1m/ + /−6s/ infamy /‘1nf6m1/
The base morpheme {fame} has two phonologically conditioned allomorphs,
/feIm/ and /−f6m/, according to context: /feIm/ occurs in primarily stressed
syllables; /−f6m−/ occurs in unstressed syllables.

EXTRA READING
The Allomorphs of the Inflectional Noun Plural Morpheme {−S
1
}
1. Three phonologically conditioned (= regular) additive allomorphs:
1.1. /−s/ occurs after the voiceless consonants /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/ and /θ/:
cat → cats /k`ts/ = /k`t/ + /−s/
1.2. /−1z/ occurs after the sibilant consonants /s/, /z/, /~/, /2/, /t~/ and
/d2/:
class → classes /‘kla:s1z/ = /kla:s/ + /−1z/
1.3. /−z/ occurs after all vowels, which are always voiced, and other
voiced consonants except /z/, /2/, and /d2/:
chair → chairs /t~e6z/ = /t~e6/ + /−z/
arm → arms /a:mz/ = /a:m/ + /−z/
37
2. The phonologically conditioned (= regular) additive allomorph /−z/ is added
to a stem that has previously undergone some change in form (with
consonant change):
calf → calves /ka:vz / = /ka:f/ + /f → v/ + /−z/
bath → baths /ba:5z/ = /ba:θ/ + /θ → 5/ + /−z/

3. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) zero allomorph /-/:
sheep → sheep /~i:p/ = /~i:p/ + / - /
4. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph (with
vowel change):
foot → feet /fi:t/ = /fυt/ + /υ → i:/
tooth → teeth /ti:θ/ = /tu:θ/ + /u: → i:/
man → men /men/ = /m`n/ + /` → e/
woman → women /‘w1m1n/ = /‘wυm6n/ + /υ → 1/ and /6 → 1/
5. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph:
5.1. /−6n/ is simply added to the stem:
ox → oxen /‘4ks6n/ = /4ks/ + /−6n/
5.2. /−6n/ is added to the stem that has previously undergone some
change in form:
child → children /‘t~1ldr6n/ = /t~a1ld → ‘t~1ldr−/ +
/−6n/
brother → brethren /‘bre5r6n/ = /‘br∧5r6 → ‘bre5r−/ +
/−6n/

The Allomorphs of the Inflectional Verb Past Simple Morpheme {−D
1
}
1. Three phonologically conditioned (= regular) additive allomorphs:
1.1. /−1d/ occurs after the alveolar oral stop /t/ or /d/:
want → wanted /‘w4nt1d/ = / w4nt/ + /−1d/
need → needed /‘ni:d1d/ = /ni:d/ + /−1d/
1.2. /−t/ occurs after other voiceless sounds:
fix → fixed /f1kst/ = /f1ks/ + /−t/
wash → washed /‘w4~t/ = /w4~/ + /−t/
switch → switched /‘sw1t~t/ = /sw1t~/ + /−t/
1.3. /−d/ occurs after other voiced sounds:
pull → pulled /pυld/ = /pυl/ + /−d/
change → changed /t~e1nd2d/ = /t~e1nd2/ + /−d/
fire → fired /fa16d/ = /fa16/ + /−d/
38
show → showed /~6υd/ = /~6υ/+ /−d/
2. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) zero allomorph /-/:
hurt → hurt /h3:t/ = /h3:t/ + /-/
put → put /pυt/ = /pυt/ + /-/
beat → beat /bi:t/ = /bi:t/ + /-/
3. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph:
dwell → dwelt /dwelt/ = /dwel/ + /−t/
burn → burnt /b3:nt/ = /b3:nt/ + /−t/
4. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph
4.1. with vowel change:
tear → tore /t0:/ = /te6/ + /e6 → 0:/
find → found /faυnd/ = /fa1nd/ + /a1 → aυ/
run → ran /r`n/ = /r∧n/ + /∧ → `/
ring → rang /r`7/ = /r17/ + /1 → `/
choose → chose /t~6υz/ = /t~u:z/ + /u: → 6υ/
4.2. with consonant change:
send → sent /sent/ = /send/ + /d → t/
build → built /bju:lt/ = /bju:ld/ + /d → t/
4.3. with both vowel and consonant change:
catch → caught /k0:t/ = /k`t~/ + /` → 0:/ and /t~ → t/
bring → brought /br0:t/ = /br17/ + /1 → 0:/ and /7 → t/
seek → sought /s0:t/ = /si:k/ + /i: → 0:/ and /k → t/
5. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph + the
morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph
5.1. with vowel change:
tell → told /t6υld/ = /tel/ + /e → 6υ/ + /−d/
do → did /d1d/ = /du:/ + /u: → 1/ + /−d/
hear → heard /h3:d/ = /h16/ + /16 → 3:/ + /−d/
buy → bought /b0:t/ = /ba1/ + /a1 → 0:/ + /−t/
feel → felt /felt/ = /fi:l/ + /i: → e/ + /−t/
5.2. with both vowel and consonant change:
leave → left /left/ = /li:v/ + /i: → e/ and /v → f/ + /−t/
6. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) suppletive allomorph:
go /96υ/ + the suppletive allomorph of {−D
1
} = went /went/
be /bi:/ + the suppletive allomorph of {−D
1
} = was /w4z/ or were /w3:/
The Allomorphs of the Inflectional Verb Past Participle Morpheme {−D
2
}
39
1. Three phonologically conditioned (= regular) additive allomorphs: /−1d/, /−t/
and /−d/. (See ‘three phonologically conditioned additive allomorphs of
{−D
1
}’.)
2. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) zero allomorph / - /:
hurt → hurt /h3:t/ = /h3:t/ + / - /
put → put /pυt/ = /pυt/ + / - /
run → run /r∧n/ = /r∧n/ + / - /

3. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph:
dwell → dwelt /dwelt/ = /dwel/ + /−t/
be → been /bi:n/ = /bi:/ + /−n/
show → shown /~6υn/ = /~6υ/ + /−n/
beat → beaten /bi:tn/ = /bi:t/ + /−n/
4. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph:
4.1. with vowel change:
find → found /faυnd/ = /fa1nd/ + /a1 → aυ/
read → read /red/ = /ri:d/ + /i: → e/
ring → rung /r∧7/ = /r17/ + /1 → ∧/
4.2. with consonant change:
send → sent /sent/ = /send/ + /d → t/
build → built /bju:lt/ = /bju:ld/ + /d → t/
4.3. with both vowel and consonant change:
catch → caught /k0:t/ = /k`t~/ + /` → 0:/ and /t~ → t/
bring → brought /br0:t/ = /br17/ + /1 → 0:/ and /7 → t/
seek → sought /s0:t/ = /si:k/ + /i: → 0:/ and /k → t/
5. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph + the
morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph:
5.1. with vowel change:
tell → told /t6υld/ = /tel/ + /e → 6υ/ + /−d/
hear → heard /h3:d/ = /h16/ + /16 → 3:/ + /−d/
buy → bought /b0:t/ = /ba1/ + /a1 → 0:/ + /−t/
feel → felt /felt/ = /fi:l/ + /i: → e/ + /−t/
do → done /d∧n/ = /du:/ + /u: → ∧/ + /−n/
tear → torn /t0:n/ = /te6/ + /e6 → 0:/ + /−n/
go → gone /94n/ = /96υ/ + /6υ → 4/ + /−n/
40
choose → chosen /‘t~6υzn/ = /t~u:z/ + /u: → 6υ/ + /−n/
5.2. with both vowel and consonant change:
leave → left /left/ = /li:v/ + /i: → e/ and /v → f/ + /−t/
NOTES:
c The −ed /−t/ in blessed /blest/ and the −ed /−d/ in burned /b3:nd/ are
two phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of either {−D
1
}
or{−D
2
}.
bless → blessed /blest/
→ blessed /blest/
burn → burned /b3:nd/
→ burned /b3:nd/
d The −t /−t/ in blest /blest/ and in burnt /b3:nt/ represents a
morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of either {−D
1
}
or{−D
2
}.
bless → blest /blest/
→ blest /blest/
burn → burnt /b3:nt/
→ burnt /b3:nt/






41
UNIT TWO
DERIVATION AND INFLECTION
1. DERIVATION
1.1. DEFINITION: Derivation is ‘the formation of new words by adding
affixes to other words or morphemes. For example, the noun insanity is derived
from the adjective sane by addition of the negative prefix in− and the noun-
forming suffix −ity’ [Richards, Platt & Weber, 1987: 77].
1.2. TYPES OF DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES: There are two subgroups:
• Class-changing derivational affixes change the word class, (also called the
grammatical category or the part of speech) of the words to which they are
attached.
Thus, when a verb is conjoined with the suffix −able, the result is an
adjective, as in desire + −able or adore + −able.
A few other examples are:
noun to adjective verb to noun adjective to adverb noun to verb
boy + −ish acquit(t) + −al exact + −ly mortal + −ise
virtu(e) + −ous clear + −ance quiet + −ly vaccin(e) + −ate
Elizabeth + −an accus(e) + −ation beauty + −fy
• Class-maintaining derivational affixes do not change the word class of the
words to which they are attached.
Many prefixes fall into this category:
a− + mortal mono− + theism
auto− + biography re− + print
ex− + wife semi− + annual
super− + human sub− + minimal
There are also suffixes of this type:
vicar + −age New Jersey + −ite
Americ(a) + −an pun + −ster
1.3. MORPHOLOGICAL RULES: New words may enter the dictionary in this
fashion, created by the application of morphological rules. A few of them are:
(1) VERB + −able = ‘able to be VERB-ed’
ACCEPT + −able = ‘able to be ACCEPTed’
42
The derivational class-changing adjective-forming suffix {−able} has three
allomorphs:
(i) /−6bl/, which occurs at the end of English words: visible
/‘v1z6bl/, desirable /d6‘za16r6bl /;
(ii) /−6b/, which occurs before the adverb-forming suffix {−ly
1
}:
visibly /‘v1z6bl1/, desirably /d6‘za16r6bl1/;
(iii) /−6‘b1l/, which occurs before the noun-forming suffix {−ity}:
visibility /,v1z6‘b1l 6t1/, desirability /d6,za16r6‘b1l 6t1/.

(2) un− + ADJECTIVE = ‘not + ADJECTIVE’
un− + TRUE = ‘not + TRUE’
Among the words which have been derived from this morphological rule are
unjust, unkind, unfair, unfit, unavoidable, unrelieved, unscientific,
unshrinking, unskilled, etc.

(3) un− + VERB = ‘do the opposite of + VERB+ −ING’
= ‘reverse + VERB+ −ING’
un− + LOCK = ‘do the opposite of + LOCKING’
= ‘reverse + LOCKING’
Among the words which have been derived from the this morphological rule
are unnerve, unlock, untie, undo, untread, unzip, unfasten, undress, uncurl,
unfold, etc.

NOTES:
c Added to a verb base, the prefix ‘un−’ meaning ‘reverse’ or ‘do the opposite
of’ is not too difficult to be identified:
1. nerve /n3:v/ v [Tn.pr, Cn.t] ∼ sb/oneself for sth give
sb/ oneself the courage, strength, self-
control, confidence, or determination to
do sth: Her support nerve her for the
fight. I nerved myself to face my
accusers.
unnerve /,∧n‘n3:v/ v [Tn] cause sb to lose courage, strength,
self-control, confidence, or determination:
His encounter with the guard dog had
completely unnerved him.
43
2. lock /l4k/ v [Tn] fasten (a gate, door, lid, etc.) with
a lock: Be sure to lock your bicycle.
unlock /,∧n‘l4k/ v [Tn] unfasten the lock (of a door, gate,
lid, etc.) using a key: He failed to
unlock the gate.
3. tie /ta1/ v [Tn] fasten or bind (sth) with rope,
string, etc.: Shall I tie the parcel or use
sticky tape?
untie /,∧n‘ta1/ v [Tn] unfasten knots, buttons, a parcel,
an envelope, etc.: Could you untie this
apron for me?
4. undo /,∧n‘du:/ v [Tn] 1. reverse doing; untie or unfasten
knots, buttons, etc.: I can’t undo my
shoelaces; 2. reverse doing; destroy the
effect of sth: He undid most of the good
work of his predecessor.
5. tread /tri:d/ v [I] set one’s foot down; walk or step:
Explorers were going where no man
had trod before.
untread /,∧n‘tri:d/ v [I] go back through in the same steps:
She trod and untrod lightly so as not to
wake the baby.
d Also added to a verb base, the prefix ‘un−’ may have another meaning:
‘remove from’ or ‘deprive of’:
1. earth /3:8/ sth up [phr v] cover sth (the roots of a plant,
etc.) with earth: He earthed up the
celery.
unearth /,∧n‘3:8/ v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sth (from sth) dig up,
uncover sth from the ground by
digging: The dog has unearthed some
bones.
2. mask /ma:sk/ v [Tn] cover the face (of sb) with a mask;
(fig.) conceal sth: The thief masked his
face with a stocking. She masked her
fear by a show of confidence.
unmask /,∧n‘ma:sk/ v [Tn] remove a mask from (sb); (fig.)
reveal the true character of (sb/sth):
Who will unmask his plot?
44
3. load /l6υd/ v [Tn] put a load in or on sth: They
loaded bricks onto the lorry.
unload /,∧n‘l6υd/ v [Tn] remove a load from sth: Dockers
started unloading the ship.
4. plug /pl∧9/ phr v [Tn] sth in connect (sth) to the electricity
supply with a plug: Plug in the radio,
please. The recorder wasn’t plugged in.
unplug /,∧n‘pl∧9/ v [Tn] disconnect (an electrical appliance)
by removing its plug from the socket:
Please unplug the TV before you go to
bed.
5. unfrock /,∧n‘fr4k/ v [Tn esp. passive] deprive (a cleric) of
ecclesiastic rank, dismiss (a priest
guilty of bad conduct) from the
priesthood: The vicar of the church has
been unfrocked.
(Notice that ‘frock’ as a verb does not
really exist in English.)
e Unfortunately, it is not always easy to identify the meaning of the prefix
‘un−’: if the suffix ‘−en’ in ‘unloosen’ means ‘make’, then what does the
prefix ‘un−’ mean? Compare:
Can you loosen the lid of the jar?
Can you unloose the rope around the victim’s waist?
Can you unloosen his collar?
loosen /‘lu:sn/ v 1. [I] become loose or looser: This knot
keeps loosening; 2. [Tn] make (sth) loose
or looser: medicine to loosen a cough.
unloose /,∧n‘lu:s/ v [Tn] make (sth) loose: After the huge
meal, he unloosed his belt and go to
sleep.
unloosen /,∧n‘lu:sn/ v [Tn] make (sth) loose: After the huge
meal, he unloosened his belt and go to
sleep.
This phenomenon can be used to support Fromkin‘s and Rodman‘s following
statement [1993: 50-51]: ‘It is true, however, that one cannot always know the
meaning of the words derived from free and derivational morphemes from the
morphemes themselves … Therefore, although the words in a language are not
45
the most elemental sound-meaning units, they (plus the morphemes) must be listed
in our dictionaries. The morphological rules also are in the grammar, revealing the
relation between words and providing the means for forming new words.’
2. INFLECTION
2.1. DEFINITION: Inflection is ‘the process of adding an affix to a word or
changing it in some other way according to the rules of the grammar of a
language. For example, English verbs are inflected for 3
rd
-person singular: I
work, he works and for past tense: I worked. Most nouns may be inflected for
plural: horse – horses, flower – flowers, man – men’ [Richards, Platt & Weber,
1987: 77].
2.2. VARIOUS KINDS OF INFLECTION
2.2.1. NOUN INFLECTION
Almost all English nouns have two forms: the plain form (also called the
unmarked form) used in the constructions like ‘a book’ or ‘the book’ and the
inflected form (also called the marked form) which is formed by adding
inflectional suffixes to the plain form. The plain form and its three inflected
forms together make up a four-form inflectional noun paradigm, which is a set
of relative forms of a noun. Not all nouns have three inflected forms:
one plain form
(= the stem)
three inflected forms
(= the stem + inflectional suffixes)
mother (singular noun) mothers (plural noun)
mother ‘s (singular-possessive noun)
mothers’ (plural-possessive noun)
2.2.2. VERB INFLECTION
The inflections of a verb are more complicated than those of a noun. The
paradigm of an irregular verb has four inflected forms: breaks, breaking,
broke, and broken.
Although the past simple and the past participle inflected forms of a regular
verb are just the same, they carry quite different meanings.
Therefore, it is much more convenient to assign all English verbs to a five-
form inflectional paradigm.

one plain form
(= the stem)
four inflected forms
(= the stem + inflectional suffixes)
work works, working, worked, worked
46
break breaks, breaking, broke, broken
2.2.3. ADJECTIVE INFLECTION and ADVERB INFLECTION
There is a three-form inflectional paradigm for adjectives of one or two
syllables and for monosyllabic adverbs though it does not apply to all
members of either the adjective or the adverb class.
Most one-syllable adjectives and adverbs and many two-syllable adjectives
have a comparative form with an ‘−er’ inflection and a superlative form with
an ‘−est’ inflection.

one plain form
(= the stem)
two inflected forms
(= the stem + inflectional suffixes)
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
ADJECTIVES
short
big
happy
pure
shorter
bigger
happier
purer
shortest
biggest
happiest
purest
ADVERBS
fast
hard
faster
harder
fastest
hardest

3. HOW TO DISTINGUISH DERIVATION FROM INFLECTION
3.1. DERIVATION
3.1.1. Derivation can be observed in the following formula:
A BASE (also called A ROOT) + DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES → NEW DERIVED WORDS

3.1.2. DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES serve to supply the base with ‘components
of lexical and lexico-grammatical meanings, thus form different words’ [Arnold,
1986: 87]. Adding derivational affixes to English base morphemes (which are
of various grammatical categories/ word classes/ parts of speech), we have
various DERIVATIONAL PARADIGMS: mother, motherhood, motherly, motherli
ness, motherless and motherlike form a derivational paradigm; break,
breakable, unbreakable, breakabil ity, unbreak abil ity, breakage and breaker
form another derivational paradigm; pure, purely, purist, purism, purify, puri
fic ation, pureness (= purity), impure, and impurity form still another
derivational paradigm.
47
3.1.3. THE BASE (also called THE ROOT) of a derivational paradigm is ‘the
ultimate constituent element which remains after the removal of all functional
and derivational affixes and does not admit any further analysis’ [Arnold, 1986:
78]. Thus, HEARTen, HEARTen ed, disHEARTen, disHEARTen ed, HEARTy,
HEARTi ly, HEARTi ness HEARTless, HEARTless ly, and HEARTless ness, all
share the same base: HEART.
3.1.4. A DERIVATIONAL PARADIGM is ‘a set of related words composed of
the same base morpheme and all the derivational affixes that can go with this
base’ [Stageberg, 1965: 97].
3.2. INFLECTION
3.2.1. Inflection can be observed in the following formula:
A STEM + INFLECTIONAL SUFFIXES → INFLECTED FORMS OF
ONE AND THE SAME WORD
3.2.2. INFLECTIONAL (also called GRAMMATICAL or FUNCTIONAL)
SUFFIXES ‘serve to convey grammatical meaning. They build different forms of
one and the same word’ [Arnold, 1986: 87]. Adding inflectional suffixes to
English stems (which are only nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs), we have
INLECTIONAL PARADIGMS: mother, mothers, mother’s and mothers’ form an
inflectional noun paradigm; break, breaking, breaks, broke and broken form
an inflectional verb paradigm; long, longer and longest form an inflectional
adjective or adverb paradigm.
3.2.3. THE STEM (of an inflectional paradigm) is the part of a word that
remains after the removal of all inflectional suffixes. In other words, the stem
is that part of a word that is in existence before any inflectional suffixes. The
stem of the inflectional adjective paradigm HEARTy–HEARTier–(the) HEARTiest
is HEARTy. It is a free stem, but it consists of A BASE and an affix; it is not
simple but derived. Thus, a stem containing one or more affixes is ‘a derived
stem’ [Arnold, 1986: 78].
3.2.4. AN INFLECTIONAL PARADIGM is a set of related words composed of
the same stem and all the inflectional suffixes that can go with this stem.
EXERICES
EXERCISE 1: Give as many words with the same bound base as you can,
using the given prefixes and bound bases.


48
Prefixes Bound bases
ad− (ac−, at−): to, toward 1. −tain hold
com− (con−): with, together, jointly, in 2. −ceive
de−: from, down, away −cept take
dis− (dif−): apart −ceit
ex−: from, out from, out of 3. −fer carry, bear
in− (im−): in, into, within, toward, on 4. −clude shut, close
per−: through, thoroughly 5. −port carry
pre−: before, in advance
inter−: between
pro−: forward, before, forth, for
re−: back, again
sub− (sup−): under
trans−: across, beyond, through
ANSWER:
1. Words with the bound base –tain meaning ‘hold’:
contain, containment, container, containable
detain, detainer, detainee, detainment, detainingly
entertain, entertainment, entertainer
pertain
retain, retainer
2. Words with the bound base –ceive, –cept, –ceit meaning ‘take’:
accept, acceptance, acceptable, acceptability, acceptableness, accepter
conceive, conceivable, conception, conceit, conceiver
deceive, deceivable, deception, deceiver, deceptive,
perceive, perceivable, perception, perceiver, perceptive,
receive, receivable, reception, receiver,
receptive
3. Words with the bound base –fer meaning ‘carry’ or ‘bear’:
confer, conferee, conferment, conferable, conference, conferal, conferer
defer, deference, deferent, deferential, deferentially, defer, deferment,
deferable
infer, inferable, inferer, inference, inferential, inferentially
prefer, preferer, preferable, preferability, preferably, preference,
preferential, preferentially, preferment
refer, referable, referer, referee, reference, referendum, referent,
referential, referentially, referal
transfer, transferable, transfererer, transfereree, transferase,
transference, transferential, transferentially, transferal
49
4. Words with the bound base –clude meaning ‘shut’ or ‘close’:
conclude, concluder
exclude, excludable, excluder, excludability
include, includable
preclude
5. Words with the bound base –port meaning ‘carry’:
comport, comportment
deport, deportable, deportation, deportee, deportment
disport
export, exportable, exportation, exporter
import, importable, importation, importer, important, importance,
importancy, importantly
report, reportable, reportage, reporter
support, supportable, supportableness, supportably, supporter, supportive
transport, transportable, transportability, transporter, transportation,
transportational

EXERCISE 2: Identify all the possible the suffixes in each of the given
words. Complete the table given below.
1 organists
2 personalities
3 flirtatiously 3 suffixes −ation, −ous, −ly
4 atomizers
5 contradictorily
6 trusteeship
7 greasier
8 countrified
9 friendliest
10 responsibilities

50
EXERCISE 3: Identify the meaning of the prefix in each of the given words
and then give as many words with the same prefix as you can. Complete the
table given below.
1 antidote
anti− = ‘against’ anti-aircraft, antibody,
antipersonnel, antihero
2 circumvent
circum− =
‘around’
circum-navigate, circumference,
circumlocution, circumspect

3
co-pilot
collapse
compact
convene
corrode

co−, col−,
com−, con−,
cor− = ‘with’

co-curriculum, co-operate, co-
ordinate
collide, collision, collect
comply
consonant, convoke
correlate
4 contradict



5 devitalized
de− =
‘do the opposite’
deactivate, decentralize,
dehumanize, deform,
denationalize, decolonize, decode
6 delouse de− = ‘remove’
dehorn, defrost, deice, deflower,
deforest
7 devalue de− = ‘reduce’: degrade, debase, decline, decrease
8 disunion




9 disagreeable




10
insecure
imperfect
illegible
irreverent



11
inspire

imbibe
in−, im− = ‘in’ or
‘on’
inspiration, inspirational,
inspiring, inspired, inspect,
install, inscribe
imbue, impale, impalpable,
impalement
51
12 intervene



13 intramural



14
obstruct


oppose
ob−, op− =
‘against’ or
‘opposite’
obstruction, obstructive, obstrude,
obstrusion, obstrusive(ly),
obstinate obstrusiveness,
obstacle, object(ion),
opposition, opposed, opponent,
oppress, oppressed, oppression,
oppressive(ly),
15 pre-war




16 post-war




17 proceed




18 retroactive
retro− =
‘backward’
retroflex, retrograde, retrogress,
retro-rocket, retrospect
19 semi-professional




20 subway




21 superabundant




22 unlikely




23 undress





NOTES:
1. The prefix anti– means ‘against’.
- antidote /‘`nt1d6υt/ n [C] substance that acts against the
effect of poison: an antidote against
52
snake bites, food poisoning, malaria,
etc.
- anti-aircraft adj designed to destroy enemy aircrafts:
anti-aircraft guns.
- anti-personnel adj designed to kill or injure people: anti-
personnel explosives.
- anti-hero n [C] central character in a story or
drama who lacks the qualities usually
associated with a hero, such as courage
and dignity.
- antibody n [C] protein formed in the blood in
response to harmful bacteria, etc.
which it then attacks and destroys.
2. The prefix circum– means ‘around’.
- circumvent /s6k∧m‘vent/ v [Tn] find a way of overcoming or
avoiding sth: circumvent a law, rule,
problem, difficulty, etc.
- ,circum‘navigate v [Tn] sail around (esp. the world):
Magellan was the first person to
circumnavigate the globe.
- circumference/s6‘k∧mf6r6ns/ n [C] line that marks out a circle or other
curved figures.
- circumlocution n [U, C] (instance of the) use of many
words to say sth that could be said in a
few words.
- circumspect adj considering everything carefully before
action; cautious:
- circumspection n [N] caution: proceeding with great
circumspect.
3. The prefixes co–, col–, com–, con– and cor– all mean ‘with’, ‘together’
or ‘jointly’.
- co-pilot n [C] assistant pilot in an aircraft.
- co-operate v [I, Ipr] ∼(with sb) work or act together
with another or others:

53
He co-operated with his friend in raising money.
- co-ordinate v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sth (with sth) cause
(different parts, limbs, etc.) to function
together efficiently: We must co-
ordinate our efforts to help flood
victims.
- collaborate v [I, Ipr] ∼ (with sb) work together (with
sb), esp. to create or produce sth: She
collaborated with her sister on a
biography of their father.
- collide v [I, Ipr] ∼ (with sb/ sth) strike violently
against sth or each other.
- collect v [Tn, Tn.p] ∼ sth (up/ together) bring
or gather sth together: collect up the
empty glasses, collect together one’s
belongings.
- compact /k6m‘p`kt/ adj closely packed together: a compact disc;
v [Tn usu passive] press sth firmly
together: the compacted snow on the
pavement.
- comply v [I, I.pr] ∼ (with sth) do as one is
requested or commanded: Rules must
be complied with.
- convene /k6n‘vi:n/ v [Tn] summon people to come together:
convene the members, a committee, etc.
- convoke /k6n‘v6υk/ v [Tn] call together, summon a meeting,
etc: convoke the Parliament.
- consonant n [C] sound that has no voice and thus
has to go with a vowel: Vietnamese b
/be1/, c /se1/ and d /de1/ vs. English b
/bi:/ , c /si/ and d /di:/
- corrode /k6‘r6υd/ v [I,Ip,Tn,Tn.p] ∼ (sth) (away) destroy or
be destroyed slowly, esp with chemical
action: The metal has corroded away
because of rust/ acid. There exists a
54
bitter envy that has corroded their
friendship.
- correlate /‘k4r6le1t/ v [I,Ipr,Tn,Tn.pr] ∼(with sth), (A with/
and B) have a mutual relation with
sth: We can often correlate age with
frequency of illness.
4. The prefix contra– means ‘against’.
- contradict v [I, Tn] say sth that conflicts with sth
said or written: That’s true, but don’t
you dare contradict (him)? The speaker
got confused and started contradicting
himself.
- contravene v [Tn] act/ be contrary to (a law, etc.);
break: Her actions contravene the rules.
- contraception n [U] preventing of conception.
- contraceptive n [C] device or drug for preventing
conception;
adj preventing conception: a contraceptive
pill, device, drug, etc.
- contra-indication n [C] (medical) sign that a particular
drug may be harmful: The contra-
indications listed for the pills meant
that she could not take them.
5. The prefix de– means ‘do the opposite of’.
- vitalize v [Tn] provide sb/ sth with strength and
vigour.
- devitalize /,di:‘va1tla1z/ v [Tn] take strength and vigour away
from sb/sth: a nation devitalized by a
sustained war effort.
- activate v [Tn] make sth active.
- deactivate /,di:‘`kt1veù1t/ v [Tn] make (sth dangerous, e.g. a bomb
or a nuclear reactor) harmless or less
active by removing its source of power:
deactivate the fuse mechanism.
- code v [Tn] put or write sth in code.
55
- decode /,di:‘k6υd/ v [Tn] find the meaning of sth written in
code.
- colonize v [Tn] establish a colony (in an area),
establish an area as a colony.
- decolonize /,di:‘k4l6naù1z/ v [Tn] give independent status to a
colony.
6. The prefix de– means ‘remove … from’ or ‘deprive … of’.
- delouse /d1‘laυs/ v [Tn] remove the lice from sb/ sth.
- dehorn /d1‘h0:n/ v [Tn] remove the horn from an animal.
- deflower /,di:‘flaυ6/ v [Tn] deprive a woman of her virginity,
usually by sexual intercourse.
defrost /,di:‘fr4st/ v [Tn] remove ice or frost from sth.
7. The prefix de– means ‘reduce’.
- devalue /,di:‘v`lju:/ v [Tn] reduce the value of a currency in
relation to other currencies/ gold.
- decline /d1‘kla1n/ v [I] become smaller, weaker, fewer, etc.
- decrease /d1‘kri:z/ v [I, Tn] (cause sth to) become smaller,
weaker, fewer, etc.
- degrade v [Tn] cause sb to be less moral/
deserving of respect: I felt degraded by
having to ask for money.
- debase v [Tn] lower the quality, status or value
of sth: Sport is being debased by
commercialism. You debased yourself
by telling such lies.
8. The prefix dis– means ‘absence of’, ‘opposite to’ or ‘do the opposite of’.
- union n [U] uniting or being united: the Soviet
Union.
- disunion n [U] separating or being separated.
- appear v [I] come into view, become visible.
- disappear v [I] no longer be visible.
- count v [I] ∼(for sth) be of value or important:
Knowledge without common senses
counts for little.
56
- discount v [Tn] regard sth as unimportant: You
can discount what Jack said: he’s a
dreadful liar.
- arm v [Tn] supply or equip oneself/ sb with
weapons.
- disarm v [Tn] take weapon away from (sb),
reduce the size of the armed forces (of
a nation).
9. The prefix dis– means ‘not’ or ‘lack of’
- disagreeable adj not agreeable.
- dishonest adj not honest.
- disadvantage n [C] unfavorable condition, thing that
tends to prevent sb from succeeding,
making progress.
- discomfort n [U] lack of comfort; n [C] thing that
cause this.
- disapprove v [I, Ipr] consider (sb/sth) bad (= not
good), immoral (= not moral), etc: She
wants to be an actress, but her parents
disapprove (of her intentions.).
- disbelieve v [Tn] refuse to believe (sb/sth): I disbelieve
every word you say.
10. The prefixes in–, im–, il– and ir– all mean ‘not’.
- insecure adj not secure or lack of safety.
- incompetent adj not showing the necessary skills to do
sth successfully.
- inefficient adj not producing adequate results.
- immoderate adj too extreme or excessive; not moderate.
- impolite adj rude; not polite.
- illegal adj against the law; not legal.
- illiterate adj not able to read or write.
- irregular adj not regular in shape, arrangement, etc.
- irrespective adj not taking account of or considering
(sth/sb).
57
11. The prefixes in– and im– both mean ‘in’ or ‘on’.
- inspire v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sth (in sb)/ sb (to sth)
fill sb with thoughts, feelings, aims,
etc: His noble example inspired the rest
of us to greater efforts.
- inscribe v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ A (on/in B), B (with A)
write words, names, etc on or in
something: inscribe one’s name in a
book; inscribe a book with one’s name.
- inspect v [Tn] examine (sth) closely: inspect a
school, factory, regiment, etc.
- install v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sth (in sth) fix equipment,
furniture, etc in position for use: install
a heating or lighting system in a
building.
- imbile v [Tn] take in or absorb sth (fig): imbile
fresh air, knowledge, etc.
- impale v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sb/sth (on sth) pierce sb/
sth with a sharp-pointed subjec: In
former times, prisoners’ heads were
impaled on pointed stakes.
- impose v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sth (on sb/ sth) place (a
penalty, tax, etc.) officially (on sb/ sth):
impose a further tax on wines.
- impress v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sb (with sth) have a
favourable effect on sb: The sights of
the city never fail to impress foreign
tourists.
- implant v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sth (in sth) deliberately
introduce or fix (ideas, etc.) into a
person’s mind: implant religious beliefs
in young children.
12. The prefix inter– means ‘between’ or ‘each other’.
- intervene v [I] be or come between two points of
time: during the years that intervened.
58
- international adj of, carried on by or existing between
two or more nations.
- interstate adj between states, esp. of the USA:
interstate highways.
- intercede v [I, Ipr] ∼ (with sb) (for/ on behalf of
sb) act as an intermediary (between
two people, groups, countries, etc that
cannot agree), trying to help them
settle their differences: We have to
intercede with the authorities on behalf
of people unfairly imprisoned there.
- interact v [I, Ipr] ∼ (with sth) act or have an
effect on each other: chemicals that
interact to form new compounds.
- interchange v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sth (with sb) give sth to
and receive sth from each other: We
interchanged partners: he danced with
mine, and I danced with his.
13. The prefix intra– means ‘within’.
- intramural adj intended for full-time students living
within a college: intramural courses,
studies, staff, etc.
- intravenous adj within a vein or veins: intravenous
injections.
- intramuscular adj within a muscle or muscles.
- intra-uterine adj within the uterus.
- intrastate adj (existing) within one state, esp. of the
USA: intrastate highways.
14. The prefixes ob– and op– both mean ‘against’ or ‘opposite (to)’.
- obstruct v [Tn] be or get in the way of sb/ sth;
block a road/ the passage of sth: Tall
trees obstructed his view of the road.
- obtrude v [I, Tn, Tn.pr] force (oneself, one’s
opinions, ideas, etc.) upon sb/ sth, esp.
when unwanted: obtrude on sb’s grief.
- obstacle n [C] thing in the way that either stops
progress or makes it difficult.
59
- objection n [C,U] (expression of a) feeling of
dislike, disapproval or opposition.
- obstinate adj refusing to change one’s opinion or
chosen course of action.
- oppose v [Tn] express strong disapproval/
disagreement with sb/ sth.
- opponent n [C] person who is against another
person in a fight, a struggle, a game or
an argument.
- oppress v [Tn] rule or treat sb with continual
injustice or cruelty.
15. The prefix pre–/pr1–/means ‘before’.
- pre-war adj existing or happening (in the period)
before a war: in the pre-war period.
- pre-natal /,pri:‘ne1tl/ adj of the period before giving birth: pre-
natal check-ups, exercises, classes, etc.
- preconceived /,pri:k6n‘si:vd/ adj formed in advance, not basing on
knowledge or experience: preconceived
ideas, opinions, etc.
- precede v [I, Tn] come or go before (sth) in time,
order, rank, etc.
- preamble (to sth) n [C, U] opening that explains the
purpose of the book, document, lecture,
etc. that follows: He launched into his
statement without any preamble.
- precaution /pr1‘k0:~n/ n [C] thing done in advance to avoid
danger, prevent problems, etc.: take an
umbrella just as a precaution
- precautionary adj done as a precaution: precautionary
measures.
16. The prefix post– means ‘after’.
- post-war adj existing or happening (in the period)
after a war: in the post-war period.
- post-mortem /,p6υst‘m0:t6m/ adj made or occurring after death: a post-
mortem examination.
60
- posterior adj later (than sth) in time or in a series.
- post-date v [Tn] put a date (on a document, etc.)
that is later than the actual date.
- postgraduate adj done after the first degree;
n [C] person doing postgraduate studies.
- postscript (abbr PS) n [C] extra message added at the end of a
letter after the signature
17. The prefix pro– /pr6–/means ‘forward’.
- proceed v [I] go to a further or next stage.
- progress v [I] go or move forward.
- project v [Tn.pr] ∼sth (into sth) send or throw
sth outward or forward.
- propose v [Tn] offer or put forward (sth) for
consideration; suggest.
- proposal n [U] action of suggesting or putting
forward; [C] thing that is suggested.
- prolapse v [I] (of an organ in the body, esp. the
bowel or uterus) slip forward or down
so that it is out of place.
- prologue n [C] introductory part of a poem or play.
- prospect n [C] picture in the mind or imagination,
esp. of a future event.
18. The prefix retro– means ‘backward’.
- retroactive adj affective from a past date.
- retrogress v [I] go or move backward.
- retrorocket n [C] rocket engine providing power in
the opposite direction to the path of
flight.
- retroflex n [C] sound made by bending the tip of
the tongue upward and backward.
- retrograde adj going backward, getting worse.
- retrospect n [U] looking back on a past event or
situation.
61
19. The prefix semi– means ‘half’ or ‘partly’.
- semi-detached adj joined to another house by one shared
wall.
- semi-conscious adj partly conscious.
- semicircle n [C] half of a circle or of its circumference.
- semi-final n [C] match or round preceding the final,
e.g. in football.
- semicolon n [C] the punctuation mark (;) between a
comma and a full stop.
20. The prefix sub– means ‘under’ or ‘below the normal’
- subway n [C] underground pedestrian tunnel,
esp. one beneath a road or railroad;
underground railway in a city.
- submarine n [C] naval vessel that can operate
underwater as well as on the surface.
- submerge v [I] go under the surface of a liquid.
- subdivide v [I, Ipr, Tn] (cause things to) be divided
again into smaller divisions.
- subnormal adj below normal, less than normal.
- subordinate adj lower in rank or position.
- substandard adj below the usual or required standard.
21. The prefix super– means ‘over’ or ‘beyond the norm’
- superabundant adj very abundant.
- superhuman adj exceeding normal human power, size,
knowledge, etc.
- superior adj better than average.
- superficial adj of or on the surface only.
- superpower n [C] any of the most powerful nations in
the world.
- supervise v [I, Tn] watch or keep a check on (sb
doing sth or sth being done) to make
sure it is done properly.

62
22. The prefix un– means ‘not’.
- unlikely adj not likely, impossible.
- unattractive adj not attractive.
- untrue adj not true.
- unwilling adj not willing.
23. The prefix un– means ‘reverse of’ or ‘do the opposite of’.
- undress v [I] take off one’s clothes, (Tn) remove
the clothes of (sb/sth).
- unfold v [I, Tn] (cause sth to) open or spread out
from a folded state.
- uncurl v [I,Tn] (cause sth/oneself) become
straightened from a curled position.
- unlock v [Tn] unfasten the lock of the door, gate,
etc. using a key.
- untie v [Tn] unfasten or undo (a knot, a button,
a parcle, an envelop, etc.).
- unfreeze v 1. [I, Tn] (cause sth to) thaw; 2. [Tn]
remove official controls on (the
economy, etc): unfreeze (i.e. defrost)
some chops; unfreeze trade restrictions.
EXERCISE 4: Each group contains a base and a few suffixes. Make each into
a word. Complete the table given below.
1 −ed, live, −en livened
2
−ing, −ate, termin−

3
−er, −s, mor, −al, −ize

4
province, −s, −ism, −al

5
−ly, −some, grue

6
−ity, work, −able

7
in, −most, −er

8
marry, −age, −ity, −able

9
−dom, −ster, gang

10
−ly, −tion, −ate, affect

63
EXERCISE 5: Add a derivational suffix to each of these words, which already
end in a derivational suffix. Complete the table given below.
1 expression + −ism = expressionism
2 formal +
3 organize +
4 reasonable +
5 purist +

EXERCISE 6: Add an inflectional suffix to each of these words, which already
end in a derivational suffix. Complete the table given below.
1 kindness + −es = kindnesses (n., pl.) meaning ‘kind acts’
2 beautify +
3 quarterly +
4 popularize +
5 depth +
6 pressure +
7 extinguish +
8 orientate +
9 friendly +
10 noisy +

EXERCISE 7: You are given here five bases, or words with their bases
italicized. Give all the words in the derivational paradigm. Do not include
words with two bases, like ‘manhunt’ or ‘manpower’. Complete the table given
below.
1 sin sinful, sinfulness, sinless, sinlessness, sinner
2 kind

3 live (adj)/la1/

4 transport

5 audience

64
EXERCISE 8: The left-hand column contains ten words. The right-hand
column contains thirteen derivational suffixes used to make nouns and having
the general meanings of ‘state, condition, quality, or act of’. By combining these
suffixes with the words listed, make as many nouns as you can. Fill in the
given blanks.
Words Derived Words Noun-forming Derivational Suffixes
1. happy ________________________ 1. –hood 8. –ance/ –ence
2. friend ________________________ 2. –acy 9. –th
3. girl ________________________ 3. –ism 10. –ure
4. compose composure, composition 4. –ness 11. –ment
5. shrink ________________________ 5. –age 12. –y
6. discover ________________________ 6. –ity 13. –ship
7. supreme ________________________ 7. –ation/ –ition
8. true truth, truism
9. pagan ________________________
10. active ________________________


EXERCISE 9: Why is it said that inflectional suffixes are part of the syntax
of the English language?
ANSWER:
Inflectional affixes, which are always suffixes in English, perform
grammatical functions. They are representatives of the four grammatical
categories in English: noun, verb, adjective and adverb.
In English, inflectional suffixes typically indicate the syntactic relations
between different words in English sentences: the inflectional suffix –s
indicates the agreement between the subject he and the verb works in ‘He
works hard’; the inflectional noun possessive morpheme –’s shows the
relationship between Tom and another person — his father, in ‘Tom’s father’.
Therefore, it is quite true to state that inflectional suffixes are part of the
English syntax. To master this subject, we have to learn the rules regulating
the ways in which words are arranged to form larger linguistic units such as
phrases, clauses and sentences.
This phenomenon is not only true in English. It is also common in many
other languages in the world.

65
UNIT THREE

IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENTS IN MORPHOLOGY


1. DEFINITION
‘IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENTS are any of the two meaningful parts forming a
larger linguistic unit’ [Arnold, 1986: 83].
Let’s consider Bloomfield’s analysis of the word ungentlemanly [1935: 210].
Comparing this word with other words, we recognize the morpheme un– as a
negative prefix because we have often come across words built on the pattern
un– + adjective base: uncertain, unconscious, uneasy, unfortunate,
unmistakable, unnatural, unearthly, unsightly, untimely, unwomanly, etc.
Thus, at the first cut we obtain the two following immediate constituents: un–
and gentlemanly: un– gentlemanly
Continuing our analysis, we see that there are many adjectives following
the pattern noun base + –ly, such as womanly, masterly, scholarly, soldierly,
manly, etc. with the same semantic relationship of ‘having the quality of the
person denoted by the base’. Thus, at the second cut we obtain the two
following immediate constituents: gentleman and –ly:
gentleman –ly
There are compound nouns following the pattern adjective + noun, such as
nobleman, highbrow, middlebrow, lowbrow, lazysusan, flatfoot, etc. Thus,
the third cut separates the two free bases of the compound noun gentleman,
resulting in the two immediate constituents: gentle and man:
gentle man
We have now shown the layers of structure by which the word has been
composed, down to its ultimate constituents: un–, gentle, man, and –ly.

un– gentle man –ly


Doing word diagrams, like the one right above, to show layers of structure,
we make successive divisions into two parts, each of which is called AN
IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENT, abbreviated IC. The process is continued until all the
component morphemes of a word, the morphemes of which the word is
composed, have been isolated.
66
2. SOME RECOMMENDATIONS ON IC DIVISION
Here are three recommendations on IC division that will assist in the
exercise to follow:
c If a word ends in an inflectional suffix, the first cut is between this suffix
and the rest of the word.
pre– + conceiv(e)⎪ –ed mal– + formation⎪–s
d One of the IC‘s should be, if possible, a free form. A free form is one that
can be uttered alone with meaning: egg, doing, enlarge, supportable, etc. Here
are examples of wrong and right first cuts:
Wrong: en– ⎪ large + –ment Right: en– + large ⎪ –ment
in– + depend ⎪ –ent in– ⎪ depend + –ent
un– + law ⎪ –ful un– ⎪ law + –ful

e The meanings of the IC’s should be related to the meaning of the word. It
would be wrong to cut restrain like this:
rest ⎪ rain
because neither rest nor rain has a semantic connection with restrain. Nor
would a division of starchy as:
star ⎪ chy
be right because this would give an unrelated morpheme {star} and a
meaningless fragment chy. The two examples are properly cut in this way:
re– ⎪ strain starch ⎪–y

3. DIAGRAM
When we analyse a word, we show the process of word formation in reverse.
First, we divide the word into two parts. We continue this way cutting every
parts into two more until we can reduce the word to its ultimate constituents,
that is to the morphemes of which the word is composed — those which cannot
be divided any more:

Ungentlemanly un– gentle man –ly

un– gentlemanly

gentleman –ly

gentle man
67
The two IC’s of the first layer of construction are un– and gentlemanly.
The two IC’s of the second layer of construction are gentleman and –ly.
The two IC’s of the third layer of construction are gentle and man.

EXERCISES
EXERCISE 1: Give the IC cuts of each of the following words. Identify all the
possible morphemes in each of the following words:
1. arriv(e) –al
arrive: a free base which is a verb
–al /–l/: a Derivational class-changing noun-forming
suffix meaning ‘process or state of’
verb + –al = noun meaning process or state of verb-ing
arrive + –al = arrival meaning ‘process or state of arriving’
survival, recital, removal, (dis)approval, proposal, refusal, acquittal, etc.
2. build –s
build: a free base which is a verb
–s /–z/: an allomorph of the inflectional verb
present tense third person singular
morpheme {–S
3
}

3. wall flower –s

wall and flower: two free bases which are nouns
–s /–z/: an allomorph of the inflectional noun
plural morpheme {–S
1
}
4. sin –ful

sin: a free base which is a noun
–ful /–fl/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘full of’
noun + –ful = full of noun
sin + –ful = full of sin
powerful, meaningful, plentiful, hopeful, trustful, useful, helpful, scornful, etc.

68
5. sin –less

sin: a free base which is a noun
–less /–l6s/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘without any’,
‘lacking in’ or ‘absence of’
noun + –less = without any noun
sin + –less = without any sin
powerless, meaningless, penniless, hopeless, useless, helpless, lifeless, etc.

6. hope –ful –ly adjective + {–ly
1
} = adverb
hopeful + {–ly
1
} = hopefully

hope: a free base which is a noun
–ful /–fl/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘full of’
–ly /–l1/: the derivational class-changing adverb-
forming suffix {–ly
1
} meaning ‘in the
specified manner’

7. life –less –ness adjective + –ness = noun
lifeless + –ness = lifelessness

life: a free base which is a noun
–less /–l6s/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘without any’,
‘lacking in’ or ‘absence of’
–ness /–n6s/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘quality, state
or character of’

8. un– graci– –ous

un– /∧n–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘not’
69
graci– /‘gre1~–/: a bound base, an allomorph of {grace}
/gre1s/, which is a noun
–ous /–6s/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘having the
qualities or character of’
un– + adjective = not adjective
un– + gracious = not gracious
un– + true = not true
un– + base adjective : untrue, unjust, unkind, unfair,
uncertain, unreal, unfit, unhappy,
uncommon, undue, uneven, unclean,
unwise, etc.
un– + derived adjective: unavoidable, unbelievable, undeclared,
unequal, unfriendly, ungrateful,
unhealthy, unintelligible, unlawful,
unscientific, unmanly, unnatural,
unofficial, unpleasant, unusual,
unwilling, unwanted, etc.

9. un– true –ly

un– /∧n–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘not’
true: a free base which is an adjective
–ly /–l1/: the derivational class-changing adverb-
forming suffix {–ly
1
} meaning ‘in the
specified manner’

10. un– law –ful

un– /∧n–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘not’
law: a free base which is a noun
–ful /–fl/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘full of’
70
11. un– in– –spire –ed

un– /∧n–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘not’
in– /1n–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘in’ or ‘on’
–spire /–‘spa16/: a bound base either meaning ‘breathe’,
just like in re–⏐–spire, or meaning ‘act’,
just like in con–⏐–spire
–ed /–d/: an allomorph of the d. class-changing
adjective-forming suffix {–D
3
}
• inspired adj 1. filled with creative power: an
inspired poet, artist, etc; 2. full of a
spirit that leads to outstanding
achievements: act like a man inspired;
3. produced (as if) by or with the help
of inspiration: an inspired work.
uninspired adj without imagination or inspiration:
an uninspired speech, performance,
painting, etc.

12. live – ed
live: a free base which is a verb
–ed /–d/: an allomorph of the inflectional verb
past simple morpheme {–D
1
} or of the
inflectional verb past participle
morpheme {–D
2
}

13. un– employ –ment

un– /∧n–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘lack of’ or ‘without’
employ: a free base which is a verb
–ment /–m6nt/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘result or means
of’
71
un– + noun = without any noun, lack of (the quality denoted by) the noun
un– + employment = without any employment, lack of employment

14. un– verb –al –ize –ed


un– /∧n–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘not’
verb: a free base which is a noun
–al /–l/: a derivational class-changing adj.-forming
suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerning’
–ize /–a1z/: a derivational class-changing verb-
forming suffix meaning ‘act or treat
with the qualities of’
–ed /–d/: an allomorph of the inflectional verb
past participle morpheme {–D
2
}
un– + verb past participle = not verb past participle
un– + verbalized = not verbalized

adjective + –ize = verb
verbal + –ize = verbalize meaning ‘act with the help/ qualities of words’
socialize, regionalize, internationalize, (de)nationalize, (re)fertilize, (de)humanize,
etc.
• verbal adj 1. of or in words: verbal skills;
2. spoken, not written: a verbal
explanation, agreement, warning, etc;
3. word for word, literal: a verbal
translation.
verbalize v [I, Tn] put (ideas, feelings, etc.) in
words: I sometimes find it difficult to
verbalize.
15. fals(e) –ify
false/f0:s/: a free base, which is an adjective
72
–ify /1fa1/: a d. class-changing verb-forming suffix
meaning ‘make’ or ‘become’

16. vis– –ib –ly

vis– /–v1z/: a bound base, an allomorph of {–vise} /–
va1z/ meaning ‘see’
–ib /–6b/: the allomorph which can only occur
before {–ly
1
} of the d. class-changing
adjective-forming suffix {–ible} meaning
‘that may or must be’
–ly /–l1/: the d. class-changing adjective-forming
suffix {–ly
1
} meaning ‘in the specified
manner’

VERB + –able = able to be VERB–ed
RECOVER + –able = able to be RECOVER–ed
PENETR– + –able = able to be PENETRATE–ed
VIS– + –ible = able to be SEEN
desirable, (un)drinkable, changeable, (un)acceptable, blamable, (un)avoidable,
(ir)resistable, edible, (in)visible, (in)corruptible, (ir)reducible, etc.

17. im– penetr– –abil –ity


im– /1m–/: the allomorph which can only occur
before bilabial sounds of the
derivational class-maintaining prefix
{in–}/1n–/meaning ‘not’
penetr– /‘pen6tr–/: a bound base which can only occur in
combination with either the
derivational class-changing verb-
forming suffix {–ate} resulting in the
verb penetrate /‘pen6tre1t/ or the
derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix {–able} resulting in the
adjective penetrable /‘pen6tr6bl/
73
–a‘bil /–6‘b1l/: the allomorph which can only occur
before {–ity} of the derivational class-
changing adjective-forming suffix {–able}
meaning ‘that may or must be’
–ity /–6t1/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘state or quality
of’
adjective + –ity = noun
impenetrable + –ity = impenetrability
immaturity, immobility, immensity, immorality, impartiality, imbecility, etc.

im– + adjective = not adjective
im– + penetrable = not penetrable
impersonal, improbable, impassive, immature, immeasurable, immemorial, etc.

18. ir– re– cover –able

ir– /1r–/: an allomorph which can only occurs
before the retroflex /r/of the
derivational class-maintaining prefix
{in–} meaning ‘not’
re– /,ri:– /: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘again’
cover: a free base which is a verb
–able /–6bl/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘that may or
must be’

ir– + adjective = not adjective
ir– + resistable = not resistable
irrational, irreplaceable, irreducible, irrespective, irrelevant, irreligious, etc.

19. fat(e) –al –ist –ic

fat(e) /fe1t/: a free base, which is a noun
74
–al /–6l/: a derivational class-changing adj.-forming
suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerning’
–ist /–1st/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘person who
believes in’
–ic /–1k/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘concerning’

20. bor(e) –ing
bore: a free base which is a verb
–ing /–17/: the derivational class-changing
adjective-forming suffix {–ing
3
}

21. re– interpret –ing

re– /,ri:–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘again’
interpret: a free base which is a verb
–ing /–17/: the inflectional verb present participle
morpheme {–ing
1
}

re– + verb = verb again
re– + introduce = introduce again
rewrite, retype, retell, rebuild, redecorate, reintroduce, reinterpret, repay,
refertilize, refund, return, reimburse, etc.

22. re– im– –burse –ment –s


re– /,ri:–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘again’
im– /1m–/: the allomorph which can only occur
before bilabial sounds of the
derivational class-changing prefix {in–}
/1n–/ meaning ‘in’ or ‘on’
–burse /–‘b3:s/: a bound base which means ‘purse’
/–p3:s/
75
–ment /–m6nt/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘result or means
of’
–s /–s/: an allomorph of the inflectional noun
plural morpheme {–S
1
}
• reimburse v [Tn, Tn.pr esp passive] ∼ sth (to sb), sb
(for sth) (usu fml) refund sth, pay back
to sb (money that has spent or lost):
We reimburse the passengers for any
loss or damage; I was reimbursed in
full.
• –imburse is from the medieval Latin imbursarge meaning ‘put in the purse’

23. re– fertil– –iz(e) –ed


re– /,ri:– /: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘again’
fertil– /‘f3:t6l–/: a bound base, an allomorph of {fertile}
/f6‘ta1l/, which is an adjective
–ize /–a1z/: a derivational class-changing verb-
forming suffix meaning ‘become’ or
‘make like’
–ed /–d/: an allomorph of the inflectional verb
past simple morpheme {–D
1
} or of the
inflectional verb past participle
morpheme {–D
2
}
24. pre– histor(y) –ic

pre– /,pri:– /: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘before’
histor– /h1‘st4r–/: a bound base, an allomorph of {history}
/‘h1str1/, which is a noun
–ic /1k–/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning 'concerning’


76
25. pre– school
pre– /,pri:– /: a derivational class-changing prefix
meaning ‘before’
school: a free base which is a noun

26. pre– –clu –sion

pre– /pr1–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘beforehand’ or ‘in advance’
–clu /klu:– /: a bound base, an allomorph of {–clude},
which means ‘shut’ or ‘close’
–sion /–2n/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘action or
condition of’

pre– + verb = verb beforehand/ in advance
pre– + heat = heat (sth) beforehand
pre– + arrange = arrange (sth) in advance
pre-exist, predetermine, prejudge, preoccupy, prepay, pre-record, precede,
preclude, predict, etc.

27. dis– en– throne

dis– /d1s–/ a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘do the opposite of’
en– /1n–/ (also em– /1m–/): a derivational class-changing verb-
forming prefix which means ‘make into’
or ‘cause to be’ and which is conjoined
with adjectives or nouns to forms verbs
like enlarge, enrich, empower, etc.
throne: a free base which is a noun

dis– + verb = do the opposite of verb–ing
dis– + establish = do the opposite of establishing
dis– + enthrone = do the opposite of enthroning
disappear, disarm, discount, disarrange, disenthrone, displease, etc.
77


28. anti– cler– –ic –al


anti– /,`nt1–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘against’
cler– /kle(r)–/: a bound base, an allomorph of {clerk}
/kla:k; US kl3:k/, which is a noun
–ic /1k–/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘person who
performs a specific action’ like in critic,
comic, cleric, etc.
–al /–l/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘concerning’
• {ant(i)–} 1. against, opposed to, opposite to, counteracting
anti-aircraft /,`nt1‘e6kra:ft/ adj designed to destroy enemy aircrafts:
anti-aircraft guns
anti-personnel /‘`nt1 ,p3:s‘nel/ adj designed to kill or injure people: anti-
personnel bombs, anti-personnel
explosives
2. spurious, not genuine or authentic
anti-hero /‘`nt1 h16r6υ/ n [C] central character in a story or
drama who lacks the qualities usually
associated with a hero, such as courage
and dignity.
Antichrist /‘`nt1kra1st/ great enemy of Christ, who was
expected by early Christians just before
the end of the world, and to be
defeated by Christ.
3. preventing
anti-freeze /‘`nt1 fri:z/ n [U] substance added to water to lower
its freezing point.
antacid /`n‘t`s1d/ n [U, C] (substance) that prevents or
reduces acidity in the stomach: I need
an/some antacid to cure my indigestion.
78
• clerk /‘kla:k; US ‘kl3:rk/ n [C] 1. person employed in an office, a
shop, etc to keep records, account, etc:
a bank clerk, a filing clerk, a desk
clerk, etc; 2. cleric /‘kler1k/ n (dated)
clergyman /‘kl3:d21m6n/; priest or
minister of the Christian, esp. the
Church of England.
clerical /‘kler1kl/ adj 1. for, made by a clerk or clerks:
clerical work, a clerical error, etc.;
2. of or for the clergy /‘kl3:d21/, i.e.
the people who have been ordained as
priests or ministers of esp. the Church
of England: a clerical collar.

29. anti– provinci– –al –ism –s


anti– /,`nt1–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘against’
provinci– /pr6‘v1n~–/: a bound base, an allomorph of {province}
/‘pr4v1ns/, which is a noun
–al /–l/: a derivational class-changing adj.-
forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerning’
–ism /–1z(6)m/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘showing qualities
typical of (provincials)’
–s /–z/: an allomorph of the inflectional noun
plural morpheme {–S
1
}
• provincial /pr6‘v1n~l/ adj 1. of a province; 2. narrow-minded.
provincial /pr6‘v1n~l/ n [C] native or inhabitant of the
provinces.
provincialism /pr6‘v1n~l1zm/ 1. n [U] narrow-minded attitude or
look; 2. n [C] example of narrow-minded
behaviour, manner, speech, etc.
• verbs ending in –ize + –-ism: baptism, criticism, etc.; common nouns or
adjectives + –ism (meaning ‘showing
79
qualities typical of’): heroism, favouritism,
socialism, capitalism, etc.; proper nouns +
–ism (meaning ‘doctrine, system or
movement’): Buddhism, Marxism,
Leninism, Americanism, etc.

30a. counter– de– –clar –ation 30b. counter– de– –clar –ation


counter– /,kaυnt6–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘opposite in direction or effect’,
‘made in response to’ or ‘opposed to’
de– /d1–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘completely’
–clar(e) /–kle6(r)/: a bound base, an allomorph of {clear},
which is an adj.
–ation /–‘e1~n/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘action or
condition of’
• {counter–} + verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs:
1 opposed to:
- counteract v [Tn] act against and reduce the force or
effect of (sth): counteract (the effect of)
a poison.
- counter-attack n [C] attack made in response to an
enemy’s attack.
- counter-intuitive adj contrary to what one would naturally
expect: His solution to the problem is
counter-intuitive.
- counter-clockwise adv anti-clockwise: Turn the key counter-
clockwise.
2 corresponding, duplicating:
counterpart n [C] person or thing that corresponds to
or has the same function as sb or sth
else: The sales director phoned her
counterpart in a competing firm.
80
counter-foil n [C] part of a cheque, ticket, etc which
can be detached and kept as a record.
countersign n [C] secret word which must be spoken
to a guard, etc before one is allowed to
pass.

31.a. re– –ac –tion –ary

re– /r1–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘backwards’ or ‘in response to’
–ac /–‘`k/: a bound base, an allomorph of {act}
/`kt/, which is a verb
–tion /–~n/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘action or
condition of’
–ary /–6r1/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerned
with’

31.b. contra– –dic –tion –ory

contra– /‘k4ntr6–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘against’ or ‘opposite to’
–dic /–‘d1k/: a bound base, an allomorph of {–dict}
/–‘d1kt/ meaning ‘say’
–tion /–~n/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘action or
condition of’
–ory /–6r1/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerned
with’
• {contra–}+ verbs and nouns:
contraflow n [C, U] travelling of traffic from its
usual half of the road to the other half,
so that it shares the lane with traffic
coming in the other direction.
81
contravene v [Tn] act or be contrary to (a law, etc):
You are contravening the regulations.

32a. mis– judge –ment 32.b. mis– judge –ment

mis– + verb = verb wrongly mis– + noun = wrong noun;
mis– + judge = judge wrongly lack of or absence of noun
mis– + apply = apply wrongly mis–+ judgement = wrong judgement
mis– + fortune = lack of fortune
mis– /,m1s–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘wrong’ or ‘wrongly’
judge: a free base which is a verb
–ment /–m6nt/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘result or means
of’
• {mis–} means ‘wrong’ when it is added to a noun, and {mis–} means
‘wrongly’ when it is added to a verb. The two above-mentioned IC cuts are
possible because {mis–} is added to both verbs and nouns in English.

33. mal– con– –struc –tion –s


mal– /,m`l–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘bad’ or ‘wrong’
con– /k6n–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘with’
–struc /–‘str∧k/: a bound base, an allomorph of –struct
/–str∧kt/ meaning ‘build’
–tion /–~n/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘action or
condition of’
–s /–z/: an allomorph of the inflectional noun
plural morpheme {–S
1
}
82
• {mal–} means ‘bad’ or ‘wrong’ when it is added to nouns: mal-function, mal-
adjustment, mal-administration, mal-content, mal-formation, mal-adroitness,
mal-nutrition, etc.
• {mal–} means ‘badly’ or ‘wrongly’ when it is added to:
c adjectives: mal-adjusted, mal-formed, mal-adroit, mal-nourished, etc.
d adverds: mal-adroitly, malevolently, maliciously, malignantly, etc.
e verbs: mal-function, mal-treat, malign, etc.

34. deep –en –ed

deep: a free base which is an adjective
–en /–n/: a derivational class-changing verb-
forming suffix meaning ‘make’
–ed /–d/: an allomorph of the inflectional verb
past simple morpheme {–D
1
} or of the
inflectional verb past participle
morpheme {–D
2
}

adjective + –en = make (sb/ sth) adjective or more adjective
deep + –en = make (sb/ sth) deep or deeper
shorten, deafen, solften, harden, blacken, whiten, widen, lengthen, strengthen,
redden, lighten, brighten, darken, broaden, stiffen, cheapen, etc.

35. em– bodi –ment

em– /–1m/: an allomorph of the derivational class-
changing verb-forming prefix {en–}
/–1n/ meaning ‘put into or on’, which is
conjoined with nouns or verbs to form
verbs and which only precedes the base
beginning with bilabial phonemes, e.g.
empanel, embark, embed, embrace,
embroil, etc.
body: a free base which is a noun
83
–ment /–m6nt/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘result or means
of’
36. news paper –dom

news and paper: two free bases which are nouns
–dom /–d6m/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘group of’ like
in officialdom, gangsterdom, etc

37. favour –it(e) –ism

favour: a free base which is a noun
–ite /–1t/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix derogatorily used to
mean ‘a person who is a member of
a group or who follows someone’ like in
socialites /–a1t/, Labourites,
Thatcherites, Trotskyites, etc.
–ism /–1z(6)m/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘showing
qualities typical of’ like in heroism,
socialism, capitalism, Americanism, etc.
• favourite n [C] person or thing liked more than others:
These books are great favourites of
mine.
favouritism n [U] practice of giving unfair advantages to
the people that one likes best: Our
teacher is guilty of blatant favouritism.

38. Buddh– –ist
Buddh– /bυd/: a bound base, an allomorph {Buddha}
/‘bυd6/, which is the name of an
Indian philosopher
–ist /–1st/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘person who has
84
a strong belief in’ like in Marxist,
Communist, socialist, capitalist, etc.
39.a. violin –ist
violin /‘va16l1n/: a free base which is a noun
–ist /–1st/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘person who is
concerned with’ like in dentist, artist,
sexist, physicist, etc.
39.b. philosoph– – er
philosoph– /f1‘l4s6f–/: a bound base, an allomorph of
{philosophy} /f1‘l4s6f1/, which is a
noun
–er /–6/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘person who is
concerned with’ like in astronomer,
geographer, photographer, etc.
40.a. learn – er
learn: a free base which is a verb
–er /–6/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘person or thing
that does’ like in teacher, examiner,
painter, computer, etc.
40.b. villag(e) –er
village: a free base which is a noun
–er /–6/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘person belonging
to’ like in New Yorker, sixth-former, etc.

41. in– –flam(m) –ation –s


in– /1n–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘in’ or ‘on’
–flam(m) /–fl6m/: a bound base, an allomorph of {flame}
/fle1m/, which is a verb
85
–ation /–‘e1~n/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘action or
condition of’
–s /–z/: an allomorph of the inflectional noun
plural morpheme {–S
1
}
• flame n [C, U] hot glowing portion of burning
gas that comes from something on fire:
The house was in flame.
flame v [La, I] burn with a brighter flame: The
burning coals started to flame yellow
and orange.
inflame v [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sb/sth (with/to sth)
cause sb/sth to become angry or over-
excited: a speech that inflamed the
crowd with anger/to a high pitch of
fury.
inflammation n [C, U] condition in which a part of the
body is red, swollen and sore or
itchy, esp. because of infection: (an)
inflammation of the lungs, liver, etc.

42. confid– – enti –al
– /,k4n–/: a derivational prefix an allomorph of
con– /k6n–/ meaning ‘with’
–fid /–f1d/: a bound base, an allomorph of {fide}
/–‘fa1d/ meaning ‘trust’ like in confide
/k6n‘fa1d/, confidant /,k4nf1‘d`nt/
or fidelity /f1‘del6t1/, etc.
–enti /–‘en~/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix {–ent} /–(6)nt/
–al /–l/: a derivational class-maintaining adj.-
forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerning’
43. logan– berri –es

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logan–: a special kind of bound morphemes
that has no meaning in isolation but
acquires some meaning when attached
to {berry}, indicating a certain kind of
berry
berry: a free base which is a noun
–es /–z/: an allomorph of the inflectional noun
plural morpheme {–S
1
}.


44. iron monger– –y

iron: a free base which is a noun.
monger–: a bound base meaning ‘trader’ or
‘dealer’
–y: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘action or
process of’
45. fest– –iv(e) –al

fest– /fest–/: a bound base, an allomorph of {feast}
/fi:st/, which is a noun
–ive /–1v/: a derivational class-changing adjective-
forming suffix meaning ‘having the
tendency to or the quality of’
–al /–l/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘process or state
of’.
• feast n [C] 1. unusually large or elaborate meal;
2. religious festival celebrated with
rejoicing: the feast of Christmas.
festive adj of or suitable for a feast or festival: the
festive season.
festival n [C] (day or time of) religious or other
celebration: Christmas and Easter are
Christian festivals.

87
46. Ice land –ic

Ice and land: two free bases which are nouns
–ic /–1k/: a derivational class-changing adj.-
forming suffix meaning ‘of or ‘concerning’

47. mid– after noon

mid– /m1d–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘in the middle of’
after (preposition) and noon (noun) are two free bases

48. super– natur(e) –al

super– /,sju:p6–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘beyond the norm’
nature: a free base which is a noun
–al /–l/: a derivational class-changing adj.-
forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or
‘concerning’

49. ob– –struc –tion –ist –s


ob– /6b–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix
meaning ‘against’
–struct /–str∧kt/: a bound base meaning ‘build’
–tion /–~n/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘action or
condition of’
–ist /–1st/: a derivational class-maintaining noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘person who is
concerned with’
–s /–s/: an allomorph of the inflectional noun
plural morpheme {–S
1
}

50. op– –pos(e) –ition
88

op– /6p–/: the allomorph which can only occur
before the voiceless bilabial plosive /p/
of the d. class-maintaining prefix {ob–}
/6b–/ meaning ‘against’
–pos(e) /–p6υz/: a bound base meaning ‘put’ or ‘place’.
–ition /–‘1~n/: a derivational class-changing noun-
forming suffix meaning ‘action or
condition of’
EXERCISE 2: Analyse all the words given in EXERCISE 1 again, using tree-
diagrams.

EXERCISE 3: Give the IC divisions of each of the following words. Support
the division you think is correct: (a) unlovable and (b)
reappearance.



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UNIT FOUR
WORDS
1. DEFINITION
‘The word may be described as the basic unit of language. Uniting meaning
and form, it is composed of one or more morphemes, each consisting of one or
more spoken sounds or their written representatives.’ [Arnold, 1986: 27]
A word is ‘the smallest linguistic unit which can occur on its own in speech
or writing.
It is difficult to apply this criterion consistently. For example, can a
function word like the ‘occur on its own’? Is a contraction like can’t (cannot)
one word or two? Nevertheless, there is evidence that native speakers of a
language tend to agree on what are the words of their language.
In writing, word boundaries are usually recognised by spaces between
words. In speech, word boundaries may be recognised by slight pauses.’
[Richards, Platt & Weber, 1987: 311]
‘The definition of a word is one of the most difficult in linguistics because
the simplest word has many aspects.c It has a sound form because it is a
certain arrangement of phonemes;d it has its morphological structure, being
also a certain arrangement of morphemes; when used in actual speech,e it
may occur in different word forms,f have different syntactic functions and
signal various meanings.’ [Arnold, 1986: 28] For example,
c the sound form of sleep is /sli:p/;
d there is only one free morpheme (also called a free base) in sleep;
e the plain form sleep has four inflected forms: sleeps, sleeping, slept (the
past simple form) and slept (the past participle form);
f the present participle form sleeping can be used either as a verbal,
which is part of the finite verb was sleeping in ‘The child was sleeping
soundly’; or as an adverbial, which is the adjunct of manner of stood in ‘He
stood sleeping’; or as an adjectival, which is the pre-nominal modifier of child
in ‘a sleeping child’.
2. CHARACTERISTICS
2.1. INDIVISIBILITY
Sapir [1921: 35] points out one important characteristic of the word, its
indivisibility: ‘It cannot be cut into without a disturbance of meaning, one or
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two other or both of the several parts remaining as a helpless waif on your
hands.’ For Example, a lion is a word group because we can separate its
elements and insert other words between them: a living lion, a dead lion. Alive
is a word: it is indivisible, i.e. structurally impermeable: nothing can be
inserted between its elements.
2.2. INTERNAL STABILITY (also called INTERNAL COHESION or
UNINTERRUPTABILITY) and POSITIONAL MOBILITY
And according to Lyons [1969: 203], ‘one of the characteristics of the word
is that it tends to be internally stable (in terms of the order of the component
morphemes), but positionally mobile (permutable with other words in the same
sentence).’ To illustrate the first Lyons segments into morphemes the following
sentence:
the – boy – s – walk – ed – slow – ly – up – the – hill
The sentence may be regarded as a sequence of ten morphemes, which
occur in a particular order relative to one another. There are several possible
changes in this order which yield an acceptable English sentence:
slow – ly – the – boy – s – walk – ed– up – the – hill
up – the – hill – slow – ly – walk – ed – the – boy – s
Yet under all the permutations certain groups of morphemes behaves as
‘blocks’ — they occur always together, and in the same order relative to one
another. There is no possibility of the sequence s – the – boy, ly – slow or ed –
walk because boys, slowly, walked are three two-morpheme words in which the
suffixes –s, –ly and –ed must follow the base.
To illustrate the second, let’s consider the following sentences:
E.g.: Slowly, he walked down the street.
He slowly walked down the street.
He walked slowly down the street.
He walked down the street slowly.
Unlike small linguistic units such as phonemes and morphemes, words have
some freedom to move within a sentence without destroying their meaning.
Therefore, a word can be regarded as a minimal linguistic unit which is freely
movable with a meaning.


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3. CLASSIFICATION
3.1. THE CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS ACCORDING TO THEIR STRUCTURE
English words may be classified on the basis of the kinds (free vs. bound
morphemes) and the combinations of morphemes (free + free, or free + bound,
or bound + bound) of which they are composed.
3.1.1. SIMPLE WORDS consist of a single free base (= a free morpheme):
stay, flea, long, spirit, eucalyptus, Connecticut, etc.
3.1.2. COMPLEX WORDS contain at least one bound morpheme as an
immediate constituent. They fall into two subclasses:
3.1.2.1. Complex words–FB (free-base) have one free morpheme as an
IC: lion ⏐ –ess ‘female’ un– ‘not’ ⏐certain
rain ⏐ –y ‘having’ or ‘marked by’ re– ‘again’⏐birth
deep ⏐ –en ‘make’ dis– ‘do the opposite of’⏐appear

3.1.2.2. Complex words–BB (bound base) have a bound morpheme for
each IC: tele– ‘far’⏐ –vise ‘see’
matri– ‘mother’⏐ –cide ‘killing’
pre– ‘beforehand, in advance’⏐ –clude ‘shut, close’
ex– ‘out of, out from’⏐ –tract ‘take, get’

termin– ‘end’⏐ –ate ‘giving (to sth) a specified quality’
rupt– ‘break’⏐ –ure ‘action of…, process of…’
somnifer– ‘sleep’⏐ –ous ‘having the quality or characteristic of’

3.1.3. COMPOUND WORDS (also called COMPOUNDS) have at least two free
bases (free morphemes) with or without bound morphemes.
E.g.: high ⏐ born north ⏐ east
desk ⏐ lamp (–s) ill ⏐ treat (–ed)

3.1.3.1. THE FEATURES OF COMPOUNDS
3.1.3.1.1. The phonological feature:
The elements of a compound word are stressed. Some compounds are
differentiated from grammatical structures by their patterns of stress. The
primary-secondary pattern enables us to contrast compound nouns like
bluebell, redcoat and greenhouse with the grammatical structures of a modifier
plus a noun, as in blue bell, red coat and green house.


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3.1.3.1.2. The syntactic feature:
c Order: the arrangement of the elements in a compound may differ
from that of a grammatical structure in order.
Verbs + Adverbial Particles Compounds
collapse = fall down downfall = a fall from a position of prosperity or power
start suddenly = break out outbreak = a sudden appearance or start

d Indivisibility: Compound words are considered as solid blocks. They
cannot be divided by the insertion of any other elements. But grammatical
structures can be so divided. As illustration, let us compare two sentences:
(1) She is a sweetheart. (a compound noun).
(2) She has a sweet heart. (a grammatical structure).
In sentence (1), the compound word sweetheart is indivisible: you cannot
insert anything between sweet and heart. But in sentence (2), you could:
- She has a sweeter heart than her sister.
- She has a sweet, kind heart.
- She has a very sweet heart.
3.1.3.1.3. The semantic feature:
Compound words have specialised meanings. Therefore, knowing the
meaning of each element of a compound word does not make it possible to
figure out the meaning of the whole combination. It is said that compound
words have idiomatic status. E.g. The meaning of an ‘egghead’ is by no means
closely related to that of ‘egg’ and ‘head’.
3.1.3.2. THE TYPES OF COMPOUNDS
3.1.3.2.1. Derivational compounds are the compounds in which
the derivational suffix is attached to ‘the combination as a whole, not to one of
its elements: kind-hearted, old-timer, schoolboyishness, teen-ager’ [Arnold,
1986: 128]. Coining derivational compounds, we apply one of the following
patterns:
c noun base + noun base + –er: footballer ‘one who plays football’,
honeymooner ‘one who is enjoying his or her honeymoon’, mill-owner ‘one who
owns a mill’, backbencher ‘an M.P. occupying the back bench’, eye-opener
‘enlightening circumstance’, first-nighter ‘habitual frequenter of the first
performance of plays’, left-hander ‘left-handed person or blow’, etc.
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d adjective base + noun base + –ed: absent-minded, light-hearted, bare-
legged, black-haired, blue-eyed, ill-mannered, many-sided, short-sighted, far-
sighted etc.
e noun base + noun base + –ed: bow-legged, war-minded, heart-shaped,
moon-shaped, etc.
f number base + noun base + –ed: five-coloured, three-fingered, one-
eyed, two-headed, etc.
3.1.3.2.2. Repetitive compounds can be subcategorized into:
c Reduplicative compounds are the compounds in which the second
element is the proper repetition of the first element ‘with intensifying effect’
[Arnold, 1986: 130]. They are usually, but not always, onomatopoeic words (i.e.
imitations of natural sounds): drip-drip ‘sound of rain drops dripping down
from a tree, the roof of a house, etc.’, tap-tap ‘sound of quick light blows e.g. at
the door, on one’s shoulder, etc.’, hush-hush ‘very secret or confidential’, fifty-
fifty ‘shared or sharing between two equally’, pooh-pooh ‘sound to express
contempt’, blah-blah ‘nonsense’ or ‘idle talk’, murmur (a borrowing from
French meaning) ‘low continuous indistinct sound’, quack-quack ‘duck’, Pops-
pops ‘father’, pretty-pretty ‘affectedly pretty’, goody-goody ‘behaving so as to
appear very virtuous and respected’, never-never (an ellipsis of ‘the never-never
system’ meaning) ‘a hire-purchase system in which the consumer may never be
able to become the owner of the thing purchased’, etc.
Ex
1
Should he give them half a minute of blah-blah or tell them what has
been passing through his mind?
Ex
2
Jim: They’ve got a smashing telly, a fridge and another set of bedroom
furniture in silver-grey.
Alice: All on the never-never, what’ll happen if he loses his job?
d Ablaut compounds are ‘twin forms consisting of one basic morpheme
(usually the second), sometimes a pseudo-morpheme which is repeated in the
other constituent with a different vowel’ [Arnold, 1986: 130]. The typical
changes are:
[1] _ [`]: chit-chat n [U] (infml) chat, gossip, easy familiar
talk
tittle-tattle n [C] (infml) silly or trivial talk; petty
gossip;
v [I] gossip, talk about unimportant
things
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shilly-shally v [I] hesitate, unable to make up one’s
mind
dilly-dally v [I] waste time, dawdle
knick-knack n (esp pl) small articles of ornament, usu
of little value
zigzag adj [attrib] (of a line, path, etc) turning
right and left alternatively at a sharp
angles
riff-raff n [U] (esp the riff-raff) ill-behaved people
of the lowest social class, the rabble
[1] _ [4]: tip-top adj (infml) excellent, first rate
ping-pong n [U] table-tennis
sing-song adj (of a voice or way of speaking) having a
rising and falling rhythm
see-saw n [sing] up-and-down or to-and-fro motion
v [I] move up-and-down or to-and-fro
e Rhyme compounds are ‘twin forms consisting of two elements (most
often two pseudo-morphemes), which are conjoined to rhyme’ [Arnold, 1986:
130]: boogie-woogie ‘type of blues music’, harum-scarum ‘disorganized’, helter-
skelter ‘in disorderly haste’, hoity-toity ‘snobbish’, humdrum ‘bored’, hurry-
scurry ‘great hurry’, hurdy-gurdy ‘a small organ’, lovey-dovey ‘darling’, mumbo-
jumbo ‘deliberate mystification, fetish’, namby-pamby ‘weakly sentimental’,
titbit ‘an especially attractive bit of food’, willy-nilly ‘compulsorily’, pell-mell ‘in
disorder, untidy’, hurly-burly ‘noisy and energetic activity, esp. of many people
together’, etc.
3.2. THE CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS ACCORDING TO THEIR WORD-FORMATION
PROCESSES
3.2.1. COINAGE is the creation of totally new words by:
c inventing names for new products: nylon, aspirin, etc.
d using specific brand names such as Vaseline or Frigidaire as the generic
name for different brands of these types of products.
e changing proper names of individuals or places to common nouns:
sandwich was named for the fourth Earl of Sandwich, who put his food
between two slices of bread so that he could eat while he gambled; robot was
named after the mechanical creature in the Czech writer Karel Capek’s play
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R.U.R., the initials standing for ‘Rossum’s Universal Robot’; gargantuan was
named for the creature with a huge appetite created by Rabelais; jumbo was
named after an elephant brought to the U.S by P.T. Barnum; lazy Susan was
derived from the Susan, an unknown servant; denim was originally borrowed
form de Nimes (meaning ‘from Nimes’) in France.
Interestingly, COINAGE is one of the most uncommon processes of word
formation in English.
3.2.2. BORROWING is the process by which words in a language are
borrowed from another. It is one of the most common processes in word
formation. English words have been borrowed:
• from French: champagne, garage, beige, rouge, couchette, etc.;
• from German: rucksack, kindergarten, etc.;
• from Italian: cantata, opera, concerto, etc.;
• from American Indian languages: shampoo, cot, etc.
3.2.3. BLENDING is the fusion of two words into one, usually the first part
of one word with the last part of another.
For example, ‘sm− ’ in smoke has been combined with ‘−og’ in fog to create a
new word for the blend smog, which refers to a type of air pollution. Another
recent example is chunnel, which is the blend of tunnel and the English
channel.
Some other blends (also called blendings, fusions or portmanteau words) are
smaze, from smoke and haze; motel, from motor (or motorist’s) and hotel;
slimnastics, from slim and gymnastics; breathalyzer/bloodalyzer, from
breath/blood and analyzer; brunch, from breakfast and lunch; Frenglish, from
French and English; slanguage, from slang and language; transceiver, from
transmitter and receiver; bit, from binary digit; positron, from positive electron;
spam, from spiced ham; etc,
Lewis Carroll, the author of ‘Alice in Wonderland’ and ‘Through the looking
glass’ made a special technique of using blends coined by himself such as
chortle, from chuckle and snort; galumph, from gallop and triumph; slithy,
from lithe and slimy; mimsy, from flimsy and miserable, etc.
‘Blends, although not very numerous altogether, seem to be on the rise,
especially in terminology and also in trade advertisements.’ [Arnold, 1986:
142]
96
3.2.4. CLIPPING is the process of cutting off the beginning or the end of a
word, or both, leaving a part (the abbreviation or the clipped word) to stand for
the whole (the full form).
3.2.4.1. The end of the word is deleted in exam (from examination),
ad or advert (from advertisement), fan (from fanatic), lab (from laboratory),
dorm (from dormitory), prof (from professor), bike (from bicycle), gym (from
gymnasium), nark (from narcotics agent), demo (from demonstration), mike
(from microphone), telly (from television set), tec or dick (from detective), trank
(from tranquilizer), vac (from vacuum cleaner), etc.
3.2.4.2. The beginning part of the word is removed in bus (from
omnibus), plane (from airplane), phone (from telephone), etc.
3.2.4.3. Influenza and refrigerator have been clipped at both ends,
producing flu and fridge (with a slight change of spelling in the latter
example).
These clipped words are usually used in casual speech rather than in
writing or formal speech.
3.2.5. ACRONYMY is the process whereby a word is formed from the
initials or beginning segments of a succession of words.
Acronyms can occur in capital or small letters. Sometimes the initials are
pronounced; in other cases, the initials and/or beginning segments are
pronounced as a commonly spelled word would be. In the case of proper nouns,
the resulting word is usually written in capital letter.
NATO / ‘ne1t6υ/ ‘North Atlantic Treaty Organization’
UNESCO /ju:’nesk6υ/ ‘United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization’
NASA / ‘n`s6/ ‘National Aeronautics and Space Administration’
UNO / ’ju: n6υ/ ‘United Nations Organization’
WHO /,d/\blju: e1t∫ ‘6υ/ ‘World Health Organization’
G.I. /,d2i: ‘a1/ ‘Government Issue’
M.P. /,em ‘pi:/ ‘Member of Parliament’, also ‘military police’
P.M. /,pi: ‘em/ ‘Prime Minister’
S.O.S /,es 6υ ‘es / ‘Save Our Souls’
TV or T.V. /,ti: ‘vi:/ ‘television’

But in other cases, we have what looks like a common noun.
laser /‘le1z6/ ‘light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation’
scuba /‘sku:b6/ ‘self-contained underwater breathing apparatus’
97
radar /‘re1d6/ ‘radio detecting and ranging’
snafu /‘sn`fυ/ ‘situation normal; all fucked up’
3.2.6. CONVERSION consists of two subcategories:
3.2.6.1. COMPLETE CONVERSION is the process of shifting a word from
one word class to another without adding an affix. In other words, a word
which previously could only be used in a certain way to make sentences begins
to be used in another way though no change in form takes place. Most
instances involve the conversion of nouns to verbs or of verbs to nouns. The
following examples are basically based on Quirk at al [1973: 441-444]:
3.2.6.1.1. Major categories of complete conversion:
Lexical Verb → noun:
- ‘State’ (from stative verbs to nouns): doubt, love
- ‘Event/ activity’ (from dynamic verbs to nouns): laugh, walk
- ‘Object of V’: answer (‘that would be answered’), catch, buy
- ‘Subject of V’: bore (‘someone who bores/ is boring’), cheat
- ‘Instrument of V’: cover (‘something that covers things’), wrap
- ‘Manner of V-ing’: throw, walk
- ‘Place of V’: retreat, turn
buy n [C] c act of buying; d thing bought: Best buys of the week are carrots
and cabbages, which are plentiful and cheap.

Adjective → noun:
Miscellaneous examples are daily (‘daily newspaper’), comic (‘comic actor’),
(young) marrieds (‘young married people’; informal). The adjective noun can
be explained in terms of a well-established adjective + noun phrase from
which the noun has been ellipted.
comic adj [usu attrib] c funny, causing people to laugh: a comic song,
performance, etc; d of, containing or using comedy: comic opera, a comic actor.
comic n [C] comedian: a popular TV comic.

Noun → lexical verb
- ‘Put in/on N’: bottle, corner
- ‘Deprive of N’: peel (‘remove the peel from’), skin
- ‘To … with N as instrument’: brake, knife (stab with a knife),
campaign
- ‘Be/ Act as N with respect to …’: nurse, referee
- ‘Make/ change … into N’: cash, cripple, silence
98
- ‘(a) Send/ (b) Go by N’: (a) mail, ship; (b) bicycle, motor
- ‘Give N, to provide N with’: coat (give a coat of paint, etc to’), mask,
carpet
silence v [Tn] cause (sb/sth) to be silent or
quiet(er): His voice silenced everyone
else.

campaign v [Tn] organize a campaign: Communists
in Newcastle are campaigning against
rent increase.
carpet v [Tn] cover (sth) with a carpet: We are
going to have the hallway carpeted.


Adjective → lexical verb
- Transitive verbs meaning ‘make (more) Adj’: calm, dirty, wet
- Intransitive verbs meaning ‘become Adj’: dry, empty
wet adj covered, soaked or moistened with
liquid, esp. water: wet roads, grass,
clothes, etc.

wet v [Tn] make (sth) wet: Wet the clay a bit
more before you start to mould it.
Sometimes a phrasal verb is derived from an adjective by the addition of a
particle: He calmed himself down (‘made himself calm’). He calmed down
(‘became calm’).
This category of conversion competes with –en suffixation, and sometimes
both derivations are available for the same adjective: He blacked/ blackened
his face with soot.
3.2.6.1.2. Minor categories of complete conversion
Auxiliary Verb → noun:
must n [C] thing that must be done, seen,
heard, etc: This novel is a must for all
lovers of crime fiction.

Phrase → noun: When I gamble, my horse is one of the also-rans (i.e.
one of the horses which ‘also ran’ but was not among
the winners)
99
Phrase → adjective: I feel very under-the-weather (i.e. indisposed),
Have you ever experienced such an under-the-
weather feeling?
Affix → noun:
Ism [noun-forming suffix → countable noun] theory, doctrine, movement:
Patriotism and any other isms you’d like to name.
Non-count noun → count noun:
- ‘A unit of N’: two coffees (‘cups of coffee’)
- ‘A kind of N’: Some paints are more lasting than others
- ‘A instance of N’ (with abstract nouns): a difficulty

Count noun → non-count noun:
‘N viewed in terms of a measurable extent’ (normally only after
expressions of amount): a few square feet of floor.
floor n [C, usu singular] surface of a room on
which one stands, walks, etc: The bare
concrete floor was cold on my feet.
floor n [U] extent, range, area, length
Proper noun → common noun (initial capital usually retained):
- ‘A member of the class typified by N’: a Jeremiah (‘a gloomy prophet)
- ‘A person or place called N’: There are several Cambridges (‘places
called Cambridge’) in the world.
- ‘A product of N or a sample or collection of N’s work’: a Rolls Royce (‘a
car manufactured by Rolls Royce’), a Sony, a complete Shakespeare
- ‘Something associate with N’: Wellingtons
Stative noun → dynamic noun
fool n [stative] person who lack in good sense
or judgement; idiot: Remember that
she’s not a fool.
fool n [dynamic] (formerly) man employed by
a king, noble, etc. to amuse others with
jokes and tricks; clown or jester: He’s
being a fool. (‘He’s behaving like a
fool.’)

100
Intransitive Verb → transitive verb
run v [I] move at a speed faster than a walk,
never having both or all the feet on the
ground at the same time: She ran out
of the house to see what was
happening.
run v [Tn] ‘cause to V’: London Transport run
extra trains during the rush-hour.

Transitive Verb → intransitive verb
- ‘Can be V-ed’ (often followed by an adverb such as well or badly): Your
book reads well.
- ‘V oneself’: Have you washed yet? (washed yourself’)
- ‘V someone/something/etc’: We have eaten already.
- ‘Be V-ed’: The door opened.

Intransitive Verb → intensive verb
- ‘Current meaning’:
lie v [I] have or put one’s body in a flat or
resting position on a horizontal surface:
He was lying on his front/side/back.
lie v [intensive] be, remain or be kept in a
certain state: He lay flat.
- ‘Resulting meaning’:
fall v [I] come or go down from force of
weight, loss of balance, etc.; descend or
drop: The rain was falling steadily.
fall v [intensive] become; pass into a specified
state: He fell flat/silent/ill/asleep. She
fell an easy prey to his charm.
Intensive verb → intransitive verb
turn v [I] become; pass into a specified state:
The milk turned sour in the heat.
turn v [I] become sour: The milk turned.

Mono-transitive Verb → complex transitive verb
- ‘Current meaning’:
101
catch v [mono-trans] stop and hold (a moving
object) esp in hands: The dog caught
the biscuit in his mouth.
catch v [complex trans] find, discover (sb doing
sth or sb in a certain state): We caught
them young.
- ‘Resulting meaning’:
wipe v [mono-trans] clean or dry sth by
rubbing its surface with a cloth, a piece
of paper, etc.: Please wipe your feet
before entering this room.
wipe v [complex trans] make sth clean, flat,
smooth, etc. by wiping it: I wiped it
clean.
Non-gradable adjective → gradable adjective
legal adj [non-gradable] of or based on law: my
legal adviser/ representative.
legal adj [gradable] allowed or required by the
law: I have a very legal turn of mind.
Why shouldn’t I take a holiday? It’s
perfectly legal.
Stative adjective → dynamic adjective
friendly adj [stative] showing or expressing
kindness: a friendly smile, manner,
welcome, gesture, etc.
friendly adj [dynamic] behaving in a kind and
pleasant way; acting like a friend: He’s
just being friendly (‘acting in a friendly
manner’). The children here are quite
friendly with one another.
Adverb or a preposition → verb
up prep to or in a higher position: She ran up
the stairs.

up adv to or in an upright position; to or
in an higher place, position, condition,
102
degree, etc.: Stand up! Pull your socks
up! Lift your head up!

up v [I] (infml) get or jump up; rouse oneself:
She upped and left without a word.

up v [Tn] (infml) increase (sth): They upped
the price.
down prep from a high(er) point on sth to a lower
one: The stone rolled down the hill.

down adv from a higher to a lower level: The ice-
cream slipped down easily — it was
cold and delicious.

down v [Tn] knock (sb) to the ground: He
suddenly downed his wife.

down v [Tn] (infml) finish (a drink) quickly: We
downed our beer and left.
3.2.6.2. APPROXIMATE CONVERSION is the process by which ‘a word, in
the course of changing its grammatical function, may undergo a slight change
of pronunciation or spelling …:
- Voicing of final consonants (noun → verb): advice → advise, thief → thieve,
sheath → sheathe, and (not shown in spelling) house → house.
- Shift of stress: when verbs of two syllables are converted into nouns, the
stress is sometimes shifted from the second to the first syllable: conduct,
conflict, contrast, convert, convict, export, extract, import, insult, permit,
present, produce, rebel, record.
3.2.7. AFFIXATION is the process by which an affix is added to a base to
form a new word.
This process can be subdivided into prefixation and suffixation.
3.2.7.1. PREFIXATION is the addition of a prefix in front of a base like
in pro-life, recycle, deselect, etc.
Below are a number of prefixes, including some initial combining forms and
initial segments that appropriately belong with them even if by some criteria
they are more properly analysed as initial bases in compounds. The following
list is basically based on Greenbaum [1996: 444-452]:
pro– meaning ‘on the other side of’: pro-choice, pro-life, pro-market, etc
103
anti– meaning c ‘against’ or ‘opposed to’: antibody, anti-abortion,
anticoagulant, etc;
d ‘spurious’: anti-hero, antichrist, anticlimax, etc;
e ‘preventing’: antiseptic, antifreeze, antacid, etc.
contra– meaning c ‘against’: contraception, contra-indicate, etc;
d ‘contrasting’: contra-flow, contradistinction, etc.
counter– meaning ‘in opposition to’: counterespionage, counter-example, etc
de– meaning c ‘reverse of ’ or ‘do the opposite of’: decriminalize,
deselect, decontaminate, etc;
d ‘remove from’: debug, defrost, delouse, etc;
e ‘(cause to) depart from’: deplane, detrain, decamp, etc.
dis– meaning c ‘reverse of ’ or ‘do the opposite of’: disqualify, disinvite,
disenfranchise, etc;
d ‘remove from’: disillusion, disambiguate, disarm, etc;
e ‘not’: disloyal, distrust, disagree, etc.
un– meaning c ‘reverse of ’ or ‘do the opposite of’: unscramble, untie,
unlock, etc;
d ‘remove from’: unleaded, unmask, unfrock, etc;
e ‘not’: uninviting, unknown, unhappily, etc.
a– meaning c ‘not’: atheist, asymmetric, etc;
d ‘not affected by’: amoral, apolitical, asexual, etc.
crypto– meaning ‘concealed’: crypto-fascist, crypto-Catholic, cryptography, etc
mal– meaning c ‘bad’ or ‘wrong’: mal-practice, mal-formation, mal-
nutrition, etc;
d ‘badly’ or ‘wrongly’: mal-function, mal-treat, mal-
adjusted, etc.
mis– meaning c ‘wrong’: mismanagement, misinformation, mismarriage,
etc;
d ‘wrongly’: miscalculate, misgovern, mishandle, etc.
pseudo– meaning c ‘false’: pseudo-education, pseudo-intellectual, pseudo-
science, etc;
d ‘imitation’: pseudo-Elizabethan, pseudo-Gothic, etc.
ante– meaning c ‘before’ (place): ante-chamber, ante-room, etc;
d ‘before’ (time): antenatal, antedate, etc.
104
circum– meaning ‘around’: circumlocution, circumcision, circumnavigate,
etc
extra– meaning ‘outside’ or ‘beyond’: extramaterial, extracurricular,
extrasensory, etc
fore– meaning c ‘in front’ (place): forefinger, forecount, foreskin, etc;
d ‘front part of’ (place): forehead, forefront, foreground,
etc;
e ‘before’ (time): foresee, foretell, foreplay, etc.
in– (and also il–, im– and ir–) meaning
c ‘in’: ingathering, indoors, in-patient, etc;
d ‘into’: ingrown, immigrate, import, etc.
inter– meaning ‘between’: interratial, international, interdiscilinary, etc
intra– meaning ‘inside’: intramural, intra-uterine, intravenous, etc
mid– meaning c ‘middle’ (place): midfield, mid-point, midway, etc;
d ‘middle’ (time): mid-afternoon, midwinter, midnight,
etc.
out– meaning c ‘out of’ or ‘outside’: outdoor, out-patient, outlook, etc;
d ‘surpass’: outdistance, outbid, outnumber, etc.
over– meaning c ‘from above’ or ‘outer’: overthrow, overshadow, overcoat,
etc;
d ‘excessive’: overemphasis, over-enthusiasm, etc.
retro– meaning ‘backwards’: retroflex, retrorocket, retroject, etc.
sub– meaning c ‘under’ or ‘below’: subway, subsoil, sub-conscious, etc;
d ‘secondary’: sub-editor, sub-dean, etc;
e ‘below the normal’: subhuman, substandard, subzero,
etc;
f ‘subordinate part (of)’: subcommittee, sub-pilot, sublet,
subtitle, etc.
super– meaning c ‘above’ or ‘over’: superstructure, superimpose, superior,
etc;
d ‘excessive’: superconformity, superconfidence,
superterestrial, etc;
e ‘excessively’: supersensitive, superubundant,
supercritical, etc;
f ‘beyond the norm’: superhuman, supergun, superstar,
etc.
105
supra– meaning ‘above’: supranational, supramundance, etc
sur– meaning ‘above’: surtax, surcharge, surtitle, etc
tele– meaning ‘at a distance’: telecommunication, telephoto, television,
etc
trans– meaning ‘across’: transatlantic, transnational, transsexual, etc
ultra– meaning c ‘beyond’: ultraviolet, ultrasonic, etc;
d ‘excessively’ or ‘extremely’: ultramodest, ultra-thin,
ultra-modern, etc.
under– meaning c ‘below’: underground, undercarriage, underclothes, etc;
d ‘too litle’: under-charge, underpay, undercook, etc;
e ‘subodinate’: under-secretary, underclass, etc.
micro– meaning c ‘small’: microtransmitter, micro-computer,
microsurgery, etc; d ‘minute’: micro-organism, microgram, microscope, etc.
macro– meaning ‘large’: macrocosm, macro-organism, macro-economics,
etc
mini– meaning ‘small’: miniseries, minibreak, minicab, etc
midi– meaning ‘medium’: midibus, midicomputer, etc
maxi– meaning ‘maximum’: maxiskirt, maximize, maximal, etc
mega– meaning ‘very large’: megastar, megastore, megawatt, etc
hyper– meaning ‘huge and complex’: hypersensitive, hypercritical,
hypertension, etc
ex– meaning ‘former’: ex-wife, ex-president, ex-colony, etc
neo– meaning ‘new’ or ‘reform of’: neo-colonialism, neo-conservative,
neo-imperialist, etc
post– meaning ‘after’ (time): post-modernism, post-structuralist, etc
pre– meaning ‘before’ (time): prepay, pre-existing, predate, preview,
etc
re– meaning ‘again’: reprint, reapply, renew, etc
arch– meaning ‘chief’: archbishop, archangel, arch-rival, etc
co– meaning ‘joint’: co-author, co-founder, co-presenter, etc
pro– meaning ‘deputy’: proconsul, pro-vice-chancellor, etc
106
vice– meaning ‘deputy’: vice-president, vice-chancellor, vice-admiral,
etc
mono– meaning ‘single’ or ‘one’: monotheism, monorail, monoplane, etc
uni– meaning ‘one’: unidirectional, unidimentional, unilateral, etc
poly– meaning ‘many’: polysyllabic, polytheism, polygraph, etc
multi– meaning ‘many’: multi-faith, multinational, multimillionaire, etc
semi– meaning c ‘half’: semi-circle, semi-final, etc; d ‘partly’: semi-
automatic, semi-conscious, semi-official, etc.
hemi– meaning ‘half’: hemisphere, hemistich, etc.
bi– meaning ‘two’: bi-focal, bilingual, bilateral, etc
di– meaning ‘two’: dioxide, di-gragh, etc
du(o)– meaning ‘two’: duologue, duplex, etc
tri– meaning ‘three’: tri-partite, triangle, triennial, etc
en– (also em–) c [for transitive verbs from nouns] meaning ‘put in’:
encode, endanger, ensure, etc;
d [for intransitive verbs from nouns] meaning ‘put oneself
into or onto’: enlist, enrol, embark, etc;
e [for transitive verbs from nouns] meaning ‘make into’:
enslave, ennoble, etc;
f [for transitive verbs from adjectives] meaning ‘make’:
enlarge, enrich, ensure, embitter, etc.
auto– meaning ‘self’: auto-graph, auto-pilot, auto-suggestion, etc.
para– meaning c ‘ancillary’: paramilitary, paralegal, paramilitary, etc;
d ‘beyond the scope of’: paranormal, parapsychology, etc.
3.2.7.2. SUFFIXATION is the addition of a suffix at the end of a base
like in ageism, marginalize, additive, etc.
Below are suffixes that continue to be productive in English. The following
list is basically based on Greenbaum [1996: 454-457]:
• verb-forming suffixes:
–fy,–ify: beautify, countrify, purify, classify, personify, etc
–ise, – ize: capitalize, modernize, popularize, terrorize, etc
107
• adjective-forming suffixes:
–able, –ible: readable, profitable, edible, visible, etc
–al, –ial: capital, national, managerial, editorial, etc
–ed: bored, cultured, heavy-handed, etc
–ing: boring, interesting, charming, etc
–ful: powerful, careful, resentful, etc
–less: careless, harmless, restless, etc
–ic: Arabic, aristocratic, dramatic, Arabic, etc
–ish: Swedish, feverish, youngish, moreish (or morish), etc
–like: childlike, godlike, statementlike, etc
–y: funny, sleepy, choosy, etc
• the adverb-forming suffix {–ly
1
}: candidly, surprisingly, amiably, etc
• suffixes of concrete nouns:
–ant, –ent: informant, claimant, solvent, etc
–ee: trainee, mortgagee, absentee, etc
–er: teacher, carer, toaster, etc
–ery, –ry: brewery, machinery, weaponry, etc
–ing: clothing, flooring, drawing, etc
–ist: socialist, novelist, sexist, etc
• suffixes of abstract nouns:
–age: postage, spillage, drainage, etc
–al: betrayal, dismissal, deferral, etc
–dom: freedom, martyrdom, officialdom, etc
–ery, –ry: snobbery, chemistry, summitry, etc
–ing: cleaning, gardening, manufacturing, etc
–ism: idealism, favoritism, ageism, etc
–ity: responsibility, technicality, publicity, etc
–ment: arrangement, embarrassment, bewilderment, etc
–ness: usefulness, carelessness, willingness, etc
–ship: dictatorship, editorship, scholarship, etc
–ion (also –tion, –sion, –xion, –ation and –ition): confession, objection,
explosion, collaboration, competition, etc
108
Affixation resembles conversion in that they may change the grammatical
potential of a word, but unlike conversion, affixation involves a change of form.
3.2.8. BACK-FORMATION is the process of deriving words by removing
what is thought to be a suffix from an existing word. This is just the reverse of
the customary process of suffixation.
3.2.8.1. Back-formation applies chiefly to the coining of verbs from
nouns:
Ex.1: The three verbs emote, enthuse, televise were back-formed from the
nouns emotion, enthusiasm and television.
Ex.2: The verbs peddle, hawk, stoke, swindle, edit, baby-sit, and team-teach
all came into the language as back-formations — of peddler, hawker, stoker,
swindler, editor, baby-sitter (or baby-sitting), and team-teacher (or team-
teaching).
Ex.3: Recent back-formations include the adjective abled from disabled and
the verb explete from expletive.
3.2.8.2. Two major sources of backformation are (1) nouns (including
compounds nouns) ending in –er/–or/ –ar or –ing, and (2) nouns ending in
–tion or –ion. It is not always possible to determine for the first group whether
the source is the agent suffix or the –ing suffix. Examples of theses two groups
are given below, followed by a miscellaneous group (3):
(1a) peddle, hawk, stoke, swindle, burgle, edit, commentate, scavenge,
sculpt baby-sit, and team-teach.
(1b) air-condition, brainstorm, brainwash, browbeat, dry-clean, house-
hunt, housekeep, sightsee and tape-record.
(2) articulate, assassinate, co-educate, demarcate, emote, intuit,
legislator, marinate and orate
(3) diagnose (from diagnosis), enthuse (from enthusiasm), laze (from
lazy), liaise (from liaison), reminisce (from reminiscence), statistic
(from statistics) and televise (from television)
In all the above cases, one form of the words enters the language first, and
another form is created afterwards.
3.2.9. COMPOUNDING is the process of combining two or more existing
words to form a new one.
3.2.9.1. Compounds contrast with phrases, which consist of two or
more words that are grammatically related: a large card, beautiful pictures.
109
3.2.9.2. Compounds are found in all word classes:
Nouns: pop group, whistle-blower, date-rape
Adjectives: class-ridden, heart-breaking, homesick
Verbs: cold-shoulder, highlight, babysit
Adverbs: good-naturedly, however, nowadays
Pronouns : anyone, everything, nobody
Numerals: sixty-three, nine-tenths
Prepositions: as for, because of, next to
Semi-auxiliaries: be going to, had better, have got to
Conjunctions: except that, rather than, whenever

3.2.9.3. Historically, compound verbs are derived chiefly from nouns.
They may be derived by conversion, simply a shift in word class from a
compound noun without any other change: black-mail, cold-shoulder,
daydream. Or they may be derived by back-formation, the removal of a suffix:
babysit (from babysitting or babysitter), double-park (from double-parking),
shoplift (from shoplifting or shoplifter).
3.2.9.4. New coinages are mainly compound nouns and adjectives.
Nouns: heartache, bigwig, highbrow, flatfoot, bedclothes, houseboat,
turncoat, footballer, speedometer, teach-in, space-walk, heartburn, son-in-law,
sergeant-at-arms, smoke screen, mother-of-pearl, chain-smoker, wastepaper-
basket, lighthouse-keeper, man about town, eating apples, spending money,
falling stars, laughing gas, etc.
Adjectives: up-and-coming, up-to-date, out-of-date, dim-witted, semi-
detached, heart-broken, worldly-wise, Afro-Asian, etc.
EXERCISES
EXERCISE 1: Make the first IC cut in the words below which permit such
cutting. Then classify each word as:
S simple;
C-BB complex with two bound forms as IC’s;
C-FB complex with one free form as an IC.
Complete the table given below:

110
1 knave S n [C] a dishonest man
2 knav(e) | –ish C-FB
adj deceitful, dishonest; –ish (adj-forming
suffix) = ‘of the nature of’, ‘resembling’
3 graph
n [C] diagram consisting of a) line or lines
(often curved) showing the variation of two
quantities;
v [Tn] write, record or draw using graphs
4
telegraph
v [Tn] send a message in printed form;
tele– = ‘far’
5 merge
v [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ∼(with/into sth);
∼ (together); (∼A with B/ ∼A and B) (cause
two things to) come together and combine
6 emerge
v [I, Ipr] ∼ (from sth) come out or up (from
water, etc)
e– = out(ward) + merge (from Latin ‘merger’
meaning ‘dip’, ‘sink’, ‘plunge’ or ‘immerge’)
7 moron
n [C] feeble-minded man, person with
subnormal intelligence
8 predict
v [Tn] say in advance that (sth) will happen;
pre– = ‘beforehand’ or ‘in advance’; –dict =
‘say’
9 purist
n [C] person who pays great attention to
correctness, especially in the use of language
or in the arts;
–ist (noun-forming suffix) = ‘a person who…’
10 comical
adj of or concerning a comic; amusing and odd;
–al (adj-forming suffix) = ‘of’ or ‘concerning’
11 carn– | –al C-BB adj of the flesh or the body; carn– = flesh
12 sophistic
adj of or concerning a sophist;
–ic (adj-forming suffix) = ‘of’ or ‘concerning’

111

13
misogyn– | –ist
/m6‘s4d26n1st/
C-BB
n [C] one who hates women;
mis(o)– = hating or hatred of: misogyn– | –y
/m6‘s4d26n1/ n [U] hatred of women;
misanthropist /m6‘s`n8r6p1st/ n [C] one who
hates mankind and avoid human society
14 refusal
n [U] refusing or being refused; n [C] act of
refusing;
–al (noun-forming suffix)=‘process or state of ‘
15 porter
n [C] one who carries luggage for payment at a
station, an airport, etc.; port– = ‘carry’
16 enable
v [Cnt] make (sb) able to do sth by giving him
the necessary authority or means; en– = ‘make’
17
mete v [Tn] measure
18 meter
n [C] device that measures the volume of gas,
water, time, electric current, distance, etc
19 chronometer
n [C] device that keeps very accurate time,
used especially for navigating at sea;
chron(o)– = ‘of or relating to time’
20 democracy
n [U] system of government by the whole
people of a country, especially through
representatives whom they elect
dem(o)– = ‘of population’, ‘of people’:
demagogue /‘dem6949/ n [C] political leader
who tries to win people’s support by using
emotional and often unreasonable arguments;
demography /d6‘m49r6f1/ n [U] study of
statistics of birth , deaths, disease, etc in
order to show the state of a community
–cracy = ‘government or rule of’: technolcracy n
[U] control or management of a country’s
industrial resources by technical experts;
bureaucracy n [U] system government through
departments managed by State officials, not by
elected representatives
112
EXERCISE 2: Indicate whether each italicized and underlined
expression is a compound (Comp) or a grammatical structure (GS). Pay no
attention to hyphens or spaces, for these are deceptive. Complete the table
given below:
1 Comp
Jim’s car is a hardtop. (= a car with a metal roof)
2 GS
This jar has a rather hard top.
(= The jar has a top which is rather hard.)
3 It was a jack-in-the-box.
4 The plant in the box is rare.
5
A ‘hot ,dog (= a hot sausage served in hot bread roll, often with
onions and mustard) is not a ,hot ‘dog.
6 GS
A ‘hot ,dog is not a ,hot ‘dog. (= a dog which is hot)
7 He has a dog in the manger attitude.
8 He has a dog in the manger attitude.
9 She has a ,strong ‘hold on him.
10 She has a ‘stronghold on him.
11 George found his father-in-law.
12 George found his father in trouble.
13 They bought it in the ‘black ,market.
14
The electricity went off, and we caught in
a black, completely lightless, market.
15 Comp
His spending money was a source of annoyance to his father.
(= the money spent by him)
16 GS
His spending money was a source of annoyance to his father.
(= the way according to which he spends his money)



113
EXERCISE 3: Classify the following items with these symbols:
S Simple
C-BB Complex with two bound forms as IC’s
C-FB Complex with one free form as an IC
Comp Compound
GS Grammatical structure
With three classes C-BB, C-FB, and WCp, make the first IC cut.
Complete the table given below:
1 Comp
sharpshooter
(one who is killed at a shooting with a gun)
sharp | shooter

2 GS a sharp shooter (one who shoots sharply)
3 S act
4 react
5 Comp storekeeper (the keeper of a store) store | keeper
6 C-FB Highlander (one who lives in the Highland) Highland | –er
7 apparatus
8 contain
9 recur
10 C-BB current cur(r)– | –ent
11 unearth
12 referee
13 solve
14 C-FB dissolve dis– | solve
15 solvent
16 Comp bull’s eye (the center of a target) buùll’s | eøye
17 GS the bull’s eye (the eye of the bull) buøll’s | eùye
18 passbook
19 disapproval
20 inaccessible


114
EXERCISE 4: Give the original words from which these clipped words were
formed. Complete the table given below:
1 ad 13 memo
2 gas 14 cello
3 taxi 15 bus ← omnibus
4 cab ← cabriolet 16 coon ← racoon
5 frat ← fraternity 17 Phil
6 photo 18 Joe
7 gin ← Geneva 19 Tom
8 curio 20 Al ←Albert, Alfred or Alvin
9 wig 21 Fred
10 bra ← brassieøre 22 Bert
11 brandy 23 Gene
12 pike (road) ← turnpike 24 Beth
25 maitre d’ /,meItr6‘di:/ ← maitre d’ hotel /,meItr6 ‘d6υ tel/
EXERCISE 5: Give the original of each of the following blends. Complete the
table given below:
1 smog
2 telecast ← television + broadcast
3 electrocute
4 splatter ← splash + spatter
5 Amerindian
6 Eurasian
7 newsboy
8 medicare

EXERCISE 6: Give the blends that result from fusing these words. Complete
the table given below:
1 happening + circumstances →
2 automobile + omnibus →
3 escalade + elevator → escalator
115
4 blare or blow + spurt →
5 squall+ squeak → squawk

EXERCISE 7: Pronounce these acronyms and give their originals. Complete
the table given below:
1 UN /,ju: ‘en/ United Nations
2 MC
3 BBC
4 AD
5 BC
6 TESL /,ti: i: es ‘el/ or /‘tesl/ Teaching English as a Second Language
7 EFL
8 VIP
9 FIFA
10 NAM /,en e1 ‘em/ National Association of Manufacturers

EXERCISE 8: These verbs are back-formations. Write the words from which
they are formed. Complete the table given below:
1 bootleg ← bootlegger
2 typewrite
3 coronate
4 resurrect ← resurrection
5 baby-sit
6 advance-register ← advance-registration
7 laze
8 jell
9 escalate
10
reminisce ← reminiscence
11 orate ← oration
12 donate
13 televise
116
EXERCISE 9: Indicate the meaning relation between the parts of the
following English compounds. Complete the table given below:
1 chessboard = board for playing chess on
2 flycatcher = bird that catches flies for food
3 sunlight
4 daybreak
5 frostbite = bite from frost
6 driftwood
7 popcorn
8 handshake
9 brainwashing (fig) = washing of the brain
10 match maker
11 mince-meat
12 drinking-water
13 typing-paper
14 sleepwalking = walking in one’s sleep
15 sunbather
16 homework
17 workbench
18 motorcycle = cycle powered by a motor
19 silkworm
20 sawdust
21 doorknob = knob on a door
22 tape-measure
23 soap-flake
24 cowshed
25 butterfingers
= person with butter on his fingers, person who is
likely to drop things.

117
EXERCISE 10: Match each expression under A with the one statement under
B that characterizes it.
A B
a. noisy crow 1. compound noun
b. eat crow 2. base morpheme plus derivational prefix
c. scarecrow 3. phrase consisting of adjective plus noun
d. the crow 4. base morpheme plus inflectional suffix
e. crow-like 5. base morpheme plus derivational suffix
f. crows 6. idiom
7. grammatical morpheme followed by lexical morpheme
EXERCISE 11: Is long-eared a compound word? How is it different from
other compounds like teacup or greenhouse?
ANSWER:
First, as far as their STRUCTURE is concerned, long-eared is a derivational
compound: it consists of three morphemes: the two free bases ‘long’ and ‘ear’
and one bound morpheme is ‘−ed’ whereas teacup or greenhouse are made up of
only two free bases.
Second, as far as their SPELLING is concerned, there is a hyphen between
the two free bases of the derivational compound ‘long−eared’ while there is no
space between those of the common compounds ‘teacup’ and ‘greenhouse’.
Finally, as far as their PART OF SPEECH is concerned, ‘long−eared’ is a
compound adjective whereas ‘teacup’ and ‘greenhouse’ are two compound nouns.
EXERCISE 12: Comment on the following definition of words: ‘A word is a
group of morphemes that have meaning.’
ANSWER:
Generally speaking, it is acceptable to define a word as a group of
morphemes that have meaning because there are many English words of two or
more morphemes: decentralization, undoubtedly, irresistible, etc. However, this
definition of words is not always true. In other words, it does not hold for all of
the words in the English language.
Firstly, many English words consist of only one morpheme such as doubt,
lion, narrow, crocodile, Connecticut, etc.
118
Secondly, not all words in English have lexical meaning, the meaning we
can look up in a dictionary. For example, the definite article the; the function
of which is to modify the noun, the noun phrase or the pronoun following it;
has no specific lexical meaning.
Last but not least, a number of English prepositions are used without any
specific meaning when they are attached to particular verbs, adjectives or
nouns.
c Verb: They blamed the mess on Jim.
They blamed Jim for the mess.
d Adjective: They’re interested in sports.
She’s clever at dealing with critical clients.
e Noun: Recently there has been public concern for/ about corruption.
I have my deepest sympathies on the death of your wife.
The prepositions in the above mentioned examples have purely syntactic
relational functions: they conjoin verbs, adjectives or nouns to their following
objects or complements. The prepositions are more or less lexically
meaningless. They are predictable, that is, they can hardly be replaced by any
other prepositions.
EXERCISE 13: In the light of compound nouns and noun phrases, explain the
ambiguity of the following sentences:
(1) The firemen burst into the smoking room.
(2) He has two French teachers.
ANSWER:
(1) The firemen burst into the smoking room.
1a. the smoking room (the room in a hotel where smoking is allowed)

‘Smoking room’ is a compound noun just like ‘laughing gas’, ‘eating apples’,
‘looking glasses’ or ‘spending money’. This compound noun is modified by the
definite article ‘the’.
1b. the smoking room (the room that is full of smoke)


119
‘The smoking room’ is a noun phrase in which the noun head ‘room’ is
modified by the present participle ‘smoking’ and the definite article ‘the’.
(2) He has two French teachers.
2a. French teachers (teachers who come from France)
‘French teachers’ is a noun phrase in which the noun head teachers is
modified by the adjective of nationality ‘French’.
2b. French teachers (teachers whose subject is French)
‘French’ here is a noun meaning ‘the language spoken by the French’. It is
one of the two free bases which are combined together to form a compound
noun ‘French teachers’.
EXERCISE 14: Consider the underlined utterances. Are they of the same
value? Explain.
(1)a. There was a plant in the box.
(1)b. There was a Jack−in−the−box.
(2)a. He found his father in trouble.
(2)b. He found his father−in−law

ANSWER:
In (1)a, ‘a plant in the box’ is a noun phrase.


In (1)b, ( a ) ‘jack−in−the−box’ is a compound noun.


The same analysis can be applied to (2)a and (2)b.
In (2)a, ‘his father in trouble’ is a noun phrase.


In (2)b, ( his ) ‘father−in−law’ is a compound noun.




120
EXERCISE 15: What is CLIPPING? Are CLIPPED WORDS considered as free
forms? Give examples to illustrate your presentation.
________________________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
EXERCISE 16: As far as structure is concerned, how do COMPLEX WORDS
differ from COMPOUND WORDS. Give appropriate examples to illustrate that.
EXERCISE 17: Why is it said that A WORD COMPOUND is a solid block?
________________________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________________________
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EXERCISE 18: Name the word formation process of each of the following
words:
1. doorknob: ____________________ 6. radar: ____________________
2. telly: _________________________ 7. chunnel: __________________
3. nylon: ________________________ 8. cantata: __________________
4. porter: _______________________ 9. ESL: _____________________
5. silence v (Tn): ________________ 10. televise: _________________


121
EXTRA READING [Fromkin and Rodman, 1993: 53-55]
Compounds
New words may be formed by stringing together other words to create
compound words. There is almost no limit on the kinds of combinations that
occur in English, as the following list of compounds shows:
−ADJECTIVE −NOUN −VERB
ADJECTIVE− bittersweet poorhouse highborn
NOUN− headstrong rainbow spoonfeed
VERB− carryall pickpocket sleepwalk
Frigidaire is a compound formed by combining the adjective frigid with the
noun air.
When the two words are in the same grammatical category, the compound
will be in this category: noun + noun — girlfriend, fighter−bomber, paper clip,
elevator−operator, landlord, milkman; adjective + adjective — icy−cold,
red−hot, worldly−wise. In many cases, when the two words fall into different
categories the class of the second or final word will be the grammatical
category of the compound: noun + adjective — headstrong, watertight, lifelong;
verb + noun — pickpocket, pinchpenny, daredevil, sawbones. On the other
hand, compounds formed with a preposition are in the category of the non-
prepositional part of the compound: overtake, hanger−on, undertake, sundown,
afterbirth, downfall, uplift.
Though two-word compounds are the most common in English, it would be
difficult to state an upper limit: three−time loser, four−dimensional space−time,
sergeant−at−arms, mother−of−pearl, man about town, master of ceremonies and
daughter−in−law.
Spelling does not tell us what sequence of words constitutes a compound;
since some compounds are spelled with a space between the two words, with a
hyphen or with no separation at all is idiosyncratic, as shown, for example, in
blackbird, gold−tail and smoke screen.
Meaning of Compounds
One of the interesting things about a compound is that you cannot always
tell by the words it contains what the compound means. The meaning of a
compound is not always the sum of the meaning of its parts; a blackboard may
be green or white. Everyone who wears a red coat is not a Redcoat either. The
difference between the sentences She has a red coat in her closet and She has
a Redcoat in her closet could be highly significant under certain circumstances.
122
Other similarly constructed compounds show that underlying the
juxtaposition of words, different grammatical relations are expressed. A
boathouse is a house for boats, but a cathouse is not a house for cats. A
jumping bean is a bean that jumps, a falling star is a ‘star’ that falls, and a
magnifying glass is a glass that magnifies; but a looking glass is not a glass
that looks, nor is an eating apple an apple that eats, and laughing gas does not
laugh.
In all the examples given, the meaning of each compound includes at least
to some extent the meanings of the individual parts. But there are other
compounds that do not seem to relate to the meanings of the individual parts
at all. A jack−in−a−box is a tropical tree, and a turncoat is a traitor. A
highbrow does not necessarily have a high brow, nor does a bigwig have a big
wig, nor does an egghead have an egg-shaped head.
As we pointed out earlier in the discussion of the prefix un−, the meaning of
many compounds must be learned as if they were individual simple words.
Some of the meanings may be figured out, but not all. Thus, if you had never
heard the word hunchback, it might be possible to infer the meaning. But if
you had never heard the word flatfoot it is doubtful you would know it was a
word meaning ‘detective’ or ‘policeman’, even though the origin of the word,
once you know the meaning, can be figured out.
Therefore, the words as well as the morphemes must be listed in our
dictionaries. The morphological rules also are in the grammar, revealing the
relations between words and providing the means for forming new words. Dr.
Seuss uses the rules of compounding when he explained that ‘when tweetle
beetles battle with paddles in a puddle, they call it ‘a tweetle beetle puddle
paddle battle.’
1


1
Dr. Seuss, Fox in Sox, New York: Random House, 1965, p.51
123
ANSWER KEYS

UNIT ONE: MORPHEMES
A. THE EXERCISES OF MORPHEMES
EXERCISE 1: Identify the number of the morphemes in each of the given
words. Complete the table given below.
1 play 1 11 keeper 2 (keep and –er)
2 replay 2 (re– and play) 12 able 1
3 date 1 13 unable 2 (un– and able)
4 antedate 2 (ante– and date) 14 mahogany 1
5 hygiene 1 15 rain 1
6 weak 1 16 rainy 2 (rain and –y)
7 weaken 2 (weak and –en) 17 cheap 1
8 man 1 18 cheaply 2 (cheap and –ly)
9
manly
2 (man and –ly) 19
cheaper
2 (cheap and –er)
10 keep 1 20 honest 1

EXERCISE 2: Identify the bound morpheme(s) in of each of the given words.
Complete the table given below.
1 speaker –er 6 delivery –y
2 kingdom –dom 7 intervene inter–, –vene
3 phonemic –ic 8 revise re–, –vise
4 idolize –ize 9 dreamed –ed
5 selective –ive 10 undone un–
EXERCISE 3: Underline the base in each the given words. Complete the
table given below.
1 womanly
6
lighten 11
unlikely
2 endear
7
enlighten 12
prewar
3 failure
8
friendship 13
subway
4 famous
9
befriend 14
falsify
5 infamous
10
Bostonian 15
unenlivened
124
EXERCISE 4: Identify the meaning of the affix in each of the given words.
Complete the table given below.
1
antedate The prefix ante– means ‘before’.
2
replay The prefix re– means ‘again’.
3
manly
The suffix –ly means ‘like’ or
‘having the characteristic(s) of’.
4
keeper The suffix –er means ‘a person who…’.
5
unable The prefix un– means ‘not’.
6
rainy The suffix –y means ‘having’ or ‘marked by’.
7
cheapest The suffix –est means ‘most’.
8
subway The prefix sub– means ‘under’.
9
import The prefix im– means ‘in(to)’.
10
maltreat The prefix mal– means ‘badly’ or ‘wrongly’.

EXERCISE 5: Identify the meaning of the bound base in the given sets of
words. Complete the table given below.
1
audience, audible,
audition and auditorium
The bound base audi– means ‘hear’.
2
suicide, patricide,
matricide and infanticide
The bound base –cide means ‘killing’.

3
oral, orate, oration, oracle
and oratory
The bound base ora– means ‘mouth’ or
‘speak’.
4
aquaplane, aquarium,
aquatic and aquaduct
The bound base aqua– means ‘water’.

5
mortuary, moribund,
mortal and immortal
The bound base mor(t)– means ‘death’ or
‘dead’.
6
corporation, corporeal,
corps and corpse
The bound base corp– means ‘body’.

7
tenable, tenant, tenure and
tenacious
The bound base ten– means ‘hold’.

8
pendulum, suspender,
pendant and impending
The bound base pend– means ‘hang’.

125
9
manuscript, manacle,
manual and manicure
The bound base man– means ‘hand’.

10
eject, inject, inject, reject
and projectile
The bound base ject– means ‘throw’ or
‘shoot’.

EXERCISE 6: Identify the meaning of the bound base in each of the given
words and then give as many words with the same bound base as you can.
Complete the table given below.
1 revise

–vise = ‘see’ devise, visible, visionary, (tele)vision,
visibility, (audio-)visual, supervise, etc.
2 contradict

–dict = ‘say’ dictate, dictator, dictation, diction, dictum,
contradict, contradiction, contradictory,
contradictorily, etc.
3 regress –gress = ‘go’ regress, regression, regressive, progress,
progression, progressive, etc.
4 intervene –vene = ‘come’ convene, convenor, intervening,
intervention, interventionist, supervene,
contravene, etc.
5 recur –cur = ‘run’ current, currently, currency, occur,
occurrence, etc.
6 inspect –spect = ‘look’ inspector, inspectorate, inspection,
spectacles, prospect, prospector, prospective,
prospectus, perspective, etc.
7 oppose –pose = ‘put’ or
‘place’
depose, deposition, propose, proposal,
proposition, position(al), deposit,
deposition, depositor, depository, impose,
imposition, imposing, imposingly,
superimpose, etc.
8 rodent rod– = ‘gnaw’ erode, erosion, erosive, etc.
9 portable –port = ‘carry’ porter, portability, portage, comport,
deport, export, import, report, support,
transport, etc.
10 rupture rupt– = ‘break’ erupt, eruption, abrupt, abruptly,
abruptness, corrupt, (in)corruptible,
(in)corruptibility, etc

126
11 annual ann– = ‘year’ annual, annually, annuity, annuitant,
anniversary, etc.
12 bigamy –gam(y) =
‘marriage’
bigamist, bigamous, bigamously, polygamy,
polygamist, polygamous, etc.

B. THE EXERCISES OF ALLOMORPHS
EXERCISE 8: Explain why ‘a’ and ‘an’ are allomorphs of the same morpheme.
‘A’ and ‘an’ have the same meaning: ‘one’; they are in complementary
distribution: ‘a’ occurs before consonants and ‘an’ occurs before vowels.
Therefore, they are two allomorphs of the same morpheme.
EXERCISE 9: Identify the allomorphs of the inflectional verb past simple
morpheme {−D
1
} in the verb be. How are they conditioned?
The verb be conjugated in the past simple has two morphologically
conditioned suppletive allomorphs: was /w4z/ and were /w3:/:
• was /w6z/ occurs with the first person and the third person singular.
• were /w3:/ occurs with the first person and the third person plural and the
second person both plural and singular.

UNIT TWO: DERIVATION AND INFLECTION
EXERCISE 2: Identify all the possible the suffixes in each of the given
words.
Complete the table given below.
1 organists 2 suffixes −ist, −s
2 personalities 3 suffixes −al, −ity, −es
3 flirtatiously 3 suffixes −ation, −ous, −ly
4 atomizers 3 suffixes −ize, −er, −s
5 contradictorily 2 suffixes −ory, −ly
6 trusteeship 2 suffixes −ee, −ship
7 greasier 2 suffixes −y, −er
8 countrified 2 suffixes −fy, −ed
9 friendliest 2 suffixes −ly, −est
10 responsibilities 3 suffixes −ible, −ity, −es
127
EXERCISE 3: Identify the meaning of the prefix in each of the given words
and then give as many words with the same prefix as you can. Complete the
table given below.
1 antidote
anti− = ‘against’ anti-aircraft, antibody,
antipersonnel antihero
2 circumvent
circum− =
‘around’
circum-navigate, circumference,
circumlocution, circumspect
3
co-pilot
collaborate
compact
convene
corrode

co−, col−,
com−, con−,
cor− = ‘with’

co-curriculum, co-operate, co-
ordinate
collide, collision, collect
comply
consonant, convoke
correlate
4 contradict
contra− =
‘against’
contravene, contra-indicative,
contra-indication, contra-flow,
contraceptive, contra-distinction
5 devitalized
de− =
‘do the opposite of’
deactivate, decentralize,
dehumanize, deform, denationalize,
decolonize, decode
6 delouse de− = ‘remove’
dehorn, defrost, deice, deflower,
deforest
7 devalue de− = ‘reduce’: degrade, debase, decline, decrease
8 disunion
dis− = ‘opposite’
or ‘absence of’
disappear, discount, disarm

9 disagreeable dis− = ‘not’ dishonest, dissatisfy
10
insecure

imperfect

illegible

irreverent
in−, im−,
il−, ir− = ‘not’

incompetent, inefficient, infertile,
inorganic, insensible
immature, immeasurable, impolite,
impossible, imbalance, imbecile
illegal, illicit, illiterate, illogical,
illiberal, illegitimate
irregular, irreplaceable, irrelevant,
irrespective, irreducible
11
inspire

in−, im− = ‘in’ or
‘on’
inspiration, inspirational,
inspiring, inspired, inspect, install,
128
imbile inscribe
imbue, impale, impalpable,
impalement
12 intervene
inter− =
‘between’
interstate, international, intercede,
interact, interbreed, interchange
13 intramural intra− = ‘within’
intrastate, intravenous(ly),
intramuscular, intra-uterine
(device)
14
obstruct


oppose
ob−, op− =
‘against’ or
‘opposite’
obstruction, obstructive, obstrude,
obstrusion, obstrusive(ly),
obstinate obstrusiveness, obstacle,
object(ion),
opposition, opposed, opponent,
oppress, oppressed, oppression,
oppressive(ly)
15 pre-war pre− = ‘before’
prenatal, preconceive, predict,
predispose, preclude, pre-arrange,
preamble, precaution(ary)
16 post-war post− = ‘after’
posterior, post-mortem,
postgraduate, postscript, post−date
17 proceed pro− = ‘forwards’
progress, profession, project(ile),
propose, proposal, prologue,
prospect, prolapse
18 retroactive
retro- =
‘backwards’
retroflex, retrograde, retrogress,
retro-rocket, retrospect
19
semi-
professional
semi− = ‘half’ or
‘partly’
semi-soft, semi-conscious, semi-
detached, semicircle, semicolon,
semi-final
20 subway
sub− = ‘under’ or
‘below the
normal’
submarine, subsoil, subordinate,
subdivide, submerge, subordinate,
subnormal, substandard
21 superabundant
super− = ‘over’
or ‘beyond the
norm’
supervene, supervise,
supermarket, supernatural,
superhuman, superior, superstar,
superficial, etc.

129
22 unlikely un− = ‘not’
untrue, unjust, unkind, unfair,
unfit, unavoidable, unrelieved,
unscientific, unshrinking,
unskilled, etc.
23 undress
un− = ‘do the
opposite of’
undress, uncurl, unfold, unlock,
untie, unfreeze
EXERCISE 4: Each group contains a base and a few suffixes. Make each into
a word. Complete the table given below.
1 −ed, live, −en
livened (sb/ sth) up = caused sb/ sth to become
lively
2 −ing, −ate, termin− terminating = coming or bringing sth to an end
3 −er, −s, mor, −al, −ize
moralizers = ones who talk or write critically
about right or wrong behaviour
4 province, −s, −ism, −al provincialisms = provincial acts or manners
5 −ly, −some, grue
gruesomely = frightful, in a horrid and
disgusted way of life
6 −ity, work, −able workability = ability to work
7 in, −most, −er innermost = inmost = most inward
8 marry, −age, −ity, −able
marriageability = state of being old enough to
marry or being suitable enough for marriage
9 −dom, −ster, gang gangsterdom = group of gangsters
10 −ly, −tion, −ate, affect affectionately = in a loving or affectionate way

EXERCISE 5: Add a derivational suffix to each of these words, which already
end in a derivational suffix. Complete the table given below.
1 expression + −ism = expressionism
2 formal + −ly = formally; formal + −ity = formality
3 organize + −ation = organization
4 reasonable + −ness = reasonableness
5 purist + −ic = puristic

130
EXERCISE 6: Add an inflectional suffix to each of these words, which already
end in a derivational suffix. Complete the table given below.
1
kindness + −es = kindnesses (n., pl.)
2
beautify + −es = beautifies; beautify + −ed = beautified;
beautify + −ing = beautifying
3
quarterly + −es = quarterlies (n., pl.)
4
popularize + −es = popularizes; popularize + −ed = popularized;
popularize + −ing = popularizing
5
depth + −s = depths (n., pl.)
6
pressure + −s = pressures (n., pl.)
7
extinguish + −es = extinguishes; extinguish + −ed = extinguished;
extinguish + −ing = extinguishing
8
orientate + −es = orientates; orientate + −ed = orientated
orientate + −ing = orientating
9
friendly + −er = friendlier; friendly + −est = friendliest
10
noisy + −er = noisier; noisy + −est = noisiest

EXERCISE 7: You are given here five bases, or words with their bases
italicized. Give all the words in the derivational paradigm. Do not include
words with two bases, like ‘manhunt’ or ‘manpower’. Complete the table given
below.
1
sin sinful, sinfulness, sinless, sinlessness, sinner
2
kind kindly, kindliness, kindless, kindlessness, kindness
3
live
lively, liveliness, livelihood, liven, enliven, alive, aliveness,
unlive, unlively, unliveliness
4 transport
transportable, transportability, transporter, transportation,
transportational
5 audience audible, audibly, audition, audial, auditory, auditorium
131
EXERCISE 8: The left-hand column contains ten words. The right-hand
column contains thirteen derivational suffixes used to make nouns and having
the general meanings of ‘state, condition, quality, or act of’. By combining these
suffixes with the words listed, make as many nouns as you can. Fill in the
given blanks.
Words Derived Words Noun-forming Derivational Suffixes
1. happy happiness 1. –hood 8. –ance/ –ence
2. friend friendship 2. –acy 9. –th
3. girl girlhood 3. –ism 10. –ure
4. compose composure, composition 4. –ness 11. –ment
5. shrink shrinkage 5. –age 12. –y
6. discover discovery 6. –ity 13. –ship
7. supreme supremeness, supremacy 7. –ation/ –ition
8. true truth, truism
9. pagan paganism
10. active activeness, activity, activation, activism

UNIT THREE: IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENTS IN MORPHOLOGY
EXERCISE 2: Give the IC divisions of each of the following words. Support
the division you think is correct: (a) unlovable and (b) reappearance.
ANSWER:
a) ‘Unlovable’ is made up of:
un– : the derivational class-maintaining negative prefix
love : the free base, which is a verb
–able : the derivational class-changing adjective-forming suffix

un– lov(e) –able

is the only correct way to analyse this word. When the negative prefix un– is
stripped away, the remainder ‘lovable’ is an adjective meaning able to be loved.
This construction, in turn, can be further divided into two morphemes: the free
base ‘love’ and the suffix ‘–able’.

un– lov(e) –able

132
is an unacceptable IC division because ‘unlove’ is not a free form in English.
b) ‘Reappearrance’ is made up of:
re– : the derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘again’
appear : the free base, which is a verb
–ance : derivational class-changing noun-forming suffix


re– appear –ance

is the correct IC division because it follows the
morphological rule: re– + verb = verb again

Then, –ance is added to the verb reappear to form a noun. This division
suggests the meaning ‘the act of appearing again’.

re– appear –ance

is an incorrect IC division because the prefix re– is
added to English verbs, not nouns.


UNIT FOUR: WORDS
EXERCISE 1: Make the first IC cut in the words below which permit such
cutting. Then classify each word as:
S simple;
C-BB complex with two bound forms as IC’s;
C-FB complex with one free form as an IC.
Complete the table given below:
1 knave S 11 carn– | –al C-BB
2 knave | –ish C-FB 12 sophist | –ic C-FB
3 graph S 13 misogyn– | –ist C-BB
4 tele– | graph C-FB 14 refus(e) | –al C-FB
5 merge S 15 port– | –er C-BB
6 e– | merge C-FB 16 en– | able C-FB
7 moron S 17 mete S
8 pre– | –dict C-BB 18 met(e) | –er C-FB
9 pur(e) | –ist C-FB 19 chrono–| meter C-FB
10 comic | –al C-FB 20 demo– |–cracy C-BB

133
EXERCISE 2: Indicate whether each italicized and underlined expression is
compound (Comp) or a grammatical structure (GS). Pay no attention to
hyphens or spaces, for these are deceptive. Complete the table given below:
1 Comp
Jim’s car is a hardtop. (= a car with a metal roof)
2 GS
This jar has a rather hard top.
(= The jar has a top which is rather hard.)
3 Comp
It was a jack-in-the-box. (= a toy in the form of a box with a
figure inside that springs up when the lid is opened)
4 GS
The plant in the box is rare.
5 Comp
A ‘hot ,dog is not a ,hot ‘dog.
(= a hot sausage served in hot bread roll, often with onions and
mustard)
6 GS
A ‘hot ,dog is not a ,hot ‘dog. (= a dog which is hot)
7 Comp
He has a dog in the manger attitude. (= a person who stops
others enjoy something he cannot use or does not want)
8 GS
He has a dog in the manger attitude.
(= an annoying attitude)
9 GS
She has a ,strong ‘hold on him. (= a hold which is strong)
10 Comp
She has a ‘stronghold on him. (= support)
11 Comp
George found his father-in-law.
12 GS
George found his father in trouble.
13 Comp
They bought it on the ‘black ,market.
14 GS
The electricity went off, and we caught in a black, completely
lightless, market.
15 Comp
His spending money was a source of annoyance to his father.
(= the money spent by him)
16 GS
His spending money was a source of annoyance to his father.
(= the way according to which he spends his money)

134
EXERCISE 3: Classify the following items with these symbols:
S Simple
C-BB Complex with two bound forms as IC’s
C-FB Complex with one free form as an IC
Comp Compound
GS Grammatical structure
With three classes C-BB, C-FB, and Comp, make the first IC cut.
Complete the table given below:
1 Comp
sharpshooter
one who is killed at a shooting with a gun)
sharp | shooter

2 GS
a sharp shooter (one who shoots sharply)
3 S
act
4 C-FB react re– | act
5 Comp storekeeper (the keeper of a store) store | keeper
6 C-FB Highlander (one who lives in the Highland) Highland | –er
7 S
apparatus
8
C-BB contain con– | –tain
9 C-BB recur re– | –cur
10 C-BB current cur(r)– | –ent
11 C-FB unearth un– | earth
12 C-FB
referee
(= a person to whom all the footballers refer)
refer | –ee
13 S
solve
14 C-FB dissolve dis– | solve
15 C-FB solvent solv(e) | –ent
16 Comp
bull’s eye (the center of a target) bull’s | eye
17 GS
the bull’s eye (the eye of the bull)
135
18 Comp passbook pass | book
19 C-FB disapproval disapprove | –al
20 C-FB inaccessible in– | accessible

EXERCISE 4: Give the original words from which these clipped words were
formed. Complete the table given below:
1 ad ← advertisement 13 memo ← memorandum
2 gas ← gasoline 14 cello ← violoncello
3 taxi ← taximeter 15 bus ← omnibus
4 cab ← cabriolet 16 coon ← racoon
5 frat ← fraternity 17 Phil ← Philip
6 photo ← photograph 18 Joe ← Joseph
7 gin ← Geneva 19 Tom ← Thomas
8 curio ← curiosity 20 Al ←Albert, Alfred or Alvin
9 wig ← periwig 21 Fred ← Frederick
10 bra ← brassieøre 22 Bert ← Albert
11 brandy ← brandy wine 23 Gene ← Eugene
12 pike (road) ← turnpike 24 Beth ← Elizabeth
25 maitre d’ /,meItr6‘di:/ ← maitre d’ hotel /,meItr6 ‘d6υ tel/
EXERCISE 5: Give the original of each of the following blends. Complete the
table given below:
1 smog ← smoke + fog
2 telecast ← television + broadcast
3 electrocute ← electricity + execute
4 splatter ← splash + spatter
5 Amerindian ← American + Indian
6 Eurasian ← European + Asian
7 newsboy ← newspaper boy
8 medicare ← medical care
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EXERCISE 6: Give the blends that result from fusing these words. Complete
the table given below:
1 happening + circumstances → happenstances
2 automobile + omnibus → autobus
3 escalade + elevator → escalator
4 blare or blow + spurt → blurt
5 squall+ squeak → squawk

EXERCISE 7: Pronounce these acronyms and give their originals.
Complete the table given below:
1 UN /,ju: ‘en/ United Nations
2 MC /,em ‘si:/ Master of Ceremonies
3 BBC /,bi: bi: ‘si:/ British Broadcasting Corporation
4 AD /,e1 ‘di:/
(from Latin ‘anno domini’) in the year of Our
Lord, of the Christian era
5 BC /,bi: ‘si:/ before Christ
6 TESL
/,ti: i: es ‘el/
or /‘tesl/
Teaching English as a Second Language
7 EFL /,i: ef ‘el/ English as a Foreign Language
8 VIP /,vi: a1 ‘pi:/ very important person
9 FIFA /‘fi: f6/
Federation of International Football
Associations
10 NAM /,en e1 ‘em/ National Association of Manufacturers

EXERCISE 8: These verbs are back-formations. Write the words from which
they are formed. Complete the table given below:
1 bootleg ← bootlegger
2 typewrite ← typewriter
3 coronate ← coronation
4 resurrect ← resurrection
5 baby-sit ← baby-sitter
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6 advance-register ← advance-registration
7 laze ← lazy
8 jell ← jelly
9 escalate ← escalator
10 reminisce ← reminiscence
11 orate ← oration
12 donate ← donation
13 televise ← television
EXERCISE 9: Indicate the meaning relation between the parts of the
following English compound words. Complete the table given below:
1 chessboard = board for playing chess on
2 flycatcher = bird that catches flies for food
3 sunlight = light given by the sun
4 daybreak = break of the day
5 frostbite = bite from frost
6 driftwood = wood that drifts
7 popcorn = corn that has popped
8 handshake = shake by the hand
9 brainwashing (fig) = washing of the brain
10 match maker = one who makes matches
11 mince-meat = meat that has been minced
12 drinking-water = water for drinking
13 typing-paper = paper for typing on
14 sleepwalking = walking in one’s sleep
15 sunbather = one who bathes in the sun
16 homework = work done at home
17 workbench = bench for working at
18 motorcycle = cycle powered by a motor
19 silkworm = worm that produces silk
20 sawdust = dust produced by sawing
21 doorknob = knob on a door
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22 tape-measure = tape used for measuring
23 soap-flake = flake of soap
24 cowshed = shed for cow
25 butterfingers
= person with butter on his fingers, person who is
likely to drop things.

EXERCISE 10: Match each expression under A with the one statement under
B that characterizes it.
a ⇔ 3: ‘Noisy crow’ is ‘a phrase consisting of adjective plus noun’.
b ⇔ 6: ‘Eat crow’ is ‘an idiom’.
c ⇔ 1: ‘Scarecrow’ is ‘a compound noun’.
d ⇔ 7: ‘The crow’ is made up of ‘a grammatical morpheme’ followed by ‘a
lexical morpheme’.
e ⇔ 5: ‘crow-like’ consist of ‘a base morpheme’ and ‘a derivational suffix’.
f ⇔ 4: ‘Crows’ consist of ‘a base morpheme’ and ‘an inflectional suffix’.
EXERCISE 15: What is CLIPPING? Are CLIPPED WORDS considered as free
forms? Give examples to illustrate your presentation.
ANSWER:
Clipping is the removal of a small bit c either at the end of a word:
advertisement → advert / ad, fanatic → fan; d or at the beginning of a word:
omnibus → bus, airplane → plane; e or at both ends of a word: influenza →
flu, refrigerator → fridge.
In English, clipped words are considered as free forms: they can occur on
their own right. For example, ‘I saw an interesting help-wanted ad in Youth
yesterday.’ or ‘There is nothing beer left in the fridge.’
EXERCISE 16: As far as structure is concerned, how do COMPLEX WORDS
differ from COMPOUND WORDS. Give appropriate examples to illustrate that.
ANSWER:
COMPLEX WORDS contain at least one bound morpheme as an immediate
constituent (an IC). They fall into two subclasses:
c Complex words–FB (free-base) have one free morpheme as an IC:
lioness, uncertain, rainy, rebirth, deepen, disappear, etc.
d Complex words–BB (bound base) have a bound morpheme for each IC:
televise, terminate, rupture, matricide, preclude, extract, somniferous, etc.
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COMPOUND WORDS have at least two free bases (free morphemes) with or
without bound morphemes: high-born, northeast, desk-lamp(s), ill-treat(ed),
mother-in-law, smoke screen, worldly-wise, etc.

EXERCISE 17: Why is it said that A WORD COMPOUND is a solid block?
ANSWER:
Compound words are considered as solid blocks because they cannot be
divided by the insertion of any other elements: the compound word ‘sweetheart’
is indivisible: you cannot insert anything between ‘sweet’ and ‘heart’.
She is a sweetheart. (a compound noun)
*She is a sweeterheart.
*She is a sweetkindheart.
On the contrary, grammatical structures can be so divided:
She has a sweet heart. (a noun phrase)
She has a sweeter heart than her sister.
She has a sweet, kind heart.
She has a very sweet heart.

EXERCISE 18: Name the word formation process of each of the following words:
1. doorknob: compounding 6. radar: acronymy
2. telly: clipping 7. chunnel: blending
3. nylon: coinage 8. cantata: borrowing
4. porter: suffixation 9. ESL: acronymy
5. silence (v.): conversion 10. televise: back-formation











140
BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Arnold, I. V. (1986) The English Word. Moscow.
2. Bloomfield, L. (1935) Language. London.
3. Fromkin, V. and Rodman, R. (1993) An Introduction to Language. Fifth
Edition. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
4. Greenbaum, S. (1996) The Oxford English Grammar. Oxford University
Press.
5. Jackson, H. (1980) Analyzing English. Pergamon Institute of English.
6. Lyons, J. (1969) Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge
University Press.
7. Quirk, R. et al (1973) A University Grammar of English. Longman Group
Ltd.
8. Richards, J.; Platt, J. and Weber, H. (1987) Longman Dictionary of Applied
Linguistics. Longman.
9. Sapir, E. (1925) Language − An Introduction to the Study of Speech.
London.
10. Stageberg, N. C. (1965) An Introductory English Grammar. Holt, Rinehart
and Winston, Inc.

2

LÔØI NOÙI ÑAÀU

Giaùo trình Hình thaùi hoïc tieáng Anh ñöôïc hình thaønh döïa treân tö lieäu ñaõ ñöôïc giaûng daïy trong thôøi gian qua cho sinh vieân chuyeân ngöõ cuûa Khoa Ngöõ vaên Anh, Tröôøng Ñaïi hoïc Khoa hoïc Xaõ hoäi vaø Nhaân vaên - Ñaïi hoïc Quoác gia Thaønh phoá Hoà Chí Minh. Giaùo trình naøy ñöôïc bieân soaïn nhaèm trang bò cho sinh vieân caùch tieáp caän mang tính thöïc haønh moân hoïc ñaày tính lyù thuyeát naøy. Giaùo trình Hình thaùi hoïc tieáng Anh trình baøy moät caùch coù heä thoáng moät soá khaùi nieäm cô baûn veà hình thaùi hoïc vaø nhieàu kieåu phaân tích töø vöïng tieáng Anh. Beân caïnh ñoù, giaùo trình naøy cuõng chuù yù ñeán caû keát caáu noäi taïi laãn yù nghóa bieåu ñaït cuûa chuùng. Noùi moät caùch khaùc, taøi lieäu naøy coù lieân quan tôùi: Hình vò, tha hình vò, töø vöïng vaø caùc tieåu loaïi cuûa chuùng trong tieáng Anh hieän ñaïi; Caùc quy trình hình thaønh vaø caùc quy taéc phaân tích töø vöïng tieáng Anh. Trong quaù trình bieân soaïn giaùo trình naøy chuùng toâi ñaõ tham khaûo vaø trích daãn nhieàu tö lieäu ñaõ ñöôïc coâng boá, ñaëc bieät laø cuûa Arnold (1986), Jackson (1980) vaø Stageberg (1965). Coù theå noùi, muïc tieâu duy nhaát cuûa chuùng toâi khi bieân soaïn giaùo trình naøy laø nhaèm cung caáp cho sinh vieân moät löôïng thoâng tin caàn thieát veà lónh vöïc thuù vò vaø thaät söï coù ích lôïi naøy döôùi söùc eùp cuûa moät thôøi löôïng heát söùc khieâm toán vaãn thöôøng daønh cho moân Hình thaùi hoïc tieáng Anh. Chuùng toâi xin ñöôïc theå hieän loøng bieát ôn chaân thaønh ñoái vôùi Tieán só Nguyeãn Tieán Huøng veà nhöõng ñoùng goùp vaø pheâ bình phaûn bieän tích cöïc cuûa oâng daønh cho giaùo trình naøy. Ñaây laø laàn ñaàu tieân giaùo trình naøy ñöôïc xuaát baûn, haún khoâng traùnh khoûi sai soùt. Chuùng toâi mong nhaän ñöôïc nhieàu yù kieán ñoùng goùp cuûa baïn ñoïc ñeå giaùo trình ngaøy caøng hoaøn thieän hôn. YÙ kieán ñoùng goùp xin göûi veà: Hoäi ñoàng Khoa hoïc vaø Ñaøo taïo Khoa Ngöõ vaên Anh, Tröôøng Ñaïi hoïc Khoa hoïc Xaõ hoäi vaø Nhaân vaên – Ñaïi hoïc Quoác gia Thaønh phoá Hoà Chí Minh, 10-12 Ñinh Tieân Hoaøng, Q.1, ñieän thoaïi: 8243328.

Thaønh phoá Hoà Chí Minh, ngaøy 30 thaùng 7 naêm 2003. Toâ Minh Thanh

3

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......................................1..........................1......................................................41 1....................................................... Free morphemes vs......................................................................................................................................................66 EXERCISES...................................................47 Unit three: IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENTS IN MORPHOLOGY.......................................................................................... Classification of Morphemes ....................................................................................... Some Recommendations on IC division................. Derivation .......................................2.... Definition...................2......................................................41 2................................................................................... Definition ......................................................................................................65 1. Derivation ......................46 3...............46 3................................................ Variations of Morphemes — Allomorphs ..............................65 2.... Bound morphemes..... Diagram ....................................................................................9 3............................................................................................3........................................................................................ Inflection ............2..................................................1......................................................................................................................................45 3.......................12 4.............................................9 1.....................................................................................14 4...... Definition – Characteristics .... Selection of Allomorphs: ............................................................ Inflection.......16 EXTRA READING .................................. Affixes ...............67 5 ......................................................................1.........41 1............................................................................................CONTENTS Preface .......................................................2.................................................2...............................15 EXERCISES..41 1............................................................................ Definition .......................................................47 EXERCISES........................14 4............................................................................................................... Types of Allomorphs .........9 2.............................................. How to distinguish Derivation from Inflection ..................... Definition ....................................... Types of Derivational Affixes .....................3.................... How to distinguish Morphemes from Phonemes.........................................................14 4....................................3 Table of notational symbols.......7 Unit one: MORPHEMES..........................45 2...... Syllables and Words? ...11 3...................................... Various Kinds of Inflection.............................................................. Bases (also called Roots) vs.......1.......................66 3..............................................11 3...............................45 2.36 Unit two: DERIVATION AND INFLECTION .............................................. Morphological rules....................41 1.....................................................................................

..........94 EXERCISES......91 3................................................Unit four: WORDS............ clipping.............................................................................89 2.................. Classification of words according to their word-formation processes: coinage............. Internal stability and Positional mobility......................................................... borrowing................................................ ............................... Classification of words according to their structure: .............................................................................................................. Indivisibility ..........1..1............89 2...............................................................................................................................89 1............... blending............................................................. Classification ................2....................................2.. Definition..... Characteristics .....................................90 3..... compounding......................................................................................... conversion........ affixation and back-formation.. acronymy......................................................................................................................140 6 .....................121 Answer keys ................123 Bibliography .......................................91 3........................................109 EXTRA READING ......................................................89 2...........................

insulting attrib = attributive pred = predicative Brit = British abbr = abbreviated I = intransitive verb Ipr = intransitive verb + prepositional phrase Ip = intransitive verb + adverbial particle La = linking verb + adjective (phrase) Tn = transitive verb + noun (phrase) Tn.t = complex transitive verb + noun (phrase) + to-infinitive phrase 7 .pr = transitive verb + noun (phrase) + prepositional phrase Tn. n = noun [U] = uncountable [C] = countable pl = plural sing = singular adj = adjective adv = adverb prep = preposition v = verb phr v = phrasal verb sth = something sb = somebody mono-trans = mono-transitive verb complex trans = complex transitive verb etc = et cetera meaning “and other similar things” or “and so on” fig = figurative esp = especially usu = usually fml = formal infml = informal derog = derogatory.NOTATIONAL SYMBOLS Most of the symbols used in this text follow conventions. but since conventions vary.p = transitive verb + noun (phrase) + adverbial particle Cn. the following list indicates the meanings assigned to them here.

8 .

–en must be considered a morpheme. etc. 1987: 183] • ‘A morpheme is a short segment of language that meets three criteria: It is a word or part of a word that has meaning. In other words.UNIT ONE MORPHEMES 1. they have distinctive features that help to distinguish meaning. It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of its meaning or without meaningless remainders. deepen. We also know that –en recurs with a stable meaning in words like cheapen.2: Straight is an English adjective meaning ‘without a bend or curve’. DEFINITION – CHARACTERISTICS What is a morpheme? • ‘A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language. rate /re1t/and ate/e1t/.1. Ex. stiffen. soften. PHONEMES A morpheme differs from a phoneme in that the former has meaning whereas the latter does not. It recurs in different verbal environments with a relatively stable meaning. 1965: 85] Ex. /st–/ and /str–/. This leads us to conclude that –en means ‘make’. 9 .’ [Richards. straight must be considered a morpheme. darken. Therefore. MORPHEMES vs. the English word talks consists of two morphemes: the base talk the lexical meaning of which is ‘say something’ and the suffix –s. SYLLABLES AND WORDS? 2. Although phonemes have no meaning. but their meanings violate the meaning of straight. Therefore.3: Bright means ‘light’. we can recognize a morpheme by either its lexical or its grammatical meaning. Platt & Weber. We also get the meaningless remainders: /s–/. which has no lexical meaning and which is used to show that the verb talks is in the third person singular present-tense form. the smallest meaningful unit in English. By dividing straight. Ex.1: The English word unkind consists of two morphemes: the base kind the lexical meaning of which is ‘friendly and thoughtful to others’ and the prefix un– the lexical meaning of which is ‘not’.’ [Stageberg. HOW TO DISTINGUISH MORPHEMES FROM PHONEMES. and brighten means ‘make light’. 2. we get smaller meaningful units of trait /tre1t/.

g. In other cases. In English. to form a morpheme. lion /’laI6n/: crocodile /’kr4k6da1l/: two syllables – one morpheme three syllables – one morpheme Connecticut /k6’net1k6t/: four syllables – one morpheme On the contrary. MORPHEMES vs. both /g6υ/ and /–z/ in goes /g6υz/ are morphemes. That is. A morpheme may consist of only a single phoneme like the /–z/ in goes. MORPHEMES vs. However. 2. WORDS Words are made up of morphemes. 2.1: The initial consonant of bitch is [− aspirated] while that of pitch is [+ aspirated]. But the phoneme /z/ and this morpheme are by no means identical. and so are many English morphemes. in some cases a morpheme may consist of one syllable or several whole syllables.2. For example. zoo /zu:/ and rose /r6υz/ both contain /z/ but the /z/ here has nothing to do with the morpheme realized as /–z/ in goes. E. the morpheme {strange} and the syllable /stre1nd2/. Ex. Most English morphemes are intermediate in size between {of} and {strange} and consist of about two to six phonemes.2: The vowel of pin is [+ close] and thus [− open] while that of pan is [+ open] and thus [− close]. SYLLABLES A morpheme happens to be identical to a syllable. The phoneme /z/ occurs many times where it has nothing to do with this morpheme. though altogether they are but a single syllable. morphemes are the constituents of words. A word may be composed of one or more morphemes: One morpheme: boy. Briefly. it is only part of a syllable. desire 10 . goes is mono-syllabic but poly-morphemic. Many poly-syllabic words are mono-morphemic. In fact. any matches between morphemes and syllables are fortuitous. In other words.3. a morpheme is not identical with a syllable. The syllable is a phonological unit whereas the morpheme is the basic unit in morphology. some phonemes are usually combined together without any regard to their status as syllables.Ex.g. e. Morphemes are generally short sequences of phonemes: the morpheme {of} consists of two phonemes — / 4 / and / v /.

2. desir(e) + –able Three morphemes: boy + –ish + –ness. [Jackson. as well as enter into the structure of other words’. Drink is a free morpheme which occurs as a word on its own and as a free base in drinkable. drinking-fountain.g. FREE MORPHEMES 3. [Richards.g. undrinkable.1. It is always annexed to one or more morphemes to form a word’. FREE MORPHEMES • A free morpheme is ‘one that can be uttered alone with meaning’. Platt & Weber. desir(e) + –abil + –ity Four morphemes: gentle + man + –li + –ness un– + desir(e) + –abil– + –ity More than four morphemes: un– + gentle + man + –li + –ness anti– + dis– + establish + –ment + –ari + –an + –ism 3.1. etc. [Stageberg.1. [Jackson. drinking-water. BOUND MORPHEMES • A bound morpheme ‘cannot be uttered alone with meaning. [Richards. etc. 3. There are two basic classes of morphemes: free morphemes and bound morphemes. BOUND MORPHEMES vs. 1980: 53] E. [Stageberg. living. Platt & Weber. 1987: 31] • Bound morphemes ‘may occur only if they combine with another morpheme’. 11 .1. each with a characteristic distribution. 1965: 87] • A bound morpheme ‘is never used alone but must be used with another morpheme’.Two morphemes: boy + –ish. driving. Affixes are almost always bound whereas bases can be either free or bound. 3. 1980: 53] E. the English suffix –ing /–17/ must be used after a verb form: writing. 1987: 31] • Free morphemes ‘may stand alone as words in their own right. 1965: 87] • A free morpheme ‘can be used on its own’. CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEMES It is always found that morphemes can be grouped into certain classes.

1980: 53] The only eight inflectional suffixes in English are: 12 . etc. affixes have three main subclasses: • PREFIXES ‘occur before a base’ [Stageberg.2. etc.3.2. matricide. over-react. unkind.2. • SUFFIXES ‘occur after a base’ [Stageberg.2. A BASE (also called A ROOT) is ‘that morpheme in a word that has the principal meaning’ [Stageberg. which shows that a verb is in the past tense: sulat (to write) sumulat (wrote). Affixes may be added directly to bases or to constructions consisting of a base plus one or more (either free or bound) morphemes. There are two kinds of bases: A FREE BASE is a base ‘which may be a word on its own right once the other morphemes have been stripped away’ [Jackson. is –pend or pend–.g. BASES (or ROOTS) vs. [Jackson. auditory. break in unbreakable. infanticide. is –cide. etc. E. friend in friendship. 3. reconsider. It is the central morpheme. 1980: 53]. • INFIXES are inserted within words. AFFIXES 3. understate. Thus we have: work worker + –s = works + –s = workers workshop + –s = workshops 3.2. auditorium.2. Classified according to their FUNCTION in words. they are representatives of grammatical categories’. affixes have two main subclasses: • INFLECTIONAL AFFIXES. the basic part of a word. etc. dreamed. and that of suspender.1. nails. 3. quickly. etc.2. Classified according to their POSITION in words. the infix –um–in Tagalog. 1965: 87].1. act in deactivated. 1965: 92] as in shrinkage. prefix. A BOUND BASE is a base (i. pendulum.g. audible.e. The bound base of audience. patricide. audition. AN AFFIX is a morpheme (usually a bound morpheme) ‘that occurs before or behind a base’ [Stageberg.2. that of suicide. mouse-like. perform a grammatical function. 1965: 91] as in import. etc.g. E. noisy.2. 1965: 87-88]. is audi–. it is the basic part of a word and has the principal meaning) which can never occur on its own but can only be joined to other bound morphemes. pendant. e. ‘which are always suffixes in English.

saf(e)– est. girl–‘s. students–‘. [Jackson. it is clear that English prefixes are always derivational. find–s. the adjective or adverb comparative morpheme {–er1}: small–er. dis–enthrone. the verb past simple morpheme {–D1}: flow–ed. creat(e)–ed. the noun possessive morpheme {–S2}: man–‘s. mix–es. etc. broke. long–est. • DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES. box–es. 1980: 53] Derivational affixes may be of two kinds: Class-changing derivational affixes change the word class of the word to which they are attached: –al added to nation makes an adjective out of a noun. apple–s. work–ed. the verb present participle morpheme {–ing1}: play–ing. etc. hard–est. etc. fast–er. drunk. thought. ‘which may be prefixes or suffixes in English. as follows: 13 . Derivational suffixes need not close off a word. un–refined. Class-maintaining derivational affixes do not change the word class of the word to which they are attached. the adjective or adverb superlative morpheme {–est1}: small–est. A number of derivational suffixes may. etc.the noun plural morpheme {–S1}: book–s. the verb third person singular present tense morpheme {–S3}: walk–s. that is. There is never more than one inflectional suffix in English words and it always comes last. show–ed. thinn–er. etc. fast–est. drank. show–n. have a lexical function. Derivational prefixes are usually class-maintaining: re–mark. etc. etc. Alice–‘s. however. they create new words out of existing words or morphemes by their addition’. the verb past participle morpheme{–D2}: flow–ed. thinn–est. creat(e)–ed. dig(g)–ing. The relative order of morphemes in the English word is. broken. occur. typ(e)–ing. hard–er. thought. etc. work–ed. saf(e)–er. then. long–er. etc. There is not usually more than one prefix in a word in English and from what was said in the previous paragraphs. after a derivational suffix one can sometimes add another derivational suffix and can frequently add an inflectional suffix.

dog /d49/ → dogs /d49z/. Its importance both as a tool and as an insight into the operation of language can hardly be underestimated. t∫.1. In this case. and sometimes it is pronounced /–Iz/. 1987: 9] E. /–z/. /–Iz/ all refer to ‘plurality’ and all mean ‘more than one’. SELECTION OF ALLOMORPHS: The three allomorphs /–z/. either lexical or grammatical: /–s/. 2. e. k. It is believed that /–s/. the conditioning factor is the phonetic nature of their preceding phoneme: /–s/ occurs only after the voiceless consonants /p. /–s/ and /–Iz/ of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} are phonologically conditioned since each can occur only when a certain clearly defined condition occurs.g.g. /–z/. including all vowels and voiced consonants except /z/. t.derivational prefix – base – derivational suffix(es) – inflectional suffix Generally speaking. e. In English. DEFINITION: An allomorph is ‘any of the different forms of a morpheme’. [Richards. f. 4. and /d2/. ∫. The concept of morphemes and allomorphs is one of the most basic in descriptive linguistics. criteria of distribution and meaning. θ/.2. box /b4ks / → box /’b4ks1z/. Thus. /–Iz/ are three allomorphs of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} because: They are in complementary distribution: /–s / occurs only after the voiceless consonants /p. /–Iz/ occurs only after the groove fricatives and 14 . And a morpheme is a group of two or more allomorphs which conform to certain. θ/. usually rather clearly definable. d2/. an allomorph can also be defined as a variant of a morpheme which occurs in a certain definable environment. Platt & Weber.g. /–Iz / occurs only after the sibilant consonants /s. /–z/ occurs after voiced sounds. 4.g. Sometimes this morpheme is pronounced /–z/. k. Z. e. In English. f. affixes are almost always bound morphemes and bases are nearly always free. They all have the same meaning. the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} is often shown in writing by adding –(e)s to the end of a singular noun. /2/. cat /k`t/ → cats /k`ts/. bases are central and affixes are peripheral. t. VARIATIONS OF MORPHEMES — ALLOMORPHS 4.

This means that. the selection is determined by the specific morpheme or morphemes forming the context. rather than by any phonologic feature: the plural of ox /4ks/ is oxen /‘4ks6n/.3. TYPES OF ALLOMORPHS ADDITIVE ALLOMORPHS: /−6n/ → oxen /‘4ks6n/ To signify some difference in meaning. The braces {} indicate a morphemic representative in which one arbitrarily selected symbol is used to represent each morpheme and comprehend all its allomorphs. d2/. The selection of allomorphs may also be morphologically conditioned. {–S1} can be used to refer to the inflectional noun plural morpheme and all of its allomorphs. the past tense form of most English verbs is formed by adding the 15 . if we understand the facts of distribution. ∫. 2. It does not directly give any information about pronunciation. /–Iz/. we can accurately predict which of the three will occur in any place where any one of them could occur. therefore. In this case. it is awkward to have a list of all of them every time the morpheme is mentioned. and /–z/ occurs only after voiced sounds. and /–z/ are three phonologically conditioned allomorphs of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1}. as many do. t∫. say that /–s/. comprehending all the variant forms in which it can appear. /–6n/ is a morphologically conditioned allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} which is used with this stem /4ks/: ox /4ks/ + –en sibilant If a morpheme has numerous allomorphs. z. d2/: cat /k`t/ + –s /–s/ → cats /k`ts/ voiceless + –s /–z/ → dogs /d49z/ voiced + –es /–1z / → box /’b4ks1z/ dog /d49/ box /b4ks/ sibilant We may. 2.affricates /s. it is desirable to have a single symbol to indicate a morpheme. except the three voiced sibilants /z. For instance. For example. 4. something is added to a word. Instead. For this purpose we use braces {}.

or /–d/ or /–Id/: ask + –ed /a:sk/ + /–t/.suffix –ed which can be pronounced as either /–t/. For example. go + the suppletive allomorph of {–D1} = went. THE ZERO ALLOMORPH: There is no change in the shape of a word though some difference in meaning is identified. THE EXERCISES OF MORPHEMES EXERCISE 1: Identify the number of the morphemes in each of the given words. good + the suppletive allomorph of {–est1} = best. liv(e) + –ed /lIv/ + /–d/. 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 play replay date antedate hygiene weak 1 2 (re– and play) 11 keeper 12 able 13 unable 14 mahogany 15 rain 16 rainy 1 . Complete the table given below. EXERCISES A. bad + the suppletive allomorph of {–er1} = worse. be + the suppletive allomorph of {–S3} = is. the past tense form of hurt is formed by adding the zero allomorph of {–D1} to this word. something is deleted from a word. need + –ed /ni:d/ + /–Id/. the letter a is deleted from zopa to signal that this Russian noun is in the plural form of the possessive case. For example. For example. there is a complete change in the shape of a word. SUPPLETIVE ALLOMORPHS: To signify some difference in meaning. REPLACIVE ALLOMORPHS: To signify some difference in meaning. the /1/ in drink is replaced by the /æ/ in drank to signal the simple past. SUBTRACTIVE ALLOMORPHS: To signify some difference in meaning. a sound is used to replace another sound in a word. This is symbolized as follows: /dr`7k/ = /dr17k/ + / 1 → ` /. For example.

The suffix –er means ‘a person who …’. 1 2 3 4 5 speaker kingdom phonemic idolize selective –er EXERCISE 2: Identify the bound morpheme(s) in of each of the given words. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 antedate replay manly keeper unable rainy cheapest subway import maltreat EXERCISE 4: Identify the meaning of the affix in of each of the given words. 17 . The prefix ante– means ‘before’. –vene 10 undone table given below. 6 7 8 9 delivery intervene revise dreamed inter–. 1 2 3 4 womanly endear failure famous EXERCISE 3: Underline the base in each of the given words. Complete the 6 7 8 9 lighten enlighten friendship befriend 11 12 13 14 unlikely pre-war subway falsify 5 infamous 10 Bostonian 15 unenlivened Complete the table given below.7 8 9 weaken man manly 17 cheap 18 cheaply 19 cheaper 20 honest 2 (cheap and –ly) 10 keep Complete the table given below.

8 pendant and impending manuscript. . audition and auditorium suicide. a singer. audience. [I] take part in an audition: Which part are you auditioning for? 2. . manacle. 9 manual and manicure eject. 4 aquatic and aquaduct mortuary. inject. corporeal. etc. tenure and 7 tenacious pendulum.: I’m going to the audition but I don’t expect I’ll get a part. 6 corps and corpse tenable.audibility /. suspender. aquarium. audible. reject 10 and projectile 1 NOTES: The bound base audi– means ‘hear’. tenant. moribund. [C] trial hearing of a person who wants to perform as an actor. matricide 2 and infanticide oral. 1. [U] capability of being heard clearly.EXERCISE 5: Identify the meaning of the bound base in the given sets of words. oracle 3 and oratory aquaplane. inject. patricide. orate. The bound base audi– means ‘hear’. oration.audition /0:‘d1~n/ n . Complete the table given below. [Tn] give an audition to sb: None of the actresses we auditioned is suitable.audible /‘0:d6bl/ adj that can be heard clearly: Her voice is scarcely audible above the noise of the wind. 1.audition v 18 .0:d6‘b1l6t1/ n . The bound base –cide means ‘killing’. mortal 5 and immortal corporation. a musician.

infanticide /1n‘f`nt1sa1d/ n 3. . . [C] priest(ess) giving the answers: to consult the oracle. The bound base ora– means ‘mouth’ or ‘speak’.0:d1‘t0:r16m/ n of or concerned with hearing: the auditory nerve. esp when used skilfully to affect an audience: Some politicians are famous for their oratory. 1. [U] crime of killing an infant: to commit infanticide. [C] person who kills an infant. 2.matricide /‘m`tr1sa1d/ n . concert hall.aquaplane /‘`kw6ple1n/ n [C] board on which a person stands while being towed across water by a ship or boat. 2. [C] formal speech made on a public occasion esp as part of a ceremony: a funeral oration.auditorium /. in which an audience sits. 1.patricide /‘p`tr1sa1d/ n . [C. [U. 2. etc. 1. (pl~s) part of a theatre.auditory /‘0:d6tr1/ adj .orator /‘4r6t6/ n 4. [C] person who guilty of this. U] (act of) killing one’s own mother: to commit matricide.oracle /‘4r6kl/ n .. [C] person who does this. [U] killing oneself intentionally: to commit suicide. 2. [C] act of this: There have been three suicides this week.suicide /‘sju:sa1d/ n . 2. The bound base –cide means ‘killing’. (b) person who is good at public speaking. The bound base aqua– or aque–means ‘water’. . (fml) (a) person who makes formal speeches in public. 19 .oratory /‘4r6tr1/ n . [U] (art of) public speaking. 1. C] (act of) killing one’s own father: to commit patricide.oration /4‘re1~n/ n .

aquatic /6‘kw`t1k/ adj 5. 2. animals. causing death: a mortal wound/ injury.g. [C] room or building (e.mortal adj n .aqueduct /‘`kw1d∧kt/ n [C] structure for carrying water across country. of or like water. [usu attrib] 1. 6. death or burial: . (a) military force made up of two or more divisions: the 6th Army Corps (b) one of the technical branches of an army: the 20 . [C] human being: ordinary mortals. living for ever.aqueous /‘e1kw16s/ adj . (of sports) taking place on or in water: Swimming and water-skiing are both aquatic sports. (of plants.moribund /‘m4r1b∧nd/ adj that must be die. fatal. . esp one built like a bridge over a valley or low ground. The bound base corp– means either ‘the whole physical body of a human being or an animal’ or ‘group of people working or acting as a unit’. part of a hospital) in which dead bodies are kept before being buried or cremated. [attrib] (fml) of mortuary rites. at the point of death. The bound base mor(t)– means ‘death’ or ‘dead’. that will not be dead. god.immortal /‘m0:tl/ adj n .) growing or living in or near water: Many forms of aquatic life inhabit ponds. etc.corps /k0:(r)/ n (pl unchanged /k0:(r)z/) [CGp] 1.. produced by water: chemicals dissolved in an aqueous solution.mortuary /‘m0:t~6r1/ n adj . [C] immortal being. [C] (building containing an) artificial pond or glass where live fish and other water creatures and plants are kept. . about to come to an end: a moribund civilization.aquarium /6‘kwe6r16m/ n . industry or custom.

[CGp] 1. 1. [U] holding of an office. [pred] (of an office or position) that can be held for a certain time: The lectureship is tenable for a period of three years.tenable (for…) adj 7. [C] 1. visit. [C] weight hung on a cord from a fixed point so that it can swing freely.tenacious /te‘ne1~6s/ adj 8.tenant n . . material. person who pays rent to a landlord/ landlady for the use of a room. [C esp pl] (Brit) short elastic strap for holding up a sock or stocking by its top. etc.corporeal /k0:‘p0:r16l/ adj . 2. life. The bound base pend– means ‘hang’.Royal Army Medical Corps.pendant /‘pend6nt/ n . resolute. a piece of land or other property. [C] ornament that hangs from a chain worn round the neck. arrival. person who occupies a particular building or piece of land but does not own it. . for business purposes. the press corps. . .k0:p6‘re1~n/ n [C] dead body esp of a human being. 2. The bound base ten– means ‘hold’. bodily.impending /1m‘pend17/ adj 21 .suspender /s6s‘pend6(r)/ n . etc: She’s tenacious in defence of her rights. of or for the body.corporation /. principles. keeping a firm hold on property.g. 2.pendulum /‘pendjυl6m/ n . 2. e. council. etc. departure.tenure /‘tenjυ6/ n . about to happen: his impending retirement. suspenders [pl] (US) = braces.corpse /k0:ps/ n . group of people elected to govern a town. a piece of land. group of people authorised to act as an individual.. a group of people involved in a particular activity: the Diplomatic Corps.

. send or throw sth outward or forward: an apparatus to project missiles into space. usu violently or suddenly: lava ejected from a volcano. C] treatment for the hands and finger nails: have a manicure once a week.pr] ∼ sth (into sth). The bound base man– means ‘hand’. [Tn. The bound base ject– means ‘throw’ or ‘shoot’. so that one can descend by parachute: As the plane fell quickly toward the ground.manual /‘m`nυj6l/ adj 10.1. leg.inject v 10. [Tn. done with or controlled by the hands: manual labor. do a course in manicure. 10.pr] ∼ sb/sth (from sth) (fml) force sb/sth out. 3 [I. 10. the pilot had to eject.project v 22 . author’s written or typed work which has not been printed yet: submit a manuscript to an editor. The prefix in− means ‘in(ward)’ or ‘into’: . (usu pl) one of a pair of chains or metal bands for binding the hands or feet.3. n [C] keyboard of an organ. etc. 2. ∼ sb/sth (with sth) force (a drug or other liquid) into sb/sth with a syringe or similar implement: inject peniciline into sb’s arm. Tn.9. thing written by hand: [attrib] a manuscript copy of a typed letter. Tn.2.manicure /‘m`n1kjυ6(r)/ n [U. played with the hands.manuscript /‘m`njυskr1p/ n . The prefix e− means ‘out(ward)’: . Tn. . Ipr] ∼ (from sth) be thrown quickly from an aircraft in an emergency.manacle /‘m`n6kl/ n .eject (from sth) v 1. (abbr MS) 1. [I. 2 [Tn] send (sth) out. Tn. 1. The prefix pro− means ‘forward’: .pr] ∼ sth (into sb/sth). expel sb/sth: The noisy youths were ejected from the cenima.

2. 1. contradictory. dictum. dictate. chosen. that can send objects: projectile force. visible. water: projectile missiles. revise contradict –vise = ‘see’ –dict = ‘say’ devise. contradiction. 1. done. dictator. visionary.. 2. that can be sent forward through the air.4. [Tn] put (sth) aside. diction. (audio-)visual. contradict. dictation. etc: reject over-ripe fruit. visibility. esp from a gun. Complete the table given below. etc. contradictorily.projectile /pr6‘d2ekta1l/ n adj [C] object to be shot forward. throw (sth) away as not to be used. [Tn] refuse to accept (sb/sth): He rejected my job.reject v words and then give as many words with the same bound base as you can. 10. EXERCISE 6: Identify the meaning of the bound base in each of the given 1 2 3 regress 4 intervene 5 recur 6 inspect 7 oppose 8 rodent 23 . The prefix re− means ‘back(ward)’: . supervise. (tele)vision. etc.

[Tn] think out (a plan.visionary adj .contradict /. concerned with or used in seeing: visual images. etc. a system. [U] power of seeing.visual adj . etc. The bound base –dict/ dict– means ‘say’. . 1. writers. The bound base –vise/ vis– means ‘see’. . having or showing foresight or wisdom: visionary leaders. Tn] say sth that conflicts with (sth said or written) by (sb): That is .9 portable 10 rupture 11 annual 12 bigamy NOTES: 1. ideals. etc. using both sight and sound: audiovisual centers.vision n .audio-visual adj 2. a tool.visibility n .visible adj . [I.devise v . paintings.revise v [Tn] re-examine sth in order to improve or correct it: revise a manuscript before publication.k4ntr6‘d1kt/ v 24 . blurred. in sight: The hills were barely visible through the mist. [U] fact or state of being seen. vision. effects. sight: have a perfect vision. invent: devise a scheme for redeveloping the city center. ∼ (to sb/sth) that can be seen. etc). poor.

The bound base –gress means ‘go’. exit: a means of egress. Tn. etc) be contrary to sth. 25 .dictate sth v [I.true but don’t you dare contradict (me)?. making a continuous forward movement: a progressive step. . 2. .progress /pr6’gres/ v . maxim: ‘Knowledge is power’ is a well-known dictum. [Tn] (of facts. Ipr] ∼ (sth) (fml) return to/ cause (sth) to go back to an earlier or more primitive state or form. [U] moving backward. [I] cause (sth) to move forward: The work is progressing steadily. [U] (law) (right of) going out.progression /pr6’gre∫n/n . conflict with: The two statements contradict each other.progressive /pr6’gres1v/ adj . written down or recorded on tape): The teacher dictate a letter the class.regressive adj . evidence.regress v [I. developing.pr] ∼ (sth) to (sb) say or read aloud (words to be typed.dictum n (pl ∼s or –ta /–t6/) .diction n . [U] style or manner of speaking or (sometimes) writing: Clarity of diction is visual for a public speaker. . [C] (dated fml) way out. 2.progress /’pr6υgres/n . making a continuous backward movement. [U] onward or forward movement: The walkers were making slow progress up the rocky path.egress /’1: gres/ n . Ipr. 1. Tn. [C] book the lists and explains the words of a language: an English dictionary. saying.regression n .dictionary n 3. [U] ∼ (from sth) ∼ (to sth) moving forward.

[Tn] examine (sth) closely: The customs officer inspected my passport suspiciously. time: 4.current /‘k∧r6nt/ adj .sju:p6’vi:n/ v 5.currency /‘k∧r6ns1/ n 6.intervening adj coming between: when she came back. [I] (fml) occur as an interruption or change: She was working well until illness supervened. C] money system in use in a country: gold. problems. 2. etc flowing in a certain direction: [U.1nt6’vi:n/ v . etc). . repetition: the recurrence of an illness. [C. illness.contravene /.k4ntr6’vi:n/ v . happen repeatedly: a recurring problem. The bound base –spect means ‘look’. she found that much had changed in the intervening years. [I] occur again. . etc): You are contravening the regulations. happening now. a strong currency. (right of) entrance: a means of ingress [I] come between others in during the years that intervene.recurrence /r1‘k3:r6ns/ n . . N] (instance of) recurring.current /‘k∧r6nt/ n . [C] movement of water. paper currency. etc): The tribunal will convene tomorrow.convene /k6n’vi:n/ v . . air.intervene /.ingress /’17gres/ n [U] (fml) going in. [Tn] summon (people) to come together: convene the members. [Tn] act or be contrary to (a law. prices.supervene /. 1. The bound base –vene means ‘come’. of the present time: current issues.. error. break (a law. trading in foreign currencies. The bound base –cur means ‘run’.recur /r1‘k3:(r)/ v . problem.inspect /in‘spekt/ v 26 . [I] come together (for a meeting. error.

one stretching into the distance: get a perspective of the whole valley. remarkable or interesting sight: The sunrise seen from high in the mountains was a tremendous spectacle. esp. giving details of and advertising sth: prospectus from several universities.depose v .perspective /p6‘spekt1v/ n . [Tn] put money into a bank.prospect /pr6‘spekt/ v [I. picture in the mind or imagination.oppose v . [C] impressive.spectacle n . 2. esp. . so it hasn’t been cleared yet. oil. leaflet.prospect /‘pr4spekt/ n . [Tn.deposit v . (dated) wide view of a landscape: a magnificent prospect of mountain peaks and lakes..prospectus /pr4‘spekt6s/ n 7. Ipr] ∼ (for sth) search for mineral. The company are prospecting for gold in that area. The bound base –pose means ‘place’ or ‘put’. a king. etc from power. etc.pr] ∼ sth to/ against sth put forward as a contrast or opposite to sth else: Do not oppose your will against mine.spectacles /‘spekt6klz/ n [pl] (usu fml) specs = glasses = a pair of lenses in a frame used to help a person eyesight. etc: a licence to prospect in the northern territory. of a future event: She viewed the prospect of a week alone in the house without much enthusiasm. [Tn] put forward sth for consideration: The committee proposed that new legislation should be drafted.propose v . [C] view. esp to earn interest: The cheque was only deposited yesterday. [Tn] = dethrone = remove a ruler. [C] printed document. [C] 1. . 27 .

[U] (cost of) carrying goods.pr] ∼ sb/sth (from …) (to …) carry or take sth/sb from one place to another in a vehicle: transport goods by lorry. etc) to leave a country: He was convicted of drug offences and deported. disjoined: short and abrupt sentences. that can be carried by hand: a portable television set.. .rupture n 10. limitations. The bound base –port/ port– means ‘carry’. etc) destroy or wear (sth) away gradually: Metals are eroded by acids.deport /d1‘p0:t/ v 9. [U] process of eroding or being eroded: the erosion of the coastline by the sea. 8. The bound base –rupt/ rupt– means ‘break’. membrane. C] (fml) (instance of) breaking apart: the rupture of a blood-vessel. Tn.transport v . Tn. criminal. seed-pod. texts. [C] animal which gnaws things with strong teeth. . [I] (of a volcano) break out: This volcano has erupted twice this year. (of languages. etc) containing errors or changes: a corrupt manuscript. [Tn.corrupt adj 28 . restraints.rodent /‘r6υdnt/ n . disconnected. rain. having a tendency to be eroded. The bound base –rod/ rod– means ‘gnaw’.erode v . (of speech) not smooth.portage n .portable adj . [Tn.erosion n . etc (on trade).erupt v . .pr] ∼ sb (from …) legally force (a foreigner. [U.erosive adj .impose v [Tn] place (sth unwelcome or unpleasant) on sb/sth: impose restriction. [Tn esp passive] (of acids.abrupt adj . wind.

only (3) is an English word.anniversary n 12.annual adj . The items numbered (1) and (2) are not because their constituents are not arranged in the above-mentioned order.interrupt v [Tn] break the continuity of sth temporarily: Trade between the two countries was interrupted by the war. celebration of this.. [C] yearly return of the date of an event. 11. The order of morphemes in English words is: derivational prefix − base − derivational suffix(es) − inflectional suffix Analysing (3) we find out that the following morphemes are in correct order: ‘de−’ is a prefix meaning ‘doing the opposite of’ ‘nation’ is the free base. [C] person who receives an annuity. The bound base –gamy means ‘marriage’.polygamy /p6‘l1g6m1/ n EXERCISE 7: Which of the following items is an English word? Support your choice? (1) ationizealnationde (ation–ize–al–nation–de) (2) alizedeationnation (al–ize–de–ation–nation) (3) denationalization (de–nation–al–ize–ation) ANSWER: Among the three items mentioned above. . [U] custom of having two wives or husbands living. The arrangements of the constituents in (1) and (2) 29 . which is a noun.bigamy / ‘b1g6m1/ n . .annuitant /6‘nju:6t6nt/ n .annuity /6‘nju:6t1/ n . [U] custom of having more than one wife at the same time. The bound base ann– means ‘year’. [C] fixed sum of money paid to sb yearly. ‘−al’ is a derivational class-changing adjective-forming suffix ‘−ize’ is a derivational class-changing verb-forming suffix ‘−ation’ is a derivational class-changing noun-forming suffix This morphemic analysis proves that (3) is an English word. yearly.

rewards. Homophones may have the same written form: the adverb too1 (‘more than should be’) and the adverb too2 (‘also’) are both pronounced as /tu:/. not (1) or (2). Also. Do they belong to the same morpheme? ANSWER: Homophones are commonly used to refer to words which sound alike but have different meanings. mammals. our conscious knowledge of the English language allows us to identify (3). In conclusion. the noun 30 . as an English word. How are they conditioned? ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 10: What are homophones? Give examples. THE EXERCISES OF ALLOMORPHS morpheme.break all the rules concerning the internal stability and uninterruptability of English words. esp. the second person pronoun you and the noun ewe (‘female sheep’) are both pronounced as /ju:/. the verb meet (‘come face to face with sb’) and the noun meat (‘flesh of animals. • Homophones may have different written forms: the verb mete (in mete sth out meaning ‘give or administer punishment. used as food’) are all pronounced as /mi:t/. In other words.’). etc. it is impossible to divide English words by the insertion of any other elements. EXERCISE 8: Explain why ‘a’ and ‘an’ are two allomorphs of the same ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 9: Identify the allomorphs of the inflectional verb past simple morpheme {−D1} in the verb ‘be’. B. etc. English word formation does not enable us to move a certain morpheme in a word to any position we like.

The inflectional verb past participle morpheme {−D2}: the departed guests. edited manuscripts. EXERCISE 11: Identify the following homophones and try to look for a few (1)a. (4)a. gentleman (n.) + −ly → cowardly (adj. The inflectional adjective comparative morpheme {−er1}: tall (positive adj.) + −er → happier (comparative adj.. a rather neglected girl. The derivational class-changing adverb-forming morpheme {−ly1}: complete (adj. The inflectional verb present participle morpheme {−ing1}: I saw a house burning. happy (adj. etc. 31 .). pl) = things that are discovered as the result of an (official) inquiry. findings (n. you can’t expect a more charming companion than he.).) + −er → taller (comparative adj.) + −ly → completely (adv. I make my living by teaching. The derivational class-changing adjective-forming morpheme {−ing3}: a very exciting film.) + −ly → happily (adv. happy (positive adj. (3)a.. Homophones may also be allomorphs of different morphemes. (2)b. (3)b. (2)a. The derivational class-changing adjective-forming morpheme {−D3}: a very devoted wife. He attended the meeting. more appropriate examples to illustrate their distinction.). he was even more excited than I (was). I saw a burning house. (2)c. The two above illustrations show that homophones can never belong to the same morpheme.bear (‘large heavy animal with thick fur’).). The derivational class-changing adjective-forming morpheme {−ly2}: coward (n.). pl) = excrement of birds or animals. the verb bear1 (‘give birth to’) and the verb bear2 (‘tolerate’) are all pronounced as /be6(r)/. Compare the allomorph /−z/ of the noun plural inflectional suffix {−S1} like in those frogs (1) with that of the noun possessive inflectional suffix {−S2} like in John’s book (2) and with that of the verb inflectional suffix {−S3} like in It feels good (3).). The derivational class-changing noun-forming morpheme {−ing2}: droppings (n. (1)b.) + −ly → gentlemanly (adj.

[U] ability to combine words. Ipr. ox → oxen /‘4ks6n/ = /4ks/ + /−6n/ /‘4ksn/ = /4ks/ + /−n/ /−6n/ or /−n/ is a morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S1}. Identify the allomorph of the inflectional suffix in each word. Ip] (on) (about sth) (infml. ideas. Ipr. That’s enough chat — get back to work. so as to produce a clever type of humor: I admire her for her wit. brother → brethren /−6n/ /‘bre5r6n/ = /‘br∧5r6 → ‘bre5r−/ + 32 .(4)b. wit (noun) + −er → witter (verb). etc. teach (verb) + −er → teacher (noun). The derivational class-changing verb-forming morpheme {−er3}: chat (noun) + −er → chatter (verb). continuously or foolishly about unimportant matters: Do stop chattering on about the weather while I’m trying to read. NOTES: chat /t∫`t/ n [C. (4)c. witter /‘w1t6(r)/ v [I. [I. 2. Ip] (away/on) (about sth) talk quickly. witty person: a well-known wit. [C] person who has or is famous for this. The derivational class-changing noun-forming morpheme {−er2}: read (verb) + −er → reader (noun). U] friendly informal conversation: I had a long chat with her (about her job). usu derog) speak in a lenthy and annoying way about sth unimportant: What are you wittering (on) about? chatter /‘t∫`t6(r)/ v wit /w1t/ n EXERCISE 12: Give the morphemic structure of each of the following words. How are the allomorphs involved conditioned? (morphologically or phonologically?) 1.

WOMAN → WOMEN. In other words. HALF − HALVES. ANTELOPE. It is added to a stem which has previously undergone some change in form: from /‘br∧56/ to /bre5r−/ or from /t~a1ld/ to /t~1ldr−/. TOOTH → TEETH. man → men goose → geese /men/ = /m`n/ + / ` → e / /gi:s/ = /gu:s/ + /u: → i:/ /` → e/ and /u:→ i:/ are two morphologically conditioned replacive allomorphs of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S1}. FOOT → FEET. Some common nouns that may have the same analysis are: WIFE − WIVES. deer → deer sheep → sheep /d16/ = /d16/ + / . from /ka:f/ to /ka:v−/. before the phonologically conditioned additive allomorph /−z/ of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S1} is added to change a singular noun to a plural noun. BEAR./ /~i:p / = /~i:p/ + / .child → children /−6n/ /‘t~1ldr6n/ = /t~a1ld → ‘t~1ldr−/ + /−6n/ is a morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S1}. 4. The following limited group of nouns also takes a replacive allomorph: MICE. fish and birds also takes the zero allomorph of {−S1}: SWINE. SHELF − SHELVES./ /-/ is the morphologically conditioned zero allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S1}. In other words. The following group of names of edible animals. 33 . game animals. /−z/ is added to the second allomorph of the stem: /wυlv−/. QUAIL and GROUSE. /maυ5−/ and /pa:5−/. PERCH. /−6n/ is added to the allomorph /t~1ldr−/ of the morpheme {child} or the allomorph /bre5r−/ of the morpheme {brother}. PICKEREL. 3. LOUSE → LICE and MOUSE → 5. CARP. from /maυθ/ to /maυ5−/ or from /pa:θ/ to /pa:5−/. /ka:v−/. wolf → wolves calf → calves mouth → mouths path → paths /wυlvz/ = / wυlf → wυlv−/ + /−z/ /ka:vz/ /pa:5z/ = / ka:f → ka:v−/ = / pa:θ → pa:5−/ + /−z/ + /−z/ /maυ5z/ = /maυθ → maυ5−/ + /−z/ In the above cases. KNIFE− KNIVES. BASS. PIKE. that singular noun has previously undergone some change in form: from /wυlf/ to /wυlv−/.

/t~/. /t~/ or /d2/. The allomorph /−1z/ only occurs after one of the sibilant consonants /s/./ /-/ is the morphologically conditioned zero allomorph of either the inflectional verb past simple morpheme {−D1} or the inflectional verb past participle morpheme {−D2}. /~/.SCARF − SCARVES. see → saw bite → bit give → gave 34 /s0:/ /b1t/ /9e1v/ = /si:/ = /ba1t/ + /i: → 0:/ + /a1 → 1/ + /1 → e1/ begin → began /b6‘9`n/ = /b6‘91n/ + /1 → `/ = /91v/ . /z/. wash → washes /‘w4~1z/ = /w4~/ + /−1z/ switch → switches /‘sw1t~1z/ = /sw1t~/ + /−1z/ /−1z/ is a phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of either the inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S1} or the inflectional verb present tense third person singular morpheme {−S3}. 12. 11. OATH − OATHS. break → broken speak → spoken /‘br6υk6n/ = /bre1k → br6υk−/ + /−6n/ /‘br6υkn/ = /bre1k → br6υk−/ + /−n/ /‘sp6υk6n/ = /spi:k → sp6υk−/ + /−6n/ /‘sp6υkn/ = /spi:k → sp6υk−/ + /−n/ /−6n/ or /−n/ is a morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional verb past participle morpheme {−D2}. house → houses /haυz1z/ = /haυs → haυz−/ + /−1z/ /−Iz/ is a phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of {−S1} which occurs after one of the sibilant consonants /s/. 7. 6. go → went /went/ = /g6υ/ + the morphologically conditioned suppletive allomorph of the inflectional verb past tense morpheme {−D1}. It is added to a stem which has previously undergone some change in form from /bre1k/ to /br6υk−/ or from /spi:k/ to /sp6υk−/. or /d2/. LOAF − LOAVES./ /pυt/ = /pυt/ + / . SELF − SELVES. drink → drunk /dr∧7k/ = /dr17k / + /1 → ∧/ /1 → ∧/ is a morphologically conditioned replactive allomorph of the inflectional verb past participle morpheme {−D2}. hurt → hurt put → put /h3:t/ = /h3:t/ + / . BATH − BATHS. 10. /~/. 9. 8. etc. /2/. /2/. /z/.

according to context: /t~a1ld/ occurs when there is no other morpheme occurring. according to context: /str47/ occurs when there is no other morpheme occurring. feast /fi:st/ destroy /d6‘str01/ offend /6‘fend/ repeat /r6‘pi:t/ festive offensive repetitive /fest−/ + /−1v/ /6‘fens−/ + /−1v/ /r6‘pet6t−/ + /−1v/ 35 destructive /d6‘str∧kt −/ + /−1v/ . 1. strong /str47/. wide /wa1d/ broad /br4:d/ able /‘e1bl/ divine /d6‘va1n/ supreme /s6‘pri:m/ width breadth ability divinity /w1t−/ + /−θ/ /bret−/ + /−θ/ /6‘b1l−/ + /−6t1/ /d6‘v1n−/ + /−6t1/ /s6‘prem6−/ + /−s1/ supremacy 4. house /haυs/. atomic /6‘t4m−/ + /−1k/ The base morpheme {atom} has two morphologically conditioned allomorphs. 3. children /‘t~1ldr−/ + /−6n/ The base morpheme {child} has two morphologically conditioned allomorphs. /‘`t6m/ and /6‘t4m−/. /a1 → 1/ and /1 → e1/ are morphologically conditioned replacive allomorphs of the inflectional verb past tense morpheme {−D1}. /1 → `/. child /t~a1ld/. How are the allomorphs conditioned? EXERCISE 13: Write the base morpheme and its allomorphs in each case./i:→ 0:/. a phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {−S1}. /str47/ and /stre7−/. /stre7−/ occurs in combination with −th /−θ/. /t~a1ld/ and /‘t~1ldr−/. /‘t~1ldr−/ occurs in combination with /−6n/. houses /haυz−/ + /−1z/ The base morpheme {house} has two morphologically conditioned allomorphs. atom /‘`t6m/. a derivational class-changing noun-forming suffix. /haυs/ and /haυz−/. 2. according to context: /haυs/ occurs when there is no other morpheme occurring. a morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of {−S1}. a derivational class-changing adjective-forming suffix. strength /stre7−/ + /−θ/ The base morpheme {strong} has two morphologically conditioned allomorphs. /6‘t4m−/ occurs in combination with −ic /−1k/. according to context: /‘`t∂m/ occurs when there is no other morpheme occurring. /haυz−/ occurs in combination with /−1z/.

6.en6‘d2et−/ + /−1k/ The base morpheme {do} has two morphologically conditioned allomorphs. which are always voiced. a phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional verb present tense third person singular morpheme {−S3}.3. EXTRA READING The Allomorphs of the Inflectional Noun Plural Morpheme {−S1} 1. /2/. /du:/ and /d∧−/. /2/. do /du:/. /−s/ occurs after the voiceless consonants /p/. and other voiced consonants except /z/. /−z/ occurs after all vowels. /−1z/ occurs after the sibilant consonants /s/. /~/.sympathy /‘s1mp6θ1/ energy /‘en6d21/ 5. have /h`v/. has /h`−/ + /−z/ The base morpheme {have} has two morphologically conditioned allomorphs. /h`v/ and /h`−/. according to context: /du:/ occurs when there is no other morpheme occurring. /k/. fame /‘fe1m/ infamous /‘1nf6m6s/ famous /‘fe1m/ + /−6s/ infamy /‘1nf6m1/ The base morpheme {fame} has two phonologically conditioned allomorphs. Three phonologically conditioned (= regular) additive allomorphs: 1. 7. /z/.2. according to context: /h`v/ occurs when there is no other morpheme occurring. /d∧−/ occurs in combination with /−z/.1. /−f6m−/ occurs in unstressed syllables. /f/ and /θ/: cat → cats /k`ts/ = /k`t/ + /−s/ 1. and /d2/: chair → chairs /t~e6z/ = /t~e6/ + /−z/ arm → arms /a:mz/ = /a:m/ + /−z/ 36 . /t~/ and /d2/: = /kla:s/ + /−1z/ class → classes /‘kla:s1z/ 1. a phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of the inflectional verb present tense third person singular morpheme {−S3}. according to context: /feIm/ occurs in primarily stressed syllables.s1mp6‘θet−/ + /−1k/ energetic /. /feIm/ and /−f6m/. /h`−/ occurs in combination with /−z/. does /d∧−/ + /−z/ sympathetic /. /t/.

/−d/ occurs after other voiced sounds: pull → pulled /pυld/ = /pυl/ + /−d/ change → changed /t~e1nd2d/ = /t~e1nd2/ + /−d/ = /fa16/ + /−d/ fire → fired /fa16d/ 37 .2. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph (with vowel change): foot → feet /fi:t/ = /fυt/ + /υ → i:/ tooth → teeth /ti:θ/ = /tu:θ/ + /u: → i:/ man → men /men/ = /m`n/ + /` → e/ woman → women /‘w1m1n/ = /‘wυm6n/ + /υ → 1/ and /6 → 1/ 5.3. The phonologically conditioned (= regular) additive allomorph /−z/ is added to a stem that has previously undergone some change in form (with consonant change): calf → calves /ka:vz / = /ka:f/ + /f → v/ + /−z/ = /ba:θ/ + /θ → 5/ + /−z/ bath → baths /ba:5z/ 3.1. /−t/ occurs after other voiceless sounds: = /f1ks/ + /−t/ fix → fixed /f1kst/ wash → washed /‘w4~t/ = /w4~/ + /−t/ switch → switched /‘sw1t~t/ = /sw1t~/ + /−t/ 1. /−6n/ is added to the stem that has previously undergone some change in form: child → children /‘t~1ldr6n/ = /t~a1ld → ‘t~1ldr−/ + /−6n/ brother → brethren /‘bre5r6n/ = /‘br∧5r6 → ‘bre5r−/ + /−6n/ The Allomorphs of the Inflectional Verb Past Simple Morpheme {−D1} 1.1. Three phonologically conditioned (= regular) additive allomorphs: 1. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph: 5.2. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) zero allomorph /-/: sheep → sheep /~i:p/ = /~i:p/ + / . /−1d/ occurs after the alveolar oral stop /t/ or /d/: want → wanted /‘w4nt1d/ = / w4nt/ + /−1d/ need → needed /‘ni:d1d/ = /ni:d/ + /−1d/ 1. /−6n/ is simply added to the stem: ox → oxen /‘4ks6n/ = /4ks/ + /−6n/ 5./ 4.2.

with vowel change: tell → told /t6υld/ = /tel/ + /e → 6υ/ + /−d/ do → did /d1d/ = /du:/ + /u: → 1/ + /−d/ hear → heard /h3:d/ = /h16/ + /16 → 3:/ + /−d/ buy → bought /b0:t/ = /ba1/ + /a1 → 0:/ + /−t/ feel → felt /felt/ = /fi:l/ + /i: → e/ + /−t/ 5. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) zero allomorph /-/: hurt → hurt /h3:t/ = /h3:t/ + /-/ put → put /pυt/ = /pυt/ + /-/ beat → beat /bi:t/ = /bi:t/ + /-/ 3.2. with both vowel and consonant change: leave → left /left/ = /li:v/ + /i: → e/ and /v → f/ + /−t/ 6. with both vowel and consonant change: catch → caught /k0:t/ = /k`t~/ + /` → 0:/ and /t~ → t/ bring → brought /br0:t/ = /br17/ + /1 → 0:/ and /7 → t/ seek → sought /s0:t/ = /si:k/ + /i: → 0:/ and /k → t/ 5. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph 4. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph + the morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph 5.2. with consonant change: send → sent /sent/ = /send/ + /d → t/ build → built /bju:lt/ = /bju:ld/ + /d → t/ 4. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) suppletive allomorph: go /96υ/ + the suppletive allomorph of {−D1} = went /went/ be /bi:/ + the suppletive allomorph of {−D1} = was /w4z/ or were /w3:/ The Allomorphs of the Inflectional Verb Past Participle Morpheme {−D2} 38 . with vowel change: tear → tore /t0:/ = /te6/ + /e6 → 0:/ find → found /faυnd/ = /fa1nd/ + /a1 → aυ/ run → ran /r`n/ = /r∧n/ + /∧ → `/ ring → rang /r`7/ = /r17/ + /1 → `/ choose → chose /t~6υz/ = /t~u:z/ + /u: → 6υ/ 4. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph: dwell → dwelt /dwelt/ = /dwel/ + /−t/ burn → burnt /b3:nt/ = /b3:nt/ + /−t/ 4.3.1.1.show → showed /~6υd/ = /~6υ/+ /−d/ 2.

3./: hurt → hurt /h3:t/ = /h3:t/ + / . (See ‘three phonologically conditioned additive allomorphs of {−D1}’. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph: dwell → dwelt /dwelt/ be → been /bi:n/ show → shown /~6υn/ beat → beaten /bi:tn/ 4. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph: 4.1./ put → put /pυt/ = /pυt/ + / . /−t/ and /−d/. with consonant change: send → sent /sent/ build → built /bju:lt/ = /fa1nd/ + /a1 → aυ/ = /ri:d/ + /i: → e/ = /r17/ + /1 → ∧/ = /send/ + /d → t/ = /bju:ld/ + /d → t/ = /dwel/ + /−t/ = /bi:/ + /−n/ = /~6υ/ + /−n/ = /bi:t/ + /−n/ 4./ run → run /r∧n/ = /r∧n/ + / . Three phonologically conditioned (= regular) additive allomorphs: /−1d/.1. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) replacive allomorph + the morphologically conditioned (= irregular) additive allomorph: 5.1.2. The morphologically conditioned (= irregular) zero allomorph / .) 2. with vowel change: find → found /faυnd/ read → read /red/ ring → rung /r∧7/ 4. with both vowel and consonant change: catch → caught /k0:t/ = /k`t~/ + /` → 0:/ and /t~ → t/ bring → brought /br0:t/ = /br17/ + /1 → 0:/ and /7 → t/ seek → sought /s0:t/ = /si:k/ + /i: → 0:/ and /k → t/ 5./ 3. with vowel change: tell → told /t6υld/ hear → heard /h3:d/ buy → bought /b0:t/ feel → felt /felt/ do → done /d∧n/ tear → torn /t0:n/ go → gone /94n/ = = = = = = = /tel/ + /e → 6υ/ + /−d/ /h16/ + /16 → 3:/ + /−d/ /ba1/ + /a1 → 0:/ + /−t/ /fi:l/ + /i: → e/ + /−t/ /du:/ + /u: → ∧/ + /−n/ /te6/ + /e6 → 0:/ + /−n/ /96υ/ + /6υ → 4/ + /−n/ 39 .

choose → chosen /‘t~6υzn/ = /t~u:z/ + /u: → 6υ/ + /−n/ 5. bless → → burn → → blest /blest/ blest /blest/ burnt /b3:nt/ burnt /b3:nt/ 40 . with both vowel and consonant change: leave → left /left/ = /li:v/ + /i: → e/ and /v → f/ + /−t/ NOTES: The −ed /−t/ in blessed /blest/ and the −ed /−d/ in burned /b3:nd/ are two phonologically conditioned additive allomorph of either {−D1} or{−D2}.2. bless → blessed /blest/ → blessed /blest/ burn → burned /b3:nd/ → burned /b3:nd/ The −t /−t/ in blest /blest/ and in burnt /b3:nt/ represents a morphologically conditioned additive allomorph of either {−D1} or{−D2}.

TYPES OF DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES: There are two subgroups: • Class-changing derivational affixes change the word class.3. A few other examples are: noun to adjective boy + −ish virtu(e) + −ous Elizabeth + −an verb to noun acquit(t) + −al clear + −ance accus(e) + −ation adjective to adverb noun to verb exact + −ly quiet + −ly mortal + −ise vaccin(e) + −ate beauty + −fy • Class-maintaining derivational affixes do not change the word class of the words to which they are attached. A few of them are: (1) VERB + −able = ‘able to be VERB-ed’ ACCEPT + −able = ‘able to be ACCEPTed’ 41 .2. Platt & Weber. MORPHOLOGICAL RULES: New words may enter the dictionary in this fashion. Many prefixes fall into this category: a− + mortal auto− + biography ex− + wife super− + human There are also suffixes of this type: vicar + −age Americ(a) + −an New Jersey + −ite pun + −ster mono− re− semi− sub− + theism + print + annual + minimal 1. the result is an adjective. DEFINITION: Derivation is ‘the formation of new words by adding affixes to other words or morphemes. 1. as in desire + −able or adore + −able. 1987: 77].1. Thus. when a verb is conjoined with the suffix −able. created by the application of morphological rules. the noun insanity is derived from the adjective sane by addition of the negative prefix in− and the nounforming suffix −ity’ [Richards. For example. (also called the grammatical category or the part of speech) of the words to which they are attached. DERIVATION 1.UNIT TWO DERIVATION AND INFLECTION 1.

etc. unfold. or determination: His encounter with the guard dog had completely unnerved him. strength. undress. [Tn] cause sb to lose courage. unshrinking. (2) un− + ADJECTIVE = ‘not + ADJECTIVE’ = ‘not + TRUE’ un− + TRUE Among the words which have been derived from this morphological rule are unjust. desirable /d6‘za16r6bl /. undo. nerve /n3:v/ v [Tn. unavoidable.The derivational class-changing adjective-forming suffix {−able} has three allomorphs: (i) /−6bl/. selfcontrol. strength. unfit. I nerved myself to face my accusers. confidence. NOTES: Added to a verb base. (3) un− + VERB = ‘do the opposite of + VERB+ −ING’ = ‘reverse + VERB+ −ING’ un− + LOCK = ‘do the opposite of + LOCKING’ = ‘reverse + LOCKING’ Among the words which have been derived from the this morphological rule are unnerve. etc. desirability /d6. unkind. which occurs before the adverb-forming suffix {−ly1}: visibly /‘v1z6bl1/. unscientific. confidence. self-control. (iii) /−6‘b1l/.pr. untie. unrelieved.t] ∼ sb/oneself for sth give sb/ oneself the courage.v1z6‘b1l 6t1/. uncurl. or determination to do sth: Her support nerve her for the fight. untread. unfasten. desirably /d6‘za16r6bl1/. unfair. which occurs before the noun-forming suffix {−ity}: visibility /. unzip.∧n‘n3:v/ v 42 . unnerve /. which occurs at the end of English words: visible /‘v1z6bl/. unlock. Cn. unskilled. the prefix ‘un−’ meaning ‘reverse’ or ‘do the opposite of’ is not too difficult to be identified: 1. (ii) /−6b/.za16r6‘b1l 6t1/.

buttons. (fig. [Tn] remove a mask from (sb). [I] set one’s foot down. walk or step: Explorers were going where no man had trod before.) reveal the true character of (sb/sth): Who will unmask his plot? 43 unearth /. [Tn] unfasten the lock (of a door. etc. earth /3:8/ sth up [phr v] cover sth (the roots of a plant. lid. etc. the prefix ‘un−’ may have another meaning: ‘remove from’ or ‘deprive of’: 1.∧n‘tri:d/ v Also added to a verb base.pr] ∼ sth (from sth) dig up.2. untie or unfasten knots. etc.∧n‘l4k/ v [Tn] fasten (a gate.∧n‘3:8/ v 2. She masked her fear by a show of confidence. reverse doing. [Tn] cover the face (of sb) with a mask.∧n‘du:/ v 5. 2. reverse doing. mask /ma:sk/ v unmask /.) with earth: He earthed up the celery. buttons.∧n‘ma:sk/ v . destroy the effect of sth: He undid most of the good work of his predecessor. gate. an envelope. uncover sth from the ground by digging: The dog has unearthed some bones. lock /l4k/ v unlock /. tread /tri:d/ v untread /.∧n‘ta1/ v 4.) with a lock: Be sure to lock your bicycle. tie /ta1/ v untie /.) conceal sth: The thief masked his face with a stocking. [I] go back through in the same steps: She trod and untrod lightly so as not to wake the baby.: Could you untie this apron for me? [Tn] 1. etc. etc. undo /. Tn. (fig. etc. a parcel.: Shall I tie the parcel or use sticky tape? [Tn] unfasten knots. [Tn. lid. 3.: I can’t undo my shoelaces.) using a key: He failed to unlock the gate. string. door. [Tn] fasten or bind (sth) with rope.

3. however. [Tn] make (sth) loose or looser: medicine to loosen a cough. [Tn] make (sth) loose: After the huge meal.∧n‘l6υd/ v 4. that one cannot always know the meaning of the words derived from free and derivational morphemes from the morphemes themselves … Therefore. then what does the prefix ‘un−’ mean? Compare: Can you loosen the lid of the jar? Can you unloose the rope around the victim’s waist? Can you unloosen his collar? loosen /‘lu:sn/ v 1. [Tn] disconnect (an electrical appliance) by removing its plug from the socket: Please unplug the TV before you go to bed. (Notice that ‘frock’ as a verb does not really exist in English. unloose /. he unloosened his belt and go to sleep. dismiss (a priest guilty of bad conduct) from the priesthood: The vicar of the church has been unfrocked. The recorder wasn’t plugged in.∧n‘lu:sn/ v This phenomenon can be used to support Fromkin‘s and Rodman‘s following statement [1993: 50-51]: ‘It is true. [I] become loose or looser: This knot keeps loosening. it is not always easy to identify the meaning of the prefix ‘un−’: if the suffix ‘−en’ in ‘unloosen’ means ‘make’.) unplug /. load /l6υd/ v unload /. passive] deprive (a cleric) of ecclesiastic rank. although the words in a language are not 44 . [Tn] make (sth) loose: After the huge meal.∧n‘fr4k/ v Unfortunately. 2. unfrock /. [Tn] sth in connect (sth) to the electricity supply with a plug: Plug in the radio. [Tn esp.∧n‘pl∧9/ v 5.∧n‘lu:s/ v unloosen /. [Tn] remove a load from sth: Dockers started unloading the ship. he unloosed his belt and go to sleep. plug /pl∧9/ phr v [Tn] put a load in or on sth: They loaded bricks onto the lorry. please.

2.the most elemental sound-meaning units. Most nouns may be inflected for plural: horse – horses. Not all nouns have three inflected forms: one plain form (= the stem) mother (singular noun) three inflected forms (= the stem + inflectional suffixes) mothers (plural noun) mother ‘s (singular-possessive noun) mothers’ (plural-possessive noun) 2.2. worked 45 .2.2. The plain form and its three inflected forms together make up a four-form inflectional noun paradigm. flower – flowers. VERB INFLECTION The inflections of a verb are more complicated than those of a noun. they (plus the morphemes) must be listed in our dictionaries. 1987: 77]. he works and for past tense: I worked. breaking. NOUN INFLECTION Almost all English nouns have two forms: the plain form (also called the unmarked form) used in the constructions like ‘a book’ or ‘the book’ and the inflected form (also called the marked form) which is formed by adding inflectional suffixes to the plain form. working. INFLECTION 2. revealing the relation between words and providing the means for forming new words.2.1. broke. and broken. one plain form (= the stem) work four inflected forms (= the stem + inflectional suffixes) works. worked. they carry quite different meanings. DEFINITION: Inflection is ‘the process of adding an affix to a word or changing it in some other way according to the rules of the grammar of a language. Therefore. The paradigm of an irregular verb has four inflected forms: breaks. VARIOUS KINDS OF INFLECTION 2. which is a set of relative forms of a noun. Platt & Weber.’ 2.1. man – men’ [Richards. Although the past simple and the past participle inflected forms of a regular verb are just the same. English verbs are inflected for 3rd-person singular: I work. The morphological rules also are in the grammar. For example. it is much more convenient to assign all English verbs to a fiveform inflectional paradigm.

breakable. Most one-syllable adjectives and adverbs and many two-syllable adjectives have a comparative form with an ‘−er’ inflection and a superlative form with an ‘−est’ inflection. break. pureness (= purity). impure. motherless and motherlike form a derivational paradigm.break breaks. breaking. Adding derivational affixes to English base morphemes (which are of various grammatical categories/ word classes/ parts of speech). 46 . we have various DERIVATIONAL PARADIGMS: mother. broke.1.1. purism.2. motherhood. broken 2. purely.1.1.3. ADJECTIVE INFLECTION and ADVERB INFLECTION There is a three-form inflectional paradigm for adjectives of one or two syllables and for monosyllabic adverbs though it does not apply to all members of either the adjective or the adverb class. and impurity form still another derivational paradigm. pure. DERIVATION 3. thus form different words’ [Arnold. puri fic ation. purist. one plain form (= the stem) POSITIVE two inflected forms (= the stem + inflectional suffixes) COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE short ADJECTIVES shorter bigger happier purer faster harder shortest biggest happiest purest fastest hardest big happy pure fast hard ADVERBS 3.2. Derivation can be observed in the following formula: A BASE (also called A ROOT) + DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES → NEW DERIVED WORDS 3. HOW TO DISTINGUISH DERIVATION FROM INFLECTION 3. DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES serve to supply the base with ‘components of lexical and lexico-grammatical meanings. unbreakable. motherly. 1986: 87]. unbreak abil ity. motherli ness. purify. breakabil ity. breakage and breaker form another derivational paradigm.

47 .2. mother’s and mothers’ form an inflectional noun paradigm. EXERCISE 1: Give as many words with the same bound base as you can. In other words. Thus. adjectives and adverbs).2.3. disHEARTen ed. HEARTless ly. EXERICES using the given prefixes and bound bases. 1965: 97]. AN INFLECTIONAL PARADIGM is a set of related words composed of the same stem and all the inflectional suffixes that can go with this stem.4.2. breaks.3. the stem is that part of a word that is in existence before any inflectional suffixes. 3. THE STEM (of an inflectional paradigm) is the part of a word that remains after the removal of all inflectional suffixes.4. 1986: 78]. breaking.1. 3. broke and broken form an inflectional verb paradigm.1. Thus. THE BASE (also called THE ROOT) of a derivational paradigm is ‘the ultimate constituent element which remains after the removal of all functional and derivational affixes and does not admit any further analysis’ [Arnold. long. HEARTi ly. 3.2. 1986: 78].3. HEARTi ness HEARTless.2. HEARTy. disHEARTen. The stem of the inflectional adjective paradigm HEARTy–HEARTier–(the) HEARTiest is HEARTy. verbs. INFLECTIONAL (also called GRAMMATICAL or FUNCTIONAL) SUFFIXES ‘serve to convey grammatical meaning.1. longer and longest form an inflectional adjective or adverb paradigm. a stem containing one or more affixes is ‘a derived stem’ [Arnold. They build different forms of one and the same word’ [Arnold.2. we have INLECTIONAL PARADIGMS: mother. It is a free stem. break. 3. A DERIVATIONAL PARADIGM is ‘a set of related words composed of the same base morpheme and all the derivational affixes that can go with this base’ [Stageberg. but it consists of A BASE and an affix. mothers. and HEARTless ness. 1986: 87]. HEARTen ed. INFLECTION 3. Inflection can be observed in the following formula: A STEM + INFLECTIONAL SUFFIXES → INFLECTED FORMS OF ONE AND THE SAME WORD 3. HEARTen. it is not simple but derived. all share the same base: HEART. Adding inflectional suffixes to English stems (which are only nouns.

preferential. transferase. for back. acceptable. transfererer. Words with the bound base –ceive. preferentially. entertainment. preferably. acceptability. inferer. in from. perceiver. in advance between forward. deference. conceivable. preferable. through 1. deceiver. defer. thoroughly before. −ceive −cept −ceit 3. perceivable. down. deferment. acceptableness. beyond. referential. forth. close carry 1. out of in. perceptive. out from. referal transfer. referendum. deceivable. receive. together. conceit. perception. transferal 48 . retainer 2. before. referentially. conferal. receivable. –ceit meaning ‘take’: accept. jointly. –cept. detainingly entertain. containment. at−): com− (con−): de−: dis− (dif−): ex−: in− (im−): per−: pre−: inter−: pro−: re−: sub− (sup−): trans−: ANSWER: Bound bases to. preference. −fer 4. Words with the bound base –tain meaning ‘hold’: contain. containable detain. bear shut. preferability. conferer defer. transferential. conferment. perceive. deception. entertainer pertain retain. preferment refer. transfereree. deferentially. on through. conference. conferee. −clude 5. away apart from. toward.Prefixes ad− (ac−. Words with the bound base –fer meaning ‘carry’ or ‘bear’: confer. inferential. −port hold take carry. toward with. conceiver deceive. conferable. within. inference. deceptive. accepter conceive. deferential. inferable. receiver. preferer. referer. again under across. −tain 2. transferentially. referee. deferent. reference. inferentially prefer. reception. acceptance. transference. referable. detainee. transferable. detainer. detainment. into. referent. deferable infer. receptive 3. container. conception.

Complete the table given below. supportable. −ly 10 responsibilities 49 . includable preclude 5. exportation. excludability include. exportable. transportable. supportably. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 organists personalities flirtatiously atomizers contradictorily trusteeship greasier countrified friendliest 3 suffixes −ation. excludable. −ous. important. importancy. importable. importation. reportage. transportability. transporter. importer. concluder exclude. importantly report. supporter. transportation. deportation. Words with the bound base –port meaning ‘carry’: comport. deportable. reporter support. comportment deport. importance. reportable. Words with the bound base –clude meaning ‘shut’ or ‘close’: conclude. supportive transport. deportee.4. excluder. deportment disport export. exporter import. supportableness. transportational EXERCISE 2: Identify all the possible the suffixes in each of the given words.

circumference. cor− = ‘with’ de− = ‘do the opposite’ de− = ‘remove’ de− = ‘reduce’: deactivate. 1 2 antidote circumvent anti− = ‘against’ circum− = ‘around’ anti-aircraft. im− = ‘in’ or ‘on’ inspiration. debase. inspiring. col−. coordinate collide. install. decline. impalement 50 . deform. antipersonnel. decrease in−. con−. impalpable. inspect. antibody. defrost. decolonize. inspirational. Complete the table given below. denationalize. inscribe imbue. inspired. dehumanize. deice.EXERCISE 3: Identify the meaning of the prefix in each of the given words and then give as many words with the same prefix as you can. impale. antihero circum-navigate. convoke correlate co-pilot 3 collapse compact convene corrode 4 5 6 7 8 9 contradict devitalized delouse devalue disunion disagreeable insecure 10 imperfect illegible irreverent inspire 11 imbibe co−. collect comply consonant. circumlocution. circumspect co-curriculum. deforest degrade. deflower. decode dehorn. com−. decentralize. collision. co-operate.

antidote /‘`nt1d6υt/ n [C] substance that acts against the effect of poison: an antidote against 51 .12 13 intervene intramural obstruct ob−. oppress. obstrusive(ly). oppression. retro-rocket. The prefix anti– means ‘against’. retrogress. opposed. obstacle. op− = ‘against’ or ‘opposite’ obstruction. retrospect 1. obstructive. obstrude. object(ion). oppressive(ly). retrograde. 14 oppose 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 NOTES: pre-war post-war proceed retroactive semi-professional subway superabundant unlikely undress retro− = ‘backward’ retroflex. . oppressed. obstinate obstrusiveness. opponent. obstrusion. opposition.

circum‘navigate v .circumference/s6‘k∧mf6r6ns/ n [C] line that marks out a circle or other curved figures. [I. The prefixes co–.antibody n 2. proceeding with great .co-pilot n . The prefix circum– means ‘around’.co-operate v [C] assistant pilot in an aircraft. rule.. . C] (instance of the) use of many words to say sth that could be said in a few words. malaria. . cautious: [N] caution: circumspect. con– and cor– all mean ‘with’. such as courage and dignity. [Tn] sail around (esp. designed to kill or injure people: antipersonnel explosives.anti-hero n designed to destroy enemy aircrafts: anti-aircraft guns. ‘together’ or ‘jointly’. difficulty. the world): Magellan was the first person to circumnavigate the globe. . etc. considering everything carefully before action. com–.anti-personnel adj . col–. etc.anti-aircraft adj .circumspection n 3.circumspect adj . [Tn] find a way of overcoming or avoiding sth: circumvent a law. . which it then attacks and destroys. . [C] central character in a story or drama who lacks the qualities usually associated with a hero.snake bites.circumvent /s6k∧m‘vent/ v . etc. Ipr] ∼(with sb) work or act together with another or others: 52 . food poisoning.circumlocution n [U. [C] protein formed in the blood in response to harmful bacteria. problem.

c /si/ and d /di:/ [I. English b /bi:/ .co-ordinate v [Tn.convoke /k6n‘v6υk/ v . c /se1/ and d /de1/ vs. etc. a committee.pr] ∼ (with sth) do as one is requested or commanded: Rules must be complied with. Tn. esp with chemical action: The metal has corroded away because of rust/ acid. [Tn] summon people to come together: convene the members. [I. collect together one’s belongings. limbs. closely packed together: a compact disc.) to function together efficiently: We must coordinate our efforts to help flood victims. [Tn.collide v .Ip. Tn. There exists a 53 v . etc. [Tn usu passive] press sth firmly together: the compacted snow on the pavement.compact /k6m‘p`kt/ adj . [C] sound that has no voice and thus has to go with a vowel: Vietnamese b /be1/.convene /k6n‘vi:n/ v .He co-operated with his friend in raising money.pr] ∼ sth (with sth) cause (different parts. [I. [I.Tn. summon a meeting. .consonant n .comply v .p] ∼ (sth) (away) destroy or be destroyed slowly. I.collect v . Ipr] ∼ (with sb/ sth) strike violently against sth or each other.Tn.collaborate v . to create or produce sth: She collaborated with her sister on a biography of their father. etc: convoke the Parliament. esp.corrode /k6‘r6υd/ v . Ipr] ∼ (with sb) work together (with sb).p] ∼ sth (up/ together) bring or gather sth together: collect up the empty glasses. [Tn] call together.

[Tn] take strength and vigour away from sb/sth: a nation devitalized by a sustained war effort. 5.pr] ∼(with sth).contra-indication n preventing conception: a contraceptive pill.correlate /‘k4r6le1t/ v [I. [U] preventing of conception.Tn.vitalize v .di:‘va1tla1z/ v . . [Tn] put or write sth in code. [Tn] make (sth dangerous. .g. Tn] say sth that conflicts with sth said or written: That’s true. etc. [C] device conception. device.contravene v . . [C] (medical) sign that a particular drug may be harmful: The contraindications listed for the pills meant that she could not take them. but don’t you dare contradict (him)? The speaker got confused and started contradicting himself. or drug for preventing 4. break: Her actions contravene the rules. [Tn] make sth active. e. etc. (A with/ and B) have a mutual relation with sth: We can often correlate age with frequency of illness. The prefix de– means ‘do the opposite of’.code v 54 .devitalize /.contraception n .bitter envy that has corroded their friendship.activate v . drug.Ipr. [I. a bomb or a nuclear reactor) harmless or less active by removing its source of power: deactivate the fuse mechanism.contradict v .contraceptive n adj .).deactivate /. The prefix contra– means ‘against’. [Tn] act/ be contrary to (a law.di:‘`kt1veù1t/ v . [Tn] provide sb/ sth with strength and vigour.Tn.

[I] ∼(for sth) be of value or important: Knowledge without common senses counts for little.di:‘fr4st/ v 7.decrease /d1‘kri:z/ v .dehorn /d1‘h0:n/ v .appear v . [Tn] reduce the value of a currency in relation to other currencies/ gold. [I] become smaller.di:‘v`lju:/ v .decode /. [I] no longer be visible.delouse /d1‘laυs/ v .di:‘flaυ6/ v defrost /. . establish an area as a colony. ‘opposite to’ or ‘do the opposite of’. [U] separating or being separated. [Tn] lower the quality.debase v 8.devalue /.union n . You debased yourself by telling such lies. usually by sexual intercourse.disappear v . The prefix dis– means ‘absence of’. [Tn] give independent status to a colony. fewer.decline /d1‘kla1n/ v .colonize v . [I. [Tn] remove ice or frost from sth.di:‘k6υd/ v ..deflower /. [Tn] cause sb to be less moral/ deserving of respect: I felt degraded by having to ask for money. weaker.di:‘k4l6naù1z/ v [Tn] find the meaning of sth written in code. status or value of sth: Sport is being debased by commercialism. [I] come into view. fewer. 6.degrade v . The prefix de– means ‘reduce’. [Tn] remove the horn from an animal. The prefix de– means ‘remove … from’ or ‘deprive … of’. .disunion n . [Tn] establish a colony (in an area). . Tn] (cause sth to) become smaller.count v 55 . etc. weaker. become visible. etc. [Tn] deprive a woman of her virginity.decolonize /. [Tn] remove the lice from sb/ sth. [U] uniting or being united: the Soviet Union.

not moderate. not producing adequate results.disagreeable adj . .insecure adj . [Tn] take weapon away from (sb).incompetent adj . making progress.disapprove v .disarm v 9. not showing the necessary skills to do sth successfully. thing that tends to prevent sb from succeeding. etc: She wants to be an actress. not legal.irrespective adj 56 .impolite adj . The prefixes in–.irregular adj .illiterate adj .). against the law.illegal adj . The prefix dis– means ‘not’ or ‘lack of’ . . not agreeable. not able to read or write.disadvantage n .disbelieve v 10. rude. [Tn] supply or equip oneself/ sb with weapons.discomfort n . etc. not secure or lack of safety.inefficient adj . not taking account of or considering (sth/sb).discount v [Tn] regard sth as unimportant: You can discount what Jack said: he’s a dreadful liar. Ipr] consider (sb/sth) bad (= not good). not polite. il– and ir– all mean ‘not’. im–.. reduce the size of the armed forces (of a nation). not honest. [I. immoral (= not moral). [U] lack of comfort. n [C] thing that cause this. arrangement. [Tn] refuse to believe (sb/sth): I disbelieve every word you say. too extreme or excessive.dishonest adj . [C] unfavorable condition. but her parents disapprove (of her intentions.immoderate adj . not regular in shape.arm v .

knowledge. etc on or in something: inscribe one’s name in a book. factory. Tn.pr] ∼ sth (in sth) fix equipment. names.inspect v .install v . [Tn. [I] be or come between two points of time: during the years that intervened. B (with A) write words.impress v . [Tn. etc. Tn.11.intervene v . [Tn] take in or absorb sth (fig): imbile fresh air. etc. inscribe a book with one’s name.pr] ∼ sth (in sth) deliberately introduce or fix (ideas. etc in position for use: install a heating or lighting system in a building. . Tn.imbile v .pr] ∼ sb (with sth) have a favourable effect on sb: The sights of the city never fail to impress foreign tourists. The prefixes in– and im– both mean ‘in’ or ‘on’. feelings. . etc: His noble example inspired the rest of us to greater efforts.inspire v [Tn.impose v .implant v 12.pr] ∼ A (on/in B).pr] ∼ sth (in sb)/ sb (to sth) fill sb with thoughts. prisoners’ heads were impaled on pointed stakes.impale v .) officially (on sb/ sth): impose a further tax on wines.inscribe v . [Tn. [Tn. Tn. tax. Tn. Tn. 57 .) into a person’s mind: implant religious beliefs in young children. etc. etc. Tn. aims. [Tn. [Tn.pr] ∼ sb/sth (on sth) pierce sb/ sth with a sharp-pointed subjec: In former times. [Tn] examine (sth) closely: inspect a school. The prefix inter– means ‘between’ or ‘each other’.pr] ∼ sth (on sb/ sth) place (a penalty. furniture. regiment.

block a road/ the passage of sth: Tall trees obstructed his view of the road. (existing) within one state. Tn.intrastate adj 14. etc. [C] thing in the way that either stops progress or makes it difficult. trying to help them settle their differences: We have to intercede with the authorities on behalf of people unfairly imprisoned there.intra-uterine adj . intended for full-time students living within a college: intramural courses. etc. [I. groups. studies.intramuscular adj . Tn.interstate adj . of the USA: [I.interact v . esp. within the uterus. between states. interstate highways.international adj . of the USA: intrastate highways. one’s opinions.obtrude v . .obstacle n 58 . [Tn] be or get in the way of sb/ sth.pr] force (oneself. [I. [Tn.obstruct v . within a vein or veins: intravenous injections. The prefixes ob– and op– both mean ‘against’ or ‘opposite (to)’. esp.interchange v 13. etc that cannot agree). . ideas.) upon sb/ sth.. Ipr] ∼ (with sth) act or have an effect on each other: chemicals that interact to form new compounds.pr] ∼ sth (with sb) give sth to and receive sth from each other: We interchanged partners: he danced with mine. Tn.intramural adj . countries. within a muscle or muscles. when unwanted: obtrude on sb’s grief.intravenous adj . staff. The prefix intra– means ‘within’. carried on by or existing between two or more nations. and I danced with his. . Ipr] ∼ (with sb) (for/ on behalf of sb) act as an intermediary (between two people.intercede v of. esp.

The prefix pre–/pr1–/means ‘before’.. The prefix post– means ‘after’.preamble (to sth) n . . . etc.pre-natal /. existing or happening (in the period) before a war: in the pre-war period.preconceived /.post-war adj . etc.p6υst‘m0:t6m/ adj made or occurring after death: a postmortem examination.obstinate adj . U] opening that explains the purpose of the book. etc. 59 . of refusing to change one’s opinion or chosen course of action.pri:‘ne1tl/ adj . [Tn] rule or treat sb with continual injustice or cruelty. order. formed in advance. exercises. prevent problems. classes. Tn] come or go before (sth) in time. opinions. .oppress v 15.pri:k6n‘si:vd/ adj . document. [C.precaution /pr1‘k0:~n/ n .: take an umbrella just as a precaution done as a precaution: precautionary measures. a struggle.opponent n [C. not basing on knowledge or experience: preconceived ideas. etc. [C] thing done in advance to avoid danger. a game or an argument. existing or happening (in the period) after a war: in the post-war period.objection n .oppose v . that follows: He launched into his statement without any preamble. lecture. of the period before giving birth: prenatal check-ups. [C] person who is against another person in a fight.pre-war adj . [Tn] express strong disapproval/ disagreement with sb/ sth.post-mortem /. etc.precede v . [I. rank.U] (expression of a) feeling dislike.precautionary adj 16. disapproval or opposition.

retrograde adj . [C] thing that is suggested. esp. [I] go or move backward. [C] introductory part of a poem or play. affective from a past date. The prefix retro– means ‘backward’. [C] sound made by bending the tip of the tongue upward and backward.pr] ∼sth (into sth) send or throw sth outward or forward.retrogress v .propose v . the bowel or uterus) slip forward or down so that it is out of place.postgraduate adj n . The prefix pro– /pr6–/means ‘forward’.retroflex n .project v . .progress v . getting worse.retrorocket n . suggest..retroactive adj . . [C] rocket engine providing power in the opposite direction to the path of flight. [U] looking back on a past event or situation.post-date v . [I] (of an organ in the body. etc. done after the first degree.prospect n 18. esp. .prolapse v [I] go to a further or next stage.proceed v .prologue n . [I] go or move forward. [Tn. [C] extra message added at the end of a letter after the signature 17. [C] person doing postgraduate studies.retrospect n 60 . [Tn] offer or put forward (sth) for consideration. going backward. [Tn] put a date (on a document.) that is later than the actual date.posterior adj . [C] picture in the mind or imagination. of a future event.postscript (abbr PS) n later (than sth) in time or in a series.proposal n . [U] action of suggesting or putting forward.

19. The prefix semi– means ‘half’ or ‘partly’. - semi-detached adj - semi-conscious adj - semicircle n - semi-final n - semicolon n joined to another house by one shared wall. partly conscious. [C] half of a circle or of its circumference. [C] match or round preceding the final, e.g. in football. [C] the punctuation mark (;) between a comma and a full stop. [C] underground pedestrian tunnel, esp. one beneath a road or railroad; underground railway in a city. [C] naval vessel that can operate underwater as well as on the surface. [I] go under the surface of a liquid. [I, Ipr, Tn] (cause things to) be divided again into smaller divisions. below normal, less than normal. lower in rank or position. below the usual or required standard. very abundant. exceeding normal human power, size, knowledge, etc. better than average. of or on the surface only. [C] any of the most powerful nations in the world. [I, Tn] watch or keep a check on (sb doing sth or sth being done) to make sure it is done properly.

20. The prefix sub– means ‘under’ or ‘below the normal’ - subway n

- submarine n - submerge v - subdivide v - subnormal adj - subordinate adj - substandard adj - superabundant adj - superhuman adj - superior adj - superficial adj - superpower n - supervise v

21. The prefix super– means ‘over’ or ‘beyond the norm’

61

22. The prefix un– means ‘not’. - unlikely adj - unattractive adj - untrue adj - unwilling adj - undress v - unfold v - uncurl v - unlock v - untie v - unfreeze v not likely, impossible. not attractive. not true. not willing. [I] take off one’s clothes, (Tn) remove the clothes of (sb/sth). [I, Tn] (cause sth to) open or spread out from a folded state. [I,Tn] (cause sth/oneself) become straightened from a curled position. [Tn] unfasten the lock of the door, gate, etc. using a key. [Tn] unfasten or undo (a knot, a button, a parcle, an envelop, etc.). 1. [I, Tn] (cause sth to) thaw; 2. [Tn] remove official controls on (the economy, etc): unfreeze (i.e. defrost) some chops; unfreeze trade restrictions.

23. The prefix un– means ‘reverse of’ or ‘do the opposite of’.

EXERCISE 4: Each group contains a base and a few suffixes. Make each into

a word. Complete the table given below. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 62 −ed, live, −en −ing, −ate, termin− −er, −s, mor, −al, −ize province, −s, −ism, −al −ly, −some, grue −ity, work, −able in, −most, −er marry, −age, −ity, −able −dom, −ster, gang −ly, −tion, −ate, affect livened

EXERCISE 5: Add a derivational suffix to each of these words, which already

end in a derivational suffix. Complete the table given below. 1 2 3 4 5 expression + −ism = expressionism formal + organize + reasonable + purist +

EXERCISE 6: Add an inflectional suffix to each of these words, which already

end in a derivational suffix. Complete the table given below. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 kindness + −es = kindnesses (n., pl.) meaning ‘kind acts’ beautify + quarterly + popularize + depth + pressure + extinguish + orientate + friendly +

10 noisy + You are given here five bases, or words with their bases italicized. Give all the words in the derivational paradigm. Do not include words with two bases, like ‘manhunt’ or ‘manpower’. Complete the table given below. 1 2 3 4 5 sin kind live (adj)/la1/ transport audience sinful, sinfulness, sinless, sinlessness, sinner
EXERCISE 7:

63

girl 4. verb.EXERCISE 8: The left-hand column contains ten words. which are always suffixes in English. They are representatives of the four grammatical categories in English: noun. make as many nouns as you can. –ness 5. –ity 8. composition ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ truth. –ation/ –ition EXERCISE 9: Why is it said that inflectional suffixes are part of the syntax of the English language? ANSWER: Inflectional affixes. inflectional suffixes typically indicate the syntactic relations between different words in English sentences: the inflectional suffix –s indicates the agreement between the subject he and the verb works in ‘He works hard’. happy 2. active Derived Words Noun-forming Derivational Suffixes 1. discover 7. –ure 11. the inflectional noun possessive morpheme –’s shows the relationship between Tom and another person — his father. In English. –hood 2. –ment 12. Fill in the given blanks. pagan 10. –ship ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ composure. supreme 8. –acy 3. perform grammatical functions. compose 5. shrink 6. –age 6. Therefore. –ism 4. in ‘Tom’s father’. clauses and sentences. This phenomenon is not only true in English. 64 . –ance/ –ence 9. The right-hand column contains thirteen derivational suffixes used to make nouns and having the general meanings of ‘state. truism ________________________ ________________________ 7. –th 10. friend 3. adjective and adverb. By combining these suffixes with the words listed. It is also common in many other languages in the world. Words 1. –y 13. true 9. we have to learn the rules regulating the ways in which words are arranged to form larger linguistic units such as phrases. condition. quality. it is quite true to state that inflectional suffixes are part of the English syntax. or act of’. To master this subject.

unearthly. abbreviated IC. Thus. unsightly. with the same semantic relationship of ‘having the quality of the person denoted by the base’. un– gentle man –ly Doing word diagrams. at the first cut we obtain the two following immediate constituents: un– and gentlemanly: un– gentlemanly Continuing our analysis. flatfoot. manly. etc. unfortunate. lowbrow. etc. we recognize the morpheme un– as a negative prefix because we have often come across words built on the pattern un– + adjective base: uncertain. the morphemes of which the word is composed. Comparing this word with other words. at the second cut we obtain the two following immediate constituents: gentleman and –ly: gentleman –ly There are compound nouns following the pattern adjective + noun. highbrow. soldierly. unmistakable. Thus. such as nobleman. and –ly. Thus. unnatural. uneasy. lazysusan.UNIT THREE IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENTS IN MORPHOLOGY 1. scholarly. the third cut separates the two free bases of the compound noun gentleman. each of which is called AN IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENT. to show layers of structure. have been isolated. gentle. such as womanly. The process is continued until all the component morphemes of a word. masterly. unconscious. middlebrow. etc. we see that there are many adjectives following the pattern noun base + –ly. resulting in the two immediate constituents: gentle and man: gentle man We have now shown the layers of structure by which the word has been composed. untimely. 65 . down to its ultimate constituents: un–. man. 1986: 83]. like the one right above. we make successive divisions into two parts. DEFINITION ‘IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENTS are any of the two meaningful parts forming a larger linguistic unit’ [Arnold. unwomanly. Let’s consider Bloomfield’s analysis of the word ungentlemanly [1935: 210].

First. enlarge. a free form. Nor would a division of starchy as: star ⎪ chy be right because this would give an unrelated morpheme {star} and a meaningless fragment chy. we divide the word into two parts. We continue this way cutting every parts into two more until we can reduce the word to its ultimate constituents. The two examples are properly cut in this way: re– ⎪ strain starch ⎪–y 3. SOME RECOMMENDATIONS ON IC DIVISION Here are three recommendations on IC division that will assist in the exercise to follow: If a word ends in an inflectional suffix. that is to the morphemes of which the word is composed — those which cannot be divided any more: Ungentlemanly un– gentlemanly gentleman gentle 66 –ly man un– gentle man –ly .2. etc. we show the process of word formation in reverse. DIAGRAM When we analyse a word. the first cut is between this suffix and the rest of the word. It would be wrong to cut restrain like this: rest ⎪ rain because neither rest nor rain has a semantic connection with restrain. if possible. supportable. doing. Here are examples of wrong and right first cuts: Wrong: en– ⎪ large + –ment in– + depend ⎪ –ent un– + law ⎪ –ful Right: en– + large ⎪ –ment in– ⎪ depend + –ent un– ⎪ law + –ful The meanings of the IC’s should be related to the meaning of the word. A free form is one that can be uttered alone with meaning: egg. pre– + conceiv(e)⎪ –ed mal– + formation⎪–s One of the IC‘s should be.

plentiful. etc. meaningful. sin sin: –ful /–fl/: –ful a free base which is a noun a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘full of’ noun + –ful = full of noun sin + –ful = full of sin powerful. acquittal. scornful.The two IC’s of the first layer of construction are un– and gentlemanly. useful. removal. hopeful. 2. build build: –s /–z/: –s a free base which is a verb an allomorph of the inflectional verb present tense third person singular morpheme {–S3} 3. etc. proposal. EXERCISES EXERCISE 1: Give the IC cuts of each of the following words. refusal. 67 . arriv(e) –al arrive: –al /–l/: a free base which is a verb a Derivational class-changing noun-forming suffix meaning ‘process or state of’ verb + –al = noun meaning process or state of verb-ing arrive + –al = arrival meaning ‘process or state of arriving’ survival. trustful. Identify all the possible morphemes in each of the following words: 1. (dis)approval. recital. The two IC’s of the second layer of construction are gentleman and –ly. wall flower –s two free bases which are nouns an allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} wall and flower: –s /–z/: 4. The two IC’s of the third layer of construction are gentle and man. helpful.

sin sin: –less /–l6s/: –less a free base which is a noun a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘without any’. 6. life life: –less /–l6s/: –ness /–n6s/: 8. hopeless. hope –ful –ly adjective + {–ly1} = adverb hopeful + {–ly1} = hopefully a free base which is a noun a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘full of’ the derivational class-changing adverbforming suffix {–ly1} meaning ‘in the specified manner’ –less –ness adjective + –ness = noun lifeless + –ness = lifelessness a free base which is a noun a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘without any’. meaningless. state or character of’ hope: –ful /–fl/: –ly /–l1/: 7. un– graci– –ous a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘not’ un– /∧n–/: 68 . ‘lacking in’ or ‘absence of’ noun + –less = without any noun sin + –less = without any sin powerless. lifeless. etc. useless. helpless. penniless. ‘lacking in’ or ‘absence of’ a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘quality.5.

unofficial. unintelligible. un– un– /∧n–/: true: –ly /–l1/: true –ly a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘not’ a free base which is an adjective the derivational class-changing adverbforming suffix {–ly1} meaning ‘in the specified manner’ 10. undue. unnatural. unequal. unavoidable. undeclared. uneven. ungrateful. unjust. unpleasant. which is a noun a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘having the qualities or character of’ un– + adjective = not adjective un– + gracious = not gracious un– + true = not true un– + base adjective : untrue. uncertain. unfit. unscientific. unhappy. unreal. unfair. unkind. unfriendly. unwanted. unclean. unhealthy. unbelievable.graci– /‘gre1~–/: –ous /–6s/: a bound base. unwilling. an allomorph of {grace} /gre1s/. etc. un– un– /∧n–/: law: –ful /–fl/: law –ful a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘not’ a free base which is a noun a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘full of’ 69 . unwise. unmanly. etc. unlawful. unusual. uncommon. un– + derived adjective: 9.

full of a spirit that leads to outstanding achievements: act like a man inspired. –spire /–‘spa16/: –ed /–d/: • inspired adj uninspired adj 12. un– un– /∧n–/: in– /1n–/: in– –spire –ed a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘not’ a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘in’ or ‘on’ a bound base either meaning ‘breathe’. un– un– /∧n–/: employ: employ –ment a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘lack of’ or ‘without’ a free base which is a verb a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘result or means of’ –ment /–m6nt/: 70 . class-changing adjective-forming suffix {–D3} 1. 2. filled with creative power: an inspired poet. produced (as if) by or with the help of inspiration: an inspired work. etc. 3. etc. without imagination or inspiration: an uninspired speech. artist. performance. just like in con–⏐–spire an allomorph of the d. painting.11. live live: –ed /–d/: – ed a free base which is a verb an allomorph of the inflectional verb past simple morpheme {–D1} or of the inflectional verb past participle morpheme {–D2} 13. just like in re–⏐–spire. or meaning ‘act’.

which is an adjective 71 . verbalize v 15. etc. fals(e) –ify false/f0:s/: a free base. warning. lack of (the quality denoted by) the noun un– + employment = without any employment. not written: a verbal explanation. of or in words: verbal skills. agreement.-forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerning’ a derivational class-changing verbforming suffix meaning ‘act or treat with the qualities of’ an allomorph of the inflectional verb past participle morpheme {–D2} –ed /–d/: un– + verb past participle = not verb past participle un– + verbalized = not verbalized adjective + –ize = verb verbal + –ize = verbalize meaning ‘act with the help/ qualities of words’ socialize. 2. internationalize. Tn] put (ideas. (re)fertilize. (de)humanize. etc. spoken. word for word. feelings.) in words: I sometimes find it difficult to verbalize. lack of employment 14. un– verb –al –ize –ed un– /∧n–/: verb: –al /–l/: –ize /–a1z/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘not’ a free base which is a noun a derivational class-changing adj. (de)nationalize. [I.un– + noun = without any noun. 3. etc. • verbal adj 1. literal: a verbal translation. regionalize.

(ir)reducible. an allomorph of {–vise} /– va1z/ meaning ‘see’ the allomorph which can only occur before {–ly1} of the d. class-changing verb-forming suffix meaning ‘make’ or ‘become’ a bound base. (in)corruptible. class-changing adjective-forming suffix {–ly1} meaning ‘in the specified manner’ VERB + –able = able to be VERB–ed PENETR– + –able = able to be PENETRATE–ed VIS– + –ible = able to be SEEN RECOVER + –able = able to be RECOVER–ed –ly /–l1/: desirable.–ify /1fa1/: 16. (un)avoidable. vis– vis– /–v1z/: –ib /–6b/: –ib –ly a d. 17. class-changing adjective-forming suffix {–ible} meaning ‘that may or must be’ the d. (un)acceptable. (ir)resistable. (un)drinkable. edible. changeable. etc. im– penetr– –abil –ity im– /1m–/: the allomorph which can only occur before bilabial sounds of the derivational class-maintaining prefix {in–}/1n–/meaning ‘not’ a bound base which can only occur in combination with either the derivational class-changing verbforming suffix {–ate} resulting in the verb penetrate /‘pen6tre1t/ or the derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix {–able} resulting in the adjective penetrable /‘pen6tr6bl/ penetr– /‘pen6tr–/: 72 . (in)visible. blamable.

immorality. irreplaceable. immensity. im– + adjective = not adjective im– + penetrable = not penetrable impersonal. irrelevant. fat(e) fat(e) /fe1t/: –al –ist –ic a free base. etc. immature. ir– re– ir– /1r–/: cover –able an allomorph which can only occurs before the retroflex /r/of the derivational class-maintaining prefix {in–} meaning ‘not’ a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘again’ a free base which is a verb a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘that may or must be’ ir– + adjective = not adjective ir– + resistable = not resistable re– /. etc. irreducible. immeasurable. immemorial. imbecility. improbable.ri:– /: cover: –able /–6bl/: irrational.–a‘bil /–6‘b1l/: the allomorph which can only occur before {–ity} of the derivational classchanging adjective-forming suffix {–able} meaning ‘that may or must be’ a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘state or quality of’ –ity /–6t1/: adjective + –ity = noun impenetrable + –ity = impenetrability immaturity. irreligious. impassive. etc. immobility. which is a noun 73 . impartiality. 19. irrespective. 18.

rebuild. refund.ri:–/: interpret: –ing /–17/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘again’ a free base which is a verb the inflectional verb present participle morpheme {–ing1} re– + verb = verb again re– + introduce = introduce again rewrite. 22.–al /–6l/: –ist /–1st/: a derivational class-changing adj. refertilize. reintroduce.-forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerning’ a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘person who believes in’ a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘concerning’ –ing a free base which is a verb the derivational class-changing adjective-forming suffix {–ing3} –ic /–1k/: 20.ri:–/: im– /1m–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘again’ the allomorph which can only occur before bilabial sounds of the derivational class-changing prefix {in–} /1n–/ meaning ‘in’ or ‘on’ –burse /–‘b3:s/: 74 a bound base which means ‘purse’ /–p3:s/ . return. bor(e) bore: –ing /–17/: 21. retell. repay. retype. re– interpret –ing re– /. reinterpret. reimburse. etc. re– im– –burse –ment –s re– /. redecorate.

an allomorph of {history} –ed /–d/: 24. pre– histor(y) pre– /. • –imburse is from the medieval Latin imbursarge meaning ‘put in the purse’ 23. I was reimbursed in full. re– fertil– –iz(e) –ed re– /. sb (for sth) (usu fml) refund sth.–ment /–m6nt/: –s /–s/: • reimburse v a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘result or means of’ an allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} [Tn. an allomorph of {fertile} /f6‘ta1l/.pr esp passive] ∼ sth (to sb). which is a noun a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning 'concerning’ 75 . Tn.pri:– /: histor– /h1‘st4r–/: –ic /1k–/: /‘h1str1/.ri:– /: fertil– /‘f3:t6l–/: –ize /–a1z/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘again’ a bound base. pay back to sb (money that has spent or lost): We reimburse the passengers for any loss or damage. which is an adjective a derivational class-changing verbforming suffix meaning ‘become’ or ‘make like’ an allomorph of the inflectional verb past simple morpheme {–D1} or of the inflectional verb past participle morpheme {–D2} –ic a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘before’ a bound base.

etc. disarm. discount. displease. prepay. precede. etc. predict. a free base which is a noun throne: dis– + verb = do the opposite of verb–ing dis– + establish = do the opposite of establishing dis– + enthrone = do the opposite of enthroning disappear. predetermine. preoccupy. dis– dis– /d1s–/ en– /1n–/ (also em– /1m–/): a derivational class-changing prefix meaning ‘before’ a free base which is a noun en– throne a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘do the opposite of’ a derivational class-changing verbforming prefix which means ‘make into’ or ‘cause to be’ and which is conjoined with adjectives or nouns to forms verbs like enlarge. disarrange. pre– school pre– /. prejudge.25.pri:– /: school: 26. 76 . preclude. pre-record. etc. pre– –clu –sion pre– /pr1–/: –clu /klu:– /: –sion /–2n/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘beforehand’ or ‘in advance’ a bound base. enrich. an allomorph of {–clude}. which means ‘shut’ or ‘close’ a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘action or condition of’ pre– + verb = verb beforehand/ in advance pre– + heat = heat (sth) beforehand pre– + arrange = arrange (sth) in advance pre-exist. disenthrone. 27. empower.

not genuine or authentic anti-hero /‘`nt1 h16r6υ/ n [C] central character in a story or drama who lacks the qualities usually associated with a hero. [U. a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘concerning’ designed to destroy enemy aircrafts: anti-aircraft guns –al /–l/: • {ant(i)–} 1. cleric. comic. against. opposed to. preventing anti-freeze /‘`nt1 fri:z/ n antacid /`n‘t`s1d/ n 77 . US kl3:k/. great enemy of Christ.`nt1–/: cler– /kle(r)–/: –ic /1k–/: cler– –ic –al a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘against’ a bound base. anti-personnel explosives 2.`nt1‘e6kra:ft/ adj anti-personnel /‘`nt1 . and to be defeated by Christ. who was expected by early Christians just before the end of the world. such as courage and dignity. [U] substance added to water to lower its freezing point. counteracting anti-aircraft /. anti– anti– /. Antichrist /‘`nt1kra1st/ 3. which is a noun a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘person who performs a specific action’ like in critic. an allomorph of {clerk} /kla:k. opposite to. spurious. etc.p3:s‘nel/ adj designed to kill or injure people: antipersonnel bombs.28. C] (substance) that prevents or reduces acidity in the stomach: I need an/some antacid to cure my indigestion.

of a province. manner. etc. [C] native provinces. anti– provinci– anti– /. the Church of England: a clerical collar.`nt1–/: provinci– /pr6‘v1n~–/: –al /–l/: –ism /–1z(6)m/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘against’ a bound base.. esp. 2. a clerical error. account. 2. 2.. a desk clerk.forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerning’ a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘showing qualities typical of (provincials)’ an allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} 1. which is a noun a derivational class-changing adj. i. or inhabitant of the –s /–z/: • provincial /pr6‘v1n~l/ adj provincial /pr6‘v1n~l/ n provincialism /pr6‘v1n~l1zm/ 1. etc. etc to keep records.e. the Church of England. US ‘kl3:rk/ n [C] 1. cleric /‘kler1k/ n (dated) clergyman /‘kl3:d21m6n/. speech. person employed in an office. of or for the clergy /‘kl3:d21/. etc: a bank clerk. etc. criticism. the people who have been ordained as priests or ministers of esp. made by a clerk or clerks: clerical work. a shop. baptism. a filing clerk. 1. –al –ism –s clerical /‘kler1kl/ adj 29. for. an allomorph of {province} /‘pr4v1ns/. narrow-minded. n [C] example of narrow-minded behaviour. n [U] narrow-minded attitude or look.• clerk /‘kla:k. priest or minister of the Christian. 2. common nouns or adjectives + –ism (meaning ‘showing • verbs ending in –ize + –-ism: 78 . etc.

capitalism. counter– de– –clar –ation counter– /. system or movement’): Buddhism. socialism.qualities typical of’): heroism.counter-clockwise adv 2 corresponding. proper nouns + –ism (meaning ‘doctrine. a derivational forming suffix condition of’ class-changing nounmeaning ‘action or de– /d1–/: –clar(e) /–kle6(r)/: –ation /–‘e1~n/: • {counter–} + verbs. [C] attack made in response to an enemy’s attack.kaυnt6–/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘opposite in direction or effect’. an allomorph of {clear}. which is an adj.counteract v [Tn] act against and reduce the force or effect of (sth): counteract (the effect of) a poison.counter-intuitive adj . Americanism. . etc. etc. Leninism. contrary to what one would naturally expect: His solution to the problem is counter-intuitive. nouns.. ‘made in response to’ or ‘opposed to’ a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘completely’ a bound base. anti-clockwise: Turn the key counterclockwise. duplicating: counterpart n [C] person or thing that corresponds to or has the same function as sb or sth else: The sales director phoned her counterpart in a competing firm.counter-attack n . 30a. counter– de– –clar –ation 30b. favouritism. 79 . adjectives and adverbs: 1 opposed to: . Marxism.

–ac –tion –ary a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘backwards’ or ‘in response to’ a bound base. an allomorph of {act} 31. contra– contra– /‘k4ntr6–/: –dic /–‘d1k/: –tion /–~n/: /–‘d1kt/ meaning ‘say’ a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘action or condition of’ a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerned with’ [C. ticket. re– re– /r1–/: –ac /–‘`k/: –tion /–~n/: /`kt/. etc which can be detached and kept as a record. U] travelling of traffic from its usual half of the road to the other half.b. an allomorph of {–dict} –ary /–6r1/: 31. which is a verb a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘action or condition of’ a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerned with’ –dic –tion –ory a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘against’ or ‘opposite to’ a bound base. [C] secret word which must be spoken to a guard. etc before one is allowed to pass.counter-foil n countersign n [C] part of a cheque. so that it shares the lane with traffic coming in the other direction.a. –ory /–6r1/: • {contra–}+ verbs and nouns: contraflow n 80 .

an allomorph of –struct /–str∧kt/ meaning ‘build’ a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘action or condition of’ an allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} –s /–z/: 81 . mis– judge –ment mis– + verb = verb wrongly mis– + judge = judge wrongly mis– + apply = apply wrongly mis– /. etc): You are contravening the regulations. 32.contravene v [Tn] act or be contrary to (a law. and {mis–} means ‘wrongly’ when it is added to a verb. 33.m`l–/: con– /k6n–/: –struc /–‘str∧k/: –tion /–~n/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘bad’ or ‘wrong’ a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘with’ a bound base.b. mis– judge –ment 32a. mal– con– –struc –tion –s mal– /.m1s–/: judge: –ment /–m6nt/: mis– + noun = wrong noun. lack of or absence of noun mis–+ judgement = wrong judgement mis– + fortune = lack of fortune a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘wrong’ or ‘wrongly’ a free base which is a verb a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘result or means of’ • {mis–} means ‘wrong’ when it is added to a noun. The two above-mentioned IC cuts are possible because {mis–} is added to both verbs and nouns in English.

mal-nourished. mal-content. lengthen. malignantly. cheapen. 35. mal-formed. stiffen. darken. brighten. adverds: mal-adroitly. strengthen. mal-treat. malevolently. maliciously. body: a free base which is a noun 82 . etc. embark.• {mal–} means ‘bad’ or ‘wrong’ when it is added to nouns: mal-function. etc. embed. • {mal–} means ‘badly’ or ‘wrongly’ when it is added to: adjectives: mal-adjusted. etc. lighten. malign. whiten. deafen. verbs: mal-function. mal-administration. redden. which is conjoined with nouns or verbs to form verbs and which only precedes the base beginning with bilabial phonemes. solften.g. empanel. etc. mal-adroit. widen. mal-nutrition. mal-adroitness. mal-formation. etc. em– em– /–1m/: bodi –ment an allomorph of the derivational classchanging verb-forming prefix {en–} /–1n/ meaning ‘put into or on’. harden. embrace. broaden. maladjustment. etc. deep –en –ed deep: –en /–n/: –ed /–d/: a free base which is an adjective a derivational class-changing forming suffix meaning ‘make’ verb- an allomorph of the inflectional verb past simple morpheme {–D1} or of the inflectional verb past participle morpheme {–D2} adjective + –en = make (sb/ sth) adjective or more adjective deep + –en = make (sb/ sth) deep or deeper shorten. blacken. e. 34. embroil.

favour favour: –ite /–1t/: –it(e) –ism a free base which is a noun a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix derogatorily used to mean ‘a person who is a member of a group or who follows someone’ like in socialites /–a1t/. etc news and paper: –dom /–d6m/: 37. socialism. –ist a bound base.–ment /–m6nt/: a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘result or means of’ 36. –ism /–1z(6)m/: a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘showing qualities typical of’ like in heroism. gangsterdom. Thatcherites. capitalism. Americanism. an allomorph {Buddha} • favourite n [C] favouritism n [U] 38. practice of giving unfair advantages to the people that one likes best: Our teacher is guilty of blatant favouritism. Labourites. etc. which is the name of an Indian philosopher –ist /–1st/: a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘person who has 83 . news paper –dom two free bases which are nouns a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘group of’ like in officialdom. etc. Trotskyites. Buddh– Buddh– /bυd/: /‘bυd6/. person or thing liked more than others: These books are great favourites of mine.

39.a. violin –ist violin /‘va16l1n/: –ist /–1st/:

a strong belief in’ like in Marxist, Communist, socialist, capitalist, etc.

a free base which is a noun a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘person who is concerned with’ like in dentist, artist, sexist, physicist, etc.

39.b. philosoph– – er philosoph– /f1‘l4s6f–/:

a

bound

base,

an

allomorph

of

–er /–6/:

{philosophy} /f1‘l4s6f1/, which is a noun a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘person who is concerned with’ like in astronomer, geographer, photographer, etc. a free base which is a verb a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘person or thing that does’ like in teacher, examiner, painter, computer, etc. a free base which is a noun a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘person belonging to’ like in New Yorker, sixth-former, etc. –ation –s a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘in’ or ‘on’ a bound base, an allomorph of {flame}

40.a. learn – er learn: –er /–6/:

40.b. villag(e) –er village: –er /–6/:

41. in– –flam(m) in– /1n–/: –flam(m) /–fl6m/:

/fle1m/, which is a verb
84

–ation /–‘e1~n/:

a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘action or condition of’ an allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} [C, U] hot glowing portion of burning gas that comes from something on fire: The house was in flame. [La, I] burn with a brighter flame: The burning coals started to flame yellow and orange. [Tn, Tn.pr] ∼ sb/sth (with/to sth) cause sb/sth to become angry or overexcited: a speech that inflamed the crowd with anger/to a high pitch of fury. [C, U] condition in which a part of the body is red, swollen and sore or itchy, esp. because of infection: (an) inflammation of the lungs, liver, etc. –al a derivational prefix an allomorph of con– /k6n–/ meaning ‘with’ a bound base, an allomorph of {fide}

–s /–z/: • flame n

flame v

inflame v

inflammation n

42. confid– – enti – /,k4n–/: –fid /–f1d/:

/–‘fa1d/ meaning ‘trust’ like in confide /k6n‘fa1d/, confidant /,k4nf1‘d`nt/ or fidelity /f1‘del6t1/, etc.
–enti /–‘en~/: –al /–l/: 43. logan– a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix {–ent} /–(6)nt/ a derivational class-maintaining adj.forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerning’

berri –es

85

logan–:

a special kind of bound morphemes that has no meaning in isolation but acquires some meaning when attached to {berry}, indicating a certain kind of berry a free base which is a noun an allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1}.

berry: –es /–z/:

44. iron iron: monger–: –y:

monger–

–y a free base which is a noun. a bound base meaning ‘trader’ or ‘dealer’ a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘action or process of’

45. fest– fest– /fest–/: –ive /–1v/:

–iv(e) –al a bound base, an allomorph of {feast}

/fi:st/, which is a noun
a derivational class-changing adjectiveforming suffix meaning ‘having the tendency to or the quality of’ a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘process or state of’. 1. unusually large or elaborate meal; 2. religious festival celebrated with rejoicing: the feast of Christmas. of or suitable for a feast or festival: the festive season. [C] (day or time of) religious or other celebration: Christmas and Easter are Christian festivals.

–al /–l/:

• feast n [C]

festive adj festival n

86

forming suffix meaning ‘of or ‘concerning’ 47.46. op– –pos(e) –ition 87 . Ice Ice and land: –ic /–1k/: land –ic two free bases which are nouns a derivational class-changing adj. mid– mid– /m1d–/: after noon a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘in the middle of’ after (preposition) and noon (noun) are two free bases 48. super– super– /.forming suffix meaning ‘of’ or ‘concerning’ 49. ob– –struc –tion –ist –s ob– /6b–/: –struct /–str∧kt/: –tion /–~n/: a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘against’ a bound base meaning ‘build’ a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘action or condition of’ a derivational class-maintaining nounforming suffix meaning ‘person who is concerned with’ an allomorph of the inflectional noun plural morpheme {–S1} –ist /–1st/: –s /–s/: 50.sju:p6–/: nature: –al /–l/: natur(e) –al a derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘beyond the norm’ a free base which is a noun a derivational class-changing adj.

Support the division you think is correct: (a) unlovable and (b) reappearance. class-maintaining prefix {ob–} /6b–/ meaning ‘against’ –pos(e) /–p6υz/: –ition /–‘1~n/: a bound base meaning ‘put’ or ‘place’. using treediagrams. a derivational class-changing nounforming suffix meaning ‘action or condition of’ EXERCISE 2: Analyse all the words given in EXERCISE 1 again. EXERCISE 3: Give the IC divisions of each of the following words. 88 .op– /6p–/: the allomorph which can only occur before the voiceless bilabial plosive /p/ of the d.

the sound form of sleep is /sli:p/. It has a sound form because it is a certain arrangement of phonemes. it is composed of one or more morphemes. CHARACTERISTICS 2. which is part of the finite verb was sleeping in ‘The child was sleeping soundly’. In speech. 2. it may occur in different word forms. there is evidence that native speakers of a language tend to agree on what are the words of their language. when used in actual speech. slept (the past simple form) and slept (the past participle form). 1986: 28] For example. In writing. its indivisibility: ‘It cannot be cut into without a disturbance of meaning. can a function word like the ‘occur on its own’? Is a contraction like can’t (cannot) one word or two? Nevertheless.’ [Richards. being also a certain arrangement of morphemes. have different syntactic functions and signal various meanings. or as an adverbial. which is the adjunct of manner of stood in ‘He stood sleeping’. Uniting meaning and form. or as an adjectival. 1987: 311] ‘The definition of a word is one of the most difficult in linguistics because the simplest word has many aspects. word boundaries may be recognised by slight pauses. DEFINITION ‘The word may be described as the basic unit of language. sleeping. the present participle form sleeping can be used either as a verbal. 1986: 27] A word is ‘the smallest linguistic unit which can occur on its own in speech or writing. each consisting of one or more spoken sounds or their written representatives.’ [Arnold. For example. one or 89 . Platt & Weber. the plain form sleep has four inflected forms: sleeps. which is the pre-nominal modifier of child in ‘a sleeping child’. word boundaries are usually recognised by spaces between words.UNIT FOUR WORDS 1. it has its morphological structure. there is only one free morpheme (also called a free base) in sleep. INDIVISIBILITY Sapir [1921: 35] points out one important characteristic of the word.’ [Arnold.1. It is difficult to apply this criterion consistently.

let’s consider the following sentences: E. 90 . he walked down the street.two other or both of the several parts remaining as a helpless waif on your hands.: Slowly. Alive is a word: it is indivisible. 2. i. words have some freedom to move within a sentence without destroying their meaning.e. Unlike small linguistic units such as phonemes and morphemes. He slowly walked down the street. walked are three two-morpheme words in which the suffixes –s. Therefore. There are several possible changes in this order which yield an acceptable English sentence: slow – ly – the – boy – s – walk – ed– up – the – hill up – the – hill – slow – ly – walk – ed – the – boy – s Yet under all the permutations certain groups of morphemes behaves as ‘blocks’ — they occur always together.’ To illustrate the first Lyons segments into morphemes the following sentence: the – boy – s – walk – ed – slow – ly – up – the – hill The sentence may be regarded as a sequence of ten morphemes. structurally impermeable: nothing can be inserted between its elements. –ly and –ed must follow the base.2. and in the same order relative to one another. ‘one of the characteristics of the word is that it tends to be internally stable (in terms of the order of the component morphemes). He walked down the street slowly. To illustrate the second. There is no possibility of the sequence s – the – boy. but positionally mobile (permutable with other words in the same sentence). which occur in a particular order relative to one another. a lion is a word group because we can separate its elements and insert other words between them: a living lion. ly – slow or ed – walk because boys. a word can be regarded as a minimal linguistic unit which is freely movable with a meaning. a dead lion.’ For Example. slowly. INTERNAL STABILITY (also called INTERNAL COHESION or UNINTERRUPTABILITY) and POSITIONAL MOBILITY And according to Lyons [1969: 203].g. He walked slowly down the street.

1.1. or free + bound.2.1. get’ termin– ‘end’⏐ –ate ‘giving (to sth) a specified quality’ rupt– ‘break’⏐ –ure ‘action of….1.3. spirit.2. Complex words–BB (bound base) have a bound morpheme for each IC: tele– ‘far’⏐ –vise ‘see’ matri– ‘mother’⏐ –cide ‘killing’ pre– ‘beforehand.: high ⏐ born north ⏐ east desk ⏐ lamp (–s) ill ⏐ treat (–ed) 3.1.g. COMPLEX WORDS contain at least one bound morpheme as an immediate constituent. 3.2.3. E.1. COMPOUND WORDS (also called COMPOUNDS) have at least two free bases (free morphemes) with or without bound morphemes. redcoat and greenhouse with the grammatical structures of a modifier plus a noun.2.1. They fall into two subclasses: 3. process of…’ somnifer– ‘sleep’⏐ –ous ‘having the quality or characteristic of’ 3. Complex words–FB (free-base) have one free morpheme as an IC: lion ⏐ –ess ‘female’ un– ‘not’ ⏐certain rain ⏐ –y ‘having’ or ‘marked by’ re– ‘again’⏐birth deep ⏐ –en ‘make’ dis– ‘do the opposite of’⏐appear 3. 91 . eucalyptus. SIMPLE WORDS consist of a single free base (= a free morpheme): stay.1.1. close’ ex– ‘out of. Some compounds are differentiated from grammatical structures by their patterns of stress. CLASSIFICATION 3. THE CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS ACCORDING TO THEIR STRUCTURE English words may be classified on the basis of the kinds (free vs. red coat and green house. etc. The primary-secondary pattern enables us to contrast compound nouns like bluebell. out from’⏐ –tract ‘take.1.1. The phonological feature: The elements of a compound word are stressed.3. flea. in advance’⏐ –clude ‘shut. THE FEATURES OF COMPOUNDS 3. as in blue bell.3. bound morphemes) and the combinations of morphemes (free + free. or bound + bound) of which they are composed.1. 3. long. Connecticut.1.

you could: .P.3.She has a sweeter heart than her sister. 1986: 128]. (a compound noun). The semantic feature: Compound words have specialised meanings. eye-opener ‘enlightening circumstance’.3. . not to one of its elements: kind-hearted. E. The meaning of an ‘egghead’ is by no means closely related to that of ‘egg’ and ‘head’. etc. The syntactic feature: Order: the arrangement of the elements in a compound may differ from that of a grammatical structure in order.1. old-timer.1. But in sentence (2). let us compare two sentences: (1) She is a sweetheart. schoolboyishness.1.She has a sweet. (a grammatical structure). 3.3.3. In sentence (1). . backbencher ‘an M. THE TYPES OF COMPOUNDS 3. As illustration.g. kind heart. occupying the back bench’. (2) She has a sweet heart. we apply one of the following patterns: noun base + noun base + –er: footballer ‘one who plays football’. Verbs + Adverbial Particles collapse = fall down start suddenly = break out Compounds outbreak = a sudden appearance or start downfall = a fall from a position of prosperity or power Indivisibility: Compound words are considered as solid blocks. the compound word sweetheart is indivisible: you cannot insert anything between sweet and heart.1.3. But grammatical structures can be so divided. Coining derivational compounds. left-hander ‘left-handed person or blow’.3.1. first-nighter ‘habitual frequenter of the first performance of plays’.1.1. teen-ager’ [Arnold.She has a very sweet heart.2. It is said that compound words have idiomatic status. They cannot be divided by the insertion of any other elements.2. knowing the meaning of each element of a compound word does not make it possible to figure out the meaning of the whole combination. mill-owner ‘one who owns a mill’. honeymooner ‘one who is enjoying his or her honeymoon’. Therefore. 92 . Derivational compounds are the compounds in which the derivational suffix is attached to ‘the combination as a whole. 3.2.

at the door. light-hearted. on one’s shoulder. etc. hush-hush ‘very secret or confidential’. easy familiar talk [C] (infml) silly or trivial talk. murmur (a borrowing from French meaning) ‘low continuous indistinct sound’. Repetitive compounds can be subcategorized into: Reduplicative compounds are the compounds in which the second element is the proper repetition of the first element ‘with intensifying effect’ [Arnold. pooh-pooh ‘sound to express contempt’. barelegged. 1986: 130]. noun base + noun base + –ed: bow-legged.e. petty gossip. Alice: All on the never-never. black-haired. onomatopoeic words (i. pretty-pretty ‘affectedly pretty’. blue-eyed. [I] gossip.1. two-headed. Ex1 Should he give them half a minute of blah-blah or tell them what has been passing through his mind? Ex2 Jim: They’ve got a smashing telly. 1986: 130]. gossip. etc. fiftyfifty ‘shared or sharing between two equally’.3. imitations of natural sounds): drip-drip ‘sound of rain drops dripping down from a tree.2. sometimes a pseudo-morpheme which is repeated in the other constituent with a different vowel’ [Arnold. number base + noun base + –ed: five-coloured.2. They are usually. moon-shaped. 3. short-sighted. etc.g. the roof of a house. things talk about unimportant 93 . three-fingered. never-never (an ellipsis of ‘the never-never system’ meaning) ‘a hire-purchase system in which the consumer may never be able to become the owner of the thing purchased’. etc. farsighted etc. war-minded. etc. heart-shaped. quack-quack ‘duck’. ill-mannered.adjective base + noun base + –ed: absent-minded. tap-tap ‘sound of quick light blows e. oneeyed. many-sided. but not always. goody-goody ‘behaving so as to appear very virtuous and respected’. a fridge and another set of bedroom furniture in silver-grey. what’ll happen if he loses his job? Ablaut compounds are ‘twin forms consisting of one basic morpheme (usually the second).’.’. The typical changes are: [1] _ [`]: chit-chat n tittle-tattle n v [U] (infml) chat. blah-blah ‘nonsense’ or ‘idle talk’. Popspops ‘father’.

3. untidy’. willy-nilly ‘compulsorily’. aspirin. hoity-toity ‘snobbish’. pell-mell ‘in disorder. path.2. of many people together’. hurdy-gurdy ‘a small organ’. titbit ‘an especially attractive bit of food’. using specific brand names such as Vaseline or Frigidaire as the generic name for different brands of these types of products. helterskelter ‘in disorderly haste’. unable to make up one’s mind [I] waste time. who put his food between two slices of bread so that he could eat while he gambled. changing proper names of individuals or places to common nouns: sandwich was named for the fourth Earl of Sandwich. etc) turning right and left alternatively at a sharp angles [U] (esp the riff-raff) ill-behaved people of the lowest social class. humdrum ‘bored’. hurryscurry ‘great hurry’. fetish’. esp. usu of little value [attrib] (of a line.1. hurly-burly ‘noisy and energetic activity.2.shilly-shally v dilly-dally v knick-knack n zigzag adj [I] hesitate. etc. namby-pamby ‘weakly sentimental’. mumbojumbo ‘deliberate mystification. the rabble (infml) excellent. which are conjoined to rhyme’ [Arnold. THE CLASSIFICATION OF WORDS ACCORDING TO THEIR WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES 3. robot was named after the mechanical creature in the Czech writer Karel Capek’s play 94 . dawdle (esp pl) small articles of ornament. lovey-dovey ‘darling’. 1986: 130]: boogie-woogie ‘type of blues music’. harum-scarum ‘disorganized’. first rate [U] table-tennis (of a voice or way of speaking) having a rising and falling rhythm [sing] up-and-down or to-and-fro motion [I] move up-and-down or to-and-fro riff-raff n [1] _ [4]: tip-top adj ping-pong n sing-song adj see-saw n v Rhyme compounds are ‘twin forms consisting of two elements (most often two pseudo-morphemes). COINAGE is the creation of totally new words by: inventing names for new products: nylon. etc.

‘sm− ’ in smoke has been combined with ‘−og’ in fog to create a new word for the blend smog.S by P. slanguage. etc. from breakfast and lunch. kindergarten. Lewis Carroll. gargantuan was named for the creature with a huge appetite created by Rabelais. Barnum. from slang and language. BORROWING is the process by which words in a language are borrowed from another. etc. usually the first part of one word with the last part of another. 3. which refers to a type of air pollution. breathalyzer/bloodalyzer. from flimsy and miserable. slithy.R.’ [Arnold.T.. which is the blend of tunnel and the English channel. from American Indian languages: shampoo. couchette. seem to be on the rise.R. opera. Interestingly. lazy Susan was derived from the Susan. from positive electron.3. the author of ‘Alice in Wonderland’ and ‘Through the looking glass’ made a special technique of using blends coined by himself such as chortle. 1986: 142] 95 . from gallop and triumph. spam. cot. Frenglish. from French and English.. although not very numerous altogether. For example. Another recent example is chunnel. beige. jumbo was named after an elephant brought to the U. concerto. especially in terminology and also in trade advertisements. 3.2. ‘Blends. English words have been borrowed: • • • • from French: champagne. It is one of the most common processes in word formation. from motor (or motorist’s) and hotel. BLENDING is the fusion of two words into one.U.2. transceiver.. from spiced ham. denim was originally borrowed form de Nimes (meaning ‘from Nimes’) in France.2. slimnastics. from transmitter and receiver. from smoke and haze. from slim and gymnastics. from lithe and slimy. brunch. an unknown servant. etc.. mimsy. bit. garage. Some other blends (also called blendings. positron. etc. motel. from German: rucksack. from Italian: cantata. from chuckle and snort. etc. galumph. fusions or portmanteau words) are smaze. etc. the initials standing for ‘Rossum’s Universal Robot’. COINAGE is one of the most uncommon processes of word formation in English. from breath/blood and analyzer. from binary digit. rouge.

phone (from telephone). in other cases.V. 3. NATO / ‘ne1t6υ/ UNESCO /ju:’nesk6υ/ NASA / ‘n`s6/ UNO / ’ju: n6υ/ ‘North Atlantic Treaty Organization’ ‘United Nations Educational. trank (from tranquilizer). tec or dick (from detective). also ‘military police’ ‘Prime Minister’ ‘Save Our Souls’ ‘television’ WHO /.2.es 6υ ‘es / TV or T. ACRONYMY is the process whereby a word is formed from the initials or beginning segments of a succession of words.4. bike (from bicycle). The end of the word is deleted in exam (from examination).2. the initials and/or beginning segments are pronounced as a commonly spelled word would be. Sometimes the initials are pronounced.ti: ‘vi:/ laser /‘le1z6/ scuba /‘sku:b6/ 96 But in other cases.2.d/\blju: e1t∫ ‘6υ/ G. ‘light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation’ ‘self-contained underwater breathing apparatus’ . we have what looks like a common noun. prof (from professor).4. mike (from microphone). The beginning part of the word is removed in bus (from omnibus). lab (from laboratory).2. CLIPPING is the process of cutting off the beginning or the end of a word. In the case of proper nouns.I. These clipped words are usually used in casual speech rather than in writing or formal speech. producing flu and fridge (with a slight change of spelling in the latter example).1. vac (from vacuum cleaner). dorm (from dormitory).2.2. fan (from fanatic). the resulting word is usually written in capital letter. /. telly (from television set).4. /. leaving a part (the abbreviation or the clipped word) to stand for the whole (the full form).3. 3.em ‘pi:/ P. demo (from demonstration).P. etc. 3. or both.S /. gym (from gymnasium). plane (from airplane). Influenza and refrigerator have been clipped at both ends.4.3.O. ad or advert (from advertisement).pi: ‘em/ S. Acronyms can occur in capital or small letters. 3. Scientific and Cultural Organization’ ‘National Aeronautics and Space Administration’ ‘United Nations Organization’ ‘World Health Organization’ ‘Government Issue’ ‘Member of Parliament’. /. nark (from narcotics agent).5. /.M. etc.d2i: ‘a1/ M.

cheat . thing bought: Best buys of the week are carrots buy n [C] and cabbages. The following examples are basically based on Quirk at al [1973: 441-444]: 3. walk . COMPLETE CONVERSION is the process of shifting a word from one word class to another without adding an affix.‘Object of V’: . In other words. wrap .1. CONVERSION consists of two subcategories: 3. Major categories of complete conversion: Lexical Verb → noun: . Noun → lexical verb . knife campaign nurse.radar /‘re1d6/ snafu /‘sn`fυ/ ‘radio detecting and ranging’ ‘situation normal. comic (‘comic actor’). cripple.‘Event/ activity’ (from dynamic verbs to nouns): laugh. of.‘Instrument of V’: cover (‘something that covers things’).‘Put in/on N’: .1. turn act of buying. Adjective → noun: Miscellaneous examples are daily (‘daily newspaper’).‘State’ (from stative verbs to nouns): doubt.‘To … with N as instrument’: . a word which previously could only be used in a certain way to make sentences begins to be used in another way though no change in form takes place. Most instances involve the conversion of nouns to verbs or of verbs to nouns. performance. skin brake.6.‘Be/ Act as N with respect to …’: . comic adj [usu attrib] funny. buy bore (‘someone who bores/ is boring’). . catch. etc. (young) marrieds (‘young married people’. comic n [C] comedian: a popular TV comic. which are plentiful and cheap.‘Manner of V-ing’: throw.‘Place of V’: retreat. love . corner peel (‘remove the peel from’).6.2.‘Deprive of N’: . The adjective noun can be explained in terms of a well-established adjective + noun phrase from which the noun has been ellipted.2.‘Make/ change … into N’: bottle. walk . referee cash.2. informal). a comic actor. all fucked up’ 3.1.6. causing people to laugh: a comic song. silence 97 (stab with a knife).‘Subject of V’: answer (‘that would be answered’). containing or using comedy: comic opera.

Phrase → noun: When I gamble. dirty. [Tn] cover (sth) with a carpet: We are going to have the hallway carpeted. clothes.Intransitive verbs meaning ‘become Adj’: dry.‘(a) Send/ (b) Go by N’: .6. wet v Sometimes a phrasal verb is derived from an adjective by the addition of a particle: He calmed himself down (‘made himself calm’). 3.e. and sometimes both derivations are available for the same adjective: He blacked/ blackened his face with soot. soaked or moistened with liquid. wet . my horse is one of the also-rans (i. ship. seen.2. (b) bicycle. [Tn] make (sth) wet: Wet the clay a bit more before you start to mould it. empty wet adj covered. etc. water: wet roads. mask. campaign v carpet v Adjective → lexical verb . one of the horses which ‘also ran’ but was not among the winners) 98 . etc to’).2. motor coat (give a coat of paint.‘Give N.. This category of conversion competes with –en suffixation. to provide N with’: silence v (a) mail. etc: This novel is a must for all lovers of crime fiction.Transitive verbs meaning ‘make (more) Adj’: calm. [Tn] organize a campaign: Communists in Newcastle are campaigning against rent increase. esp. heard. Minor categories of complete conversion Auxiliary Verb → noun: must n [C] thing that must be done. carpet [Tn] cause (sb/sth) to be silent or quiet(er): His voice silenced everyone else.1. grass. He calmed down (‘became calm’).

doctrine. walks.Phrase → adjective: I feel very under-the-weather (i. clown or jester: He’s being a fool.’) fool n fool n 99 . usu singular] surface of a room on which one stands. Non-count noun → count noun: ‘A unit of N’: two coffees (‘cups of coffee’) ‘A kind of N’: Some paints are more lasting than others ‘A instance of N’ (with abstract nouns): a difficulty Count noun → non-count noun: ‘N viewed in terms of a measurable extent’ (normally only after expressions of amount): a few square feet of floor. Have you ever experienced such an under-theweather feeling? Affix → noun: Ism [noun-forming suffix → countable noun] theory. to amuse others with jokes and tricks. etc: The bare concrete floor was cold on my feet. (‘He’s behaving like a fool. a Sony. length floor n - Proper noun → common noun (initial capital usually retained): ‘A member of the class typified by N’: a Jeremiah (‘a gloomy prophet) ‘A person or place called N’: There are several Cambridges called Cambridge’) in the world. idiot: Remember that she’s not a fool.e. floor n [C. (‘places ‘A product of N or a sample or collection of N’s work’: a Rolls Royce (‘a car manufactured by Rolls Royce’). [dynamic] (formerly) man employed by a king. [U] extent. a complete Shakespeare ‘Something associate with N’: Wellingtons Stative noun → dynamic noun [stative] person who lack in good sense or judgement. indisposed). noble. range. etc. area. movement: Patriotism and any other isms you’d like to name.

never having both or all the feet on the ground at the same time: She ran out of the house to see what was happening..‘Resulting meaning’: fall v fall v Intensive verb → intransitive verb turn v [I] become. Mono-transitive Verb → complex transitive verb . ‘Be V-ed’: The door opened. [I] come or go down from force of weight. remain or be kept in a certain state: He lay flat. [intensive] be. pass into a specified state: The milk turned sour in the heat.Intransitive Verb → transitive verb run v [I] move at a speed faster than a walk.‘Current meaning’: lie v [I] have or put one’s body in a flat or resting position on a horizontal surface: He was lying on his front/side/back. turn v [I] become sour: The milk turned. [intensive] become. She fell an easy prey to his charm. ‘V oneself’: Have you washed yet? (washed yourself’) ‘V someone/something/etc’: We have eaten already. descend or drop: The rain was falling steadily. loss of balance. etc. [Tn] ‘cause to V’: London Transport run extra trains during the rush-hour. lie v . run v Transitive Verb → intransitive verb ‘Can be V-ed’ (often followed by an adverb such as well or badly): Your book reads well. pass into a specified state: He fell flat/silent/ill/asleep.‘Current meaning’: 100 . Intransitive Verb → intensive verb .

to or in an higher place. [dynamic] behaving in a kind and pleasant way. flat. gesture. condition. [non-gradable] of or based on law: my legal adviser/ representative. Why shouldn’t I take a holiday? It’s perfectly legal. [stative] showing or expressing kindness: a friendly smile. smooth. etc. etc. [gradable] allowed or required by the law: I have a very legal turn of mind. The children here are quite friendly with one another.‘Resulting meaning’: wipe v wipe v Non-gradable adjective → gradable adjective legal adj legal adj Stative adjective → dynamic adjective friendly adj friendly adj Adverb or a preposition → verb up prep up adv . to or in an upright position. by wiping it: I wiped it clean. discover (sb doing sth or sb in a certain state): We caught them young. [complex trans] make sth clean.catch v catch v [mono-trans] stop and hold (a moving object) esp in hands: The dog caught the biscuit in his mouth. etc. [mono-trans] clean or dry sth by rubbing its surface with a cloth. a piece of paper. welcome. to or in a higher position: She ran up the stairs. position. [complex trans] find. acting like a friend: He’s just being friendly (‘acting in a friendly manner’). manner. 101 .: Please wipe your feet before entering this room.

7. This process can be subdivided into prefixation and suffixation. extract. produce.1. [Tn] knock (sb) to the ground: He suddenly downed his wife. permit. deselect. and (not shown in spelling) house → house. in the course of changing its grammatical function. pro-life. import. present. contrast.2. 3. record. The following list is basically based on Greenbaum [1996: 444-452]: pro– meaning ‘on the other side of’: pro-choice.2. convert. [Tn] (infml) increase (sth): They upped the price.: Stand up! Pull your socks up! Lift your head up! up v up v down prep down adv [I] (infml) get or jump up. 3. from a higher to a lower level: The icecream slipped down easily — it was cold and delicious. export.2.2. etc. etc 102 . [Tn] (infml) finish (a drink) quickly: We downed our beer and left. thief → thieve. etc. sheath → sheathe. down v down v 3. insult.degree. Below are a number of prefixes. rebel. PREFIXATION is the addition of a prefix in front of a base like in pro-life.6. rouse oneself: She upped and left without a word. APPROXIMATE CONVERSION is the process by which ‘a word. from a high(er) point on sth to a lower one: The stone rolled down the hill. pro-market. convict. . may undergo a slight change of pronunciation or spelling …: . recycle. conflict. AFFIXATION is the process by which an affix is added to a base to form a new word.7. including some initial combining forms and initial segments that appropriately belong with them even if by some criteria they are more properly analysed as initial bases in compounds.Shift of stress: when verbs of two syllables are converted into nouns.Voicing of final consonants (noun → verb): advice → advise. the stress is sometimes shifted from the second to the first syllable: conduct.

apolitical. antedate. etc. etc. etc. disambiguate. untie. to’: antibody. maladjusted. etc. etc. decontaminate. unfrock. mismarriage. unhappily. cryptography. ‘before’ (time): antenatal. etc. etc. ‘not’: disloyal. ‘remove from’: unleaded. antifreeze. asexual. mal-formation. counter– meaning ‘in opposition to’: counterespionage. unknown.anti– meaning ‘against’ or ‘opposed anticoagulant. ‘(cause to) depart from’: deplane. mishandle. etc. etc. ‘imitation’: pseudo-Elizabethan. 103 . antacid. anti-abortion. etc. etc. etc. misgovern. un– meaning ‘reverse of ’ or ‘do the opposite of’: unscramble. ante-room. distrust. crypto-Catholic. etc. pseudoscience. delouse. contra-indicate. defrost. disenfranchise. etc. unmask. pseudo-intellectual. contra– meaning ‘against’: contraception. etc. ‘preventing’: antiseptic. ‘not affected by’: amoral. disinvite. crypto– meaning ‘concealed’: crypto-fascist. mis– meaning ‘wrong’: mismanagement. ‘badly’ or ‘wrongly’: mal-function. deselect. unlock. etc. ‘spurious’: anti-hero. asymmetric. contradistinction. anticlimax. pseudo-Gothic. etc. etc. etc. malnutrition. counter-example. misinformation. detrain. dis– meaning ‘reverse of ’ or ‘do the opposite of’: disqualify. etc de– meaning ‘reverse of ’ or ‘do the opposite of’: decriminalize. disarm. ‘contrasting’: contra-flow. disagree. etc. etc. pseudo– meaning ‘false’: pseudo-education. antichrist. ‘remove from’: debug. a– meaning ‘not’: atheist. etc. ‘wrongly’: miscalculate. etc. mal-treat. etc mal– meaning ‘bad’ or ‘wrong’: mal-practice. etc. decamp. ‘remove from’: disillusion. ante– meaning ‘before’ (place): ante-chamber. ‘not’: uninviting.

foreground. sub-pilot. circumnavigate. forefront. etc. ‘middle’ (time): mid-afternoon. ‘excessive’: superconformity. etc. superconfidence. ‘under’ or ‘below’: subway. superterestrial. midway. over-enthusiasm. import. superior. superstar. extrasensory. etc. inter– meaning intra– meaning mid– meaning ‘between’: interratial.circum– meaning extra– meaning fore– meaning ‘around’: circumlocution. etc. retroject. ‘beyond the norm’: superhuman. in– (and also il–. etc. etc. out-patient. subtitle. etc. sub-dean. etc. out– meaning over– meaning ‘out of’ or ‘outside’: outdoor. etc. intra-uterine. etc. superubundant. etc. etc ‘inside’: intramural. ‘excessive’: overemphasis. etc. sub-conscious. indoors. intravenous. retro– meaning sub– meaning ‘backwards’: retroflex. etc. ‘subordinate part (of)’: subcommittee. midwinter. etc. outnumber. etc. 104 . ‘before’ (time): foresee. sublet. in-patient. etc. ‘front part of’ (place): forehead. overcoat. extracurricular. ‘surpass’: outdistance. forecount. ‘secondary’: sub-editor. immigrate. midnight. international. outlook. subzero. substandard. foreskin. super– meaning ‘above’ or ‘over’: superstructure. etc. foreplay. im– and ir–) meaning ‘in’: ingathering. outbid. retrorocket. subsoil. foretell. etc ‘outside’ or ‘beyond’: extramaterial. superimpose. interdiscilinary. ‘below the normal’: subhuman. mid-point. supercritical. etc. ‘from above’ or ‘outer’: overthrow. ‘into’: ingrown. overshadow. etc. etc ‘middle’ (place): midfield. etc. circumcision. supergun. ‘excessively’: supersensitive. etc ‘in front’ (place): forefinger.

‘excessively’ or ‘extremely’: ultramodest.supra– meaning sur– meaning tele– meaning trans– meaning ultra– meaning ‘above’: supranational. ex-colony. underpay. etc ‘chief’: archbishop. underclothes. surcharge. neo-conservative. arch-rival. under– meaning ‘below’: underground. etc ‘medium’: midibus. archangel. etc ‘small’: miniseries. pre-existing. renew. etc. co-presenter. megawatt. etc 105 . etc ‘again’: reprint. pro-vice-chancellor. transsexual. predate. etc ‘across’: transatlantic. ‘subodinate’: under-secretary. etc ‘new’ or ‘reform of’: neo-colonialism. etc. co-founder. surtitle. minibreak. ‘minute’: micro-organism. macro-organism. maximize. etc. etc ‘very large’: megastar. etc ‘joint’: co-author. undercook. ultra-modern. etc. etc ‘after’ (time): post-modernism. television. hypertension. etc ‘above’: surtax. ultrasonic. undercarriage. microgram. minicab. supramundance. micro– meaning microsurgery. midicomputer. etc. etc ‘maximum’: maxiskirt. etc. etc ‘huge and complex’: hypersensitive. ex-president. etc ‘before’ (time): prepay. neo-imperialist. ‘large’: macrocosm. etc ‘former’: ex-wife. etc ‘at a distance’: telecommunication. underclass. preview. megastore. post-structuralist. telephoto. ‘too litle’: under-charge. etc ‘deputy’: proconsul. micro-computer. transnational. etc. macro-economics. maximal. etc ‘beyond’: ultraviolet. microscope. reapply. hypercritical. ultra-thin. macro– meaning mini– meaning midi– meaning maxi– meaning mega– meaning hyper– meaning ex– meaning neo– meaning post– meaning pre– meaning re– meaning arch– meaning co– meaning pro– meaning ‘small’: microtransmitter.

‘two’: bi-focal. [for intransitive verbs from nouns] meaning ‘put oneself into or onto’: enlist. etc. ensure. semi-official. modernize. etc ‘three’: tri-partite. polygraph. etc capitalize. ennoble. 3. etc. vice-chancellor. monoplane. auto-pilot. polytheism. etc. etc ‘two’: duologue. ‘partly’: semiautomatic. embitter. paralegal. SUFFIXATION is the addition of a suffix at the end of a base like in ageism. bilingual. semi-final. classify. ‘half’: hemisphere. etc [for transitive verbs from nouns] meaning ‘put in’: encode. etc ‘two’: dioxide. di-gragh. etc . triennial. bilateral. etc.–ify: –ise. auto– meaning para– meaning ‘self’: auto-graph. unilateral. hemistich. popularize.vice– meaning mono– meaning uni– meaning poly– meaning multi– meaning semi– meaning hemi– meaning bi– meaning di– meaning du(o)– meaning tri– meaning en– (also em–) ‘deputy’: vice-president. endanger. auto-suggestion. etc. enrich. etc ‘many’: multi-faith. multimillionaire. The following list is basically based on Greenbaum [1996: 454-457]: • verb-forming suffixes: –fy. purify. etc. vice-admiral. etc. unidimentional. countrify. [for transitive verbs from adjectives] meaning ‘make’: enlarge. etc. – ize: 106 beautify.7. duplex. marginalize. etc ‘many’: polysyllabic. ‘ancillary’: paramilitary.2. Below are suffixes that continue to be productive in English. etc ‘half’: semi-circle. ‘beyond the scope of’: paranormal. parapsychology. enrol. additive. monorail. paramilitary. etc. multinational. semi-conscious. etc ‘single’ or ‘one’: monotheism. etc ‘one’: unidirectional. [for transitive verbs from nouns] meaning ‘make into’: enslave. etc. terrorize. etc. triangle. personify. embark.2. ensure.

aristocratic.• adjective-forming suffixes: –able. manufacturing. spillage. dramatic. careful. collaboration. etc • suffixes of abstract nouns: –age: –al: –dom: –ery. –ry: –ing: –ism: –ity: –ment: –ness: –ship: postage. surprisingly. dismissal. drawing. favoritism. national. etc funny. technicality. etc brewery. etc betrayal. weaponry. embarrassment. amiably. etc bored. toaster. –ial: –ed: –ing: –ful: –less: –ic: –ish: –like: –y: capital. cultured. edible. etc 107 . willingness. ageism. etc childlike. martyrdom. carelessness. etc –al. publicity. etc idealism. gardening. etc freedom. statementlike. etc socialist. editorship. profitable. resentful. claimant. solvent. charming. scholarship. competition. restless. –xion. managerial. moreish (or morish). feverish. –ation and –ition): confession. etc Arabic. flooring. explosion. choosy. etc powerful. sexist. visible. drainage. etc trainee. –ry: –ing: –ist: informant. interesting. sleepy. etc Swedish. –sion. etc teacher. etc responsibility. officialdom. etc cleaning. summitry. machinery. etc usefulness. Arabic. –ent: –ee: –er: –ery. etc careless. etc arrangement. editorial. harmless. –ible: readable. mortgagee. chemistry. objection. bewilderment. etc • suffixes of concrete nouns: –ant. heavy-handed. absentee. etc clothing. etc snobbery. carer. youngish. etc boring. etc dictatorship. deferral. novelist. etc • the adverb-forming suffix {–ly1}: candidly. godlike. etc –ion (also –tion.

Affixation resembles conversion in that they may change the grammatical potential of a word, but unlike conversion, affixation involves a change of form. 3.2.8. BACK-FORMATION is the process of deriving words by removing what is thought to be a suffix from an existing word. This is just the reverse of the customary process of suffixation. 3.2.8.1. Back-formation applies chiefly to the coining of verbs from nouns: Ex.1: The three verbs emote, enthuse, televise were back-formed from the nouns emotion, enthusiasm and television. Ex.2: The verbs peddle, hawk, stoke, swindle, edit, baby-sit, and team-teach all came into the language as back-formations — of peddler, hawker, stoker, swindler, editor, baby-sitter (or baby-sitting), and team-teacher (or teamteaching). Ex.3: Recent back-formations include the adjective abled from disabled and the verb explete from expletive. 3.2.8.2. Two major sources of backformation are (1) nouns (including compounds nouns) ending in –er/–or/ –ar or –ing, and (2) nouns ending in –tion or –ion. It is not always possible to determine for the first group whether the source is the agent suffix or the –ing suffix. Examples of theses two groups are given below, followed by a miscellaneous group (3): (1a) peddle, hawk, stoke, swindle, burgle, edit, commentate, scavenge, sculpt baby-sit, and team-teach. (1b) air-condition, brainstorm, brainwash, browbeat, dry-clean, househunt, housekeep, sightsee and tape-record. (2) (3) articulate, assassinate, co-educate, legislator, marinate and orate demarcate, emote, intuit,

diagnose (from diagnosis), enthuse (from enthusiasm), laze (from lazy), liaise (from liaison), reminisce (from reminiscence), statistic (from statistics) and televise (from television)

In all the above cases, one form of the words enters the language first, and another form is created afterwards. 3.2.9. COMPOUNDING is the process of combining two or more existing words to form a new one. 3.2.9.1. Compounds contrast with phrases, which consist of two or more words that are grammatically related: a large card, beautiful pictures. 108

3.2.9.2. Compounds are found in all word classes: Nouns: Adjectives: Verbs: Adverbs: Pronouns : Numerals: Prepositions: Semi-auxiliaries: Conjunctions: pop group, whistle-blower, date-rape class-ridden, heart-breaking, homesick cold-shoulder, highlight, babysit good-naturedly, however, nowadays anyone, everything, nobody sixty-three, nine-tenths as for, because of, next to be going to, had better, have got to except that, rather than, whenever

3.2.9.3. Historically, compound verbs are derived chiefly from nouns. They may be derived by conversion, simply a shift in word class from a compound noun without any other change: black-mail, cold-shoulder, daydream. Or they may be derived by back-formation, the removal of a suffix: babysit (from babysitting or babysitter), double-park (from double-parking), shoplift (from shoplifting or shoplifter). 3.2.9.4. New coinages are mainly compound nouns and adjectives. Nouns: heartache, bigwig, highbrow, flatfoot, bedclothes, houseboat, turncoat, footballer, speedometer, teach-in, space-walk, heartburn, son-in-law, sergeant-at-arms, smoke screen, mother-of-pearl, chain-smoker, wastepaperbasket, lighthouse-keeper, man about town, eating apples, spending money, falling stars, laughing gas, etc. Adjectives: up-and-coming, up-to-date, out-of-date, detached, heart-broken, worldly-wise, Afro-Asian, etc. EXERCISES cutting. Then classify each word as: S C-BB C-FB simple; complex with two bound forms as IC’s; complex with one free form as an IC.
EXERCISE 1: Make the first IC cut in the words below which permit such

dim-witted,

semi-

Complete the table given below:

109

1 2

knave knav(e) | –ish

S C-FB

n [C] a dishonest man adj deceitful, dishonest; –ish (adj-forming suffix) = ‘of the nature of’, ‘resembling’ n [C] diagram consisting of a) line or lines (often curved) showing the variation of two quantities; v [Tn] write, record or draw using graphs v [Tn] send a message in printed form; tele– = ‘far’ v [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ∼(with/into sth); ∼ (together); (∼A with B/ ∼A and B) (cause two things to) come together and combine v [I, Ipr] ∼ (from sth) come out or up (from water, etc) e– = out(ward) + merge (from Latin ‘merger’ meaning ‘dip’, ‘sink’, ‘plunge’ or ‘immerge’) n [C] feeble-minded subnormal intelligence man, person with

3

graph

4

telegraph

5

merge

6

emerge

7

moron

v [Tn] say in advance that (sth) will happen; 8 predict pre– = ‘beforehand’ or ‘in advance’; –dict = ‘say’ n [C] person who pays great attention to correctness, especially in the use of language or in the arts; –ist (noun-forming suffix) = ‘a person who…’ 10 11 12 comical carn– | –al sophistic C-BB adj of or concerning a comic; amusing and odd; –al (adj-forming suffix) = ‘of’ or ‘concerning’ adj of the flesh or the body; carn– = flesh adj of or concerning a sophist; –ic (adj-forming suffix) = ‘of’ or ‘concerning’

9

purist

110

misogyn– | –ist 13 /m6‘s4d26n1st/ C-BB mis(o)– = hating or hatred of: misogyn– | –y /m6‘s4d26n1/ n [U] hatred of women. used especially for navigating at sea. misanthropist /m6‘s`n8r6p1st/ n [C] one who hates mankind and avoid human society n [U] refusing or being refused.n [C] one who hates women. especially through representatives whom they elect dem(o)– = ‘of population’. disease. etc in order to show the state of a community –cracy = ‘government or rule of’: technolcracy n [U] control or management of a country’s industrial resources by technical experts. distance. an airport. chron(o)– = ‘of or relating to time’ n [U] system of government by the whole people of a country. electric current. deaths. etc n [C] device that keeps very accurate time.. not by elected representatives 111 14 refusal 19 chronometer 20 democracy . demography /d6‘m49r6f1/ n [U] study of statistics of birth . etc. time. n [C] act of refusing. bureaucracy n [U] system government through departments managed by State officials. en– = ‘make’ v [Tn] measure n [C] device that measures the volume of gas. water. port– = ‘carry’ v [Cnt] make (sb) able to do sth by giving him the necessary authority or means. –al (noun-forming suffix)=‘process or state of ‘ 15 16 17 18 porter enable mete meter n [C] one who carries luggage for payment at a station. ‘of people’: demagogue /‘dem6949/ n [C] political leader who tries to win people’s support by using emotional and often unreasonable arguments.

completely lightless. They bought it in the ‘black .hot ‘dog. (= the way according to which he spends his money) 112 . (= a dog which is hot) He has a dog in the manger attitude.EXERCISE 2: Indicate whether each italicized and underlined expression is a compound (Comp) or a grammatical structure (GS). (= a car with a metal roof) GS This jar has a rather hard top. often with onions and mustard) is not a .hot ‘dog. A ‘hot . She has a .strong ‘hold on him. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Comp 16 GS GS Comp Jim’s car is a hardtop. His spending money was a source of annoyance to his father. A ‘hot . George found his father in trouble. market. The plant in the box is rare.dog (= a hot sausage served in hot bread roll. George found his father-in-law. (= the money spent by him) His spending money was a source of annoyance to his father. She has a ‘stronghold on him. He has a dog in the manger attitude.dog is not a . (= The jar has a top which is rather hard. for these are deceptive. The electricity went off.) It was a jack-in-the-box.market. Pay no attention to hyphens or spaces. and we caught in a black.

make the first IC cut.EXERCISE 3: Classify the following items with these symbols: S Simple C-BB Complex with two bound forms as IC’s C-FB Complex with one free form as an IC Comp Compound GS Grammatical structure With three classes C-BB. and WCp. C-FB. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 C-BB 11 12 13 14 C-FB 15 16 Comp 17 GS 18 19 20 Comp C-FB Comp GS S sharpshooter (one who is killed at a shooting with a gun) a sharp shooter (one who shoots sharply) act react storekeeper (the keeper of a store) Highlander (one who lives in the Highland) apparatus contain recur current unearth referee solve dissolve solvent bull’s eye (the center of a target) the bull’s eye (the eye of the bull) passbook disapproval inaccessible buùll’s | eøye buøll’s | eùye dis– | solve cur(r)– | –ent store | keeper Highland | –er sharp | shooter 113 .

meItr6‘di:/ table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 smog telecast electrocute splatter Amerindian Eurasian newsboy medicare EXERCISE 5: Give the original of each of the following blends. Complete the ← television + broadcast ← splash + spatter the table given below: 1 2 3 114 EXERCISE 6: Give the blends that result from fusing these words.formed. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ad gas taxi cab frat photo gin curio wig ← brassieøre ← turnpike ← Geneva ← cabriolet ← fraternity EXERCISE 4: Give the original words from which these clipped words were 13 memo 14 cello 15 bus 16 coon 17 Phil 18 Joe 19 Tom 20 Al 21 Fred 22 Bert 23 Gene 24 Beth ← maitre d’ hotel /. Alfred or Alvin ← omnibus ← racoon 10 bra 11 brandy 12 pike (road) 25 maitre d’ /. Complete happening + circumstances → automobile + omnibus → escalade + elevator → escalator .meItr6 ‘d6υ tel/ ←Albert.

ti: i: es ‘el/ or /‘tesl/ EFL VIP FIFA NAM /.en e1 ‘em/ Teaching English as a Second Language National Association of Manufacturers they are formed.4 5 blare or blow + spurt → squall+ squeak → squawk the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 UN MC BBC AD BC EXERCISE 7: Pronounce these acronyms and give their originals. Write the words from which ← bootlegger ← resurrection ← advance-registration 10 reminisce 11 orate 12 donate 13 televise ← reminiscence ← oration 115 .ju: ‘en/ United Nations TESL /. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 bootleg typewrite coronate resurrect baby-sit advance-register laze jell escalate EXERCISE 8: These verbs are back-formations. Complete /.

person who is likely to drop things. = knob on a door = cycle powered by a motor = walking in one’s sleep 116 . Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 chessboard flycatcher sunlight daybreak frostbite driftwood popcorn handshake brainwashing (fig) = washing of the brain = bite from frost = board for playing chess on = bird that catches flies for food EXERCISE 9: Indicate the meaning relation between the parts of the 10 match maker 11 mince-meat 12 drinking-water 13 typing-paper 14 sleepwalking 15 sunbather 16 homework 17 workbench 18 motorcycle 19 silkworm 20 sawdust 21 doorknob 22 tape-measure 23 soap-flake 24 cowshed 25 butterfingers = person with butter on his fingers.following English compounds.

long-eared is a derivational compound: it consists of three morphemes: the two free bases ‘long’ and ‘ear’ and one bound morpheme is ‘−ed’ whereas teacup or greenhouse are made up of only two free bases. However. many English words consist of only one morpheme such as doubt. as far as their SPELLING is concerned.’ ANSWER: EXERCISE 12: Comment on the following definition of words: ‘A word is a Generally speaking. scarecrow d. etc. In other words. as far as their PART OF SPEECH is concerned. 117 . ‘long−eared’ is a compound adjective whereas ‘teacup’ and ‘greenhouse’ are two compound nouns. Finally. noisy crow b. irresistible. lion. base morpheme plus derivational prefix 3. base morpheme plus inflectional suffix 5. it is acceptable to define a word as a group of morphemes that have meaning because there are many English words of two or more morphemes: decentralization. Firstly. undoubtedly. this definition of words is not always true. narrow. the crow e. compound noun 2. eat crow c. phrase consisting of adjective plus noun 4. crocodile. crow-like f. A a. as far as their STRUCTURE is concerned. base morpheme plus derivational suffix 6.B that characterizes it. Second. Connecticut. grammatical morpheme followed by lexical morpheme other compounds like teacup or greenhouse? ANSWER: EXERCISE 11: Is long-eared a compound word? How is it different from First. idiom 7. there is a hyphen between the two free bases of the derivational compound ‘long−eared’ while there is no space between those of the common compounds ‘teacup’ and ‘greenhouse’. group of morphemes that have meaning. crows B EXERCISE 10: Match each expression under A with the one statement under 1. it does not hold for all of the words in the English language. etc.

the smoking room (the room in a hotel where smoking is allowed) ‘Smoking room’ is a compound noun just like ‘laughing gas’. the smoking room (the room that is full of smoke) 118 . They blamed Jim for the mess. EXERCISE 13: In the light of compound nouns and noun phrases. Verb: They blamed the mess on Jim. 1b. For example. adjectives or nouns. the function of which is to modify the noun.Secondly. ‘looking glasses’ or ‘spending money’. The prepositions in the above mentioned examples have purely syntactic relational functions: they conjoin verbs. has no specific lexical meaning. This compound noun is modified by the definite article ‘the’. 1a. ANSWER: (1) The firemen burst into the smoking room. (2) He has two French teachers. explain the ambiguity of the following sentences: (1) The firemen burst into the smoking room. ‘eating apples’. that is. They are predictable. not all words in English have lexical meaning. I have my deepest sympathies on the death of your wife. The prepositions are more or less lexically meaningless. Last but not least. Adjective: They’re interested in sports. a number of English prepositions are used without any specific meaning when they are attached to particular verbs. adjectives or nouns to their following objects or complements. Noun: Recently there has been public concern for/ about corruption. they can hardly be replaced by any other prepositions. the definite article the. She’s clever at dealing with critical clients. the meaning we can look up in a dictionary. the noun phrase or the pronoun following it.

(1)a. 2a. EXERCISE 14: Consider the underlined utterances. In (1)b. In (2)b. There was a plant in the box. (2)a. (2) He has two French teachers. He found his father−in−law ANSWER: In (1)a. (1)b. ‘a plant in the box’ is a noun phrase. French teachers (teachers who come from France) ‘French teachers’ is a noun phrase in which the noun head teachers is modified by the adjective of nationality ‘French’.‘The smoking room’ is a noun phrase in which the noun head ‘room’ is modified by the present participle ‘smoking’ and the definite article ‘the’. There was a Jack−in−the−box. Are they of the same value? Explain. 2b. ( his ) ‘father−in−law’ is a compound noun. ( a ) ‘jack−in−the−box’ is a compound noun. The same analysis can be applied to (2)a and (2)b. It is one of the two free bases which are combined together to form a compound noun ‘French teachers’. French teachers (teachers whose subject is French) ‘French’ here is a noun meaning ‘the language spoken by the French’. (2)b. He found his father in trouble. ‘his father in trouble’ is a noun phrase. 119 . In (2)a.

radar: ____________________ 7. how do COMPLEX WORDS ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ words: EXERCISE 18: Name the word formation process of each of the following 1. chunnel: __________________ 8. cantata: __________________ 9. doorknob: ____________________ 2. EXERCISE 17: Why is it said that A WORD COMPOUND is a solid block? EXERCISE 16: As far as structure is concerned. Give appropriate examples to illustrate that. EXERCISE 15: What is CLIPPING? Are CLIPPED WORDS considered as free ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ differ from COMPOUND WORDS. silence v (Tn): ________________ 6. ESL: _____________________ 10.forms? Give examples to illustrate your presentation. telly: _________________________ 3. porter: _______________________ 5. nylon: ________________________ 4. televise: _________________ 120 .

when the two words fall into different categories the class of the second or final word will be the grammatical category of the compound: noun + adjective — headstrong. as shown. sundown. When the two words are in the same grammatical category.EXTRA READING [Fromkin and Rodman. red−hot. with a hyphen or with no separation at all is idiosyncratic. hanger−on. Everyone who wears a red coat is not a Redcoat either. as the following list of compounds shows: −ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE− NOUN− VERB− −NOUN −VERB bittersweet headstrong carryall poorhouse rainbow pickpocket highborn spoonfeed sleepwalk Frigidaire is a compound formed by combining the adjective frigid with the noun air. a blackboard may be green or white. man about town. worldly−wise. watertight. lifelong. in blackbird. adjective + adjective — icy−cold. 1993: 53-55] Compounds New words may be formed by stringing together other words to create compound words. undertake. There is almost no limit on the kinds of combinations that occur in English. the compound will be in this category: noun + noun — girlfriend. Though two-word compounds are the most common in English. for example. mother−of−pearl. master of ceremonies and daughter−in−law. paper clip. daredevil. gold−tail and smoke screen. On the other hand. 121 . downfall. since some compounds are spelled with a space between the two words. pinchpenny. four−dimensional space−time. it would be difficult to state an upper limit: three−time loser. sawbones. uplift. Spelling does not tell us what sequence of words constitutes a compound. landlord. milkman. verb + noun — pickpocket. fighter−bomber. In many cases. Meaning of Compounds One of the interesting things about a compound is that you cannot always tell by the words it contains what the compound means. afterbirth. elevator−operator. The difference between the sentences She has a red coat in her closet and She has a Redcoat in her closet could be highly significant under certain circumstances. The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meaning of its parts. compounds formed with a preposition are in the category of the nonprepositional part of the compound: overtake. sergeant−at−arms.

A jumping bean is a bean that jumps. if you had never heard the word hunchback. the meaning of many compounds must be learned as if they were individual simple words. Fox in Sox. nor does an egghead have an egg-shaped head. Seuss uses the rules of compounding when he explained that ‘when tweetle beetles battle with paddles in a puddle. it might be possible to infer the meaning. But if you had never heard the word flatfoot it is doubtful you would know it was a word meaning ‘detective’ or ‘policeman’. but a looking glass is not a glass that looks. and laughing gas does not laugh. A boathouse is a house for boats. Some of the meanings may be figured out. The morphological rules also are in the grammar. A highbrow does not necessarily have a high brow. the words as well as the morphemes must be listed in our dictionaries. Seuss. A jack−in−a−box is a tropical tree. Therefore. 1965. different grammatical relations are expressed. In all the examples given. Dr. and a magnifying glass is a glass that magnifies. Thus. but a cathouse is not a house for cats. the meaning of each compound includes at least to some extent the meanings of the individual parts. nor is an eating apple an apple that eats. can be figured out. New York: Random House.Other similarly constructed compounds show that underlying the juxtaposition of words.51 122 . they call it ‘a tweetle beetle puddle paddle battle.’1 1 Dr. even though the origin of the word. once you know the meaning. revealing the relations between words and providing the means for forming new words. p. a falling star is a ‘star’ that falls. But there are other compounds that do not seem to relate to the meanings of the individual parts at all. nor does a bigwig have a big wig. and a turncoat is a traitor. but not all. As we pointed out earlier in the discussion of the prefix un−.

6 7 8 9 delivery –y intervene inter–. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 play replay date antedate hygiene weak weaken man manly 1 2 (re– and play) 1 2 (ante– and date) 1 1 2 (weak and –en) 1 2 (man and –ly) 1 EXERCISE 1: Identify the number of the morphemes in each of the given 11 keeper 12 able 13 unable 14 mahogany 15 rain 16 rainy 17 cheap 18 cheaply 19 cheaper 20 honest 2 (keep and –er) 1 2 (un– and able) 1 1 2 (rain and –y) 1 2 (cheap and –ly) 2 (cheap and –er) 1 10 keep Complete the table given below. Complete the table given below. THE EXERCISES OF MORPHEMES words. Complete the table given below. –vene revise dreamed re–.ANSWER KEYS UNIT ONE: MORPHEMES A. 1 2 3 4 5 speaker kingdom phonemic idolize selective –er –dom –ic –ize –ive EXERCISE 2: Identify the bound morpheme(s) in of each of the given words. 1 2 3 4 5 womanly endear failure famous infamous 6 7 8 9 lighten enlighten friendship befriend 11 unlikely 12 prewar 13 subway 14 falsify 15 unenlivened 123 10 Bostonian . –vise –ed un– 10 undone EXERCISE 3: Underline the base in each the given words.

mortal and immortal corporation. tenable. oration. tenacious pendulum. pendant and impending The bound base pend– means ‘hang’. aquarium. The suffix –est means ‘most’. Complete the table given below. The bound base aqua– means ‘water’. 10 maltreat EXERCISE 5: Identify the meaning of the bound base in the given sets of words. .EXERCISE 4: Identify the meaning of the affix in each of the given words. Complete the table given below. The suffix –er means ‘a person who…’. The bound base mor(t)– means ‘death’ or ‘dead’. moribund. audition and auditorium suicide. patricide. corps and corpse The bound base audi– means ‘hear’. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 antedate replay manly keeper unable rainy cheapest subway import The prefix ante– means ‘before’. tenure and The bound base ten– means ‘hold’. corporeal. The bound base ora– means ‘mouth’ or ‘speak’. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 124 audience. matricide and infanticide oral. The prefix un– means ‘not’. The prefix im– means ‘in(to)’. The suffix –ly means ‘like’ or ‘having the characteristic(s) of’. aquatic and aquaduct mortuary. The prefix mal– means ‘badly’ or ‘wrongly’. The prefix sub– means ‘under’. The bound base corp– means ‘body’. The prefix re– means ‘again’. The suffix –y means ‘having’ or ‘marked by’. The bound base –cide means ‘killing’. audible. oracle and oratory aquaplane. suspender. orate. tenant.

and projectile EXERCISE 6: Identify the meaning of the bound base in each of the given words and then give as many words with the same bound base as you can. Complete the table given below. progress. abrupt. inspection. deposition. ‘place’ proposition. (audio-)visual. supervise. 1 2 revise –vise = ‘see’ devise. erupt. report. corrupt. progression. prospect. convene. convenor. visible. deposit. etc. manual and manicure The bound base man– means ‘hand’. deport. prospectus. (in)corruptible. superimpose. visionary. intervening. prospector. imposition. contradiction. dictation. rod– = ‘gnaw’ –port = ‘carry’ erode. transport. inspector. etc. eruption. propose. imposing. position(al). intervention. abruptly. occur. depository. etc. deposition. contravene. progressive. currently. contradictory. etc 8 9 rodent portable 10 rupture rupt– = ‘break’ 125 . manacle. depositor. etc. erosion. regression. prospective. etc. currency. porter. perspective. visibility. occurrence. inject. regressive. support. diction. portage. erosive. contradict. reject The bound base ject– means ‘throw’ or ‘shoot’. regress. etc. comport. inject. etc. interventionist. contradict –dict = ‘say’ 3 4 regress intervene –gress = ‘go’ –vene = ‘come’ 5 6 recur inspect –cur = ‘run’ –spect = ‘look’ 7 oppose –pose = ‘put’ or depose. import. spectacles. imposingly. dictate.9 10 manuscript. eject. dictum. dictator. abruptness. export. impose. etc. portability. etc. (tele)vision. contradictorily. supervene. proposal. (in)corruptibility. current. inspectorate.

−ity. B.11 annual 12 bigamy ann– = ‘year’ –gam(y) = ‘marriage’ annual. −er. polygamist. anniversary. −est −ible. −ed −ly. −es personalities flirtatiously atomizers contradictorily trusteeship greasier countrified friendliest responsibilities . −ous. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 126 organists Complete the table given below. annuity. −er −fy. UNIT TWO: DERIVATION AND INFLECTION Identify all the possible the suffixes in each of the given EXERCISE 2: words. etc. EXERCISE 9: Identify the allomorphs of the inflectional verb past simple morpheme {−D1} in the verb be. −es −ation. polygamous. How are they conditioned? The verb be conjugated in the past simple has two morphologically conditioned suppletive allomorphs: was /w4z/ and were /w3:/: • • was /w6z/ occurs with the first person and the third person singular. etc. annuitant. Therefore. they are two allomorphs of the same morpheme. 2 suffixes 3 suffixes 3 suffixes 3 suffixes 2 suffixes 2 suffixes 2 suffixes 2 suffixes 2 suffixes 3 suffixes −ist. annually. bigamous. bigamously. polygamy. −s −al. bigamist. −ly −ee. they are in complementary distribution: ‘a’ occurs before consonants and ‘an’ occurs before vowels. ‘A’ and ‘an’ have the same meaning: ‘one’. −ity. −ship −y. were /w3:/ occurs with the first person and the third person plural and the second person both plural and singular. −ly −ize. THE EXERCISES OF ALLOMORPHS EXERCISE 8: Explain why ‘a’ and ‘an’ are allomorphs of the same morpheme. −s −ory.

decode de− = ‘remove’ dehorn. inspiring. illiberal. irrespective. deice. contraceptive. circumference. dehumanize. debase.EXERCISE 3: Identify the meaning of the prefix in each of the given words and then give as many words with the same prefix as you can. deflower. circumlocution. antipersonnel antihero circum-navigate. immeasurable. im− = ‘in’ or ‘on’ inspiration. inefficient. 127 . deforest degrade. contra-flow. illiterate. im−. col−. inspect. cor− = ‘with’ anti-aircraft. circumspect co-curriculum. inorganic. irreducible 11 inspire in−. defrost. decline. convoke correlate contravene. denationalize. disarm dishonest. coordinate collide. deform. irreplaceable. Complete the table given below. imbecile illegal. inspired. con−. irrelevant. collision. antibody. impossible. de− = ‘reduce’: dis− = ‘opposite’ or ‘absence of’ dis− = ‘not’ 10 illegible irreverent il−. ir− = ‘not’ immature. dissatisfy incompetent. 1 2 antidote circumvent co-pilot 3 collaborate compact convene corrode 4 contradict contra− = ‘against’ de− = anti− = ‘against’ circum− = ‘around’ co−. discount. illicit. inspirational. illegitimate irregular. decentralize. contra-indicative. impolite. install. co-operate. contra-indication. contra-distinction 5 6 7 8 9 devitalized delouse devalue disunion disagreeable insecure imperfect deactivate. decrease disappear. collect comply consonant. infertile. insensible in−. ‘do the opposite of’ decolonize. imbalance. illogical. com−.

14 oppose ob−. oppression. subnormal.imbile inscribe imbue. obstrude. intercede. obstructive. intra-uterine (device) obstruction. submerge. supernatural. obstrusive(ly). retrograde. prospect. project(ile). postgraduate. postscript.= ‘backwards’ semi− = ‘half’ or ‘partly’ sub− = ‘under’ or ‘below the normal’ super− = ‘over’ or ‘beyond the norm’ 20 21 superabundant 128 . prolapse retroflex. opposition. retrospect semi-soft. intravenous(ly). post-mortem. obstacle. subordinate. obstrusion. international. proposal. precaution(ary) posterior. retrogress. predict. supervise. semi-final submarine. interchange intrastate. preclude. opponent. propose. subsoil. superstar. semicircle. post−date progress. profession. superhuman. impalement 12 13 intervene intramural obstruct inter− = ‘between’ intra− = ‘within’ interstate. oppressive(ly) prenatal. semicolon. subordinate. substandard supervene. retro-rocket. oppressed. superficial. opposed. subdivide. object(ion). impale. superior. impalpable. op− = ‘against’ or ‘opposite’ 15 16 17 18 19 pre-war post-war proceed retroactive semiprofessional subway pre− = ‘before’ post− = ‘after’ pro− = ‘forwards’ retro. preconceive. obstinate obstrusiveness. etc. preamble. interbreed. semidetached. pre-arrange. oppress. predispose. supermarket. intramuscular. prologue. semi-conscious. interact.

−ster. unskilled. unlock. −some. termin− −er. unshrinking. −age. −al −ly. −ize province. −most. unfair. −able −dom. work. unjust. Make each into livened (sb/ sth) up = caused sb/ sth to become lively terminating = coming or bringing sth to an end moralizers = ones who talk or write critically about right or wrong behaviour provincialisms = provincial acts or manners gruesomely = frightful. etc. gang EXERCISE 4: Each group contains a base and a few suffixes. affect EXERCISE 5: Add a derivational suffix to each of these words. which already end in a derivational suffix. −s. in a horrid and disgusted way of life workability = ability to work innermost = inmost = most inward marriageability = state of being old enough to marry or being suitable enough for marriage gangsterdom = group of gangsters affectionately = in a loving or affectionate way 10 −ly. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 −ed. unscientific. unavoidable. −able in. 1 2 3 4 5 expression + −ism = expressionism formal + −ly = formally. unfold. −en −ing. undress.22 unlikely un− = ‘not’ un− = ‘do the opposite of’ untrue. grue −ity. mor. live. −ate. formal + −ity = formality organize + −ation = organization reasonable + −ness = reasonableness purist + −ic = puristic 129 . Complete the table given below. unfit. untie. −s. unrelieved. Complete the table given below. unkind. −ism. uncurl. −al. unfreeze 23 undress a word. −ity. −ate. −tion. −er marry.

pl. 1 2 3 4 5 sin kind live transport audience sinful. liveliness. sinfulness. pl. transportation. Give all the words in the derivational paradigm. Complete the table given below. like ‘manhunt’ or ‘manpower’.. kindliness.EXERCISE 6: Add an inflectional suffix to each of these words. sinlessness. Do not include words with two bases. popularize + −ed = popularized. popularize + −ing = popularizing depth + −s = depths (n. or words with their bases 130 . audial. unlively.. pl. sinless. transportational audible. extinguish + −ed = extinguished. pl. transportability. kindness lively. liven. extinguish + −ing = extinguishing orientate + −es = orientates.) popularize + −es = popularizes. which already end in a derivational suffix. auditory. Complete the table given below. aliveness.) beautify + −es = beautifies. beautify + −ed = beautified.) extinguish + −es = extinguishes. unliveliness transportable. sinner kindly. transporter. friendly + −est = friendliest noisy + −er = noisier. audibly. noisy + −est = noisiest italicized. audition.. kindlessness. unlive. livelihood. orientate + −ed = orientated orientate + −ing = orientating friendly + −er = friendlier.. alive. kindless. beautify + −ing = beautifying quarterly + −es = quarterlies (n. enliven. auditorium EXERCISE 7: You are given here five bases. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 kindness + −es = kindnesses (n.) pressure + −s = pressures (n.

active UNIT THREE: Derived Words happiness friendship girlhood composure. discover 7. can be further divided into two morphemes: the free base ‘love’ and the suffix ‘–able’. composition shrinkage discovery Noun-forming Derivational Suffixes 1. –ness 5. pagan 10. girl 4. activity. make as many nouns as you can. friend 3. or act of’. –ment 12. By combining these suffixes with the words listed. condition. –acy 9. –ation/ –ition activeness. When the negative prefix un– is stripped away. –hood 8. truism paganism 7. Support the division you think is correct: (a) unlovable and (b) reappearance. the remainder ‘lovable’ is an adjective meaning able to be loved. happy 2. –ure 11. –ance/ –ence 2. activism IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENTS IN MORPHOLOGY EXERCISE 2: Give the IC divisions of each of the following words. activation.EXERCISE 8: The left-hand column contains ten words. –ism 4. compose 5. Fill in the given blanks. This construction. –ity 10. The right-hand column contains thirteen derivational suffixes used to make nouns and having the general meanings of ‘state. in turn. Words 1. shrink 6. which is a verb –able : the derivational class-changing adjective-forming suffix un– lov(e) –able is the only correct way to analyse this word. supreme 8. –ship supremeness. supremacy truth. quality. –th 3. true 9. un– lov(e) –able 131 . –age 6. ANSWER: a) ‘Unlovable’ is made up of: un– love : the derivational class-maintaining negative prefix : the free base. –y 13.

Then classify each word as: S simple. This division suggests the meaning ‘the act of appearing again’. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 knave knave | –ish graph tele– | graph merge e– | merge moron pre– | –dict pur(e) | –ist S C-FB S C-FB S C-FB S C-BB C-FB C-FB 11 carn– | –al 12 sophist | –ic EXERCISE 1: Make the first IC cut in the words below which permit such C-BB C-FB C-BB C-FB C-BB C-FB S C-FB C-FB C-BB 13 misogyn– | –ist 14 refus(e) | –al 15 port– | –er 16 en– | able 17 mete 18 met(e) | –er 19 chrono–| meter 20 demo– |–cracy 10 comic | –al 132 . not nouns. C-FB complex with one free form as an IC.is an unacceptable IC division because ‘unlove’ is not a free form in English. UNIT FOUR: WORDS cutting. re– appear –ance is an incorrect IC division because the prefix re– is added to English verbs. b) ‘Reappearrance’ is made up of: re– : the derivational class-maintaining prefix meaning ‘again’ appear : the free base. which is a verb –ance : derivational class-changing noun-forming suffix is the correct IC division because it follows the morphological rule: re– + verb = verb again re– appear –ance Then. C-BB complex with two bound forms as IC’s. –ance is added to the verb reappear to form a noun.

(= a toy in the form of a box with a figure inside that springs up when the lid is opened) The plant in the box is rare. (= support) George found his father-in-law. His spending money was a source of annoyance to his father.dog is not a . (= a car with a metal roof) This jar has a rather hard top.) It was a jack-in-the-box. for these are deceptive. (= the way according to which he spends his money) 10 Comp 11 Comp 12 GS 13 Comp 14 GS 15 Comp 16 GS 133 . (= The jar has a top which is rather hard. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Comp GS Comp GS Comp GS Comp GS GS Jim’s car is a hardtop. (= the money spent by him) His spending money was a source of annoyance to his father.dog is not a . They bought it on the ‘black .market. (= a hold which is strong) She has a ‘stronghold on him.EXERCISE 2: Indicate whether each italicized and underlined expression is compound (Comp) or a grammatical structure (GS).hot ‘dog. A ‘hot .strong ‘hold on him. often with onions and mustard) A ‘hot . The electricity went off. (= a hot sausage served in hot bread roll. Pay no attention to hyphens or spaces. (= an annoying attitude) She has a . (= a dog which is hot) He has a dog in the manger attitude.hot ‘dog. and we caught in a black. completely lightless. market. (= a person who stops others enjoy something he cannot use or does not want) He has a dog in the manger attitude. George found his father in trouble.

make the first IC cut. and Comp.EXERCISE 3: Classify the following items with these symbols: S Simple C-BB Complex with two bound forms as IC’s C-FB Complex with one free form as an IC Comp Compound GS Grammatical structure With three classes C-BB. C-FB. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Comp GS S C-FB Comp C-FB S C-BB C-BB sharpshooter one who is killed at a shooting with a gun) a sharp shooter (one who shoots sharply) act react storekeeper (the keeper of a store) Highlander (one who lives in the Highland) apparatus contain recur current unearth referee (= a person to whom all the footballers refer) solve dissolve solvent bull’s eye (the center of a target) the bull’s eye (the eye of the bull) dis– | solve solv(e) | –ent bull’s | eye con– | –tain re– | –cur cur(r)– | –ent un– | earth refer | –ee re– | act store | keeper Highland | –er sharp | shooter 10 C-BB 11 C-FB 12 C-FB 13 S 14 C-FB 15 C-FB 16 Comp 17 GS 134 .

meItr6‘di:/ table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 smog telecast electrocute splatter Amerindian Eurasian newsboy medicare ← maitre d’ hotel /. Alfred or Alvin ← Frederick ← Albert ← Eugene ← Elizabeth 10 bra 11 brandy 12 pike (road) 25 maitre d’ /. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ad gas taxi cab frat photo gin curio wig ← advertisement ← gasoline ← taximeter ← cabriolet ← fraternity ← photograph ← Geneva ← curiosity ← periwig ← brassieøre ← brandy wine ← turnpike EXERCISE 4: Give the original words from which these clipped words were 13 memo ← memorandum 14 cello 15 bus 16 coon 17 Phil 18 Joe 19 Tom 20 Al 21 Fred 22 Bert 23 Gene 24 Beth ← violoncello ← omnibus ← racoon ← Philip ← Joseph ← Thomas ←Albert.18 Comp 19 C-FB 20 C-FB passbook disapproval inaccessible pass | book disapprove | –al in– | accessible formed.meItr6 ‘d6υ tel/ EXERCISE 5: Give the original of each of the following blends. Complete the ← smoke + fog ← television + broadcast ← electricity + execute ← splash + spatter ← American + Indian ← European + Asian ← newspaper boy ← medical care 135 .

e1 ‘di:/ /. Write the words from which they are formed.ju: ‘en/ /.ti: i: es ‘el/ or /‘tesl/ /.bi: ‘si:/ /.EXERCISE 6: Give the blends that result from fusing these words.en e1 ‘em/ United Nations Master of Ceremonies British Broadcasting Corporation (from Latin ‘anno domini’) in the year of Our Lord. of the Christian era before Christ Teaching English as a Second Language English as a Foreign Language very important person Federation of International Football Associations National Association of Manufacturers 10 NAM EXERCISE 8: These verbs are back-formations.bi: bi: ‘si:/ /. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 UN MC BBC AD BC TESL EFL VIP FIFA /.vi: a1 ‘pi:/ /‘fi: f6/ /.i: ef ‘el/ /. Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 136 bootleg typewrite coronate resurrect baby-sit ← bootlegger ← typewriter ← coronation ← resurrection ← baby-sitter . Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 happening + circumstances → automobile + omnibus → escalade + elevator → blare or blow + spurt → squall+ squeak → EXERCISE 7: happenstances autobus escalator blurt squawk Pronounce these acronyms and give their originals.em ‘si:/ /.

Complete the table given below: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 chessboard flycatcher sunlight daybreak frostbite driftwood popcorn handshake = board for playing chess on = bird that catches flies for food = light given by the sun = break of the day = bite from frost = wood that drifts = corn that has popped = shake by the hand = one who makes matches = meat that has been minced = water for drinking = paper for typing on = walking in one’s sleep = one who bathes in the sun = work done at home = bench for working at = cycle powered by a motor = worm that produces silk = dust produced by sawing = knob on a door 137 brainwashing (fig) = washing of the brain 10 match maker 11 mince-meat 12 drinking-water 13 typing-paper 14 sleepwalking 15 sunbather 16 homework 17 workbench 18 motorcycle 19 silkworm 20 sawdust 21 doorknob .6 7 8 9 advance-register laze jell escalate ← advance-registration ← lazy ← jelly ← escalator ← reminiscence ← oration ← donation ← television 10 reminisce 11 orate 12 donate 13 televise EXERCISE 9: Indicate the meaning relation between the parts of the following English compound words.

forms? Give examples to illustrate your presentation. preclude. extract. For example. terminate. matricide. f ⇔ 4: ‘Crows’ consist of ‘a base morpheme’ and ‘an inflectional suffix’.’ differ from COMPOUND WORDS.22 tape-measure 23 soap-flake 24 cowshed 25 butterfingers = tape used for measuring = flake of soap = shed for cow = person with butter on his fingers. Complex words–BB (bound base) have a bound morpheme for each IC: televise. ‘I saw an interesting help-wanted ad in Youth yesterday. 138 . ANSWER: COMPLEX WORDS contain at least one bound morpheme as an immediate EXERCISE 16: As far as structure is concerned. flu. etc. e ⇔ 5: ‘crow-like’ consist of ‘a base morpheme’ and ‘a derivational suffix’. In English. fanatic → fan. rupture. deepen. uncertain. clipped words are considered as free forms: they can occur on their own right. rebirth. Give appropriate examples to illustrate that. rainy. etc.’ or ‘There is nothing beer left in the fridge. or at the beginning of a word: or at both ends of a word: influenza → omnibus → bus. disappear. person who is likely to drop things. B that characterizes it. b ⇔ 6: ‘Eat crow’ is ‘an idiom’. d ⇔ 7: ‘The crow’ is made up of ‘a grammatical morpheme’ followed by ‘a lexical morpheme’. They fall into two subclasses: Complex words–FB (free-base) have one free morpheme as an IC: lioness. ANSWER: EXERCISE 15: What is CLIPPING? Are CLIPPED WORDS considered as free Clipping is the removal of a small bit either at the end of a word: advertisement → advert / ad. how do COMPLEX WORDS constituent (an IC). somniferous. c ⇔ 1: ‘Scarecrow’ is ‘a compound noun’. airplane → plane. refrigerator → fridge. EXERCISE 10: Match each expression under A with the one statement under a ⇔ 3: ‘Noisy crow’ is ‘a phrase consisting of adjective plus noun’.

silence (v. She has a sweet. mother-in-law. EXERCISE 17: Why is it said that A WORD COMPOUND is a solid block? ANSWER: Compound words are considered as solid blocks because they cannot be divided by the insertion of any other elements: the compound word ‘sweetheart’ is indivisible: you cannot insert anything between ‘sweet’ and ‘heart’. doorknob: compounding 2. grammatical structures can be so divided: She has a sweet heart. smoke screen. telly: clipping 3. chunnel: blending 8. porter: suffixation 5. ESL: acronymy 10. (a noun phrase) She has a sweeter heart than her sister. televise: back-formation 139 . desk-lamp(s).COMPOUND WORDS have at least two free bases (free morphemes) with or without bound morphemes: high-born. etc. EXERCISE 18: Name the word formation process of each of the following words: 1. (a compound noun) *She is a sweeterheart. *She is a sweetkindheart.): conversion 6. She is a sweetheart. worldly-wise. northeast. She has a very sweet heart. kind heart. On the contrary. ill-treat(ed). radar: acronymy 7. nylon: coinage 4. cantata: borrowing 9.

Fifth Edition. Jackson. I. Lyons. Sapir. (1969) Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. 4. N. J. 8. 3. London. Longman. and Weber. J. R. Greenbaum. 140 . H. (1993) An Introduction to Language. 6. (1996) The Oxford English Grammar. 7. Arnold. Pergamon Institute of English. S. 5. (1965) An Introductory English Grammar. H. (1935) Language. J. et al (1973) A University Grammar of English. Stageberg. Fromkin. V. 10. Richards. L. R. Inc. Rinehart and Winston. and Rodman. Holt. E. Longman Group Ltd. V. Platt. Bloomfield. (1986) The English Word. (1980) Analyzing English. 9. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. (1987) Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. London. (1925) Language − An Introduction to the Study of Speech. Oxford University Press. C. Cambridge University Press.. Quirk.BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. 2. Moscow.

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