30 views

Uploaded by Roberto Armenta

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- A Finslerian Unification Theory of Gravity, Electrodynamics, and Chromodynamics
- Physical Time and Space In General Relativity
- Engineering_and_Chemical_Thermodynamics.pdf
- B Sc_physics.pdf
- B.Ed. 2011
- 1.9 Simple Harmonic Motion
- CTS Mock Test 01A
- Book_Relativity_Henri_Poincare_and_relativity_theory.pdf
- Final 2006 Sol
- Orthophysics Fluctuation Rythm
- Hyperfast Interstellar Travel in General Relativity
- MIT Dynamics
- New Energy Formula Waiting on Funding for Discovery
- Steve Bryson- Virtual Spacetime: An Environment for the Visualization of Curved Spacetimes via Geodesic Flows
- Newton's Laws of Motion - From asif
- Stephen
- A_many-sorted_approach_to_the_Special_Th.pdf
- Review_midterm 1 (1)
- Foundation_ATR_ENG
- correction and dimensional expansion of relativity.pdf

You are on page 1of 3

Minoru Harada

Abstract

A grave conflicting aspect is uncovered for the conventional wisdom in relativity

theory regarding space-time units. No account has ever been taken of the undeni-

able fact that these units are contingent on nature, resulting in the present con-

vention in which the same space-time units are used in all reference frames. This

convention runs counter to Einstein’s denunciation of an absolute space and an

absolute time propounded by Newton. This conflict can be resolved only by our

recent proposal [Phys. Essays 11, 521 (1998); 12, 368 (1999)] for introducing

separate space-time units for each reference frame.

The most conspicuous consequence of Einstein’s In the present paper we take issue with the conven-

theory of relativity is that length and time are tion for the space-time units as usually adopted in

dependent on reference frames, which denies the relativity theory with an eye to eliminating the inconsis-

notion of an absolute space and an absolute time, as tency just mentioned. In the conventional wisdom these

was expounded by Newton. The familiar phenomena units are regarded as theoretical constructs just like

of time dilation and the Lorentz contraction are mathematical definitions. Thus no account is taken here

associated with this feature. To be more specific, the of the fact that space-time units are contingent on

spatial extension of an object and the temporal nature. For example, time units were once defined by

duration of a phenomenon take different numerical using the rotation of Earth, and nowadays they are

values depending on reference frames. As a matter of more reliably defined by utilizing the cesium atom.

course, these values are expressed in the same units in Similarly, length units were based on the meridian of

all reference frames. Moreover it is taken for granted Earth, although the present-day definition rests on

that the alteration in these numerical values represents light in addition to the cesium atom.

real physical changes, as evidenced by the apparent These circumstances clearly indicate that space-

dilation of the traveling muon’s lifetime. time units are physical quantities, implying that the

This interpretation further leads to the asymmetric use of the same length and time units in all reference

aging of twins who move relative to each other, frames is tantamount to the introduction of hypotheti-

which is believed to resolve the twin paradox. cal entities that are not subject to relativity theory.

It is noted, however, that the well-known flying- This is because space-time units can only be defined

clock experiment by Hafele and Keating(1) does not on the basis of physical entities, which are governed

provide any empirical verification of this asymmetric by relativity theory.

aging because it was recently revealed by Kelly(2) that In fact, Einstein once said,(3) “The idea of the

the results of this experiment were fabricated. measuring rod and the idea of the clock coordinated

It should also be noted that there is an indisputable with it in the theory of relativity do not find their

inconsistency in the traditional interpretation of time exact correspondence in the real world.” In other

dilation. According to this interpretation, the above- words, Einstein maintained the relativity of space and

mentioned asymmetric aging is solely due to the time measures, though he used the same name for

acceleration experienced by the traveling twin, with their units. For example, 3 “seconds” in the expres-

the relative motion at constant speed playing no role. sion of a law of nature in a stationary reference frame

In the problem of the muon’s lifetime, however, no might be called 2 “seconds” in the expression of the

acceleration is involved and the dilated lifetime is same law in a frame that is in motion relative to the

alleged to be a consequence of constant relative stationary one. The units here go by the same name of

motion, contrary to the case of the twin paradox. “seconds” in both cases.

26

Minoru Harada

This type of absolutism, however, is essentially the tion, thus eradicating all paradoxes in relativity

same as Newton’s idea of an absolute space and an theory, as elucidated in Refs. 5 and 6.

absolute time in that space-time units entail physical This result is only natural from our viewpoint,

entities defining these units. initiated by Sachs,(7,8) that the Lorentz transformations

On second thought, Einstein later said,(4) “... strictly simply induce the scale change of spatial or temporal

speaking, measuring rods and clocks would have to measure and have nothing to do with physical

be represented as solutions of the basic equations changes. This viewpoint is no more than the embodi-

(objects consisting of moving atomic configurations), ment of the principle of covariance, which is the basic

not, as it were, as theoretically self-sufficient entities.” premise of relativity theory.

Apparently, Einstein was on the horns of a dilemma This principle signifies that space-time transforma-

because the absolutism of space-time units collides tions are only descriptive, kinematic relations,

with the nature-contingency of the measuring rod and prescribing the rules for translating the language

the clock as implied by the latter statement. parameters from one reference frame to another so as

Strangely enough, however, Einstein did not pursue to preserve the objectivity of the expressions of the

this problem and left it as an open question: “If one laws of nature.(9)

did not wish to forego a physical interpretation of the It is noted that the separate units for each reference

coordinates in general, ... it was better to permit such frame do not imply the nonuniversality of the intrinsic

inconsistency — with the obligation, however, of properties of physical entities. The altered units only

eliminating it at a later stage of the theory.”(4) represent changes in the description of invariable

In our view, what underlies the problem perceived physical entities, depending on the reference frame.

by Einstein is the unproved assumption that space- Equations (1) and (2) have much analogy to the

time units are independent of reference frames. This exchange rate relation in economics, such as 1 U.S.

observation thus points to the need to introduce dollar = 1.5 Canadian dollars. No Americans think

separate units of length and time for each reference that they gain money by visiting Canada thanks to the

frame, as we have done in Refs. 5 and 6. relation 1 < 1.5. The same applies to the case of the

Specifically, we have introduced two types of meter muon’s lifetime. The alleged dilated lifetime for the

and second as defined by traveling muon is a consequence of the neglect of the

fact that the lifetime is expressed in different units in

2

1 the traveling and stationary systems; the “second”

2

v appearing in the proper lifetime as quoted by the

1 m-at-rest = 1 − m-in-motion, (1) stationary observer should be taken as the second-in-

c

motion, and the “second” used for the observed

lifetime in the stationary system should be taken as

1 the second-at-rest.

v

2 2 In summary, we have shown that the logical inconsis-

1 s-at-rest = 1 − s-in-motion. (2) tency hiding out in the present convention for space-

c

time units in relativity theory can only be eliminated by

our recent proposal(5,6) to introduce separate units of

In (1) “m-at-rest” refers to the meter to be used for length and time for each reference frame.

objects in a stationary reference frame and “m-in-

motion” refers to the meter to be applied to moving Acknowledgments

objects, when viewed from the standpoint of the I wish to dedicate this paper to my friend and

stationary observer. v is the speed of the moving colleague Mendel Sachs, who introduced me to his

reference frame and c is the speed of light. Equation (2) unparalleled but authentic philosophy of relativity,

has a similar meaning, with “s” representing second. which lies at the core of the present discussion. I first

As shown in Refs. 5 and 6, these formulas were became aware of Einstein’s statements as quoted here

derived by using the Lorentz transformations, by reading Sachs’s writings (Ref. 9). I am much

implementing our observation that space and time indebted to him for calling my attention to Ref. 9 and

units are contingent on nature. for helping me to improve the paper. He also

The salient feature of the new convention for space- translated the abstract into French for me.

time units is that it signifies that no physical changes

are involved in time dilation or the Lorentz contrac- Received 10 April 2001.

27

Einstein and Space-Time Units

Résumé

Un aspect grave et contradictoire est découvert concernant la sagesse conven-

tionnelle de la théorie de la relativité, relativement aux éléments de l’espace-

temps. Aucun compte n’a déjà été rendu du fait indéniable que ces éléments sont

contingents de la nature, résultant dans la convention actuelle d’où les mêmes

unités d’espace-temps sont utilisées dans tous les cadres de références. Cette

convention est opposée à la dénonciation d’Einstein d’un espace absolu ainsi que

de temps absolu tels que soutenue par Newton. Cette contradiction ne peut être

résoute que par notre proposition récente [Phys. Essays 11, 521 (1998); 12, 368

(1999)] pour l’introduction d’unités d’espace-temps séparées pour chaque cadre

de référence.

1. J.C. Hafele and R.E. Keating, Science 177, 166, Salle, IL, 1988), Chap. 9. Also see the Japanese

168 (1972). translation by M. Harada and K. Sugimoto (Ma-

2. A.G. Kelly, Phys. Essays 13, 616 (2000). ruzen, Tokyo, 1991).

3. A. Einstein, Sidelights of Relativity (Dover, New 8. M. Sachs, Relativity in Our Time (Taylor &

York, 1983), p. 35. Francis, London, 1993), Chaps. 10 and 11. Also

4. P.A. Schilpp (editor), Albert Einstein — Philoso- see the Japanese translation by M. Harada (Nip-

pher-Scientist (Open Court, La Salle, IL, 1949). pon-Hyoronsha, Tokyo, 1998).

5. M. Harada and M. Sachs, Phys. Essays 11, 521 9. M. Sachs, Found. Phys. 15, 977 (1985); Relativ-

(1998). ity in Our Time (Taylor & Francis, London,

6. M. Harada, Phys. Essays 12, 368 (1999). 1993), pp. 77–78.

Minoru Harada

Institute of Liberal Arts

Otaru University of Commerce, Otaru

Hokkaido 047-8501 Japan

e-mail: mharada@res.otaru-uc.ac.jp

28

- A Finslerian Unification Theory of Gravity, Electrodynamics, and ChromodynamicsUploaded byindranu_suhendro
- Physical Time and Space In General RelativityUploaded byDr Abhas Mitra
- Engineering_and_Chemical_Thermodynamics.pdfUploaded byFaisal Mumtaz
- B Sc_physics.pdfUploaded byarunscribd20
- B.Ed. 2011Uploaded bySrini Kumar
- 1.9 Simple Harmonic MotionUploaded byeltytan
- CTS Mock Test 01AUploaded byRajesh Veerabadran
- Book_Relativity_Henri_Poincare_and_relativity_theory.pdfUploaded byAndre Richardson
- Final 2006 SolUploaded bymichael pasqui
- Orthophysics Fluctuation RythmUploaded byBal Mariy
- Hyperfast Interstellar Travel in General RelativityUploaded bystandauffish
- MIT DynamicsUploaded byHaridev Moorthy
- New Energy Formula Waiting on Funding for DiscoveryUploaded byJoe Nahhas
- Steve Bryson- Virtual Spacetime: An Environment for the Visualization of Curved Spacetimes via Geodesic FlowsUploaded byUtnyu
- Newton's Laws of Motion - From asifUploaded byaqeeel777
- StephenUploaded byshamsul amin
- A_many-sorted_approach_to_the_Special_Th.pdfUploaded byEstimo
- Review_midterm 1 (1)Uploaded byZain Baqar
- Foundation_ATR_ENGUploaded byRobert Nazaryan
- correction and dimensional expansion of relativity.pdfUploaded byidachem
- Albert EinsteinUploaded byDumitra Cristian Constantin
- Newtonian and Post NewtonianUploaded byHarry Konnect
- 14-16Uploaded bycroeuheo
- Using Multiple Rotating Reference FramesUploaded bymohammadhojjati
- Acuña, P. (2014) - On the Empirical Equivalence Between Special Relativity and Lorentzs Ether TheoryUploaded byCarolina A. Vega Muñoz
- On the Dynamics of the Theory of Relativity - Wikisource, The Free Online LibraryUploaded byBenitoGaldos
- Higher Spin phase transitionUploaded byRudranil Basu
- 0902.2498v2[1]Uploaded byBayer Mitrovic
- Important Concepts 08Uploaded bySveti Jeronim
- lincolnlessonplan02Uploaded byapi-405196113

- Complex Analysis - George Cain (Title Page and Table of Contents)Uploaded byRoberto Armenta
- General RelativityUploaded byRoberto Armenta
- Argument PrincipleUploaded byhyd arnes
- Taylor and Laurent SeriesUploaded byhyd arnes
- Complex Analysis - George Cain (Chapter 7 - Harmonic Functions)Uploaded byRoberto Armenta
- Bio Instrumentation - John D. EnderleUploaded byRoberto Armenta
- SeriesUploaded byhyd arnes
- Complex Analysis - George Cain (Chapter 5 - Cauchy's Theorem)Uploaded byRoberto Armenta
- Complex Analysis - George Cain (Chapter 3 - Elementary Functions)Uploaded byRoberto Armenta
- IntegrationUploaded byhyd arnes
- Complex FunctionsUploaded byhyd arnes
- Complex NumbersUploaded byhyd arnes
- Applications of the Residue Theorem to Real Integrals-Supplementary Material by Pawel HitczenkoUploaded byhyd arnes

- AC Servo ControllerUploaded bySt&fano
- Canrig maintenance scheduleUploaded bydgyanesik
- arcwelderUploaded byapi-200253170
- Nr-210201 Prime Movers and PumpsUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Free Vibration of a Functionally Graded Rotating Timoshenko Beam Using FEM.pdfUploaded bytengzc
- Part1 Q a Marine EngineerUploaded bySamir Alshaar
- Design of Anchorage Length EC2Uploaded byECC
- OM CommandCenter OI SEP09 EnUploaded byGabriely Murilo
- Fenner CatalogUploaded bykeeblerkhan
- Literature SurveyUploaded bytimea11111
- Jeep Parts List 1997 TJUploaded byjallen_3
- Pipe ConveyorUploaded byDIBYENDU MONDAL
- BleaseSirius Technical Manual iss1 290607.pdfUploaded byLaura Restrepo
- Closed-loop control of HCCI combustion for DME using external EGR and.pdfUploaded byMelvin Victor DE Poures
- Handshower Specs DrawingUploaded byJohn Alvin
- Motion in 2D.pdfUploaded byMasudRana
- The Science Behind a PunchUploaded byatocfemia
- Safety.pdfUploaded byascensorim
- Hydraulics of Hydropower PlantsUploaded byRajaram
- 20160323093138-51CrV4 (50CrV4)Uploaded byP NAVEEN KUMAR
- AC Dyno Engine Test EnUploaded byHuynh Quoc Viet
- An Airplane Accelerates Down a Runway at 3Uploaded byjeanfrancisdelacruz
- Ground ImprovUploaded byAnonymous D5s00DdU
- 403-BCUploaded byMichaelBozickovic
- AllProducts CatalogUploaded byOmar Ardila
- everything you ever wanted to know about electricsUploaded byapi-269237246
- damping the propeller vibration.PDFUploaded byAyman Saad
- Sistema AtaUploaded byjorge varela
- Kompresor Tenaga UnlimittedUploaded bySaya Citer
- VIBDI_skriptaEN.pdfUploaded byankushbahale