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Buyer's Guide: ' October 1985



If you own an Apple Ik,
you'd have to add three more Apple Ik's,
an Extra Keypad,
30 Block Graphic Sets,
Color Sprites,
two more voices,
four instruments,
a Cartridge Port, a Joystick Port,
and a Commodore 64...

to match the versatility, expandability

and higher intelligence of the
new Commodore 128
(and it costs less too).

The new Commodore 128'" per doesn't expand. Commodore 128 Commodore 128jumpsyouintoa
sonal computer is breakthrough has a numeric keypad built into its new worid of business, productivity,
technology at a breakthrough keyboard that makes crunching education and word processing
price. It outshines the Apple® lie numbers a lor easier. And graphic programs while still running over
in performance capability, per and sound capabilities that far 3,000 programs designed for the
formance quality and price. It is exceed those of the Apple lie. But Commodore 64.'" That's what we
expandable to 512K ram. The lie the most important news is that call a higher intelligence.


•Apple B o legate oO nodemenv of AppW Compuier. Inc A Higher Intelligence etOmmoOore 1985

It's Absolutely
After all these years, CMS Software Systems is still the only
company providing professional quality accounting software for the
complete line of Commodore business computers.

Whether you own an 8032, 8096, SuperPET, B-128, C-64, or the new
C-128, we have a professionally written, fully integrated Accounting System
designed especially for you.

Introduced in 1979, the CMS Accounting System was the first

Accounting System available for Commodore computers. Not satisfied with
just being first, we have continued to update, expand, and improve until
today, the CMS Accounting System is widely recognized as one of the
finest Accounting Systems available for any computer.

Now Available for the Commodore C-128

General Ledger

Accounts Receivable

Accounts Payable

i Job Costing


Complete Price

For more information see your

Commodore dealer or call
Cathy York al 214/289-0677.

CMS Software Systems, Inc. • 2204 Camp David > Mesquite, TX75149

sS~^^ Circle Reader Service No.7





Injured Engine reviewed by Mark Cotone 14

Forecast! reviewed by Cheryl Peferson 16
Three Irom the Learning Company reviewed by
George Beekman 18
Dream House reviewed by Kelley Essoe 22
Fast Loaders reviewed by Tom Benford 26
SwiftCalC reviewed by led Ealamone 30 FEATURES
Loadstar reviewed by Slepfien Leven 32
S.A.T. Preparation ProgramsteviewedbyDanieiHorowift 34
Vizastarreviewedby Tom Benford 36
Build a Book About YOU reviewed by Joyce Wxley 40 Your Commodore 64 can talk-and listen-using
BASIC-64 reviewed by Shfomo Ginsbuig 42 relatively inexpensive speech devices, by Louis waiioce
WordPro64reviewedbyBizobethDeal 48 UPDATE AMIGA 70
TfiO reviewed by Dan Rustin 50
A first look at Commodore's revolutionary new 68000-
BEHIND THE PROGRAMS based computer, with graphics and sound like you've
never seen or heard from a micro before, windowing,
The Man Behind the Muppetst^PomHoiowift 54
icons-and speed, by jim&oceiy
with a review of Welcome Aboard
The Commodore 64 has helped advance the art ol
Commodore 128 Sound by Louis F. Sander 56 amateur radio, by Mei Granick


Should computer woik at home be banned? The AFl-
Simple Window by Bruce Jaeger 60
CIO thinks so. Here, an electronic journalist offers his
Modemf300 File Translator by BobNadier 62
opinion on the controversy, by Tom Benfora
Getting SuperMon to Print byitoger Macomber 64

Commodore 64 Family Helper feviewedbyTedSalamone 92 Paying attention to the ergonomics (the relationship
Getting the Most Out of CompuServe reviewed by between man and his environment) of your equip
Howard Millman 94 ment set-up will make your computing more
Can I Play with the Computer, Too?reviewedbyJackEmberiy 96 torn Benford


Fabulous Figure Maker by NoncyondTomSimmonds 98 USER GROUPS 116

SID Plays Bach by tobertAlonso 106
Random Thoughts by Mark Zimmermann 110
The Computer Scientist by Isaac Maiiiz 113 ADVERTISERS' INDEX 128

Robert M. Kennoy
Assistani to the Publisher
Virginia 0. Dike
Diane LeBold
Assistant Editor
Carol Minton
Technical Editor
Jim Gracoly
Assistant Technical Editor
Contributing Editor
Louir. F. Sander
Art Director
Robert C.Andersen
Assistani Art Director
Nancy Wolker
PROMAL and develop programs rapidly.
Advertising Coordinator
To the Editor: When purchased directly from Sys
Sharon Steinhofer
Thank you for your informative tems Management Associates. I'KO- Advertising Assistani
and generally accurate review of I*RO- MAI, is sold with a 15-day money- Cheryl Griffith
MAL by Walt l.ounsbery in the May/ hack satisfaction guarantee. Finally, Circulation Manager
June Commodore Microcomputers. PROMA1. is not copy protected, and a John O'Brien
However. 1 would like to point out a utility is provided for making backup Circuloiion Assistani
few trrors in the article that mlgbl diskettes. Kathy Reigel
anise confusion 10 readers. PROMAL users can look forward to Advertising Representatives
'ihe Sieve of liratosihenes program the release of our new high perfor
Warren Longer, Spencer 0. Smith
in the article is a potential area of con mance libraries for high-resolution
Warren Longer Associates
fusion. Your readers will gel a compi graphics and database management,
9320 NW 2nd Street
lation error if they try to compile the which will be available as inexpensive
Coral Springs, FL 33065
program as given in Listing ! of the options to owners of the standard 800/635-6635
article, apparently due 10 a typo package. We are also porting I'RO- In Florida call:
graphical error. Specifically, the MAL to additional target computers 305/753-4124
fourth line of the program should read such as the new generation Commo MIO ATI ANTIC
WORD IT™, not BYTE ITER. A per dore machines, as well as "brand X"
Bob D'Ambrosio
son familiar with PASCAL might also computers (blue and fruit-type). This
Target Media
get ihe erroneous impression that the insures that a user's investment in pro 114 E. Main Street
semicolons in the listing are required. grams written for the Commodore (•> i Bogota, NJ 07603
They are not: semicolons are PRO- is protected for the future, since stan 201/488-7900
MAl.'s comment character, which the dard PROMAL programs will compile MIDWEST

author apparently used just for spac ami run on all supported machines. Pamela S. Fedor
ing (lie could have used blank lines). Thanks again for your excellent Randy Fedor
Finally, it is important to note thai article. 700 River Road
the author's version of the Sieve pro Fair Hoven, NJ 07701
Bruce D. Carbrey
gram will not produce the same test Director, Software Development
Commodore Microcomputers. Volume 6, Numt>er 5.
results given in Table .1 of the article, Systems Management Associates Issue 37. Sepiember/October 1985. ISBN 0-B8731-
because a different array size was 047-8.
North Carolina Commodore Microcomputers (ISSN 0744-8724) is
used. published bi-monltily by Contemporary Markelinn. Inc..
1200 Wilson Drive. West Ctiaslor. PA 193B0U.S.A U.S
Although Walt Lounsbery correctly Your Personal Net Worth subscriBer rale is S15.00 per year. Canadian subscriber
pointed out that there isn't enough Totlie Editor: fate is $20.00 per year Overseas subscriber rale is
S25 00 per year. Questions concerning subsetintions
room in a four-page review to cover 1 was completely shocked when 1 should be directed lo Contemporary Marketing Sub
all the features of PROMAL, 1 would read Tom Benford's review of Ybur scription Department. Boi 651. Ho'mes. PA 19043.
phone |800) 345-BH3. In Pennsylvania (BOO) 662-2444
like to delineate a couple of items that Persona! Net Worth, in which lie Copyright ■ ■ 1985 by Contemporary Marketing, Inc. AH
were not discussed that readers might stated that it was the "best personal
ngtiis resorvect
Contemporary Marketing also publishes ConwncrJO'i:
find significant. rim, there is the finance package I've seen to date." Potter/Play.
Application to mail at Second Class postage rates is
"smart editor," which, after a compi Mr. Benford should have been more pending at West Chester, Pennsylvania 19360 anO addi
lation error, will automatically place concerned about what the software- tional mailing of I ices. POSTMASTER sen a address
Manges lo Contemporary Marketing. Bo* 651, Holmes.
the cursor on the offending lint of the should do, rather than the easel-type PA 19043.
program for correction. Since the edi case, silver dollar rebate, and the VIC 30', Commodore 64"" ant) Super PET- are trade
marks ol Commodore Electronics Lid. PET" is
tor is co-resident in memory and money-manager booklet. a registered trademark ot Commodore Business
therefore instantly available, it is ex I know (hat there can he a differ- Machines. Inc. CBM * is a registered trademark ol Corn-
mod ore Electronics Lid.
ceptionally easy to correct mistakes Contmued next pogt ABC Membership applied lor.

"Quite simply the best! The highest mtingpossible... the package should be part ofevery
(computer) library."—analog computing

"Russ Wetmore has done an EXCELLENTjob! The program isflexible, powerful and
very easy to use. $49.95 buys a heck of a lot ofprogram."—review by akthuk leyfvbsrcek

"Performance:* * + •(Excellent)Value:• • • -k(Excellent)

This three-in-one package is a bargain... one of the finest values on the market."

HOMETERM telecommunications
Together they are HomePak: the three most
important and most useful home computer applica-
tions in one integrated system — on one diskette!
The reviewers are unanimous: ;iny one of programs alone is well worth the price,
So you're getting three times Ihc computing power,
with this exceptionally easy to use package:
• all commands in simple English; no complex
computer jargon, no obscure instructions
•nil key commands are immediately available on
A com™ „..._.

ihe screen menu: additional commands can lie

1'iilk'fi up fur ihe more experienced user
•to help you, system status is displayed right
on (he screen
And it's easy to use the three programs together. For
example, in the "Merge" mode, you can take data
stored in HOMEFIND and print letters and labels
using HOMETEXT. Or. use HOMETKXT 10 write
reports based on information you've culled up

30 Mural Street T 7B7S Sky Park North, Suite P
Richmond Hill, Ontario Irving, California
L«B IBS CANADA The Energized Software Company!"

TTCIu MICRO ence of opinion, but having firsthand
knowledge of this program's Inade
are harder to use.
In addition to being a worthwhile
quate primed records makes me be program, several nice "extras" are
'Who?" lieve that Mr. Benford really is a "shoe included with the disks. I would be
box accountant," as he Mated In bis ar remiss in my obligations as a re
EASY TO USE, ticle. If he thought his accountant was viewer if I did not mention these lit
pulling bis hair out before, his ac tle extras that contribute to the over
"Team-Mares mtegrared design has resulted countant will go bald when he sees all value of the product.
in a high performance program that Com the records from Net Worth. The se I'm sorry the product did not
modore users will discover to be one ol the vere Limitations In reference and prove adequate for your needs. I'm
ben ovailoble. RUN. July 1985 check number areas make ibis pro sure that the majority of users, how

"The beaury Is that at any rime you can go gram almost completely worthless for ever, will be as delighted with it as
from one program 10 another without concise record reference. I was.
mfotmation loss/ FAMILY COMPUTING. I should be surprised thai Touche
November 1964. Ross would allow their name to be The Print Shop
"The File Monagerallowsmdividuolized file used in connection with this pro 1b the Editor:
formats...A wide variety ranges from the gram. I am sure that no executive of In the May/June issue, there is a
ability to create printed lists,,.to a selective 'louche Ross would allow his personal software review of The Print Shop by
report featuie that lets you accesso certain accounting records to he documented Broderbund. The article states that the
group of records." RUN. April 1985. in the extremely poor manner al software will work with any dot ma
"Worth the money, if only (or rhe spread lowed by Net Worth. trix printer.
sheet. " InfoWorld. Dec. 17. 1984. Larry W. Zeigler Broderbund has told me that the
"As a marnoge of convenience and value. Seven Hiils. Ohio program will not work with a 1526/
the program succeeds handsomely...Tri MPS-802 printer. The box the pro
Micros spreadsheet possesses impressive Author Tom Benfbrd replies: gram comes in states thai it is for the
fearures," Commodore Microcomputer. a commercial software product 151s;, 1525/MPS-801, and MPS-803
May-June 1985. such as Your Personal Net Worth is dot matrix printers only.
Team-Mare.Write File, designed to appeal to the broadest fobn I'. Ilamshaiv

Home Office, Plus Graph possible number of users. This pro Fidlerton, California
gram is specifically targeted at the
Your Personal Accountant
"average" borne user—not a busi Cathy Carlston. vice president at
"Colorful graphics, sprightly music, and a
ness user. My reviews reflect a prod Broderbund, explains that the fol
variety of obstacles help keep rhe game
uct's usefulness and worth from the lowing printers are supported by
lively." COMPUTE'S Gazette December
"average" user's point of view. From The Print Shop: I-pson RX-80/MX-80
the sound ofyour letter and the inad and 100/FX-80 and IOO/JX-80, Star
"Rug Rider is definitely a challenge. It gives
equacies you mention, I'm led to be Micronics lOXand lyX, Legend S80,
the hard core game playei as much action
lieve your needs are not average. I Panasonic KX-P1090/1091, /Hue
and thrills as he or she could possibly want."
stand by my original recommenda Chip, Mannesmann Tally Spirit 80.
POWER PLAY. April 1965.
tion of the product for the average C-Itoh 8510 (Proivriter), NEC8023A,
Rug Rider. Enrerrainei 1, Corom user. Okidata 92/93, and Comniodore
Snowdrifts & Sunny Skies, Ghosr Town Secondly, I never stated I was a VIC 1525 ami MPS-801. The list is
"shoe box accountant." I am not an updaleil periodically as new printers
accountant nor did I state or imply are introduced. A label is displayed
REASONS TO BUY NOW that I was. 1 did state, however, that I prominently on the outside of the
Every purchase made between now and keep my receipts in a shoe box; the package to reflect all technical
January 15. 1986. will include a valuoble program lets me print out a record changes made to the program.
coupon booh 'with sovings on computer
of the data contained on these
magozine subscriptions, diskettes, com
puter boohs, accessories and software.
I also never said my accountant
in addition, every one who mails in his was pulling his hair out. fie is quite Commodore Microcomputers wel
warranty registration will receive mem
delighted, in fact, that my financial comes letters from readers. Do you
bership in the PLUS EXCHANGE, o user group
record keeping is now organized, have an unusual application for your
of Tn Micro software, for three months
rather than haphazard, as in the Commodore computer? Do you wish
Now rhat you know us berrer, nexr past. to comment on an article? Would you
time you shop for software, instead I slated that Your Personal Net like to make a suggestion on how we
of saying "WHO?", you'll say Worth was one of the best personal can better serve our readers? Please

■HELLO!" finance programs I've seen to date. I send them to:

did not say it was the best program, Commodore Microcomputers

TRIUMICRO a/though I can think ofseveral simi

tar programs of equal price that do
1200 Wilson Drive
West Chester, I'A 19.180
14072 Stratton Way, Santa Ana, CA 92705
(714) 832-6707 not provide as many features and ATTNj Letters Q

the ultimate ffiafegy game! expos'



orite real team against an
lenger? Take on the '27 Yanks, with Ruth & Gehrig, the '75 ffi- ■■
Big Red Machine, the '84 World Champion Tigers, or any c
powerhouse team!
'■ CLEVELAND ■ Manage any team, past or present, in the MicroLeagu.

Not a "pretend," joystick game! MicroLeague is a computer

simulation game using real players and Iheir performance—
with stats endorsed by the Players Association.
You manage a real team, with all Ihe strategies ol big league TTZZfrflTW.
managers! Pick your lineups, choose your spots lor sieafs, k'fl.v like being in
pinch-hitters, relief pitchers, bunts, and much morel out!"
• For 2 players, or if no one's around, play against the "Baseball
Buddha," the computer's built-in manager.

And to complete your MicroLeague Game. . . gel each sea ifa, Delia! Irp'r

son's NL and AL roster/player disk—all 26 teams (S19.9S).

Update rosters & state, trade & draft players—aven create
: 1984 MicmlDagiHi Spurts Atsoclatim
your own team—wtth MIcroLeagues GMiOmter disk f$39.9f 23 East Cleveland Are., Newark, M19711

Available for Apple II series, Commodore 64, Atari 800 & XL, IBM PC/PCjr.
Your retail store can gel MLB from these distributors:
CDC- (312) 775-DISK • APEX: 800-343-7535 • TRIANGLE: 800-245-6711 FflP (fiPBCt VISA, MC, COD 0Pd6PS
Computer Software Service: 800-422-4912 • SDS: 800-828-7250 pan onn.PI flVRfll nnfQn91QCfl.OQOn
C0MMTRON: 800-622-1333 • FIRST SOFTWARE 800-343-1290 W*U-0wru»l»U-»I W«KJ«» 33SU
liicl[fgi>s jn0insigniasi]ujiiLltilOJi?lthci:Kr.iii' si :.ii.i.''iiv mI Major litfrjue BasuU.jii [in? American I i-.i :■ ■ me Vi'i. I ■■ _ n.>
3rd inv rtsoeciive Major league Clu&s. and fnay "W be reproduce wiihoui trieir wrj
Business Management Simulation
.Dine Chip Software (6740 Eton Avenue, Canoga Park, CA 91303) has released American Dream, a robotics manufacturing
business simulation for the Commodore 64.
You are CEO of the company with seven department heads reporting to you. General economic as well as industry-specific trends
fluctuate independently of your business decisions. These factors include the gross national product, inflation, interest rates,
competitors' prices, industry demand, labor rates, raw material prices, and lead times,
Your two objectives are to increase market shares and profitability. Your performance is measured at the end of each session by
calculating peak monthly profit, revenue, and shareholder's equity.
Price was unavailable at press time,

Automatic Boot-Loader Cartridge for the 64

I hose who work with computer bulletin boards, security systems, or other constant-use applications for the Commodore 64
will be interested in Input Systems' (15600 Palmetto Lake Drive. Miami. FL 33157) ABL-64, a program that will re-boot and run an
essential program after a power failure, even if the computer is left unattended.
When ABL-64 is installed In the expansion port and there is a power failure, ABL-64 is re-activated the instant power is restored.
There is a timer aboard which counts up to 15 seconds. During that time, if an operator is present, he or she may invoke manual
control over the program through the keyboard. With no operator present, after 15 seconds ABL-64 boots and runs a pre-selected
program from the disk. It can also pick up where it left off before the power failure.
The package includes cartridge, instruction manual, and listings of two utility programs. The suggested list price is $39.95

Temperature Lab
1 emperature Lab, the first offering in a new science laboratory software
Temp? series for the Commodore 64, has been introduced by Hayden Software
(600 Suffolk Street, Lowell, MA 01854], Designed to transform a home or
classroom into an inexpensive science research center, Temperature Lab
enables students to conduct scientific temperature experiments.
Temperature Lab features a unique temperature sensor, or "electronic
thermometer," that plugs into an Interface module connected to the
computer's game port. Using this sensor, students can record
temperatures and see them displayed on-screen. An alcohol-bulb
thermometer is also included with the program to compare directly
measured temperatures with readings taken by the electronic sensor
The software itself enables the users to choose between
Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature
readings, to compare temperature
scales on the same screen, to vary the
time length for each experiment, and to
- display data in either graph or table form. In
-' addition, testing data may be stored on disk
either for printing or for later use.
A comprehensive Experimenter's Guide Is
provided which contains step- by-step detailed
Instructions for performing several different
temperature experiments. Each experiment is de
signed to tie in with the scientific concepts outlined
in the guide.
Temperature Lab has a suggested retail price of S99.95


i ■»

!*- -

MM s


the critics said.. |

wwa inmw


Mastertronic once again have brought you a world beating program for your Commmodore 64/128.
943 Action Filled Screens at an incredible price of $9.99. The package includes full colour posters and
a large fold out map of the playing area. This amazing 'program of the year* features music from
RPaul McCartney's Band on the Run album.
■- r. _il _■ i ■• t. . — Circle Reader Service No. 40
For further details on this Great New
Prosram and all other chart-busters from fXfMl RQ1! RR77
Mastertronic call the HOTLINE on... 1UUIJ W»IU UU I I
Mastertronic International Inc., Coiporate Headquarters, 7311B Grove Road, Frederick Maryland 21701.
Commodore Announces
Business System

\Jommodore recently announced plans to market

the Commodore 900, a multi-user, multi-tasking,
Unix-compatible business system that can support up
to eight work stations, The system uses the Coherent*
operating system, which is fully compatible with
AT & T's Unix System V, version 8.2
Two Configurations
The Commodore 900 is available in two configura
tions: as a personal work station with a 1024- by
800-pixel bit-mapped display, and as a multi-user
business system supporting up to eight stand-alone
According to a company spokesperson, the system's
10S4 x 800 high-resolution configuration allows you
to create graphics previously found only on systems
costing up to five times as much. In this configura
tion, the 900 can be mouBe-drlven and uses a sophisti
cated window manager for both text and graphics
windows. Its "bit-bit" chip allows fast screen opera
tions, so windowing is quick and easy. This configura
tion also allows the use of many different text fonts
and proportional spacing for quick, accurate docu
ment processing.
The system's multi-user business configuration
comes packaged with an integrated terminal, which
acts as the first user terminal. Additional terminals
are stand-alone, industry-standard, RS232 character-
mode terminals.
Hardware and Software Features
The heart of the Commodore 900 is a Z8001 chip running at 10 MHz. Standard features are 512K of RAM (expandable to two
, megabytes); a 20-megabyte built-in hard disk drive; a LS-megabyte built-in 5-1/4" floppy disk drive; two RS232 ports (more ports
can be added with an expansion card); an IEEE-488 port; a Centronics parallel printer port; and four expansion slots. A "C" com
piler, business BASIC compiler and more than 50 utilities are also included with the system. The optional high-resolution mono
chrome monitor Is available with either a 14- or 20-inch screen.
Other hardware options include a hard disk drive with 40- or 6?-megabyte storage capacity, streaming cartridge tape for hard
disk back up, an additional floppy disk drive, memory expansion up to two megabytes and a multi-user card with eight additional
RS233 ports.
Software options for the system include a COBOL language environment, a Pascal compiler, a virtual device interface for han
dling graphics devices such as plotters and intelligent graphics terminals, and a plotting package for generating graphs.
Coherent Operating System
The Commodore 900's Coherent operating system is compatible with Unix System V, but is more compact. As a result, according
to Commodore's engineers, it offers several advantages over the standard Unix operating Bystem. For instance, because Coherent
occupies less memory, more memory is available for programs. Programs also load and run faster and use less disk space. The
Coherent system also allows a larger number of users than would be possible on an equivalent system running standard Unix.
—Diane LeBold

Circle Reader Service No- 30
"Commodore 64 it a
Trad#mjrk of Commodore Electronic*. LTD. rti
TMl product li manu'icturtd by r^ivjrone lr>dvitri
for uiq on the Commodore 64 computer and li
not midf. ipomorto'. juiha-ncd or approved
Screen Dump
8n'napshot, a universal screen-dumping utility program for
the Commodore 64. is Joined by two new versions written espe
cially for Commodore printers. While the original Snapshot
works with Epson- and Gemini-type printers, the Snapshot-Cl
works with the Commodore 1525 and MPS-801 printers, and
the Snapshot-C£v!OT)is with the Commodore 1526 and
All three versions operate identically and are controlled by
only four keypresses. After loading, one keypress produces a
quarter-page and another keypress produces a full-page print
out of the entire screen (dot-for-dot. Including sprites). The
dumps may be made at any time, regardless of display mode or
screen memory location. A third keypress produces a reversed
picture and a fourth aborts the dump before completion.
With three different wedge locations, a clear memory-seeking
system, and restore-button activation, Snapshot will produce
printouts during a run without disturbing the program in
memory. All but the most sophisticated and highly protected
programs are compatible. Of course, the screen may also be
dumped Indirect "READY" mode.
Snapshot-CZis particularly exciting because the printers it
works with do not have a true graphics mode. The dump is fast
and has a minimum of printhead shaking,
All three versions are available on disk for S24.95 each from
Computer Revelations at 76 E. Ridgewood Avenue, Rldgewood,
NJ 07450. Be sure to specify printer.

Education Software Using a Light Pen

LicroEd (P.O. Box 444005, Eden Prairie, MN 55344) has introduced a light pen series for the Commodore 64 consisting of 80
programs that teach youngsters beginning word-attack skills that are normally taught In kindergarten through third grade. Enti
tled Point &Read, the series is also popular with educators in special education. Using a light pen as a response device simplifies
instructional procedures, an important consideration for individuals with learning disabilities.
The series can be purchased in four packages having a combined total of 14 disks. The suggested retail prices for these packages
are S74.95 for package one (three disks), S74.95 for package two (three disks), S99.95 for package three (four disks), and S99.95
for package four (four disks).

Accounting Package

. inancial Partner, a total bookkeeping system for small business and personal use, has been introduced by Practical Programs
(P.O. Box 93104, Milwaukee. WI53S03). Designed for the Commodore 64, the system eliminates the need for tedious, manual
For professionals and entrepreneurs writing under 150 checks a month, Financial Partner provides an easy but powerful sys
tem for keeping track of Income and expenses, In the home, Financial Partner assists the user in organizing and managing house
hold finances. A file of commonly used business and individual accounts can be stored and maintained.
Features of financial Partner include automatic maintenance of the checkbook balance and easy reconciliation with bank state
ments. With the record retrieval feature, Financial Partnered search for Information such as payee names, dates, account num
bers, transaction numbers, and check numbers.
The program prints checks and also addresses labels and envelopes. It prepares and prints a list of financial transactions, ledger
accounts, income statements, and balance sheets.
The program retails for S74.95. More News mi page '-'•



Learn About the Stars
Prepare to embark on a tour,
of the planets, stars,- and '
st nscN constellations with your ■*
Commodore 64! , .

Whether you're sirrjply a .

THE CHART frequent stargazer or atrue
astronomy buff, SKY-TRAVEL
can be your vital link to our-.'
wonderful universe..

Easily the most accurate and '

. -iStt its
complete-astronomy program
on the market today!
; 10

Uiiiude: Learn important planetary

t ^ jc
rJ U
facts. Print out astronomical
charts or exact replicas of the
sky. You'll even have the .
power to view any astronomi
THE MAP cal happening—10,000 years
MODE into the past or future.;

Our Galaxy, Educational
Software from Commodore...
if only Galileo could see us




for the Young Astronauts Program

Computer: Commodore 64 Injured Engine
Publisher: I magic
2400 Bayshorc
will not turn you
Frontage Rd. into a gold- ■ ■

Mountain View, CA
94043 wrenched grease
Medium: Disk
Retail Price: S3 i-99 monkey over uf »>-. t:. - ■ li

xVs sure as the lick thai becomes the night. What it will
tap that becomes the clank, its inevi
table that, sooner or later, each one of do is educate you
us will have our turn on the high
way's shoulder, Btaring blankly at the
on how to
cluster of components which lie smol maintain and
dering beneath the car's gaping hood.
Label it this: learning the hard way. prolong the life of
[magic would like to suggest a far
easier lesson by presenting Injured your car's engine.
Engine: a lull-color computer sim
ulation of a functional tour-cylinder
The program's main screen displays
a precise cross-sect ion of an operating
engine. Pistons pump, bells churn. maintain a healthy engine. It's now fixed five major maladies. The
anil fans .spin in realistic fashion, time to put your newly acquired elapsed time becomes the score.
while an Instrument panel responds knowledge lo the lest with a full-scale As an educational tool, this entire
accordingly, monitoring revolutions simulation. program works well. The complexi
per minute, oil pressure, running tem Choosing between a used engine ties of a ear engine are presented on a
perature, battery charge, and miles christened with either 1,000 miles simple level, allowing the general user
per gallon. Anyone who has ever been (easy), 40,000 miles (medium), or to comprehend the concepts without
behind the wheel will immediately 80,000 miles (hard), the object is to sacrificing realism.
recognize these gauges, and need only throttle up, cruise along, and cor The visuals arc detailed and crisp.
briefly familiarize themselves with rectly tTOUbleshOOl engine-related Bach moving part is brightened with
terms and layout before delving Into problems as they arise. When you intense hues to facilitate inspection.
this tutorial trilogy. think you've come across a potential The specifications, covering every
The first pan of the program is the disorder, you then switch into a Re thing from engine operation to the
foundation. It features an encyclope pair Shop mode to first examine the price of parts and their longevity, arc
dic outline where yon can view the car anil then purchase replacement a.s accurate as one could expect.
different engine systems and learn the parts. The text which solidifies this whole-
function of each part, either individu A cost-per-mile meter on the in package is both clear and concise,
ally or interactively within the engine. strument panel will compute your thoroughly explaining each system in
For Simplicity's sake, the designers efficiency. It' you correctly identify detail, without getting tangled in autO-
have divided the engine into five sepa the engine ailment, and don't mis mative jargon. To be sure, Injured
rate systems: the lubrication system, appropriate time and cash, your lingine will not turn you into a gold-
the four-stroke cycle, the electrical/ig- low expenditure will prove your wrenched grease monkey overnight.
nicion system, die cooling system, and competence. nor will it replace such reliable op
the fuel and carburetor system. You This entire exercise is taken one tions as Chllton's manuals or the local
can request an overview of each area step further in the Trouble shooter service station ace. What it will do is
ai any time, which includes a sum Challenge, the third leg of this pro educate you on how to maintain and
mary of overall execution, a detailed gram. Here, the would-be mechanic is prolong the life of your car's engine.
explanation of each pan's function, docked on his ability to spot and sub And with the price of mechanics'
and. more importantly, a discussion of stitute worn or broken pans. The labor upwards of S35 an hour, this
the symptoms of engine difficulty. computer generates an engine with program is not only educational and
Here you can learn those diagnostic two broken parts, and continues gen entertaining, but cost-effective as
skills thai will later be called upon to erating faulty parts until the player has well. E


Includes: 170K Quick Data Drive ($84.95);
Unbelievable'!1 Believe it. The Quick Data Word Manager word processor ($34.95]; Plan
Microwafer™ Drive is a new drive technology thai Manager spread sheet ($34.95): the Speed File file
manager ($69.95}. A $189.85 value for $139.95.
loads a 24K program in 20 seconds vs. 8 minutes for
a cassette drive or 1 minute for a Commodore Disk
Drive. Includes: 170K Quick Data Drive ($84.!)5);
General Math; Spelling; plus Typing Tutor. A
Unbeatable price. One 170K drive: $84.95. Two
$159.HO value for $129.95.
drive 340K system: $154.95. Factory direct, with a
full 30-day guarantee. If you're not delighted with
Includes: 170K Quick Data Drive ($84.95);
yourQuick Data Drives, return them within 30 days
for a full refund. No questions asked. plus, three of the must popular game programs for
Software included. All Quick Data Drives come Commodore computers. A $174.00 value for
with the QOS'" operating system, system utilities
and easy-to-use instructions. Plus a blank Micro-
wafer. You can be up and running in about five Includes: 170K Quick Data Drive ($84.95);
minutes. Phantom QOS KOM Cartridge thai quickly loads
Lois of software. Dozens of leading programs are and locates the operating system In ROM outside
the computer's main memory ($29.95). A $114.90
available on Microwafers. Or, you can use Entrepo
value for $99.95.
QOS to copy your existing Basic Programs to
Microwafers from either cassette or diskette. ORDERING DIRECT FROM ENTREPO.
Mix-and-match. You can daisy-chain (he Quick Commodore" 64'" owners. Call us at the toll free
Data Drive with your existing cassette recorder by number below. Give us your VISA or MasterCard
plugging it into the cassette port, or, use two QDD's Credit Card number, loll us which package you want.
linked together for dual drive capability, No problem. It will be On its way to you the following day. Simple
as that. Allow $3.00 for shipping and postage. Really
I: fhIiE .lE I III nil i If y<ni urn nor completely aalisfifi! wLtb yDUl Quirk Datl fast delivery? Add $10 for overnight package nxpress.
Driver Syitam, reiurn it t<i Bntropo, lac. wiihin :i(> days fnj- h. full refund. Vnur Byalsi
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IN CALIFORNIA 1 (800) 048-4114
o. Int: C4innnndon*M"

is a Irarirnurk of Com i' ■! Internal! mm I, Ini:.

© 19B5 Entrn|io, hii:.

Circle Reader Service No. 16


Forecast! FORECAST

Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: CDS Software
One Fawcett Place
Greenwich, CT 06836
Retail Price: 349.95
J\re iliose clouds threatening or
will they blow over harmlessly? I low
much longer is it going to rain? Will it
snow tomorrow?
forecast! provides answers lo these

kinds of questions. The program helps
you understand the principles used to
predict the weather and teaches the
methods meteorologists apply to de
fine weather patterns and pressure
systems. Should you become a true
weather aficionado, Forecast! will Fahrenheit and vice versa, millibars to You may want to go back to the main
track the weather on a daily basis and inches of mercury and vice versa, and menu and use the weather traveler to
yield a printout of the month's perti miles per hour (or kilometers per check typical temperatures for Janu
nent weather data. If you're interested hour) to knots and vice versa. The for ary in your area of the country, or do
in tracking severe weather systems mulas for doing these calculations are something else besides continue with
like hurricanes, Forecast! includes a included in the documentation. the forecast. Where's the escape?
mapping system that extrapolates a The hurricane tracking program is Once you get past that, though,
storm's future path by analyzing loca especially nice because you don't each screen asks for some data rele
tion ploitings and travel velocity. have lo enter latitude and longitude as vant to Us calculations. Usually that
The program has a marvelously in numbers. A.s in other sections, you use data can be entered by inputting a
structive manual thai teaches every the cursor keys lo position a pointer. number or by raising or lowering a
thing from barometric pressure lo the In this case, you move the little hurri pointer. A thermometer i.s used to en
importance of wet-bulb thermometer cane graphic to the correct point on ter temperature, for instance. Using
readings. With a glossary and bibliog the map. After plotting several loca the up and down cursors, you posi
raphy, it can be used to search out any tions, the computer can analyze the tion the column of "mercury" to the
we at her-related information you'd hurricane's track and predict its future correct level. Unless of course, the
like. The documentation reads just motion. temperature is 79 degrees Fahrenheit.
like a high school textbook, complete Unfortunately, the program has few For some reason, my Forecast! copy
with italicized firsi-use definitions, instructions regarding bow to actually would skip from 7H to HO no matter
and cibles and illustrations galore. use it. Outside of the initial load com how carefully 1 pressed the cursor
Bitter temperature and precipitation mand, the program manual expects keys. I finally ended up just entering
data for each day. The program re you to benefit from the software's the numeric value.
quests the time, amounts and types of completely menu-driven structure. While the graphics are very attrac
precipitation, minimum and maxi Hut when you do make your menu tive, they .slow the program down so
mum temperatures, cloud conditions, choice and hit RETURN, you are much that 1 wonder how long young
and special notes such as thunder and greeted with the prompt "Hit any key sters will persist through one- to two-
lightning, or hail and freezing rain. to continue." This may be intended as minute repeated access waits. Fortu
This data is then reviewed and printed a safety feature, but, because it ap nately, only the forecaster module has
out in standard weather report form. pears repeatedly {after almost every this fascination tor pictures.
Another option will give you tem input), it means entering one extra Because of the many modules in
perature and precipitation averages keystroke for each valid one. cluded with this program and the ex
and extremes for major cities in the Also, when you choose an option cellent graphics and documentation, I
United Slates. The tables used for from the main menu, the program you can't help but recommend Forecast!.
compiling the reports include data tor want to use is loaded. But what hap Yes, it's a little complicated, Hut then,
the last ten years. You can compare pens when you realize that you don't so is the weather. With the proper
this information for any two large cit know whether the barometer is rising adult supervision, youngsters could
ies in the twelve geographic areas. or falling, which direction the wind is also use this program to gain an un
A weather calculator is included to coming from, or whether your tem derstanding of what's going on in the
allow you lo easily change Celsius to peratures are Fahrenheit or Celsius? evening weather report. Q



QRS has taken ihe experience of 85 years in the music business and made a transition into the high tech future. The appearance of
the MIDI on home organs and synthesizers opens up a whole new future (or music. The QRS player piano rolls from 1900 to present
day were performed by grea! artists from Scott Joplin, Fatts Waller, and George Gershwin to Liberace, Peter Nero, and other contem
porary artists. Most ol this library of over 10,000 songs has been converted to digital signals and placed on floppy disks that are available
for popular microcomputers. The microcomputer will now extend musical entertainment for home, school, and commercial use. In addi
tion, QRS has developed inexpensive MIDI interlaces and cables that link computer and keyboard.

GEORGE GERSHWIN that you can enjoy with your MIDI equipped instrument." For more information about other supported computers
and MIDI cables call or write:

QfS (201) 838-5606

1026 Niagra Street 1342B Route 23
Buffalo, New York 14213 Butler, New Jersey 07405

Dealer & Distributor Inquiries Invited

"Fof foem fmrloimanco an sight voice polyphonic mslrumunl is required.
CommodDio 13 n mgislurefl Itaaemark ol CommoOore Business Machlnss Inc. Circle Reader Service No. 20

Puzzles and
Rocky's Boots
i i m 111 h 11 c,: Commodore 64
Publisher: The Learning Company
545 Middlefidd Road
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Medium: Disk
Retail Price: 129-95, 129-95, K34.93

XJvrtriuk- 's Secrets, Gertrude "s Puz

zles, and Rooky's /Soots work magic
like- few Other educational programs.
These three classics, now available for
Commodore 64 owners, will make
you and your children very glad you
bought your computer.
All three programs create a simple
world where the player moves a box colors. The object of each game is to
around screen-sized rooms using ei There are no nerve- discover Gertrude's secrei rules by
ther the joystick or (he [-J-K-M keys. picking up game pieces and putting
The borders Of every room contain wracking time limits them in boxes. If a piece sticks, it be
one or more magic doors thai lead 10 longs in the box: if it falls out, it
other rooms, changing the screen the or invading aliens doesn't. When all of the pieces are
moment the player's box passes placed where they belong, the player
through. Rooms contain objects that in these games. More is rewarded with a brief flashing dis
can be picked up, moved, and play and a graphic prize. After earning
dropped with the joystick button or
importantly, there six prizes in a row, the little learner is
the space bar. are no losers. crowned "Secret Master."
The simplest puzzle room is fur
The whole effect is intuitive and
easy lor kids of all ages to understand. nished with a single large box. The
The first few sereen/rooms of each up rapid-tire drills and exercises, object is to come up with a rule for
program are designed to teach new these programs encourage explor each shape to go in a box. All red
players the tools of the trade. They atory learning. While most so-called shapes? All triangles? Next to this sin
tan he bypassed by experienced play educational programs take control of gle-loop room is a double-loop room
ers who want to go straight to the the student, these programs put the with two interlocking boxes. Each
game rooms. learner in charge. This kind of struc box has a secret rule, and the overlap
The programs are forgiving. There tured, creative play offers all kinds of ping area is affected by both rules. For
are no nerve-wracking time limits or educational benefits thai electronic example, if only blue pieces go in one
invading aliens in these games. More flash cards can't- possihly deliver. of the boxes and only squares go in
importantly, there are no losers. Every Consider Gertrude s Secrets, a the other box, then blue squares go in
game allows children to keep trying package of puzzle-solving games for the intersection of the two boxes.
until they succeed. children aged four to ten. (That's what Your child may not know it, hut this is
They're 1'un. Children love explor the package says, anyway. But I've rudimentary mathematical set theory
ing the imaginary worlds created by seen both 3 year-olds and 33 year- disguised as a game. The perception,
these friendly programs. All three olds have a great time with this one!) categorization, and reasoning skills re
programs contain just the right mix of The player takes Gertrude the Goose inforced by this game are important
exploratory learning, animated play, to one of several puzzle rooms and in both reading and math.
and rewards to capture most any drops her there. Gertrude immedi In Gertrude's train rooms, the
child's imagination and attention. ately flies off and returns with a string boxes are connected by lines in train-
They're creative. Instead of serving of puzzle pieces of various shapes and Conttnued on />h.k<' -"

New 128 news
If you've ordered the new Best of all, you'll learn how the Get the book that's making
Commodore 128™ or you're 128 can work for you at the office headlines. Get Sams Official Com
thinking about it, Sams has or at home. So whether you've modore 128 book. Visit your local
news for you! A new book: The already ordered the 128 or are get Sams dealer. Or call our toll-free
first and only official guide to ting ready to, you'll find Sams Offi number and ask for Operator 205.
Commodore's exciting new cial Guide a wise investment. The Official Bookfor the Com
business computer.
modore 128 Personal Computer,
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use spreadsheets, and word proc
essing, choose peripherals, create
Howard W. Sams& Co., Inc.
graphics and animation, run CP/M
4300 West 62nd Street
programs, and more. Indianapolis, in 46268

Circle Reader Service No. 37

like sequence. In one train room, the the importance of these simple tools
connectors are single lines, and pieces is in the many ways they can be put
must be put in boxes so each consecu Programs like these, together, and that's what the rest of
tive pair of pieces i.s different in one Rocky's Boots Is all about.
way (color or shape). Another train which teach logic, The "Rocky's Boots" level is where
has double-line connectors, requiring the actual game begins, The player
thai consecutive objects differ in two reasoning, problem- chooses from games with names like
ways, and a third has a mixture of "Diamonds or Green" and "'Non-Cir
both kinds of connectors. There's no
solving, and creative cles." Each of these games assigns
one right answer to any of these puz
design are very point values to all of the available
zles; the child is rewarded for any cor game pieces according to color and
rect sequence. special. shape. The player's goal is to design a
Ciertrude has another pair of puzzle circuit to "kick" (activate) only those
rooms furnished with two-dimen objects with positive point values, us
sional arrays (grids), one with three too, even if they don't understand ing logic gates and Rocky's boot, an
rows and three columns, and the everything they see. The program has electric-powered kicker. Once the
other with four-by-four dimensions. a main menu offering six choices: player builds a machine, he or she
Each row and each column represents 1. How to Move turns on the juice and watches the
a rule, so each box has two rules. That 2. Building Machines results. If the machine doesn't work
means that each puzzle piece has ex 3. Logic Gates as designed, experimentation, debug
actly one correct home. The object of 4. Rocky's Hoots ging, and rebuilding are in order.
the game is to bring everything home. 5. Flip Flops Level five introduces three new
Gertrude knows that triangles and 6. Rocky's Challenge electronic components—FLIP FLOP,
squares can get old, so she has another Choice one teaches basic movement CLOCK, and DELAY—which are nec
room lull of alternate shapes. When a skills used throughout the program, essary to build the 32 more complex
player wanders into the shape room and shows the keystroke combina machines in the IS rooms of the
and picks another shape, a whole new tions that can be used to turn the "Rocky's Challenge" level. "Rocky's
set of pieces (animals, spaceships, sound off/on and bring help to the Challenge" also has options for de
hats, nonsense characters) replaces screen. The second option shows you signing custom games and saving
the geometric shapes. And if she can't how the machines in this tiny world games in progress. And for those who
find the shapes she's looking for, she run on orange-colored electricity. The don't want to play structured games
can go to the shape-editing room and player, who appears on-screen as an at all, there's always the option of in
build a custom set using a simple orange box, can turn anything on by venting and building machines just
shape editor that works like many of touching its input socket. lor fun.
the popular sprite editors for the 64. This section also introduces the On-screen instructions are always
If your children are eight or older. simple rules for building machines in available in all three of these pro
they can still learn something from Rocky's world: Arrows (outputs) from grams, but the manuals are still worth
Ciertrude with Gertrude's Puzzles, a one object can be connected only to a look. They're all of the highest qual
more advanced program designed for .sockets (inputs) of other ohjects; elec ity, with complete instructions, learn
children between ages 8 and 13. The tricity can flow only one way; sensors ing lists outlining educational ob
only real difference beiween these turn on and produce electricity when jectives, and suggested additional
two programs is in the complexity of they're touched by the objects they're learning activities. The Rocky's Hoots
the puzzles. For example, while the designed to sense; and so on. Instead manual also includes solutions to the
two-loop puzzle was the most diffi of just listing or displaying each new puzzles in "Rocky's Challenge," a
cult loop puzzle in Secrets, it's the eonccpl, this carefully-devised tuto map of the 15 rooms on that level,
easiest of the loop puzzles in Puzzles. rial allows and encourages the user to and a glossary defining real-world
Two Loops is the only pu/zle the two learn by doing. And at the end of the electronic parts and those unique to
programs have in common. In addi teaching tour, there's a practice room this game.
tion to :t three-loop puzzle, Puzzles for experimenting with the ideas just All three programs have simple, but
also has a pair of box puzzles similar introduced. effective, graphics. SID fans won't be
to the arrays in Secrets. The third menu path uses the same impressed with the sound, but kids
Rocky's Boots looks a lot like the techniques to introduce logic games— playing the game aren't likely to com
Gertrude games, and it builds on the the important components at the plain. F.vcry one of these programs is
logical and perceptual foundation laid heart of every computer. The NOT built on rock-solid educational princi
by those programs. Hut Rocky's /loots GATE turns ON to OFF or OFF to ON. ples that go beyond the primitive
is a much more sophisticated learning The AND GATE and the OR GATE drill-and-practice that's BO common

game that teaches nothing less than each have two input sockets and one in today's software. Programs that
the fundamentals of digital computer output. For the AND GATE to produce teach logic, reasoning, problem solv
logic from the ground up. The target electricity, it must receive electricity ing, and creative design are special.
audience is the nine-and-up crowd, from both input sockets; the OR GATE These three programs are very

but younger children can enjoy it. only requires one charged input, liut special. E


wrrnL mission

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s— —s sound effects put Night Mission PINBALL in a class by itself. Game features: multl-
f -lH " <?<■■■ ! '''i1'' ball and multi-player capabilities, ten different professionally designed levels of play,
1 7; ajf * °, —=M and an editor that lets you create your own custom modes. ■ So take a break with
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See your dealer...

or write or call for moro Information
Order Line: 800 / 637-4983 713 Edgebrook Drive
Champaign IL 61820
Circle Reader Service No. 27 (217) 359-8482 Telex: 206995

Dream House
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: CBS Software
One Fawcett Place
Greenwich, CT 06836
Medium: Disk
Retail Price: $3995

Until the day when that Qnfll shin

gle is hammered into plate on my
house on a hill, 1 am always looking
for some new and exciting tool to
help me build my castles in (he sky.
This is not easy. After all, there arc
only so many kinds of graph paper, so
many colors of pens, so many maga
zines, and so many hours in a day. It
lias been years since 1 found a new
way to indulge my passion. But 1 have
been patient And patience has its re
wards: namely, Dream House from
CBS Software. ERASE. Next to these are four rather
Dream H0US8 provides you with cryptic-looking icons. The one that
four different houses, each with its Dream House is not looks like either the center of a
own floor plan, exterior view, and in hullseyc or a sugar donut, depending.
terior rooms. Hit your joystick button exactly a game, 1 suppose, on your hunger status, is
and you will be presented with a the ANIMATE ALL symbol. Yes, this
choice of three different ways to be though it does re program allows you to bring certain
gin. The first. "Pick a House," lets you objects to life with both movement
leaf through the blueprint floor plans quire ajoystick, but and .sound effects. When you ANI
of all the houses, The second and MATE ALL, everything in your picture
third options, "Interior Design" and
it isjust as entertain that can move, will move. The next
"Exterior Design." take you directly
ing and challenging icon, which looks like an abstract
to the inside or the outside of the painting of questionable esoteric
house. as any traditional depth, is the SELECTIVE animation
When you use the program lor the symbol. With this you can selectively
first lime, you will want to go with game out there. choose which objects will or will not
the first option to familiarize yourself be animated,
With the layout, style and size of the The last two symbols are easier to
different houses. Bach has its own tion. go with the San Francisco Victo relate to. The MOVING VAN takes you
unique attraction: the San Francisco rian. Now you've got a choice of be to any number of storage areas where
Victorian is a two-story, six-room ginning with the exterior or the you can find just about anything you
classic, with the requisite bay win interior of the house. Place the cursor need to furnish, decorate, and embel
dows and fancy woodwork; the Colo on LANDSCAPE THIS ONE, hit the lish both your interior and exterior,
nial farmhouse has the big airy rooms fire button, and siart outside. frees, plants and fences, paintings,
and salt-box charm of New England; Here you are, on a quaint San Fran furniture and knick-knack.s. dishes,
the lop-floor Manhattan penthouse cisco hillside street, overlooking the pots, refrigerators and light fixtures,
reeks with the modern elegance of famous Golden Gate Bridge. Nestled and even people and pets can be
the New York jet setter; and the comfortably between two other picked up by the truckloisd and trans
woodsy Hideaway Cottage comes equally charming Queen Annes, ported back. And, if you've searched
complete with waterwheel, ginger stands your very own dream Victo through all the storage areas and still
bread roof, and a secret attic. rian abode. At this point, however, can't find what you're looking for, the
Picking one is no easy task. Use everything is washed in shades of last icon, the HAMMER, will take you
your joystick button to choose FOR gray, except for the Golden Gate to the workshop, where you can build
WARD ONE or BACK ONE, and cycle bridge, which is, of course, golden. it yourself.
through the four blueprints until you The bottom menu portion of the Let's get down to business. All thai
decide upon the house you want to screen has four rectangular boxes la gray is rather lifeless and depressing.
work with. For the sake of illustra- beled COLOR, MOVI-:, COPY and Continued on page i->

Simulator n

., ourself in the pilot's seat of a Piper 181 Cherokee Archer for an awe-inspiring flight over realistic scene
''''from New York to Los Angeles. High speed color-filled 3D graphics will give you a beautiful panoramic vie1
as you practice takeoffs, landings, and aerobatics. Complete documentation will get you airborne quickly ,
even If you've never flown before. When you think you're ready, you can play the World War I Ace aerial battle,'
game. Flight Simulator II features Include ■ anlmated'color 3D graphics ■ day, dusk, and night flying modes
■ over 80 airports in tour scenery areas: New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, with additional scenery i
areas available ■ user-variable weather, from clear blue skies to grey cloudy conditions ■ complete flight
Instrumentation ■ VOR, ILS, ADF, and DME radio equipped ■ navigation facilities and course plotting ■ World
War I Ace aerial battle game m complete Information manual and flight handbook.

See your dealer...

otwrilBor call lor moreinlormalion. ForifirectordersencloseS49.95 plusS2.00
for shipping and specify UPS or firsl class mail delivery. Amencan Express. Corporation
Diner's Club. MasterCard, and Visa accepted.
713 Edgebrook Drive
Order Line: 800 / 637-4983 Champaign IL61820
Circle Reader Service No. 2a (217) 359-8«2Telex: 206995
POWER PLAN XPER - expert system
Powerful spread XPER is the first
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1 00
t ID

1 100
.10 visually as well as for the C-64 & C-
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you can use POWER PLAN'S impressive build the information into a knowledge base.
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can draw directly on Hem Nunter DcicnpIkOD
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the screen from
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POINTS, LINES, versatile and power
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Make professional Technical analysis
quality charts from charting package to
your data in help the serious
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enter, edit, save data at keyboard or
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PHO-ECTEQ VEW build pie, bar, line or Services. Track
scatter graph. You high, low, close,
can specify scaling, volume, bid and
labeling and positioning and watch ask. Place up to 300 periods of information
CHARTPAK instantly draw the chart in any for 10 different stocks on each data diskette.
of 8 different formats. Change the format Build a variety of charts on the split screen
immediately and draw another chart. combining information from 7 types of
Incudes statistical routines for average, moving averages, 3 types of oscillators,
deviation, least squares and forecasting. trading bands, least squares, 5 different
Hardcopy to most printers. $39.95 volume indicators, relative charts, much
CHARTPLOT-64 for 1520 plotter $39.95 more. Hardcopy to most printers. $84.95

;ircle Reader Sotvice No. 1

Not just a compiler,
The most advanced Super-Pascal but a complete
C development
:) Language!^;::; Development; development sys
package available Package ■"■!■
: ; :Cbmpiler: ■;/ tem. Rivals Turbo
for the C-64 or C-
■; Coinpl«tePascal' ■
NFiili C Compiler - 128 with very com , .Compilerand.Tools'..
Pascal® in both
r;.rorC-MBi:c-i28;:: plete source editor; ■■■■for C-64 J.C-128-" speed and features.
full K&R compiler Produces fast 6510
(w/o bit fields); II machine code.
linker (binds up to Includes advanced
7 separate mod source file editor;
ules); and set of disk utilities. Very complete full Jensen & Wirth compiler with system
editor handles search/replace, 80 column programming extensions, new high speed
display with horizontal scrolling and 41K DOS (3 times faster); builtin assembler for
source files. The I/O library supports specialized requirements. Overlays, 11-digit
standard functions like printf and fprintf. Free arithmetic, debugging tools, graphics
runtime package included. For C-64/C-128 routines, much more. Free runtime
with 1541/1571 drive. Includes system package. Includes system diskette and
diskette and user's handbook. $79.95 complete user's handbook. $59.95


full compiler The most advanced development The most advanced
BASIC compiler graphics develop
available for the C- ment package avail
64. Our bestselling able for the C-64.
software product. Adds dozens of
Compiles to super- powerful commands
fast 6510 machine to standard BASIC
code or very so that you can
compact speed- use the hidden
code. You can even graphics and sound
mix the two in one program. Compiles the capabilities. Commands for hires, multicolor,
complete BASIC language. Flexible memory sprite and turtle graphics, simple and
management and overlay options make it complex music and sound, hardcopy to most
perfect for all program development needs. printers, memory management, more. Used
BASIC 64 increases the speed of your by professional programmers forcommerical
programs from 3 to 20 times. Free runtime software development. Free runtime
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user's handbook. $39.95 user's handbook. $39.95

FORTH Other software also available!

Our FORTH lang Call now for free catalog and the name of your
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Dealer Inquiries Welcome
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More than 1200 dealers nationwide
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ider Service No. 2


Disk directories may be listed at any

The Fast- Do fast-loaderprod time without erasing the program
in memory by typing a "S." There-
Loader ucts really work? I are also commands to read the error
held a race among
Gran Prix Fast Load performed well during
testing and loaded every piece of soft
fourfast-loader ware. It is available from Epyx at 1043
X he 1541 disk drive is a reliable products, and here Kiel Court, Sunnyvale, California
workhorse, but a slow one at that. 94089, and has a suggested retail
fest-loader products claim to load are the results. price of 139.95.
programs faster and offer other cn-
lancement features 10 make life with
the 1541 easier. But do these products
really work? 1 held a race between
our leading East-loader products, and
the accompanying chart shows how
fast each product loaded nine com
mercial software products.

however, it cannot be reinstated with

out turning the computer off and on
again. Kwik-Load!
The cartridge is easy to use and Ofthefourproducis reviewed here,
comes with good documentation. Kwik-Load.' from Datamost is the
Most commercial software products only one that is disk-based. The pro
can be loaded by pressing the "CE" gram not only allows the use of two
(Commodore logo) and 1UJN7STO11 si 1541 disk drives, but features a tesi to
multaneously. BASIC programs art- check the disk drive for proper oper
loaded by typing "/Filename" and ating speed. You can edit information

Fast Load saved with "(left arrow) Filename." on a diskette directly by track and sec-
In addition to loading most pro
grams significantly faster. Fast Load
The Fast-Loader Gran Prix
also provides several disk utilities. Final Standings
Press the English-pound key '.md ac
cess the utility menu, which includes Epyx Data- Skyles
Program Used
the directory, return io BASIC, copy Fast Access most 1541
For Test
(file or disk), disable Fast Load, edit Normal Load Mach5 Kwik- Flash
diskette, and file utility. Load (Car Car Load (Hard
Selecting "file utility" brings a sub tridge) (Disk) ware)
Time tridge)
menu which includes a directory, re
turn to main menu, copy file, delete Easy Script 1:02 :58 :59 :30
file, lock file, unlock file, and rename
Music Construction Set 2:47 2:43 2:43 2:43 1:40
file. I found the lock-file function to
be especially interesting, because it Sword ofFargoal 1:02 .16 .16 :20
protects files from accidental deletiun.
Flight Simulator 2:50 1:03 1:04 2:53 1:08
In the event you decide to delete a
"locked" file, you would need to first 77k- Heist 1:27 :26 :29 :26 33
use the unlock utility.
Zaxxon 2:29 2:29 2:29 2:29 1:05
Fast Loud also provides a power
ful monitor for editing and dehugging VIP Terminal 2:43 2:43 2:43 Wont 1:09
assembly language programs, h is Load
called by typing "!" and exited by
Beach Head 2:27 :43 :45 Wont :45
typing "%."
Fast Load may he disabled from
the keyboard by typing a "D" and hit Kwik-Write =32 :32 :32 :30 ;29
ting RETURN. Once ii is disabled.

tur, and it formats, validates and cop In addition to the cartridge, the lation of the 1541 Flash! assembly
ies disks as well. Mach 5 package includes a disk with will void the warranties of both the
There is no way to disengage Kuilh- two enhancement programs, "Basic 64 and the 15i 1 if they arc still in ef
load! once it is enabled other than + -iK" and "Mach Disk Organizer." fect. The kernal HUM of the computer
turning the computer off and on Both programs require the Mach 5 and the operating ROM of the drive
again. The program "bombed'" occa cartridge. will have to he removed, as well as
sionally during testing, and there was "Basic + 4K" frees an additional one of the drive's 6522 chips to insert
no way to recover from these crashes. 4.096 bytes of memory for use in the the Flash! assembly boards. If you've
(The documentation booklet suggests BASIC workspace and is completely never inserted or removed chips be
typing SYS 52480 to revive it, bin this compatible with all standard Commo fore, you may want to seek the help of
did not work.) dore BASIC 2.0 commands. It relo a competent friend or technician.
During testing, Kwitt-l.oad! Tailed cates the BASIC ROM routines to other Some early 64's have the kernal
to loud two programs, Beach Head memory areas, so there is i3K avail ROM soldered in place instead of in a
and VII' Terminal. The package notes able for BASIC instead of the usual socket. In such a case. I recommend
thai problems may be encountered 39K. The extra 4K is especially useful letting a trained technician do the
when trying to loud software with for storing variables. ROM removal and socket installation,
heavy copy protection. Evidently this "Mach Disk Organizer" catalogues or Skyles will do it for S2H.50 if you
is the case with two programs. your program disks and their files. wish.
The documentation is comprehen Once (he disks have been catalogued,
sive and well written. Kwik-Load! is the information is then stored on a
fairly easy 10 use, but isn't as direct or data disk. The program keeps track of
quick as the other two cartridge-based the file name, disk location, size of
products. It is available from Data- file, file type, and iis location by track
most at 20660 Nordhoff .Street. and sector.
Chatsworth, California 91311. and Of the four products tested here.
has ;i suggested retail price of S 19.95. Mach 5 was the easiest to use thanks
to the built-in command summary
1 ..
screen. It loaded all lest software, and
comes with good documentation. It is
available from Access Software, at
" ■ ! 925 E. 900 South, Salt Lake City, Utah
AM UHDI1 IC*Hn»B0O 84 105, and has a suggested retail 1. Location of kernal
■4114 TW •• *K ll'l-'kl
price of5.-Vi.9S. ROM

The chips in both the computer and

/ drive are surrounded by resistors and
other components in close proximity
(the boards are "densely populated,"
in tech |argon), lie gentle when doing
the work and use a flat-bladed instru
ment (nail file, paring knife) to gently
Mach 5 pry the chip up from the socket. If at
Access Software brings us the all possible, work both ends of the
Mach 5 Enhancement Package, a chip, a little at a time, until it is out. If
combination fast-loader cartridge and you are reasonably confident of your
disk-based enhancement program. ability to do delicate work and foilow
The Mach .5 cartridge provides a directions, you can probably handle
command-reference screen by press the Installation without any problems.
ing the left-arrow and M keys. Disk di Skyles 1541 Flash If you have any trepidations about do
rectories may be listed by typing "5." The 154 1 Flash! is a hardware add ing it yourself, refer it to a service
and neither the disk directory nor the on assembly for the Commodore 64 person.

command summary will disturb any and 1541 disk drive. The components And finally, the 1541 Flash! is not a
program currently in memory. are pre-wired, the documentation is cure for "sick" or "tired" 15il's! To
In addition to several combinations excellent, and the unit may be reap the maximum benefits from the
of load commands, Macb 5 also al switched in or out at will. A Phillips installation, you must start with a
lows the opening and closing of .screwdriver, tape, and a flat-blade healthy disk drive
printer channels, screen dumping to screwdriver or nail file are the only Figure 1 shows the location of the
printer, and a command for disabling tools required. The installation should 64 kernal ROM between the user and
the disk drive rattle when an error is take about half an hour to complete, cassette ports (some 64's have this
encountered. Mach 5 can be disabled but may take longer if you've never ROM soldered into the board—see
and reinstated entirely from the done this sort of thing before. warning above). This kernal ROM gets
keyboard, A few words of caution: The instal removed, the Flash I kernal ROM as-


SCmbly insetted, and the original 64 use tilt .serial cable to connect the load of VIP "terminal and Zctxxon, as
ROM inserted into that assembly. drive and the computer in conjunc well as appreciable speed gains on
Flgllte IA shows the original kernal tion with the 1541 Flash! cable. some other loads. It worked reliably
ROM in place on the Skyles assembly. Once the boards and chips have during extensive testing.
llggy-back feflhton. The slip-on con been Inserted and tested, it's time to In addition to being the most im
nector assembly is routed through the close the computer and drive. Then pressive speed enhancement for the
user port opening. for the fun pan—using it! 1541 disk drive, it is also the most dif
The 1541 Flash! allows a shorthand ficult to install and the most expen
form of many "everyday" com sive: The 154 I Rash! has a retail price
mands. For example LOAD'"*".8,1 is of 599,95, A model for dual drives is
replaced with the [SHIFT]/[RUN/
STOP] and RETURN. Other useful
commands include switching to fast
or slow drive speeds through soft
ware control, soft reset of the drive,
and warm start for the64.
A useful set of DOS commands arc
also activated when you type SYS
65526/RFTURN. These include ini
Figure 1 A. Kernal ROM tialization, directory, change drive
relocated after number, copy, scratch, new, validate,
installation of 1541 and other commands. Most of the
Flash! Figure 4. 6522 chip with leg of
DOS commands are Invoked with one
phi 19 bent out
Figure 2 shows the CableCard as or two keystrokes.
sembly inserted into the user port. also available front Skyles. If your 64's
The exposed edge connectors act as kernal ROM is soldered in, you can
an extension of the user port contacts, plan on paying another S28.50 to
so von can still use vour modem. have Skyles install a ROM socket. If
you elect to contract a technician to
do the installation, it will probably
cost between S15 to $30 for labor.
I'nder the worst circumstances, this
could set you back about SI55 for
the hardware and installation. Doing
it yourself keeps the cost down
Figure 3. Flash! ROM assembly
in place of original

Ten editing commands include cur

Figure 2. CableCard inserted in
sor control, pausable listings, and es
user port
cape quotes, Several advanced pro
Figure 3 shows Flash! operating gramming commands for speed
ROM assembly in place of the original setting, linked loaders, and a run-time
I54l's ROM chip. The original 1541 debugger are also present.
ROM gets inserted into the socket in If you'd like, you can apply the
this assembly. The slip-connector is brakes either through software or
routed through the back of the drive's hardware control. The software-
Figure 5. Completed installation
case. method involves a few keystrokes,
Figure -i .shows the 6522 with the while the hardware method involves On the plus side, all the compo
"leg" of pin 19 bent straight out. Note flipping a switch on the cable connec nents are top quality, the documenta
the mini-clips in place in pins 1H and tor. In this way, the assembly can be tion is thorough, and the excellent
19. The ground wire will be attached engaged or disengaged instantly. performance of I S-i 1 Flash! makes
lo tin- chassis ground screw in the rear The features mentioned above are the cost justifiable for "heavy" appli
left corner of the main circuit board. nice 10 have, but they really wouldn't cations, 1!" you want the Rolls Royceof
Figure 5 shows the completed in justify the cost of the 1541 Flash!. the fast-loader (Iran Prix, the 1541
stallation »n the drive, waiting to be The real strength of the unit is its Flash! is it.
tested before reassembly. Selector speed—it really turns the 1541 into a The 1541 Flash! is available from
switches are located on both the drive- "hot rod" disk drive. Skyles Electric Works, 231E South
connector and at the user port con The overall performance of the unit Whisman Road. Mountain View. Cali
nector. Note thai you will still have to is excellent. It even speeded up the fornia 94041. Q


America has always been greatest when

we dared to ho great. We inn reach for greatness
again. We can iblbw onr dreams to distant stars,
living and working in space fur peaceful,
economic, and scientific gain."
President Ronald Reagan
February 24, 1984

Become a part of the excitement

of the Young Astronaut Program
through such quality Commodore
Hradlns Professor
products as the Commodore 64,
Modem/300, SkyTravel, Just Imagine,
Reading Professor and Typing
roooan 3oo

SwiftCalc SwiftCalc can interface

view, and a feature worth its weight
in gold—escape or undo. This little
gem allows you to abort procedures
Computer] Commodore 64
with Timeivorks' other in process.
Publisher: Timeworks
444 Lake Cook Road productivity software, Believe it or not. l)() percent of
these capabilities can be accessed
Deerfield, IL 60015
Medium: l>isk
or stand alone. through combinations of the Commo
dore or CTRL keys (in tandem) with
Retail Price: 849.95
the numeric keys. For instance, CTRL

.Instead of creating Integrated soft News Flash 2 activates the search function and
Commodore 2 the copy function.
ware thai performs one function well
and two or three not so well, Time-
Timeworks Adds Likewise. CTRL -t allows you to insert
a blank row or column and Commo
works has produced a series of fine Sideways to dore -i allows you to format (decimal,
stand-fllone products th;u can also scientific notation, or graphic display)
work together. SwiftCalc, Data Man SwiftCalc a cell or a block.
ager I ami J. Electronic Cbvckbtmk, The function keys change the
As this issue was in production.
and Word Writer all interface with screen colors, move the display one
Timeworks announced the release
each other Here we'll take a look at screen at a time up, down, left or
of a stand-alone Siclmvays program
SwiftCalc. right, and access the disk's load and
for use with SwiftCalc. Sideways
From a spreadsheet introduction save functions. Why there's even a
enables the user lo print an entire
and a glossary of terms, to .start-up warm boot (reset to BASIC) so you
spreadsheet vertically on one sheet
and operating procedures. Swift- can continue computing without hav
of paper. Users can print as wide a
Cole's spiral-bound 150-page manual ing to flick the power off and on
spreadsheet as they like and can
covers il all. Each feature is explained again.
choose from a variety of type sizes.
and illustrated in detail in the tutorial These key combinations are clearly
Versions tor the Commodore 64
section. Working examples and sam illustrated on the handy, heavily lami
andCommodore 128 will retail for
ple spreadsheets are provided later on. nated pull-out reference strips that
To help an electronic work come with SwiftCalc. Just tape them
sheet into your life, Timewurks has way to the next data entry location. to the 64 and you're in business. You
provided a nice medley of built-in Editing capabilities are also of pri won't need to read the manual for
mathematical functions, all accessible mary importance in a worksheet. much more than the bclwccn-pro-
with a few keystrokes. Besides stan SwiftCalc lets you insert or delete in gram data transfers.
dard mathematical functions (addi dividual characters as well as entire A significant deficiency is the fact
tion, multiplication, subtraction, divi rows or columns. Information in that you can copy only one cell at a
sion, and exponentiation), SwiftCalc groups of cells (blocks) can be deleted time, not a whole range. If you can
quickly determines the minimum or or moved to other spots at will. Cell move a range, you should be able to
maximum values in a range, the aver widths can be set individually, even copy a range. When duplicating rows
age value or sum of a range, the Dum though text and figures (labels and and columns of labels, this multi-cell
ber of values (hcadcount) in a range, numbers in spreadsheet jargon) spill copy feature is sorely missed.
and the absolute or integer value of a over to the next space automatically. In the version 1 reviewed, the
single cell. An automatic recalculate function search function didn't compensate for
Perec n t a ge - to-dec i ma 1 c on versio ns changes figures in a formula and uppercase/lowercase. You had to
and financial analyses such as present views the results almost simultane know exactly what was and wasn't
and future values of a dollar or an ously. This "what-If" capability is the capitalized, otherwise the function
annuity arc included too. livery most powerful and most valuable of would miss the mark. I lowever. Time-
one of these features is thoroughly fering any spreadsheet has to offer. works says they are correcting this, so
explained. You can disable and re-enable this by the time you read this review, the
Cursor movement is as important in function as you please. new version should be available.
a spreadsheet as it is in a word proces Speaking of choice, you can inde Also, when entering location coor
sor. Knowing that. Tinicworks lias pendently change text, background, dinates, you can't move the cursor
provided multiple means to manipu or status colors any time. This flexibil over them. They must be typed in
late the meandering marker: cursor ity eliminates eyestrain. Other niceties Separately. IT it weren't for the integral
key control, a GOTO function, and an include a search and a scarch-and- sum function (which can be used as a
automatic cursor-advance option. replace function for hunting down subset of larger formulas), this situa
The cursor-advance option is great phrases, words and figures. tion would be extremely annoying.
when selling up row after row or Through the disk commands, you Despite these minor objections,
column after column of entries. |ust initialize blanks as well as save or load SwiftCalc is an excellent product at
press tin RETURN key to enter the In spreadsheets. Other options include a an outstanding price. Its value is there
formation, and the cursor is on iis free memory check, disk directory re for all to see—and capitalize on. Q

30 sr.l'TliMHIiU/OCToill'H


• Translates Basic into Machine Language

Full 32 Bit Arithmetic • Overlay Programming
Completely Romable • Include Files During Compilation

Valley West Plaza 4185 South 300 West, Suite 12 Ogden, Utah 84403 (801) 392-0109

We'd Love to Answer Your Questions!!

1-800-626-6732 Mails rCard

Loadstar and the Payload programs. Side two

contains the feature programs and all
Computer: Commodore 64
Loadstar is more than the other goodies.
An important feature of Loadstar is
Publisher: Loadstar just a collection ofpro the documentation that accompanies
P.O. Box 30007
Shreveport, LA 71130 gramsfrom Commo each program. Of course you'd ex
pect the Payload and feature pro
Medium: Disk
dore Microcomputers or grams to have documentation, but
Retail Price: Sy.95
even the programs from Commodore
Commodore Power/
Microcomputers and Commodore
A've been a subscriber io Commo Play. Loadstar Power/Play have enough documenia-
dore Microcomputers and Commo ion on the Loadstar disk to get you
dore Power/Play ever .since I got my
is a disk mag started. And most programs, when
you're finished running them, bring
first VIC 20 almost three years ago. azine with
Needless to say, I read both magazines you back to either the main Loadstar
cover to covet. In fact, these maga all thefea menu or one of the sub-menus.
zines and the programs published in
them have been instrumental in help
turesfound J Starting Out
ing me leam to write my own pro in any After inserting the disk in your
grams for both the VIC and the Com drive, type LOAD""",8 (that's how
modore 64. I have learned many printed magazine! the disk got its name) and press RE
tricks and techniques from studying TURN. At the READY prompt, type
the published programs, and have RUN and press RETURN. After some
built an extremely large and useful and all the instructions must be ob Introductory screens, you arrive at the
program library in the process. tained from the printed issue, so 1 was main menu. Simply select the letter
Of course, I'm a bit (no pun in expecting something similar from corresponding to your choice of
tended) lazy when it conies to typing Loadstar. menu item, and that item will be
in programs myself. Most useful pro So why was 1 so surprised with loaded into your Commodore 64. For
grams are somewhat long, and I don't Loadstar? Why did 1 spend two full example, to select the Commodore
exactly enjoy doing the typing. It's evenings exploring, playing with, and Power/Play programs from Loadstar
just the means to get the programs reading Loadstar hefore 1 even looked 11, press the "!)" key.
into my computer. Then, after cor at the Commodore Power/Play pro A new menu appears on your
recting ;ill my typing errors, I'm ready grams? Because Loadstar is more than screen, with a hand pointing to the
to check out the program. just a collection of programs from a first in a list of program names. At the
magazine. Loadstar it.self is a maga top left of the screen, another hand
Loadstar to the Rescue zine, a disk magazine, with all the fea points to the word ABOUT. At the top
When I saw that Loadstar would tures found in any printed magazine. right, the word RUN appears. Move
begin providing the Commodore Mi In addition to the Commodore Mi the hand from ABOUT to RUN and
crocomputers and Commodore crocomputers and Commodore back again with the joystick or left/
Power/Play programs on its monthly Power/Play programs included on il, right cursor key. Move the central
disk, I grabbed my credit card, dialed Loadstar contains its own programs, hand to another program name with
the toll free number, and signed right called Payload programs, as well as the joystick or up/down cursor key.
up. Then I sat back and enjoyed read several feature programs. Loadstar When you've made your selection,
ing the next issue of Commodore also includes features, editorials, press the fire button or space bar. (All
Power/Play, knowing that in a few columns, question-and-answer ses these control instructions are dis
days I'd receive a disk containing all sions, hardware and software re played at the bottom of the screen,
the wonderful programs. views, a help column, tutorials, and so you don't have to remember
Itoy, was I ever surprised! The even some (just a few!) ads. Let's take anything.)
Loadstar disk was more—much a look at a typical issue, number 11, If the upper hand is on HUN, the
more—than I had expected. which includes the programs from program listed will load and run., If
Before I go on, I should mention Commodore Power/Play, May 1985- the upper hand is on ABOUT, a text
that 1 subscribe to the disk service of file will load that will tell you about
one of the other popular Commo Star Gazing the program. You can scroll through
dore-oriented magazines. That disk, Loadstar 11 contains programs on the text file with your joystick or cur
which is also published monthly, eon- both sides of the disk, which is typical sor keys. Then, you can choose to ei
tains all the programs from the corres of all Loadstar issues. This disk fills ther load the program or return to the
ponding issue. The magazine pro 1268 out of a possible 1^2H blocks, menu, based on the position of an
grams, plus a few advertisements, can for a total of over 314K bytes of pro other selection hand at the top of the
be accessed From a menu. Only those grams and text. Side one contains the se reen.

programs are included on the disk, Commodore Power/Play programs The Payload programs work the

32 sm'Tii
same way. If you select :t menu item are experiencing problems. Questions like the colors chosen for the Loadstar
that is actually on the other side of the submitted by readers are answered by main menu. They're too hard on the
disk, you will be told to turn the disk the editors. This section also contains eyes.
over in tin.-drive. hardware and software reviews by
subscribers who have used the A Best Buy
The Flip Side products. While the cost of Loadstar is not
Included on side iwo is a Pixel Perhaps the most unique feature of cheap, it is just about the same as the
page—a graphics screen which can be Loadstar is the "feedback disk cost of some of those other magazine
thought of as the magazine's cover. maker." A feedback disk is for you to disk services. Rut those other services
Following this nre the "paperless submit your comments, articles, re pale, almost even disappear, in com
pages." which start off with a short views, questions, and programs for parison to Loadstar. While the other
editorial. Background music is avail the editors to read, answer, or con services Include only the programs
able while you "read" Loadstar, or sider for publication (yes. you get paid from the issue of the magazine they
you can switch off the music at the if your article or program is pub serve, Loadstar gives a whole lot
touch of a key. Included in the "paper lished). Loadstar prepares the feed more. It's truly a magazine in and of
less pages"' arc a couple of ads for back disk, which contains the Starwri- itself, and nicely complements my
Loadstar and the Commodore publi ler word processor for your use in subscription to Commodore Micro
cations, followed by the tutorials (Is creating your electronic Letters to the computers and Commodore Power/
sue 11 contains "Do's and Don't's," Editor. A postage-paid sticker is pro Play,
and two Installments of Alan vided for your disk mailer. The editors I'm not one to spend hard-earned
Gardner's and Jim Weiler's "PEEK, promise to return your disk as soon as money frivolously, whether it's mine
POKH, and SYS"). A column correct they copy the information, so it or someone else's, but I highly recom
ing errors from previous issues is in doesn't COSt you anything to send mend Loadstar, If you can afford only
cluded here. it in. one disk service, make it Loadstar. If
Also on side two is the section you can afford more than one, make
called "Influx," which is basically The Bad News sure Loadstar is one of them. You'll
uscr-wriiten. "Influx" includes a help Every review must have a negative soon wonder why you bothered with
section, written by subscribers who comment about the product; I don't the others! Q


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excitement into your touch typing practice Keeps 11 standard slats ■ yoj add 4 of your own. Handles 18
while reinforcing proper typing techniques.
players. 30 games per season. Full corrections routine Built in.
"This is the best typing tutor we have seen yet; **#* + "
INFO-64 □re MASTER DISK may tie used by all Ihe teams in your school.
"Best typing tutor I've seen — Better than Mastertype"
Microcomputer Courseware Evaluation FOOTBALL SC0UT-N0W $49.50
"WORD INVADERS Is fantastic" Scout the opposition and record 250 olfensive plays per learn.
Editors of Consumer Guide Reporis snow their tendencies so you can create an effective
NEW! Commodore Plus/4 or 16 Tape 521.95 Disk $24.95 defense. This is "The Unfair Advantage1"
Commodore 64 Tape S21.95 Disk S24.95
VIC 20 (unexpanded) Tape S21.95 VOLLEYBALL STATS-NOW $35.00
Handles all standard statistics. May be used for men or women ■
IFR (FLIGHT SIMULATOR) up to 5 games per match. Prmis a worksheet lo record info during
the game
Put yourself in the pilot's seat! This pro
gram provides a very challenging, realistic
simulation ol flying under Instrument Flight
Rules (IFR) in a single engine light plane. Does all the paperwork for you Can be used for MALE / FEMALE
Realistic instrumentation and aircraft per competition at Ihe high school, college, or club level Handles
fcrmance. Plenty of thrills for pilots and from two team meets to 32 team tournaments.
non-pilots alike.
"It is tremendous fun." Compute's Gazette FOR COMMODORE 64. 32K PET. APPLE FAMILY
"It's a great program, and as a pilot I found it to be very -DISKS ONLY -
realistic. My brother, a current commercial pilot and a
former Air Force flight instructor with over 3,500 hours in
military and civilian aircraft was also quite impressed." Please Afld %2 00 Per Order For Poslagc and Handling
Private Pilot
NEW! Commodore Plus/4 or 16 Tape oi Disk S29.95 WRITTEM BY TEACHERS FOR TEACHERS
Commodore 64 Tape or Disk S29.95
VIC 20 (unexpanded] Cartridge S39.95 MIDWEST SOFTWARE
Box 214 Farmington, Ml 48024
^5^ Shipping and Handling S1.00 por Phone (313) 477-0897
SOFTH//1RE "^™ °'a"r CA rosldenis ucld 6% la*. VISA/MASTERCARD
P.O. Box 6277 San Rafael, CA 84903 (415)499-0850

Circle Reader Service No. 3


This takes questions from the pro

grams and prints them out with :i sep
Oh November 2 and December 7, college-bound high school stu arate answer sheet.
dents trill file nervously into <£Ui&t SCbool rooms and audito The Kivll program oilers in-depih.

riums to take the crucial test on which their future hinges—the Individualized learning for the serious
SAT student If you follow their sug
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Studies sboiv that those students
gestions and use the program ;ls di
who have been coached will do significantly better than those rected, you're practically guaranteed
who haven't. And your Commodore 64, used with an SA'i prep of chalking up extra points when D-
and ion program, is an excellent coach. Day rolls around.

for the SAT
M.f you're like most kids, you need probably be interested in the money- Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1250
more than :i supply of number iwo back guarantee that comes with Sixth Avenue, Sent Diego, CA 92101,
pencils to prepare you for the Scholas Kraft's.SVI7" program. Krell will refund (800} 543-1918 or (619) 699-6335,
tic Aptitude Ifest (SAT).The more in- your purchase price il you done raise $79.95.
furmntinn you have before the lest, your score by at least ho points after COMPUTER PRBBARATION for
ihc better your scare will he. And using iheir program lor six hours. the SAT is a computer-assisted stucty
that's where ihe computer COITUS in. Krell's format is slightly different program which relies hcuvily 00 toiiv
SAT preparation is a perfect applica from other SAT computer .study pro puUT-administered drills, with imme
tion of the computer. It acts as your grams. Their program offers mainly diate feedback. Four full-length tests
private tutor—quizzing, explaining, practice questions and answers and are included in the -!70-p:ige test,
and telling yciu where you went optional simulated timed tests, which rather than on disk. The primary
wron^ il can even keep track of your arc scored. The questions are random function o!' the computer, as far us
scores, so you can more effectively ized and the wording is varied lo testing goes, is to act us :i score sheet
monitor your progress. Here are five avoid repetition. The feedback regard for the pre-tesi. li's a hii cumbersome
SAT packages for the Commodore 64, ing right and wrong answers is to feed the answers into the computer,
and no matter which one you choose, excellent. but the immediate feedback is helpful.
you're almost sure to improve yuLir One unique feature of the Krell pro- The advantage, of course, is thai you
score. graiti is an automatic learning strategy don't have to spend time [coking up
The computer will evaluate your re the correct answer in ilie hack of the
KreU's College Board SAT sponses and present you with .i series hook.
Exam Preparation Series of individualized questions in areas The program scores your lest :md
KrsU Softu'tin: 1320 Stony Hntok where Improvement is most needed. then creates an Individualized study
Road, Stony Brook, NY 11790, (5/6) The data can then be saved to disk, so plan by indicating your weak areas
245-7355, $300, you can concentrate your study in and telling you what you need to con
If you don't miml spending big problem areas. Another Interesting centrate mi, 'lo increase your perfor
bucks Tor a little insurance. you'll option is the worksheet generator. mance in English, you can use the

1000 on-disk vocabulary flush cards. clude randomizing so that no two
These are easy to use and extremely tests are ever the same, and a score-
helpful. Improve yourperfor card-printing option for keeping re
mance—and reduce cords as you go along. The testing
the SAT offers abaslc approach to SAT mode also offers the Opportunity to
studying. While it doesn't try to be anxiety—with these return to any questions you got
entertaining, it definitely gives you wrong the first time around. You now
practice and strategies that will help computerized SAT
have a second chance to come up
you keep your cool when taking the
preparation With the right answer
real thing.
I 'nfortunately. The Perfect Score
packagesfor the can'i guarantee a perfect score. It
Commodore 64. can, however, offer a bit of fun to
counteract the drudgery of studying
for the SAT.
versities. The College Guide is a
handy little extra for comparing and

choosing schools.
Lovejoy's unique features make ii

an extremely easy to use SAT study
aid. It's a complete, well planned pro
gram containing everything you al
ways wanted to know about the SAT.
Lovejoy's Preparation for but were afraid to ask.
—i iBrC"JS
the SAT h

Simon and Schuster, 1230 Avenue of IK!! I'SaQ iou

.■"pc-el^V13 UBIK! TH£
the Americas, New York. NY 10020,
(212)245-6400, $69.95. Mastering the SAT
Lovejoy's Preparation for tbe sat CBS Software, One Fawcett Place,
contains two verbal and math exams, Greenwich, CT 06836, (203) 622-
along with a Test of Standard Written 2500, S150.
English and 500 extra practice ques Mastering the SAT is a complete ap
tions. There is an automatic scoring proach to SAT study via computer,
system, and both the exam and prac The package has four single-sided
tice questions contain detailed expla disks containing one pre-tesi and one
nations for every answer. The ques (SPACE BUR TO C0MTIHU6)
post-test. Both the protest and the
tions are easy to read and there is The Perfect Score post-test include two verbal sections,
adequate time to answer each one. Mindscape, 3444 Dundee Road. two math sections, and one Test of
The computer does it all. You never Nortbbrook, n. 60062, 012) -isn- Standard Written English. A booklet
need to touch the guidebook, and 7667, S69.95. of SAT strategies and two simulated
there's even an on-disk scratch pad Along with all the SAT study basics, exams are also included.
and calculator so you can use the Mindsiape's Perfect Scon- contains a The computer questions are easily
computer to take notes and solve bonus feature not found in other pro readable and clearly differentiated
equations. grams. Instead of the usual dry, seri from the "help" sections by assorted
Lovejoy's also has a unique liming ous responses, Perfect Score's feed color hands, which also serve to break
feature consisting of a built-in timer back consists of witty little phrases the monotony of the test. There are
which allows 30 minutes for each sec that will make you chuckle. Some full explanations of right and wrong
tion. The pressure mounts as the min times they're a little on the corny side, answers, and the program pinpoints
utes tick by—just like the real thing. but they do help you slay awake! areas needing Improvement, To push
The only disadvantage to Lovejoy's 'The Perfect Score has two modes of your score even higher, there are sup
Preparation for the SAT is the fact operation: testing and learning. The plementary math and English skill-
that it uses separate disks for data learning mode offers immediate feed building exercises.
storage. If you have only one disk back after each question, including Scoreeards are another Interesting
drive, you'll have to do a hit full explanations of right and wrong feature of Mastering the sat. These
of disk-switching. choices. The lesi mode is more like can be saved on disk and displayed on
The manual is necessary only if the real thing, as it goes through a set the screen or printed out so you can
you're interested in test-taking strat of questions and scores them at the keep a record of your progress.
egy or study tips, in addition to the end. Both the full-length SAT exam All in all, the CBS program is a
manual, the Lorejt/y package also in and the Test of Standard Written En good, solid SAT study aid with no
cludes the Lovejoy College Guide glish are timed so you get a realistic gimmicks. If you're a "just give the
which contains useful information effect—sweaty palms and all! facts" person, you'll find all the facts
about more than 350 colleges and iini- Other Perfect Score features in you n<:cL\ in Mastering the SAT. Q

(OUMODuiii- MICROCOMP1 nils 35


Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Solid State Software
1125 E-HUlsdale Blvd.
Foster City, CA 94404
Medium: Cartridgc/Disk(s)
Retail Price: $119.97

Vizastar is three Integrated pro

grams: spreadsheet, data base and
graphics. Since :ill three pro
grams reside in memory simultane
ously, switching from one to another
is immediate, Data may be freely
transferred between the spreadsheet,
data base or graphics modes without cility permits you to predefine a se
quence of commands that may be exe
having to re-key it—it "shares" the
The interactivity of cuted at any time with a .single
dam. The Interactivity of the three
modes, coupled with ihis data-sharing the three modes, keystroke. This is another powerful
ability, makes Viztistar very flexible. feature that expands the possible uses
Vizastar packs bo much muscle coupled with its of VizaStar,
into the 64 that it is hard to believe The data base is also invoked from
you're running it on a S4K machine. data-sharing ability, the worksheet. Up to 15 indexed files
A program with these capabilities usu are possible, and each file may hold
ally requires a minimum of 12HK lo
makes VizaStar very records up to K.OQO characters long.
run. And Vizastar not only runs on Kadi record can have up to 64 fields,
the 64, but it runs f;ist. (It is written
flexible. and each field can be up to 120 char
totally in machine language.) acters. Disk access time lor any ran
Kelvin Lacy authored this program, senling menus and sub-menus of op dom record averages a last three sec
as well as the excellent documen tions. If you follow the tutorial guide onds on the 1541, the only drive
tation thai accompanies it. Users of and work the examples provided, presently supported by the program.
OmniWrtter/OntniSpell will immedi you'll he a VizciStar expert in a cou Creating file layouts is easy, and you
ately recognize his name, since he au ple of hours. may have reversed headings with bor
thored that word processor/spell ing An especially impressive feature of ders if you wish. Up to nine different
checker as well. VizaSUir is compa the program is its windowing capabil screens per file may be configured. In
tible with QmniWrttvr, as well :is ity. Windowing allows you to call up addition. ViztiStar supports direct file
most other popular word process portions of data from different sec processing from within the program
ing programs for Che 64. tions of the worksheet to the current and single- or combined -field searches
Solid State Software backs VizaSliir screen for comparison or reference. are possible.
with a IS-day full-refund guarantee Up to nine windows may be "open" Spreadsheet or database informa
A guarantee of this nature is all but at a time. tion can easily be transformed into
unheard (if in the software industry. All dam entry originates from a line or bar graphs, and windowing is
This guarantee shows Solid State's gridded "worksheet." The grid is Supported in graph mode. An ex
confidence in YiziiSlur. and it lets you composed Of 64 columns and 1,000 tended graphics package is Included
purchase it with confidence, as well. rows. Sixty-four times one thousand which provides two impressive and
VizaSlur conies on cartridge and equals 64,000 eel Is—incredible Sophisticated graph modes—color
disk. The cartridge must he in the 64 capacity. "pie charts" and three-dimensional
at all times to use the program, which The spreadsheet supports all of the four-way scrolling "skyscraper"
is loaded from disk. A hackup pro usual mathematical operators, in addi graphs. I was most impressed with the
gram disk is included in the package, tion to date processing and calcula graphs.
and an excellent tutorial guide and a tions. The date features make Vizti- Playing the devil's advocate, I scru
superb user reference guide are also Star very effective for planning. tinized, tested and experimented with
Supplied with the program. It nil scheduling and invoicing. The power VizaStar extensively, bui could find
comes packaged in ;t vinyl "archive" ful calculation functions facilitate no major weaknesses. It seems to be :i
case that provides protective storage. complex projections and forecasts, as 64 application program beyond re
VizaShtr is very easy to use for a well as simplifying many bookkeep proach. When it comes to business ap
program of such power and capabil ing calculations. plication programs, VizaStctr is an
ity. It aids the first-lime user by pre- An automatic keyboard '"HXHC" fa all-star! B

We did something about
high-priced software!


Why pay
S100, 875 or even
850 lor productivity
products for your Atari or Com*
modore 64! Try our KWIK-WARE! line
a( just S 19.95 each. All KWIK-WARE! products
deliver high quality at an amazingly low price. All
KWIK-WARE! products for the Commodore feature
our own KWIK-LOAD! for faster loading programs.

KWIK-LOAD!" — winner of Softsels award KWIK-SPELL! - - ,1 spelling checking KwiK-CKECKI — a checking account
for the hottest selling new uiUlty of iw 1 am /a- program tor \mir home computer [£ai features rcconclHailon mid maintenance program lor
i.<>\/)' in;iii\ and copies Hies over 300% faster ;< 30.iioo t word dlulonar) with the ablllij 10 >'nil- home computer. K\Y7K-CIIECA".' win
than normal Commodore DOS, ii Includes A'1I7A' add rour own conunonlj' used words. k\vik- niiilniain multfple chcdclnu accaimts. Itemize
COPy.'. .1 menu-driven group of utilities which SPELL! is torapatllile with k\\ IK-WRITE! and expenses, flag taX'deductibTu ii^ms. prim viiLir
lets you perform DOS commands, check drive other popular word processors, siy.ys check n-jiisitT in different formats und more!
speed, edit sectors on disk, and alphabetize disk Rjr Atari .mil Commotton1 61
directories siyji
Fur Atari .1111/ ( innniodorc (>-i
/■it Commodore 61 KWIK-CALC! - .1 full-fcaiured el«:-
irunu sprcadsheei jiriijtr.nn liit your home KWIK-UTILITY!" - n,K ,,1 the mosi
KWIK-WRITE!' - ., fu||.fcaturcd word computer, KVHK-GALQ i-. simple enough fur powerful disk ulillt) prontams available for the
processor lor [■our computer thai offers the home use, yci nowerlul enough lor professional I unimoiiort- KVFIK-ITILITY! will allow j-oulo
power "i dedicated systems ai .111 affordable price! or business use Witli KWIK-CALO yini can add K\\ IK!.< IAD! in lour era n disks. Int'cstlgme
K\\ IK-WRITE! allows you tosei tabs; miTjic Bles; design .i budget, forecusi for fuiurc expenses and dos protected dhk. trace files, generate disk
tin and p:L>ti-; restore deleted ii-M; [ustlfv. center play "what-B" all on one spreadsheet. Sl'J.'Ji i-rrnrs and miirt-' S!').<;i
and Indent text and more! KWIK-WRITE! mp- /'it CommodiTc (w Fit CtinmitKllllf (<i
puris the mciM popular primers and offers ;i
printer driver menu for ease nf use! Sl'J.'M KWIK-F1LE! — a menu driven, full- KWIK PAINT! - ■, handy mlllt) 1,1
For Atari and < anunadore (• 1 feaiured database foe j'oiir comptuer, KWIK- p
\\\\;\ offers the ability 10 specif)' up id SO i';mv:iN. Allows you ta ^r:ii> ;uul move or copy
KWIK PAD! — 11 dok jecretan ii.r .<mr fields, «>a records, cross refurwici; data, prim Images mi Liu- screen, >hrink or cntflfRC imuges,
home computer, This handy utility features n mailing labels and much morel Si'.".1)1; it fid use microMjopi,' modi1 tear fine du.MI ivork.
calculator mndc. tncrno pod, appointment book, For Auri .nut t 'otnnitJtJoK <> 1 Has l<> jiiiiLihlf colors pki^ Infinite Tills. Fur
calendar, address booh and more! siy.'JS um' with :i j(ij>iuk or KoalaPad". S19 ')=<
Fur At.iri.wt/ Commodore f>i KWIK-MAIL!" — ;l complete malKne liM ior Commtxlorc 61
prognmi with label generailtu) capabilities, with
KWIK-PHONE! — .1 telecommunica KWIK-A1AIL1 you can specif] \our own licld&, »l'l II" kUlk hl\lr
tions package featuring simple command menus, design your label formats, iirthi' flies and inte- kftlki hill kl Ht ' KM Ik IliHM'
automatic answer, buili in phoni' book, selec Knm* K\\ IK \\ RITE! doeuments for customized
^Vlk Mill'
jrhJ *,uih
k MhWc,i- kaik mr

table baud r.uv and more! S19 ■;■; form letters and more 81<J ')i
Fit A/.ir.< .mil Cuiiiniiii/nn- (>t Tor Auri ;irtt/ ( oniHKXltiK (< I

Coming soon. . .
ENTERTAINMENT SOFTWARE out KWIK-FORM! _ ;i personallwd repiirt :md fnrm Bwieniiiir.
cnicnoinmcni vofiuijtv is i[i->]i!inj<i fur' hallmsina
KWIK-TYPE!" - ,i ij-plng tutor far >nur humi* enmpurcr.
l>[.i> inU in ict 1:1 in men 1 s.i. whether you i
l^l.i^ .1 ipintMil ..htss. jdurnum- In a Mtji.iHiL.J ^^rU KWIK-PRINT! - ;i K^pliu di'slgn pnckuiw ili;n tunu jirnr nmipuier and printer Intu ;i
[Ttrit sll[N|l
nr jiiiirpu-i mil.\.i\ lucalliins — Duortlosj li.i
ihc K-"111-' fur Aour KWIK-MERGE! " .i liandj mlfltj thai .ill.^v- um lu raJli imnlpubtc ilira fnim
ihki KW IK-pniftnun lu anuilicr
COMPUTER BOOKS - urlncn i» ctpcrti i
ihtir 1 it]<K lor :dl k-^tls [rtmi beginning ornpute and more. . .
isi iDcxpen prugRunmciA Numaiinwlist pi>jnil.
mmpuitr 1^ usi-d we've gol iln hook [hat's rlgh
Distributor and Dealer Inquiries Invited
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OulsideCA (80D) 692-16^9
Inside CA (816) 709-1202 DATAMOST
19821 Nordhoff Si., Northridge, CA 91324 (818) 709-1202

Circle Reader Service No. 38

D-Compiler $59.95
The first D-Compiler to give you back your source code
alter your program has been compiled with 'Blitz.
'BUll it ■ tridamirk ol Skylit ElKfnc Workft

1541 Super ROM $39.95

• Fast Save Load Verify also Save with Replace is

• Fast Scratch and Validate
• Two times faster, Eight times faster
• 10 Second Format with Verify
when used with Turbo 64 which is included
• Wo more Drive Head rattling
during Format or Error Reading 1541 Super ROM is 100% Compatible • Easily installed in Minutes

Survival Guide Computer Talk The Original The Advanced

To The 1541 Dlak Drive Book of Facts Book of Facts
Finally a complete how to UNLOCK THE MYSTERIES
book on telecomputing for the OF THE COMMODORE EXPLORING
This book is a must (or
'64. Chapters include: How to YOUR COMMODORE
anyone who might have any —Simple Instructions
questions about the 1541 Disk get started with your modem —How to use a machins
— Easy step-by-slep eiamples
Drive. Complete list 01 all Drive and C-64 as well as how to language monitor
—Tricks you can do your
Commands. Includes trouble access Dow Jones, The —Advanced prelection lor
hrst day
shooting, lilehandling, Dos Source, Playnet, CompuServe your own programs
— Introduction to color, sound
wedge commands and and your favorite Bulletin —Full si*e relBrence charts
and much mote
technical information along Board. Up and down loading —How lo design your own
—Includes a routine lo protest
with complete detailed are discussed as well as how to menus and more...
your own programs
illustrations. survive in the computer world.
—NO MATTER what your
experience. Ihe Original
Book of Facts is (or everyone!
99 99
$599 99

the machine
$19.95 Super Loader
language manipulator
Translates any machine language program into easy- Super Loader is a Kartndge that plugs into
to-read English descnptions with complete e*plana- your expansion port, that allows the
lions ol each command1 The periecl companion computer, on power up start ihe disk drive

Makes complete notations ol an impcriant memory program lo D-CODER! and load the first preselected program on
the disk
locaiions accessed by the program' (SID. VIC. MOS
KERNAL, etc) Allows you to easily make changes in ma
Gives you three ways of accessing programs chine language programs... right on the disk' • Change colors
1) Will road and ill! programs liom DISK
2) Will road and list programs from MEMORYI • Loao wedge
• Rewrite ability allows code to be altered
3) Oiract liter input (from magazines, etc ) and then rewritten directly to the disk* • Works wilh more drive
Can he used to easily break apart machine language • Features sector-by-sector scrolling ■ Takes up no memory
programs (or study and examination! assembly language display ol machine
• Reset Ewilch included
Printer option (or complete hard copy listings! language programs!
• Notation ol ASCII lent eqmbslents lor easy
spotting ol embedded text strings'
• Handy reference display ol all assembly
You no longer
language commands and their ML
need to be an

^29 95
numerical equivelents'
S1995 EGGHEAD to
read Machine
• Byte splitter lor easy splitting ol decimal Only
addresses into low byte-high bylB mat1

This Disk has over 100 routines, routines. They can easily be
some of them are routines for incorporated into all of your programs.
protection, smooth scrooling, modem It is also fully documented.
routines, and sound and color
Circle Reader Service No. 19
Slik Load $29.95
Slik Load is a Kartridge for the C-64.
Slik Load is the most reliable, effective and thought out Kartridge of it's kind.
The options include:
• 5 limit faater load • Stitui hey will giva you information or
• Ellminatai drive muin whan arrort devlCD number, bytaa fr*4 and itatut of tho
ara ancountarad. t!nv>
• Old and un-nsw • Silk Load ■■ alto fully compatible with the
Will reitore a hmic program 1541 Super Rom

Sync ntnd*rCr<-c> 'or Sync bits on my Rtid/Wfiit

OMS-Errora 20. 21, 22. 23, 27 & 29
l'*cK aul In 41
Formal Singl* Tricks
Chtngi DMvi No.-Chinges drive cneckaum onora Reads ccuJe undsr
Flfild Dull Erran
srro'9 ind Et9lor« inch
Ortt* lAt.r, ' . r|. jsMmtler'Oii-
Oilh I riH»r " -"ing Inch WCEOf Fail Fonul Formal t disk in flAi 10
■3»mbfer For yauj 15*r
Han ind «nd iddraises Seconds («ttn vtnry1}
Ttx [>>■..■■ Oocigr Thil read* cento
undftr ojrori uirr^: ■ . mj. ,. , rj'ltetTGa
Byl« Tor byte
Sync Uikir ,. , a sync mam on *ny
track out id 41 Aijo used Far protection
Huh Wtdgt-Easier to uso DOS weOqe
ID Chtck-Check iD's on any irack
This is the only utility
Unicntch-Restore a scratched die of its kind. It even has
Viaw-BAM-Visual display ■ ' -Mufrea and
u*ed sectors on a diskette
a 3 min. copy on it.


AUTODIALER NOW you can own Ihis unique and powerful tool
which will allow you to dump ihe contents o! 8K
l-Auto DJbI will automatically dial a sal o) numDors you choose
and !6K cartridges onto disk! But what's really
2 Rovie* Numbera will review numbers thai worn answered by a computer.
great is that you can also RUN the cartridges pro
3-Sav» Numbera will save numbers whem a computer answered
grams without plugging in the cartridge! the
4-Hardcopy of Numbera w*fj print dltI list of numbers where a computer answered
S-LOAD Kumbera mil load tn numUars to conimufl where it lefl oil
KRACKER gets YOU INSIDE the cartridge' Put
all your favorites on disk and get ria ot the clut
fl-Contlnue will C"Ck uD baling whnfe i| was <nlorrupted
ter This package pmvides your with the software
and hardware needed to get started. Program on
529.95 disk included (Some cartridges require use ot ex
ternal RAM not included) $44.95

Directory Sorter TOP SECRET STUFF II

Have yoj ever tried to Imd a disk or All C128 Compatible
program in your library and didn'1
know where lo start looking' Well we Split Screens (Horizontally) Protect Scheme For Your Disks

have the answer here lor you. This Smooth Scrolling Write Protect Disk
program will pw your disk library on
Save Ram From Under Rons Unwnte Protect Disk
disk or give you a hard copy. You can
No Drive Rattle On Errors Mini D.O.S. Wedge
have up to 900 Filo names, you can
adO save Purge tile ana cross Triple Drive Head Speed Fast Diskmalcher
reference anyway you want This Autobool Maker Data Statement Maker
program is completely user friendly Koala Screen DUmp Unnew
and easy lo use Display GCR 3 Minute Copy
Fast Disk Eraser D.MS.

If you have TSS#1, You'll

Coupon-Clipper Like This One! All on one disk $19 95
For Commodore-64

Optional Use ot Printer

Saves -- Stores - Checks
Bulletin Board
Shopping Coupons
30 Categories -- 2300 Records
Self Deleting ol Eipired Coupons
$19.95 or twofrsk 6"*0i Th'i one has all Ino Imaluiws ana
you can cuiloftiit •! tatily yourjatl

This Coupon Clippers program will store up to 2300ditlerent coupons and up 11 -CYCLS LOG
to 99 ot Ihe samo Kind ol coupons. You riauo up to twelve options on the main
menu Options: 1 -Add Coupons only; 2 - Pnng Out. 3-List ot all Coupons; 4- 7-CVCLE MESSAGES 14-ADD TO OTKEH S'STEMS
Eipired coupons only; 5-Free Coupons Only. 6-Category Only; 7-Changeto
Eipired coupons only: 5- Free Coupons only, 6 - Category Only; 7-Change S59.95 15-CREATE OTHER SYSTEMS

Any Part ot a Record. S - To Make Up Shopping List. 9 - To Delete Used

Coupons; P - Print Shopping List T - To Terminate Program: L ■ To Lisl
Leveled Access
Delated Coupons. C - Change Viewing Time. Expert Mode
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s MegaSoft Limited
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Circle Reader Service No. 19


Build a Book
About You
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Scarborough Systems
t5 South Broadway
Tarrytown, NY 10591
Medium: Disk
Retail Price: 839.95

B,u:7c! a /took About You is a com

bination software program and bind
ing kit that lets children ages 2 to 12
publish personalized storybooks.
Everything needed is Included, along
with step-by-Mep instructions.
The main menu directs the user to
enter the child's name, age, gender,
birtbdate, and address, along with the
names of three friends, the name and
specie of the child's pet, and the name
Of the person who gave the book to
the child. 'The program Improvises if
some of the information isn't avail Story, the child must find the Nose
able. Tor example, if three friends Monster who stole the scents of Miss
aren't available, they automatically
Build a Book About Strawberry, the Gingerbread Man. Lit
become Teddy Bear. Superman and tle Skunk, and Evergreen. The Holi
You produces per day Dragon, written by Ray ISroekel
Robbie Robot. And pctk-ss children
and illustrated by Diana NorO, fea
automatically receive a companion sonalized storybooks tures a goody-gobbling dragon.
able little dog named Sparky. The data
entered can be saved to disk to be re that make your child The two stories on disk thai don't
called later for use in other slories. come with binding materials are
The program then offers a selection the star. equally exciting. Adventures on the
of slories to be viewed on-screen. Riddle Planet takes a trip to a planet
There arc four tales included on the where everyone talks in rhymes. The
disk, although the kit includes book- thread thai comes with the kit. The flowery inhabitants pose riddles
making supplies for only two. (Bind child then lines up the pages with the which must be answered correctly so
ings for the others can be purchased book jacket, exposes the sticky strip the protagonists can reach home in
separately.) The slories arc presented down the center of the binding, and lime for the child's birthday, 'lite
one page ai a time, exactly as they'll presses the pages against it. After Greatest Circus Story Ever Told is
be primed. 1-ach has been personal stripping the backing from the adhe about two runaway circus lions who
ized by integrating the information sive- end pages, the child affixes them must be coaxed back to their home.
supplied previously. The youngster is to the front and back covers. Voila!—a Scarborough plans to introduce addi-
now the protagonist, accompanied by masterpiece. lional adventure and fantasy stories to
his or her friends and pets. The finished products are quite the Build A Book library.
The kit contains everything needed lovely. Each volume measures 11-1/2 lluild a Hook About You is a
to produce two books: The Mystery by 9 inches, and contains 32 color charming gift for a youngster. Though
fully illustrated pages. More binding only the younger users will need pa
of Scented Mountain and The Holiday
Dragon. Eadb set includes hardcover kits can be purchased, cither for the rental assistance, this program is still
bindings, cm] sheets, title page, and il original pair (to make additional cop an excellent all-family project. It's
lustrated paper. ies for friends, or to replace any great fun to see the story on screen,
The production tasks are simple spoiled supplies), or for the other two personalized with the names ol
enough for youngsters under supervi tales on the disk (SI2.9S each or friends and family. It makes the child
sion or for grammar school children S19.y>fonwo). a star in his or her own book. Binding
working alone. The two end sheets The Mystery of Scented Mountain, a the printed pages into a hardcover

and storybook pages arc all perfo detective adventure written and illus volume is equally satisfying. The fin
rated. The child sews these to a plastic trated by Carol Howie lildridge, fea ished products will make proud addi
binding strip using the needle and tures scratch-and-snifi slickers. In this tions to any child's library! Q

NEW OrcorT"T>odor« 128
Call For Price

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j;p:iu6i[ ulei tii/Pficci ina atnliblliti ait lugttcl lo lUngE n.inou! nolltertil IkIopi h»h ireickjndlu aim manutKiunrt nmnn/ Deitin Wtltomt
Cjii to itctnl prlct rn!..;! ;-r ...j nn rfbile inlormiTlon Pint ihipplng intf rundling- No relurai ullhoiii titurn Ikiihoiluilgn humCti.
Plifnvimr. NT 11801

Circle Reader Service No. 11 COMMDDOHI; MICKOCOMIH"TI-KS 41


BASIC-64 By using this BASIC

Commodore Microcomputers, May/
June 1985). This problem involves re
pealed mathematical operations (addi
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Abacus Software compiler, the pro tion, subtraction, multiplication, and
division) applied to floating-point
Medium: P.O. Box 7211
Grand Rapids, MI
grammer can write numbers. Such programs are for prob
lems in science, engineering, and eco
BASICprograms nomics. The rim lime of these pro
Retail Prkei 539.95
grams increases exponentially with
and BASIC-64 will the problem size. In other words, the
Using machine language for pro translate them into increase depends on the number of
gramming is not easy. High-level lan unknowns.
guages, including BASIC, attempt to more efficient code. Figure 1 .shows two curves thai rep
make programming as easy as possi resent the run-time as a function of
ble. BASIC, for example, is relatively the problem si/e. The firsi curve (up
easy lo learn and apply, and even ihe per} is obtained by running a BASIC
novice can use ii. Machine language, program. The savings in run time,
on the other hand, requires a more ad which is often the time you just sit
vanced understanding of the com and stare at the screen hoping to get
puter lo master the fairly complex set results, becomes more and more sig
of rules. Yet, many people continue to nificant as the problem becomes
study machine language so Cbey can larger.
belter use ibe capabilities of their In summary, BASIC-64 enhances
computer. the performance of programs written
HASIC-64 from Abacus is for the in BASIC. Ii provides a good Introduc
programmer who wishes lo avoid formed very well. As an example tion to those programmers who in
learning and coding machine lan consider a program for solving a sys tend to go on to use larger machines
guage but wants the speed and effi tem of linear equations (see "On Ma and other high-level languages. I en
ciency. By using this BASIC compiler, trix Algebra and Computer Arrays," joyed using it. Q
the programmer c;in write BASK; pro
grams and BASIC-64 will translate
them into more efficient code. This
code is saved and used for execution. ime (seconds) vs. number of linear equations
HASIC-64 provides several alterna
tives for compilation: pseudo-code,
machine language, or a combination
Of both. As a result, several programs
Can be merged and compiled, and
even programs like extended BASIC
and Simons' HASH', can be compiled.
The main advantage of BASIC-64 i,s
the enhanced speed. In most cases, it
is noi possible to accelerate execution
it.s much as with direct machine lan
guage coding, but the speeds are still
quite impressive.
The package is easy to use, and the
manual is well written. It should take
only a few minutes to create a code
from scratch, assuming that the BASIC
source already exists. The codes may
require a fairly large amount of disk
space, but this is a reasonable price to
pay for what we get in return. HASIC-
64 is most suitable for programs
which require extensive run time.
Also, it is great for instances in which
response time is of the essence.
I tested BASIC-64 by compiling sev
eral programs, and the package per-

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3347J Commodore 64 ComButor M41H CwimMora t58S PriniBr All in/sl,.,!,.
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Tde PPI (Parallel Printer IntarfacB) Irom DSI is a high-
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dore W or VIC-20, offered al an untw Nova bio price1 The PPI
STfltn-oMMe-an &sk dnvn for C-04 and VIC-2U features LEO
sedof indicator, nloctronic wnto-prclecl. buNi-m wedge, ana
lulfy omulalos a Commodoro prinler so that all solnuero wrilton
opwahng speeds up fo 40Q% taster Package includes cables (or Commodore computers and printers can bo run with the PPI
and power suppfy. carrying case thai doubles OS a 0>sk storage and most any parallel printer. Print true Commodore graphics and
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FULL YEAR PARTS AND LABOR WAflRAKTY" complete with all necessary cables for quicfc installation and includes
easy-to-(olio™ user's manual
33443 Indus GT Disk Drive ONLY $229
v Special Buy — Limited Quantity!
33565 Parallel Printer Inlerfacs •44.95


OFFER! Get \o know us by ordering irtis greal dual cover

Slop « g ojf yojr cornfujiBr and cirt'idgoa by ondleai

'or your VJC-20 or Commodore 6* and our cata
log. ' The £veryihing Book lo> irie Commc<J(jre PAPER TRACTOR
C-64 ant) VIC 20 Home Compuien to* 12 9S
irKlgc.Drrrw'on" portion if mjctrlragd hi ED bvu»d RHfl Ifia torn. Paper Traclor carries ordinary t paper
^ eil'd shippng o' handling charQPi) Cow
PMl*r ina«pffn]pi-, ol irp powt* twiuh CvE'iOfft ■ '■:/'. .rn ...'■ -j1 -.-
nanliVAUc iransluscenl B gauge ^nyi *ev.n lo
Ihrough your Iractor -food pnnTcf1
any tccesi— no wma rumbling btrind Irw ecxnpuio'
our en Hiding slAtdards with r&nFofCM soams Sim pry place you' letterhead, checks,
34220 2-Slot Catindgo E»ponder S19.95 Duco*e( ine sailing; and G&sy shopping a-an invoices, forms, oven legal sue sneets
Ths CBtriOge tipander 11 Q fjroif compinion lo* IhA Ep^ F35I Load flWa from TeneH Comfjuier Enprcss1
into the durable flexible ptasiic earner and
feed into your adjusiable iractor-drive

01 her carlnogesi
34216 Fasl Load Cartridge (Sug Bmaii >3i95j ^29.95 printer Works wiih any printer, carries any
Fast Load ONLY S22.95
V with purchase ol cartridge expander!
31627 Dud Covtr anct Citilog ^J 22 084 $11.95
From Your Friends Al We gladly accept SHIPPING CHARGES
mat! orders! NO EXTRfl FEE FOR CHAflGES
P.O. Boi 6578 Ad less lhan S20.00
South Bend, IN d66E0 J1A
Questions? Call S75.OO-S149.99 ORDER TOLL FREE
S150.00-S299 99
219/259-7051 S300 S up 1-800-348-2778
Circle Reader Service No. 32
Commodore 64 Accessories

Summer Sixxlcr Sale

Sale Positively Ends 9-15-85 Reg.Sale Summer
Prices will go back to regular sale prices List Price Sizzlcr Sale

C128 Commodore Computer

Expandable to 512K, runs. C-6d. CPM. and 7.0 Programs.
299- Call Us
(Add SlOShipping)

WA" Commodore 150-170 CPS Printer '299


Near Letter Quality. Multiple Pin Tractor Friction Feed.

Best Printer Value in U.S.A. (Add S17.50 Shipping)
Commodore-64 IEEE Interface 95
'109' l69c
Allows you to run Pet Peripherals on the C-6d. including the
One Megabyte Disk Drive and t 5' i" Printer

Juki Printer/Typewriter □0
'249 00
Letter Quality daisy wheel, use os typewriter and or printer
(auto correction) (Add S10 Shipping)

SCM 80 CPS Printer

Tractor Friction 10" Famoub Nome Printer does Graphics
'299 oo 159 00 $149 95
w Interfoce. (Add S10 Shipping)

Catdco G Plus Interface 95

■109' '59°
Converts Commodore 1o Centronics for use with most printers, plus
does Commodore graphics on graphic printers

Alphacom 40 Column Printer

Thermal technology ■ does graphics. (Add S7.50 Shipping)
!24< $22 "
Alphacom C-64 or Atari Interface $8.95.

190K Slim-Line Disk Drive ^249°° •169"

Cooler, 20% faster, quieter than 1 541 drive (Add S>0 Shipping)

One Megabyte Disk Drive (1000K)

Double sided drive hooks up to C-64 with IEEE interface, perfect os a
!889M ■■ I QQOD

second drive. (Add SI 0 Shipping)

13" Premium Quality Color Monitor

Better than 1702 with separated video inputs. (Add $1 d.50 Shipping)
''199°° $I6995
Voice Synthesizer $3rs
S8900 14900

Allows you to talk through your computer. Optional software lets

you play lolking adventure games (Zork, etc.]

80 Column Board - 4 Slot Expander s149oo ,„„. $599S

Allows you to program In 80 columns, plus gives you a 4 slot switch
selectable expander

Auto Dial Modem with Super Smart Software $3995


Upload Download. Print. Colalog. This Package hos it all! ! '

Best Modem Value in the U.S.A.! !

Musicalc I Software
The Best Musicol Software for the C-64, allows you to change all
■29" $149S
Oil Barrons Software S49l 19'
Better than Monopoly comos with game board, disks and
instruction manual. Strike Oil or Live in tho Poor Farm plus Softwore Coupon Discounts

Add $3.00 lor shipping fiondlirg and insurance. Illinois losidpnli

pleose odd 6°. IQ> Add $6 00 (or CANADA. PUERTO RICO HAWAII
ALASKA APO-FPO order* Conodian orders must be in U.S. dollar*.
We Love Our Customers
Enclose Cashiers Check Money Order or Personal Check. Allow \i
days tor delivery 2 la 7 doys (or phone orders 1 day express moil! 22292 N. Pepper Rd.. Harrington. Illinois 60010
NoC O.D. loCanado APO-FPO 312/382-5244 to order

Circle Reader Service No. 23


Tractor Friction Printer
130-150 CPS

List $499

COM-STAR iB%" 150-170 CPS Printer $319"

• Lowest Sale Price, Premium Quality. Tractor/Friction Printer In the U.S.A. (Best Value)
• High Speed 130-150 Characters Per Second • 40,46,66,80.96, 132 line spacing
• Word Processing, Letters * Business Forms • Labels, Graphics, Tables • List Programs
Fantastic Graphics • Print Modem Data • The Most Important Accessory For Your Computer

Premium Quality SMITH

Highspeed Printer $199
10" carrlaKi', 2K buffer, prints 10" 80 CPS Printer Executive Letter Quality $299,00
BVt"xU" standard single sheet or l-'riction/Tractor- Bidirectional Dot 15" Daisy Wheel Printer
continuous feed paper, Bi-directional. Matrix printer with six pitches This is the world's finest daisy wheel
impact, dot matrix. 130-150 CPS. 9x9 Including condensed and enlarged printer. Fantastic letter quality, up to
riot matrix with double .strike type for impeccable printing. Drop in 30CPS bi-directional, will handle 14.4"
capability for is x IS dot matrix (near cassette ribbon; Centronics interface forms width! Has a 296 character print
letter quality). high resolution bit included, buffer, special print enhancements,
image, underlining, downloadable List $298.00, Summer Sn!r $149M built In tractor-feed (Centronics
characters, true lower descenders (Limited Quantities) Parallel and RS232C Interface] tool
with super and subscripts, prints day warranty].
standard, block graphics, and .special List S648.00. Summer Sale S3BB.00
characters. It gives you print quality
and features found on printers costing Super Summer Sale Ends 9-15-85
twice as much!! [Centronics Parallel
Interface i (Better than iipson FX80
and Gemini i0x).
■JUKI OOlympia
List $489.00. Sale $109,00. Printer/Typewriter
Combination $239.00 Printer/Typewriter Combination S388.U0
Premium Quality IfiO-170 CPS ■■.JUKI" Superb letter quality, daisy Better than 1UM Selectlie, Superb
I5|/ZX COM-STAR Business Wheel p r i n t e r /1 y p e w r 11 e r computer printer combined with the
combination, Two machines in one - world's finest electronic typewriter
Super High Speed Printer $319.00
Has all the features of the 10X COM- just a flick of the switch, \2" extra Two machines in one. just flick the'
large carriage, typewriter keyboard, switch for up to 20 CPS printing (300
STAR printer plus i5V' carriage
automatic margin control and words per minute) on a ib" carriage
and more powerful electronics
components to handle large ledger relocate key. drop In cassette ribbon,1 thai handles up to u i/s" in. paper.
IBII day warranty i Centronics Drop in cassette ribbon — express lift
business forms: (Better than Kpson
FX I(10 6 Delia 151. parallel or RS2S3 .serial port built in (iff correction, Centronics parallel
List SMii. Sale $810.00, 'Specify I. List $349,00. Sale$338,00, Interlace (itll day warranty).
List 5740.00. Summer Sale $SBB,DO,

• 15 Day Free Trial — 1 Year Immediate Replacement Warranty

For VIC-20 and COM-64 — $59.00. Apple — $59.00. Atari S59.00.

Add SN 50 far shipping handling and iriiuronte Illinois residents

plKOie odd b\ lo«. Add %11 00 lor CANADA PUERTO RICO HAWAII
ALASKA. APO FPO orders Conodion orders must be in U 5. dollars.
Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Ordpr or Personal Check. Allow M
doys delivery Ho 7 days lor phone orders. 1 day express moil1 22292 N, Pepper Rd., Bomngton, Illinois 60010
312/382-5244 to order

Circle Reader Service No. 23

Commodore 64

One Megabyte
Sale _ _ A Sale

si79 Disk Drive M79

Store Spreadsheets, Databases, Wordprocessing Data, Etc.
• Commodore 64 • PET • 8032 • B128
The one megabyte disk keeps you from hunting through hundreds of disks for your programs: plus running out of
room on your drive for Data base Data. Word processing Text. Spreadsheet Data, Business program Dota, etc.
With the One Megabyte Disk Drive you can store over SVa times the capacity of the 1541. You con store your
own programs and any back-upable commercial programs plus data from your business progroms*. Perfect as a
second Drive! ! ! ! Enter Ifie world of professional computers today. C-64 requires IEEE interface.
List S899.00. Sale SI 79.00. LIMITED QUANTITIES! -Requires 2 drive sollv-are.

19900 Sale $19900
1514" High Speed
150-170 CPS

The 8023 is a highly advanced 1 36-250 column 1 51 / professional tractor friction printer with full Bit image graphics and
downloadable characters lor custom reports and program listings. The paper feed includes a multiple pin tractor for
smooth error free operation. With the ribbon rated at 1 million characters (no mess cartridge) and ihe print head at 100
million characters this printer will last a lifetime. Full formatting with near letter quality makes lining up decimal
points, automatic "S" signs and tabbing look fantastic and easy to use. With out a doubt THIS IS THE BEST PRINTER

! 36 - 250 ! Million Characters Bit Image
Serial Impact Dot Matrix
Programmable Characters
LINE SPACING Reverse Characters
150-170 Characters per 3" to 15V tractor or
second (CPS) single sheet friction
3, including original IEEE Protocol
Near Letter Quality Infernal
CHARACTER SIZE Self - Diagnostics
Bi-directional Cartridge (514.95} 0.116" high. 0.08" wide Microprocessor

Commodore 64 IEEE Interface

This interface plugs into your Commodore 64 Disk Drive part ond allows you to hook up the 1 Megabyte Disk Drive and
8023 Printer as well as other IEEE devices. Seporte power supply insures reliability. Fantastic Interface.
List SI 09 95. If bought with printer or disk drive S69.00.
w r (no interface needed lor PET, B 128. and 8031 computers)

Add $17 SO tor shipping handling ond insurance Illinois residems

pleose odd 6"= lo». Add S3S.00ior CANADA PUERTO RICO HAWAII
ALASKA APO FPO order!. Canadian orders musl be in U.S. dollars
We Love Our Customers
Enclose Cosniors Check Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14
doys for delivery 2 10 7 doyi to' phane orders 1 doy oipross moil' 22292 N. Pepper Rd.. Barrington. Illinois 60010
No CO D 10 Conoda. APO FPO 312/382-5244 to order
Circle Reader Service No. 23
(Premium Quality} (Premium Quality)
Super Summer
• Built in Speaker and Sizzler Sale Beautiful Color
Audio Contrast

• Front Panel Controls High Resolution

Separated Video
• For Video Recorders
Sharp Clear Text
• For Small Business Anti-Clare Screen
40 Columns x 24 Lines
• Apple - Commodore -
Supports 80 Columns
Atari - Franklin - etc.
Add SI J 5D shipping handling and insurance
Illinois re*idpi's plerjsp odil t>'± lax We do
List $32900
not ship io foreign countries (including

13" Color Computer Monitor Re9' Sa'

Canada1 Alaska PuerToRico APO FPO
Enclose Cashiers Check Money Order or
Penonnl Ch«k Allow I i fari |or delivery 2
fa 1 Qay\ for phon? orders 1 day eiprrts

Connecting coble S9.95 5(7/77/77^ SaiG S16995

14" COMMODORE 1702 COLOR MONITOR 5upcr Summcv $
(odd S14.50 shipping] List S299.00 Sizzler Sale

15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty


80 Columns x 24 Lines. Super Hi-Resolution 1000 lines Green or Amber
Super Clear Easy to Read" lexi with special anti-glare screen! (Lid. Oiy.,
Sizzler Sale 109 95
List S2-J9.00


~J Columns x 24 Lines. Hi-Resolution, crisp clear easy to Suner Surtimur * A Anc
read text with on!i-glore screen' A MUST for word processing. (Ltd. Oiy. ' ''" " r- i , fl *f


Super Summer $JLft95
80 Columns x 2d Lines easy to read up front controls Aid Oiy.! il Sale DY
Super Summer
Must be used to get 80 columns with C 1 28 S Alan ST. Sizzler Sale
' Connecting cable $9.95



Add $10.00 (or shipping, handling ond insuionce. Illinois rendprm

please odd 6°. Ion. Add SSO.OO lor CANADA. PUERTO RICO HAWAII
ALASKA APO-FPO orders. Canndioti orders muil be in U S dollois
Enclose Coshiers Check. Money Order ar Personal Chock. Allow IJ
daysfordehvery 2lo7dnyslor phone orders I day express moil1 22292 N. Pepper Rd.. Barrington. Illinois 60010
312/382-5244 to order

Circle RBader Service No. 23


WordPro 64 not only checks the spelling, hut lets

you modify vocabulary. You can then

p Commodore 64
Thefeature of return to the WordPro 64 file to make
the corrections.
Publisher: Pro-line Software WordPro 64 that 1
755 Queensway Easi
treasure most is what Using Large Files
MIsslssauga, Ontario
The 64 memory can hold about 360
L4Y 4C5 Canada
I call the "hierarchy of lines of 40 characters each. With tile
Medium: Disk
printer set at about 65 columns, the
Retail Price: 150.00 trouble": The more capacity is about six to seven pages.
damage a command Thai's more than enough for a letter,
WordPro 64 is a splendid word
can do, the more work
hut short for a college paper, so you
processing program, It has many com can see that working linked files on
a floppy is important. WordPro 64
mands anil many options, yet still re you must do to acti
mains manageable because the key makes the work simple.
stroke combinations are so natural. vate it. You can write very long text and if
l;or editing and writing text, you use the lext exceeds the computer's mem
ihc cursor keys as you normally do. ory, you save that section and begin
l-'or other functions, you use a combi Here is where WordPro 64 really writing another. You can edit one
nation of, at most, two keys. shines. There is an extra-text urea section at a lime, or the entire text on
There is a chart in the manual, us culled a scratchpad. You can use it for disk.
well us a file that you can print your many things, hut probably the most WordPro 64 provides the tools to
self, that Lists all the key combina useful application takes the drudgery manage the files. Basically, standard
tions. The manual is bugfree, us far as out of repetitive typing. You can de DOS commands are used. When you
l can tell. It is not quite a tutorial, hut fine any key, at anytime, to type any wish to scratch (delete) a file, for ex
gives enough examples to make learn thing you wish, from one line to a ample, you'll see the ">" prompt on
ing easy. whole paragraph. the screen. You just fill it in to read
WordPro 64 adapts to your work. ">,s():scratchit." No confusion. Every
Writing and Editing It does not force you to foresee what body knows the wedge. Well, almost.
Write your text and correct the er you will he typing. It is ready when If you don't, you'll learn it from
rors Immediately, or correci them you are. You program WordPro 64 to WordPro 64,
later, whether they are simple typos do what you need, not the other way
or require more elaborate editing. around. Standard Sequential Files
Need to move a paragraph or a sen Similarly, you do not ever have to WordPro 64 allows you to read,
tence? It's simple—highlight ii. then type file names for loading, saving, edit, and write sequential files. It can
move it. The transfers are quick and and disk utilities. The cursor is placed print a document while inserting bits
next to its name in the disk directory. and pieces of information from an-
if you have a line of dashes thai and (me keystroke copies the file oiher file. A mailing list program and
needs lo he placed in several spois in name into the command you plun a canned letter Illustrate WordPro's
the text, a copy command comes in to use. file-merge capabilities.
handy. You may delete u word, a sen You can abort commands you en Mailing lists aren't the only use.

tence, or a whole paragraph. You tered by mistake. The exception is the Your imagination is the limit. Writers
aren't limited to merely deleting LOAD and SAVE commands (they can may list BASIC programs on disk and
whole lines. All deleting automatically never be interrupted). As a matter of insert comments between lines using

closes the text, so you do not have to fact, the feature of WordPro 64 Llv.u I WordPro 64. Machine language disas
do it manually. Large areas of text can treasure most is what I call the "hier semblies can be so ediied. In fact,
be erased, hut If you didn't mean to, archy of trouble." The more damage a BASIC programs can be ediied us
an "ooops!" buffer can bring them command can do, the more work you ing WordPro (>-i. The applications are
back. must do to activate it. Insignificant unlimited.
Need to find a phrase? No problem. commands usually are enabled with
Define it and ask WordPro Cvi to two keypresses, while important ones Output
search for ii. The cursor stops at each may require a carriage return. The editing and file handling wouk1
instance while scanning the text in The program strikes a good bal be pointless if you couldn't print the
memory, and, if desired, shows you ance. Nothing is overdone. Hells don't text on paper. Once you're sutisfiec
the phrases located in all the Dies that ring, the screen doesn't clear, the pro will) what you've written, it's lime to
you defined as being part of the larger gram doesn't wxste your time asking tell WordPro 64 how to print it. You
document. This applies to replacing questions—it jusi unobtrusively pro must give specifications, page num
text. also. tects you from your own errors. bering, headers and footers, spacing
Need to write the same word, SjJi'/lPm 64, co-authored by Jim between the lines, and so on.
phrase, sentence, or lines repeatedly? Butterfleld, is a spelling program thai This is done by using the imbeddct

printer commands. These tell the liny Spaces. Hence, the whole lexi
printer to prim uninterrupted from gets compressed into a small screen VPOtO iMAGfcS ON VOUH tOMMaxmi
' >■"■•'!■
.start to finish, or to pause after each area thai permits you to see the chart my unlMi nun wtt |*ag on
page. Pause is useful if your printer is as it will appear on paper.
IW. Ti I "h1[lir(omni>l.r*LfwnllO

one of those thai tend to cat its own Output can be stopped ami started
paper—you'll have :i chance to yank it us needed. In case of linked files (long
out. It is also useful if you -.ire printing text), you can fix any printer problems
on separate sheets. and reprint from the top of the page
Headers and Footers can be placed where the problems started. This has
at the top or bottom of the page. The saved my skin more than once.
text can contain anything: page num
bers, copyright notices, or a continua Hardware Configurations
tion symbol. l;p to four disk drives may he used
The selection of output formats is with WordPro 64. They can he the
overwhelming. You do not need to standard 1 >i 1 drives or any Commo
know them all, but it's good to know
what's available. Just some of them in
dore IEEE drive, used with a program
such as the RTC's Link or Batteries In-
clude margin sizes, spacing, page eluded's Bus Card. Other IEEE cards
MiiiiiiDiamRL \7i3ion ii11iii
numbers, page skipping, left and right should give no trouble, but you OUgbl
justification, centering, margin re to check with your dealer t4 Oak Street - Suite 2
lease, pitch, form advance, user-de WordPro 64 supports many Needham. MA 02192
fined characters, boldface, subscript, printers. When you're ready to print, (617J 444-9040

and superscript. you load an output module. This

Probably the most advanced ouipui module is :i tiny piece of code de
features in WordPro 6 i are the pro signed for the particular printer you
portional spacing, ami alternating- plan to use. It does not upset the text
page and double-column output. Pro in memory, nor anything else.
portional spacing is a favorite of most Currently. WordPro 64 lias routines
people, hut double columns art- the for 2H printers. .Should you wish to
most useful to people printing news use still another printer, or to redesign
media. the output characteristics, there is a
Many output controls can he given good deal of documentation describ
in a relative format, a great conve ing how to build your individual
nience. For instance, you can set the printer modules. It's certainly not :i
overall left margin at ten just once, job for everybody, since it requires
and then :tll subsequent changes are knowing machine code. But il can he
relative to that ten. So minus five will done.
move the texl five columns to line left, The standard colors are white on
and five to the right. This is a true grey, with a cyan status line imd yel
lirnesaver. because you no longer have low highlighting of ranged areas. The
to go through the whole text to edit color combination is superb. It is easy
the settings. on the eyes. It is very clear on a black
You can try the formatting on the and white monitor, so there is no con SNAPSHOT
screen, well hefore the printer goes fusion. Should you. however, wish to THE UNIVERSAL SCREEN
into its noisy work, because there is a change that setup, you can redefine DUMPING UTILITY
video output option. It is just for that the whole thing using a link' program PROGRAM
purpose: to see exactly how a printed called Install. HASAN
page will look. The video can be as In a similar fashion, you can reas
wide as the paper, up to 132 columns. sign a device number for any disk
Normally, the size exceeds the limit of NOW SNAPSHOT Mas added TWO MEW VER
drive. The whole combination can be
SIONS written especially for trie COMMODORE
40 columns on the screen, and you saved on the system disk. I'd think PRINTERS. o
must pan left and right over the lext. twice about writing on the system SNAPSHOT-C I lor the 1525/801 and the SNAP z
This preview is most valuable disk, hut you can get a backup from SHOT C2 for the 1526/802 model. AND THE PRO o

where charts are concerned, because Pro-LitlC. 1 think everybody should GRAMS ARE EASY TO RUM! Only lour keypresses! ;j
Dumps can be made anytime ir regard less of dis I/)
the lO-colunin display is difficult to order thai backup just in case.
play mode or screen memory location. And com a>
work with. WordPro 64 also has a bined Will] the original SNAPSHOT tor Epson lypG
■ )

variant of this theme: a map mode. It, The Bottom Line printers SNAPSHOT a truly one of tne leaders !:
roo, is video output, bur now you do WordPro 64 is a full-fledged word in the Industry.

not sec the letters. Instead, a graphic- FOR INFORMATION or TO ORDER eiirter versions
processing system you're unlikely to
representation of the text is shown. outgrow. It is delightfully pleasant to ■75E RidgeroodAve 'Ridgewood, fj J 07450
Words become thin lines separated by I highly recommend it. Q Be sure to specify printer.


Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Softsync, Inc.
162 Madison Ave.
New "York, MY 10016
Medium: Disk
Retail Price: (69.95

O ne of the latest Integrated soft

ware packages for the 64 is Wo,
a composite of a word processor,
database manager, and financial
Trio allows you to exchange Infor
mation among its three programs, phrase or a name without the entire
Aside irom producing form letters, line going along for the ride.
the most common use of Integrated A truly imaginative feature of Trio
software such as this is to imbed data Word is a "Clipboard." This file is like
from a spreadsheet into a written re a separate notebook where you can
port. You do this witli a link com keep boilerplate paragraphs, and fre
mand al the printing Stage, or you can quently-used phrases or technical
physically rearrange the database File terms. You can consign database en
into the word processing file or load it tries here when you want to merge
at the end of a document in computer them with a document. Uach entry is
memory. By setting ranges, you can use for scrolling, loading, saving, coded with a handle, and whenever
move it around like any written data, changing screen colors, entering an you want to insert one into your doc
Of course, you can't squeeze a two- "erase" mode, and calling for help. ument, regardless of its length, you
foot wide spreadsheet Into an eight- However, I found that they could also simply enter the code. You can have
Inch page, bin you can break it down lie a nuisance. It's too easy to hit P3 multi-page drop-ins if you like, so
into manageable chunks that can be when you're reaching for Irl or F5- long as the additions arc confined to
manipulated as easily as paragraphs, Suddenly, your text disappears be single paragraphs.
You must be careful, though, not to cause you've changed its color, so you TWO'S help screens are another as
overload memory. have to punch through 16 text colors set. When yon call for help, you get
When you load Trio, your screen and 16 background colors to get it very chic-looking windows etched
presents a three-course menu: Wo back to the way you had it. into your text. You scroll them up or
Word, the word processor; Wo Calc, The F2 "erase" mode is one I down with the cursor keys. When the
the spreadsheet program; and TWO hadn't ever encountered. You're pre windows are open, Trio looks like the
Pile, the database manager. sented with a number of options most graphically advanced word
about erasing text, most in relation to processor available. However, you
Trio Word where your cursor is. After you con can't access these windows unless the
Trio Word is a full featured writing firm your choice, hit i;2 again before master disk is in the drive.
program designed for ease of use anil your unwanted text vanishes. It Disk-swapping is going to be a reg
instant startup. On-screen function sounds like a lot jusi to get rid of a few ular exercise with any program hav
key directions are above the work lines, but since there's no retrieve fea ing the complexity of Trio. After all. it
area and the .status line is below. Your ture in this program, it pays to be is three separate anil complete pro
text does scroll upward, as with most cautious. grams which can't all reside in the
Commodore 64 word processors, To move text around, you must use 64's memory at once. Disk-swapping
though the program doesn't have a combination of CONTROL and "R" is not a major problem with Trio
word wrap, and you're asked right off to define your target area. Go to the Word, but it could be with Trio file,
to define the length of your text—100 spot where you want to drop your as we'll see later.
or 400 lines. You're advised to enter text and insert another code. If you Aside from the well done help
400, though ihe reason is never made want to duplicate, respond now to the screens, there are a number of other
fully apparent. When you hit 400, prompt. You will now he at the lop of extremely useful features in Trio
memory is full, giving you about tlie file, and you must wade back to Word. These include a comfortable
seven double-spaced pages of output. the place where you left off. Unfortu "insert" mode, painlessly accessed by
This is an average allotment for a nately, you can't define a range of less the up arrow; the ability to save even
Commodore 64 word processor. than a full screen line of text—in part of a file; inclusion of sample text
The function keys are put lo good other words, you can't drop in a Continued on page t-




1541 SO-1 GT
1541 DOS
ftKi««J Software YES YES NO YES
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Others may talk, but no one can deliver the features, c
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PRICE- 239.99 229.95 299.95 299.95

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on the program disk to give you some at the top of the keyboard to access
thing id practice onj a pleasant audible the column headings.
"dong" to Indicate thai a function has Trio is an integrated Priming a spreadsheet is relatively
been accomplished; ability to restart simple. You're presented with a set
the program or load the othets on the package that allows up box which lets you design a see-
disk without turning off the com lion's width and length. (These same-
puter; ;ind a fast and accurate Bearch- you to exchange parameters apply to rearranging the
and-replace function. spreadsheet into a word processor
Another nice touch is lhat you can information among File).
contact certain disk functions from
inside each Of the programs. How
any of its three Trio File
ever, formatting a disk and renaming To use Trio File, you must first set
or scratching a lilt* require the elabo up your template—number tit lields
rate basic DOS commands. and identification, and characters per
A disadvantage of die program is field. You have to do the mathematics
the absence of a view-to-screen fea yourself to insure that you don't ex
ture which is essential to any serious Trio Calc ceed the 230-charaCtfir limit (the pro
word processing program. There is The spreadsheet is the most refined gram doesn't keep count for you).
not even a side-scrolling 40-charactcr of the three programs. Though it has Creating a record is also relatively
representation of what your finished sonic limitations, it is powerful and Blmple. Type the record into a prede
document will look like. What you easy lo use. liven those who have- fined matrix which delimits the
sec on-screen hears no rcscnihlancc to never had their hands on a financial length of each field. When you're fin
what you gel. ledger can set up "what if scenarios ished and confirm th;it the record is
It also seems ihat if a sentence ends within an hour. The spreadsheet alone- accurate, each record goes immedi
a line, ihc next line may not print may he worth the price of this ately into memory. It lakes a lew sec
flash at the left margin. Apparently, program. onds to commit each record, so after
the program recognizes one space be Hut it, loo, has its limitations. It can you've written a few, you may feel
tween the two sentences, If you leave handle only 60 rows by <i() columns like you're spending more lime star
two spaces between them, which is (fewer columns if you widen each to ing ai a red LCD than actually work
ihc proper procedure, your finished more than 22 characters). Columns ing on your files.
manuscript will have ;i one-space In- can he anywhere from 2 to 36 charac Because this is such a drive-inien-
deni at the left margin ai each of these ters wide. sive program, you must keep your
occurrences. The re.siili is a jagged Though professional number-jug data disk in the drive ■» all times,
margin. And, since you cannot view glers may find these restrictions loo Therefore, if you need the help
the finished document before you narrow, for other uses Trio Calc is screens, which are on the master disk,
print it, there is no way to avoid this functional and fast. You can edit for the amount of disk swapping is going
defect. mulas easily by cherry-picking them to be substantial.
Softsync, the publisher, says it is not into ihc command box with a press of Record size is limited in THo l:ih:
aware of this problem and has re the equal-sign key. Then you copy us in Triii Calc. You can have no more
ceived no complaints about It, though them Into the entire layout with an than l~ lields per record, anil each
ihc program has been on the market easy-to-master copying routine or field is limited lo 2l) characters. Also.
for a while. They are working on an set them down in whatever cells you you can't have a record with more
updated version which will have a choose. than 230 characters.
high-resolution, K()-cokimn viewing Setting up the formulas requires a Documentation of all three pro
mode. No date has been set for the re lillle practice, because they must ad grams is nicely presented in a I3v
lease of (his version. At ihc moment, here to specific rules of syntax. Hut page comb-bound manual which
there is no spelling checker available once you get the hang of it, it's quite clearly defines each program with ;i
for Tritt Wurtl. easy. minimum of verbiage. The help win
Another deficiency of the word The design of your spreadsheet is dows in the program offer more in
processor is a rather complicated flexible, as you can expand and add formation on the intricacies of file
print-formatting procedure. Not only columns any time, though it's not ad integration.

do you have to set up your own com visable- to do this after your formulas For the price of one program you
mand line for margins and spacing have been set in place. Formulas don't get three. The tradeoff: Each of the
each lime you use the program, you travel with your columns it' you en programs stops short, to some degree,
have to include ASCII codes for such large the spreadsheet—you have to re of what you might expect of a full-
features as holdface, superscripts and assign them manually. function program in each of its three
subscripts if you want these and your A nice feature of Trio Calc is the categories. This tradeoff is under
printer can handle them. You can save '■fold over" column labels at any part standable and probably unavoidable.
and reuse these commands. There is of the layout so you can tell what see- To some users, the shortfall may be in
no preset code for paragraph indents lion of the ledger you're working in, significant, and for them THo is un
so you must sei tlicsc manually too. You simply hold down the arrow keys questionably a good value. E9



29 15 CM 2A 52 45 Od 12 55


04 40 19 02 33 12 AA 04 28


14 07 07 00 21 04 13 31


04 20 04 33 41 04

You ean now have your computer speak to you.., with the inevitable
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Circle Reader Service No, 9


The Man
Behind the
f there's :l Muppet on your monitor,
you can thank Christopher Cert". He's
.he man responsible for combining
Muppet manic with computer soft
ware. When computers first came
out, Chris was unhappy with "user-
tricndly ' software that only experi
enced programmers could use. He de
cided ihat a bil of Muppet mania Combining his genius with the talents ofJim
could do a lot to lighten up the soft
ware scene. According to Chris, Henson, creator of the Muppets, and software
"Truly friendly software should have
designers likeJoyce Hakansson, David Thorn-
familiar characters and lots of humor.
It Should he fun and easy to use." burg, and George Brackett, Chris Cerf
Chris met the Muppets in 1970
while he was working with the Chil turned Kermit, Miss Piggy, Gonzoand the
dren's Television Workshop (the folks
who put Sesame Street on the map).
rest of the Muppet mob into software stars.
When computers entered the home
market, Chris saw Muppets as the per universal age appeal." explains Chris. chines with the help of nouns and
fect way to combine education and "They have a sense of humor, and verbs, and then use them to help
entertainment. "Our goal," says they don't talk down to kids." GonZO rescue his poultry pal, Camilla
ChrlS, "was to help kids and their par Muppet fans can make up all sorts the Chicken, from the dutches of the
ents learn basic computer skills with of silly stories using Kerniit's Elec Swedish Chef.
tronic Storymaher, published by Si The newest addition to Muppet
out the fear of making mistakes."
mon and Schuster, When the stories software, WelCOtHO Aboard (Ilroder-
Chris combined his genius with the
talents of Jim Henson, creator of the are finished, authors can make any hund), lakes users on a computer liter
Muppets. and software designers like Muppet the siur anil watch the stories acy cruise with Scooter manning the
comelo life. electronic mail room, Fozzie Hear on
Joyce Hakansson, David Thornburg.
and George iirackeu. Together they The Great Gonzo in Wordrhler database management, and Captain
turned Kcrmit, Miss Piggy, GonZO, (also Simon and Schuster) has the Kcrmit in command of programming.
thrill of an arcade game obstacle The program also uses computer-
and the rest of the Muppet mob Into
course. Players build miraculous ma- aided design to glamorize Miss 1'iggy
software stars. "The Muppets have
and provides computer recreation
with grumpy Sam the Eagle in charge
of the game mom.
At 12, Chris Cerf is still very much
a kid. Being a lover of toys and games,
Chris has a knack for knowing what
kids like. He sees youngsters using
computers like adults use pencils, and
he's made a personal project out of
promoting computer literacy for all
ages. To further his goal, Chris lec
tures to school groups, university stu
dents, and many oilier organizations,
Many of his listeners have "computer-


Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: liroderbund
17 Paul Drive
.San Rafael, CA 94903

lTAuppet madness takes to the high
seas in Broderbund's We/come
Aboard. The Great Gonzo, Fozzie
Rear, Miss Piggy, and the rest of the
Muppet gang make up the crew of die
S.S. Microship. They're at your ser
vice as you embark on your cruise to
computer literacy.
Welcome Aboard uses two disks to
explain five major applications of the
computer. The program takes a light,
humorous look ai word processing
phobia," and Chris overcomes these and electronic mail, database manage ball gown which looks like a basket
fears by showing them that comput ment, programming, and computer- ball or doing her hair in bangs-
ing can be fun. aided design. There's even an arcade neat rows of firecrackers across her
Chris is an idea man who seems to game to show the computer's enter forehead.
have a knack for finding humor in tainment function. For fun and games, try the ship's
every situation. While attending Har The Welcome Aboard menu allows game room. If you're lucky, Sam the
vard University, he was vice-president you to visit different parts of die Eagle will lei you play an arcade
of the Hainan/ lampoon, a maga cruise ship. The bridge, for example, game. However, you'll have to learn
zine thai pokes fun at anything and is manned by Captain Kcrmit, He'll be to ignore his grumbling when he tells
everything. He also created and co- happy to teach you how to navigate you to "get out and stop wasting your
edited the A'o/ the New York Titties the ship using a language called time on frivolous games."
magazine in 1978. Slowgo. Your goal is to keep the S.S. After your guided tour of the ship's
The entire Cerf family has a history Microship from sinking as you learn facilities, there's lots of opportunity
of talent and creativity, his father, the basics of computer programming. to practice what you've learned in the
Bennet Cerf, founder of Random "What did the banana say to the open-ended parts of Welcome
House Publishing Company, was also hippopotamus?" For the answer to Aboard. The program also comes
a writer, comedian, and television this and oilier equally stupid riddles, with a "travel brochure" highlighting
celebrity. His mother, Phyllis Cerf consult Fo7Jzie Bear and his dumb joke the crazy crew of the S.S. Microship
Wagner, is a writer and an editor. data base. You'll get a humorous look and describing the ship's many deluxe
With a background like that, it's no at how a data base works, and you can features. There's even a glossary con
wonder that Chris created the win even add your own jokes. taining computer lingo from A to Z.
ning combination Scooter is in charge of the ship's The glossary contains information
Of MuppetG and message center. He'll demonstrate- like the Muppct's breakthrough in
micros. how electronic mail works and help computer technology: Welcome
send your own message to the Mup- Aboard is the first program to replace
pets. This is your chance to learn on-screen "windows" with portholes!
some simple word processing Welcome Aboard is Muppet magic
techniques. at its best. Its lighthearted treatment
To do a glamor makeover on Miss of computer applications can mrn
Piggy, head for the beauty .salon even a grandma into a computer liter
where Monsieur Gonzo is in charge. ate. It won't make her a master at
He'll show you how computer-aided every function, but at least she'll
design tries lo give Miss Piggy some understand what a computer can do.
style. (Well, even a computer cant The excellent graphics, ease of use,
perform miracles...) Miss Piggy may and whimsical presentation make
never make the best-dressed list, but Welcome Aboard nothing less than a
you can haw fun outfitting her in a five-star cruise. R


Simply Speaking: ume was turned down. Read the next

paragraph, execute a VOL H, and try
again.) Now let's see how VOL and
Commodore 128 Sound SOUND work.
VOL couldn't be simpler. To set the

The SOUND command in the 128's audio volume, just execute VOI. n,
where n is a number from 0 to 15-
7.0 BASIC makes creation ofsound Spaces between VOI, and n are ig
nored. If n=0, all sounds will be si
effects easy. lenced. Higher values produce higher
levels of output.
SOUND always takes three argu
Af yon own :i Commodore 128, this of the sounds produced. Taken to ments, of the form
article will introduce you to the ele gether, these six little words are an
mentary aspects of BASIC 7.0 sound, easy-to-use, yet sophisticated, sound SOUND voice, frequency, duration
and will build your confidence in programming system. They let you do
working in thai medium. If you iinn 'i Commodore 64-like sound effects The 12H can make up to three sounds
own a 12H, it will help you see what without the PEEK'S and POKE'S. at once, each produced by a circuit, or
you're missing, Before we start working with voice, numbered one, two or three.
Our objective is to present the big sound, let's he sure your computer/ Each voice's waveform can be cus
picture on 12H sound, and we'll reach monitor setup can produce them suc tomized independently, but all three
it by describing major capabilities and cessfully. The accompanying Test are initialized to sound alike. The
by providing simple examples, it" your Tone program is used to set up your voice argument indicates which of the
interest is in .simple SQQgS and sound speaker and its associated volume three voices you've selected for this
effects, read on, and you will learn. control. Hun it, get a comfortable tone SOUND. Since all three have identical
On liie other hand, if you're a Stra- level, then press the STOP key to kill capabilities, it doesn't much matter
divarian sitar synihesist, or a third the tone. Now if your sound experi which one you use for a particular
stream theremin theorist, our mutter- ments fail, you'll know it's not a hard purpose.

ings might be beneath you. (liven so. ware problem. The frequency argument, which
Amadeus. you may find our examples As an interesting sidelight for new can range from 0 to 655.^5. deter
amusing!) and prospective 128 owners. Test mines the pitch of the sound pro
Assuming you're still with us. we Tone uses some non-sound BASIC 7.0 duced. Roughly speaking, a frequency
want to make a point. While we pro keywords: The TRAP in line 130 di parameter of X produces a tone of
vide tlie overview, your user's manual rects execution to line 171) when X/10 cycles per second.
contains all the details. If you really STOP is pressed, and the SLEEP in line The duration argument, ranging
want your Master of Arts in sound, 160 stops further execution until the from 0 to 32767. determines the num
you should study the manual and ibis SOUND lias run its course. If the ber of (iffies for which the sound will
article. Together, they'll give you a SLEEP were absent, the rest of the be played. (In Commodore terminol
sound foundation in sound-related program would execute as soon as the ogy, a jiffy is l/60th of a second.) A
software. Point made. Now it's time SOUND was started. sound with a duration of one will be
for business. played for 1/6U second; one with a
VOL and SOUND duration of 32767 will go on for nine
Overview of Commodore If you've ever tried to make u sim minutes!
128 Sound ple beep on the 64. you know how SOUND also lias five optional argu
BASIC ~.() has six special keywords difficult that can be. On your I2H. en ments, which control the nature of
to facilitate working with sound. They ter this in direct mode: the lone produced. By selecting them
are: SOUND 1,22222,33 appropriately, you can create rising,
VOI. How's that for simplicity? (If you falling or oscillating tones, or tones
SOUND didn't bear anything, maybe your vol with unusual waveforms. Discussion
ENVELOPE Computer Wizard regularly presents elementary topics of inter
FILTER est to Commodore cotnputerists. It emphasizes the needs of
VOI. is like a stereo's gain control— beginners, but is of use to advanced cotnputerists as well. The
it sets the audio volume. SOUND pro
column is written to be easily understood by all, and to be of
duces tones and other simple sound
effects, with an absolute minimum of lasting value to its readers. Ifyou have comments or sugges
programming. PLAY and TEMPO tionsfor Computer Wizard, please write to Louis F. Sander, in
make song playing easy, while ENVE care of this magazine.
LOPS and FILTER change the nature

of these aigumentfl is beyond our notes can be played for any duration,
scope at present; you can read about from sixteenth notes through dotted
them in your user's manual. The PLAY statement lets wholes.
If you run the accompanying Sound
you code songs in The sound of the notes is also con
1 program, you'll hear a range of trollable, again by including the ap
sounds from low frequencies to high. strings, where the char propriate characters in playstring. You
Notice that frequencies under 2000 or can PLAY any of the three voices, and
so make buzzes rather than tones. acters correspond to any number of them can be playing at
Also observe that in BASIC ~.0. pro musical notes. once. You can control the audio vol
gram-mode LIST commands don't ter ume, and you can choose each voice's
minate the program. Feel free to ex sound from a library of ten different
periment with Sound 1, changing the tones that sometimes remain af waveforms. The ten are pre-defined
VOL and SOUND parameters however ter sound sequences are finished. to sound like musical Instruments, but
you see fit. you can re-define them if you wish.
The Sound 2 program illustrates PLAY and TEMPO Your song's timing can be changed
three voices playing at once. Once To try your hand at 12K songmak- by the TEMPO command, by the use
again, the SLEEP intervals are mea tng, enter this in direct mode: of rests (sixteenths through whole),
sured in seconds and SOUND inter PI.AY "CCDCFE" and by a special character thai stops
vals in sixtieths; it's not loo difficult to Pretty easy, isn't it? (If you didn't hear further execution until all voices are
get them working together. Delete the anything, increase the volume.) The silent. As with everything else hut
SLEEP and notice how line 160 is exe PLAY statement lets you code songs as tempo, these final two are controlled
cuted before its time. strings, where the characters corres by characters within the playstring.
Sound 3 shows a different way of pond to musical notes. When you All in all, PLAY gives tremendous
coordinating voices. If you compare I'l.AY the siring, the coded notes are flexibility in songmaking. and it's
its sound with that of Sound 2, you'll converted to sounds. An A in the very easy to use. If you'll run the ac
find it has fewer clicks or thumps as string plays a musical A. a II plays a companying Play 1 program, you'll
the extra voices cut in. Notice how- musical It, and so on up through (i. see and hear a cross section of this
voice one is turned on once for the The TI-MP statement governs how flexibility. You can experiment with
duration, and how voices two and fast the notes are played. Fntcr PLAY by altering our program or by
three are activated at frequency zero TEMPO 40, then PLAY ■CCDCFF". entering statements in direct mode.
until their sounds are wanted. I dis Next, try the same PLAY statement af Spaces are disregarded in the play-
covered this technique while playing ter entering TEMPO $. Fora little vari strings, but many people insert them
with my 128, and I'm sure that you ety, enter AS = "liAGFFDC", then between notes or other commands. If
can discover similar tricks. PLAY AS. yon do all the examples in your user's
Along those lines, you'll see other By now you should have a begin manual, you'll be a PLAY expert in no
things in these programs that you ner's feel for PLAY. It's a lot like the time.
won't find in the manual. Namely: PRINT statement, except it plays
• When a SOUND statement is exe things through the speaker rather than ENVELOPE and FILTER
cuted, the required activity lie- putting them on the screen. Its formal These statements allow you to alter
gins, and the program immedi is very simple: the character of the sound each voice
ately attempts to execute the PLKXplaystring produces when PLAYcd. They are
next statement, without waiting where playstriug can consist of char rather complex in their syntax, and al
for the sound to finish. The acters contained in quotes, or of a though they're very powerful, few
sound goes on for its appointed string variable whose contents were beginners have need to work with
duration, regardless of oilier pro previously defined. Only notes A them. Essentially, FNVFLOPF, is used
gram activity. through (i, plus certain other charac to alter the waveform library, and FIL-
• Before executing a SOUND state ters, are legal in playstring; the details TER is used to pass or reject various
ment, the computer checks the appear in your user's manual. bands of frequencies. ENVELOPE and
status of the voice in question. If PLAY has tremendous flexibility, FILTER are covered quite ihoroughly
it is actively making a sound, fur which you control hy placing other in the user's manual, and we refer you
ther execution is delayed until characters in playstring. Here is what there if you're interested in dabbling
that sound is finished. Only then you can do: You can PLAY notes from in waveforms.
does the next SOt 'ND begin. seven octaves, numbered zero to six.
• SOUND with a duration of zero (You change octaves by including the Conclusion
is a special case, it silences the in letter "O,' plus the appropriate octave Well, dear readers, that's our over
dicated voice immediately, re number.) Within each octave, the view of sound. If you've done our lit
gardless of its previous status. scale starts at C, so the notes progress tle examples, you have a pretty good
Line 170 of Test Tone is an exam CDEFGAD from low to high. Any note handle on using PLAY and SOUND.
ple of this phenomenon. The can he made sharp or flat, by preced When you read further in the manual,
technique is also valuable for si ing it with a '■#" or "*," respectively. the sound sections should be more
lencing the low-level residual By using different prefixes, individual meaningful than you found them

be fort. over from there, playing the melody
We hope you enjoy your new from start to end. Don't helieve it?
knowledge, and |usi 10 make sure thai
Ifyou really want your Try il!
you do, we'll glveyoua link-song, h's Master ofArts in sound For the musical thrill of a lifetime,
:i Country and V&festern Classic from do a VOL 15,aTEMPO40, then PLAY
l.onis R "Cowboy Lou" Sander, and on the 128, study the "SHE FED HER RACE AT A FFHDHAt;
the best thing about it is that you BUT SHE MOVED HIS HEART OF
user manual and this HEARTS". (We said it's a country clas
don't have to curt the notes! As
amazing as it sounds, if yon put its tide article. sic!) If you think about it a while.
in a PLAY statement, the 128 takes iMM^^^^H you'll discover why it works. Q

Test Tone
20 : Playl
20 :
120 FOR V0=3 TO 15 STEP 3
: PLAY "C G E G C"
130 SLEEP 1 : NEXT
150 SOUND 1,5000,1800 : REM START TONE 140 :
170 SOUND 1,0,0 : REM TONE OFF
Sound 1 OC : PLAY "O"+STR${OC)+"C D E F G
20 : 180 SLEEP 1 : NEXT
100 PRINT"[CLEAR]" : LIST : PRINT 190 :
120 : TEMPOS — "
130 SOUND 1,F,60 210 GOSUB 380 : TE=5 : REM INITIALIZE
150 PRINT "F=";F : F=F*2 : GOSUB 330 : TE=2*TE
160 IF F<65536 THEN 130 : IF TE<255 THEN 220
230 :
Sound 2
120 SOUND 1,8000,60 PRINT "1 VOICE-
: GOSUB 330 : NEXT
130 SOUND 1,8000,60 SOUND 2,16000,
270 :
140 SOUND 1,8000,60 : SOUND 2,16000, 290 GOSUB 380 : VOL 15
60 : SOUND 3,32000,60 : PLAY "VI WC V2 WE V3 WG M"
: PRINT "3 VOICES" 300 SOUND 1,0,0 : SOUND 2,0,0
150 SLEEP 1 : SOUND 3,0,0 : END
310 :
10 REM ** SOUND 3 ■ LOUIS F. SANDER 330 PLAY "04 C E G 05 C 04 G E C 05
110 SOUND 1,8000,180 : HEM SOUND VI 350 RETURN
120 SOUND 2,0,60 : REM SILENCE V2 360 :
140 SOUND 2,16000,120 : REM SOUND V2 380 FOR V=l TO 3 : PLAY
150 SOUND 3,32000,60 : REM SOUND V3 "V'1+STR${V)+"O4 T7 U9 X0 Q"
160 SLEEP 1 : NEXT : TEMPO 16 : SLEEP 1

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Simple on a screen, and sometimes even the thing at all over the original screen.
operation of a separate program in We can overprint just u little section
Windowing side the window! (as in the demonstration program), or
we can erase the entire screen and
One of the most obvious and desir

for the able uses of a window is to allow the

program user to call up a help screen
print whatever information we want.
(NOTE: The machine language rou
or menu list, all the while not losing tine also re-links the screen pointers,
the game/text/information that is on so anything you print on the screen
the original screen. The following won't become "broken up."' as can
W often see tin: terms "windows" program makes this possible. sometime happen when yon print
and "Windowing" in computer arti Alter poking in the machine lan over a screen full of characters.)
cles and advertisements, bin .strangely guage routine that lakes care of the finally, when our purpose in put
enough, we seldom see the terms de windowing, the program clears the ting up our window is finished, we
fined. Windowing is the practice of screen and displays a demonstration can recall the entire original screen,
.setting part of the computer's display screen. I chose an excerpt from Abra including the original colors, with a
Bdeen aside for things like menu in ham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. SYS49216.
formation, liclj'iul hints, ami tlic like, Then, a SYS 49152 saves the con Besides iliis simple windowing, the
and tlx/n being able (o restore ihe tents of the screen into another sec machine language routines at ■I'JI'Si
original screen with the temporary tion of the 64's memory (starting at (save the screen) and ■J9216 (recall
window removed. Powerful window SC100). The screen's color memory is the screen) can also be used to
ing software can allow combinations also saved (beginning at SC500). store graphics (not high-resolution)
of graphics aix! text, scrolling of lexi With the contents of the original and other text or forms for instant
inside the window, multiple windows screen saved, we can then print any displays. Q
siuipli Windowing
Before ryplni thta fToiram, rend "How to Enter Program!." THE PR0-'"BAQM
100 REM *********************** 370 PRINT"P0SITI0N THAT ALL MEN ARE
140 REM •**********************'BXJD 0W WE ARE ENGAGED IN A GREAT"'BAVP
180 CCS-CHR${19) :FOR X=»l TO 23 AND SO"'BAIH


230 jv]Lr,j uimn'nnmttiM.1.1 BYBD 450 PRINT"F0R THOSE WHO HERE GAVE
250 REM ************************'BVBF 460 PRINT"THAT THAT NATION MIGHT

550 POKE 198,0:WAIT 198,1jGET A$'DOJI 740 REM'BARF
570 REM'BARG 760 REM ***********************'BXJL
580 REM **********************'BWRL 770
60 0 REM *****************«***■'BWRE 790 REM SYS 49216 TO RECALL'BQIO
610 REM'BARB 800
620 PRTNT LEFT5(CC$,8);'CIAE 810 FOR J=49152 TO 49293:READ A
640 PRINT TAB(6);CHRS(18);CHRS(176); 820 DATA 32,128,192,162,0,189,0,4,157,
LEFT${LINE$,19);CHR${174)'GFIO 0,193,189,0,5,157,0,194"BCHO
650 PRINT TAB{6);CHR$(18);CHR$(221); 830 DATA 189,0,6,157,0,195,189,0,216,
" [SHFT P]RESS ANY KEY TO[SPACE2] 157,0,197,189,0,217,157,0'BDAP
";CHR$(221)'FUAR 840 DATA 198,189,0,218,157,0,199,202,
660 PRINT TAB(6);CHRS(18);CHR$(221); 20 8,217,162,231,189,0,7,157,0'BHRR
" ELIMINATE WINDOW[SPACE2]"; 850 DATA 196,189,0,219,157,0,200,202,
CHR${221)'FUVS 2 24,255,20 8,2 39,96,3 2,128,192,
670 PRINT TAB(6);CHR$(18);CHR$(221); 162'BLIT
" AND GO BACK TO[SPACE4]"; 860 DATA 0,189,0,193,157,0,4,189,0,
CHR$(221)'FUMS 194,157,0,5,189,0,195,157'BBXS
680 PRINT TAB(6);CHRS(18);CHRS(221); 870 DATA 0,6,189,0,197,157,0,216,189,
" THE TEXT SCREEN.[SPACE2]"; 0,198,157,0,217,189,0,199"BDJT
CHR$(221)'FUKU 880 DATA 157,0,218,202,208,217,162,
690 PRINT TAB(6);CHR$(18);CHR${173); 231,189,0,196,157,0,7,189,0,
700 PRINT CC$;BL$;CHRS(19)'CMLE 890 DATA 157,0,219,202,224,255,208,
710 POKE 198,0:WAIT 198,1:GET AS'DOJG 239,96,162,0,181,217,9,128,149,
730 GOTO 520'BDGF 900 DATA 232,224,25,208,245,96'BVCH END

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Using the Commodore chose not to include this

File Translator program on the disk
10 listed righi along with the File
Translator program. From thai point
supplied wilh the modem, hut instead on, I had a good Idea of what the File
Modem/300 printed its listing in the Modem/300 Translator was supposed to do. It read
user's manual. That's where my trou each program line in the sequential

File Translator bles began.

Typing the File Translator program
file and ''pressed" RETURN, which
then entered it as a program line.
presents no obvious problems. It is I got rid of line 10 and ran File
only 1! lines long, anil it has no tedi Translator again. This time giving it
A lie first thing i planned to do with ous data statements. Like any other the name my 2IK program had saved
my new Modem/300 was save about program listing, it does have its com under. "XM1TTED." It was a pleasure
three days of typing. I bad to translate plicated lines. Hut if you are careful, 10 watch the file being translated.
a long (21K) program, written in and if you do some proofreading be Bach program line was printed slowly
another machine's BASIC, so that it fore you save the program to disk or across the top of the screen. As soon
would run on the Commodore 64. I tape, you should have no difficulties. as it was complete, the word READY
bad a choice: I could either sit down Now ii was time lo try the File flashed on the screen on the line
at the 6-('s keyboard and lype in sev Translator program. 1 had deliberately above it. while simultaneously, the
eral hundred lines of very compli downloaded a one-line BASIC pro line GOTO 10600 flashed on the
cated code, translating as I went, or 1 gram and saved it as a sequential file screen below die program line. Then
could download the program from named ZILCH. Before 1 did the same the screen cleared and the next pro
the other machine, via telephone lines thing for my 21K monster I tried the gram line slowly began to he written
and modems, and avoid the original File Translator on the short test file across the top of the screen. The File
typing completely. It shouldn't take first. I'm no fool. Translator program was reading each
you too long lo figure out ilie option I In response 10 the program's re program line out of the sequential file
chose. The download lo die 6-i went quest for the file name, 1 typed ZI1.C11 and automatically entering it Into the
smoothly, and the program was saved and pressed RETURN. Things began 6'i's memory as a program line.
10 disk in under 20 minutes. to happen! The following appeared This went on for a while, until a
There was a complication, how on the screen ... garbled program line appeared on the
ever. Reading the excellent instruction PRLVi-THIS IS A TEST" screen. It was followed by the mes
manual that came wilh the Modem/ THIS IS A TEST sage SYNTAX ERROR, READY, and
300, I learned that programs GOTO 1061)0 the blinking cursor, and the whole
downloaded via the modem and the BEADY procedure ground 10 a halt. I found
Miggyierm software supplied with it. followed by the blinking cursor. The the garbled line in the original pro
are saved to disk as sequential files. fellow who wrote the little one-line gram's printed listing. Then 1 made
Such files cannot be loaded and run as ZILCH program had forgotten to put a the needed corrections on the 6'i's
BASIC programs. They must first he line number in front of the program's monitor screen, pressed RETURN,
converted to program files. single line. The 64 had captured the typed GOTO 10600. and the File
Not to worry! Commodore thought data faithfully. But. when 1 checked Translator went righi back lo doing ils
of everything. They not only supply the directory. I found ZILCH still tiling. There were three or four syn
an excellent disk full of communica listed as a sequential file. tax errors discovered, and similarly
tions software with their new mo Undaunted, I loaded and ran the corrected and entered, and the pro
dem, but they also provide a listing of File Translator program again. Again. 1 gram similarly restarted, before the
a very short BASIC program that con gave it ZILCH when asked for the file program reached a fatal point. After
verts programs downloaded and name. However, this time when the the better part of an hour had passed,
saved as sequential files into BASIC two lines appeared, I addet! line num my program's line numbers caught up
program files that can be loaded and ber 10 10 ZILCH and pressed with those used in File Translator.
run normally. RETURN. On a bunch, 1 typed LIST 'Thai's all she wrote!
Unfortunately, the good people at and pressed UliTURN. 'There was line Still I was way ahead of where I was

File Translator
{C$+CHR$(0))AND 127)
60100 REM FILE TRANSLATOR 60601 IF C5=CHR§(10)THEN 60900
60300 INPUT"FILENAME";N$ :0PEN 1,8,8,"0 AND 127):IF ST=0 THEN 60700
:"+NS 60800 IF ST=0 THEN 61000
60500 GET#1,C$:C$=CHR$(ASC(C$+CHR$(0)) 60900 CLOSE 1:PRINT"FINISHED":END
AND 127) :IF ASC(CS)O13 THEN 61000 FOR 1=631 TO 633:POKE I,13:NEXT
60500 :P0KE 198,3:PRINT"[HOME,D0WN4]
60600 POKE 152,1:PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN2]"; GOTO60600[HOME]"; : END tHll

62 3HFTEMhi;r/ix;tohek
an hour before. I had lines 15 through
10600 of "XM1TTED" in memory.
The last line in the program is num
bered 13060, so [ had the hulk of it
translated. All thai remained was to
comb the remains of Pile Translator
out of the listing and save what I had
to disk by typing SAVE"CLRNGHS",8
and pressing RETURN. (CLRNGHS is
the proper working name for the pro
gram.)Thai took only a few minuies. I
checked the disk directory, and sure
enough, there it was, CLRNGHS listed
as a program.

It took a while, but I had learned

enough about the File Translator pro
gram to straighten it out to make it
more useful, and then to put it lo
proper use. I loaded and listed File
Translator again. Then I proceeded to
change all the line numbers so they
began at 60100 rather than at 10100."i

made sure to change all the line num
bers within the program lines as well.
Thai would keep Hie 'Translator from
gelling sucked into my long program
files. The only other change 1 made Now, for the first time, are included in the course
was to get rid of the CLEAR/HOMI: in you can take real courses, prices.
the print statement in the line now from live instructors, right in Degrees available through
numbered 60300- [added line 60250 your home or office, right on the Electronic University
?"CLEAR/HOME":?:? because when I your own personal computer. include: Associate Degrees in
ran File Translator the first lew times, You can use an Electronic Business and General Studies,
the program's initial request lor the Library for research, tune-in Baccalaureate Degrees in
name ol' the file I wanted to translate
to interactive seminars, and Business and the Arts, several
appeared .so high on my monitor
take advantage of a full MBA Degrees, and specialized
screen that I had to bend down to
counseling center. Certificate Programs. There is
read it.
All that done. I did a save-with-re
The Electronic University also a variety of non-credit
place for File Translaior and pro is a national educational sys courses offered over the sys
ceeded to run it again. This time it tem that connects your per tem, as well as Tutoring
successfully converted all of "X.MIT- sonal computer to recognized Programs for children.
TED's" program lines (with a little colleges and universities Isn't it time to involve
help from me with the ones having located throughout the coun yourself in education once
syntax errors). After the last line was try. You can study nearly any again? Have some fun, become
converted, the word FINISHED ap
subject at your own pace, and part of the spirit of a national
peared on the screen along with the
on your own schedule. university system, and better
word READY and the blinking cursor.
Finally, technology is eli yet, open up a world of new
I listed the program and found all
minating those barriers (time, opportunities for yourself and
the lines properly converted. I got rid
of the 11 lines of File Translator, still location, and high cost) that your entire family. Call us
lurking in memory, by typing each of have prevented you from today:
its line numbers and pressing completing your college edu
RETl/RX. Then I did a save-wilh-re- cation, entering a Master's 800-22LEARN or
place for CLRNGHS, and a long eve Degree Program, or just taking
ning's work came to an end. that course you've always 800-44LEARN
Perhaps, if you have had the stam wanted to take. in California.
ina to read this far, you will appreciate
No computer knowledge
that the File Translator program is
is required to use the system
The Electronic University
simplicity itself, although thai may 505 Btach Street, San Francisco. CA 94133
and all communication costs J15/92K-280O
not he immediately apparent in the
Circle Reader Service No. 31
manual. Q

- Ml! !«>( OMPUTERS 63


code .sequence in decimal on your

S120A close it. To use the program,
follow these sleps: printer, return to BASIC by typing an
1. Load and run SuperMOtt, X, then use the short program in List
SuperMon to 2. Enter the first line of the program ing 2. Change the "26" In line LO to
by typing in accommodate the number of bytes in

Print A 1110 LDA #S(>4 [RETURN]

3. Similarly, input the remaining lines
your program.

One additional piece of advice.

after each prompt. Since PRNTSUP is a machine code
reading a Dumber of introduc 4. Once the program has been en file, it should only be loaded and
tory articles in magazines ami man tered, save it on disk wilh the com saved by Sii/ierMon. Attempts to load
uals dealing with machine language, mand or save it in BASIC, even with the H, 1
you've decided to put fear and trepi S1T)RNTSUI>",()8,11EO,12OA command, will either misplace the
dation aside and jump right into as 5. To use the new program, move the file in memory, or save ten extra

sembly language programming. cursor to a new line and type blocks of garbage.
You've already procured a copy of Su- G 11R) [RETURN] Now, in addition to ;ill your other
perMon, a very useful assembly lan The cursor will turn black and machine language capabilities, you
guage monitor for use on Commo your primer (if you remembered to can prepare hard copies ol al! jour as
dore systems, and you've been busy turn it on) will receive all the out sembly language programs, jusl in
learning how to use it. You've gotten put normally appearing on the case that disk crash ever occurs. Q
to the point where you can write as screen. See the SuperMon status Listing I
sembly level sequences, decode them list? 11F0 A9 04 LDA
into hexadecimal machine language, 6. To list the new program on your 11F2 A2 04 LDX
edit, save and go your primer, use the command 11F4 A0 FF LDY
fiiu one thing is missing. What If I' 1 1E0 I20A 11F6 20 BA FF JSR iFFBA

you want to prim hard copy of the as 7. To return to screen display, use UF9 A9 00 LDA #*00

sembly code and its hex or decimal G 1207 11FB 20 BD FF JSR SFFBD

equivalent? You've tried the logical Now, everything is hack to normal. 11FE 20 CO FF JSR tFFCO
thing: OPEN 4,4,2: CMD4 in BASIC. From now on, whenever yon run 1201 A2 LDX

But as soon as you run SuperMon, file SuperMon, also load the printing pro 1203 20 C9 FF JSR *FFC9

gram with the command L'TRXT- 1206 00 BRK

four is closed. The question remains:
How can you open a print file once SUP",08. Then write your program, 1207 20 CC FF JSR *FFCC

starling at some location beyond 120A 00 BRK

inside StiperMorii The short program
the cmi of PRNTSUP, say 81300 120B 3A END
in Listing 1 is just what the docior
(decimal 4864). Listing 2
We'll put the program in memory Whenever you're ready to list your b OPEN 4»4:CMU 4
beginning at S11FO, just above the efforts, just repeat steps five through It) fOW I = 48G4 'i'O 4664+26
end of SuperMon. The program con seven above, substituting your pro 15 PRINT PLt;K(I) ; :NliXT
sists of two parts. Lines S 1 I Hl-S 1206 gram's location in step six. If you'd 2a PhlNTH:CLuSL
open the prim file, while lines S 1207- like lo print your program's machine END

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Circle Reader Service No. 17

■ 1

■ ■


rf. —'»aj/ ■ :
w -

1 BWwi

Unique in the Universe.

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8-5 central time The disk Compan


Circle Reader Service No. 36

Voice Synthesis
and Recognition
on the 64
Your 64 can talk—and listen—using
relatively inexpensive speech devices.


he power of speech. Some sden-

tists say it's what separates, us from
machine-made? What's
mentation like? How much does it
the docu- than (or worse than) others. But if
you have a need for an unlimited
other animals, Bui we also have the cost? vocabulary and you don't have time
power to listen, to hear, and to Before we begin looking at some to figure out what phonemes will
understand the speech of others, of the main speech synthesizer sys- make each word sound right, then
Until recently, we humans were the terns for the 6-i, we should explain text-to-speech is for you. It's very
onlv ones on earth with that combi- the differences among the tech- easy to use, and in most cases, it
nation of talents. But that has now niques used. There are three major produces speech of sufficient quality.
changed. Something else is talking, types of speech synthesis: phonetic, Digitized speech is the easiest,
And it's listening, too. text-to-speech, and digitized. Pho most understandable method of
Yes, 1 am talking about your Com netic is the most versatile, because it speech synthesis around. And that's
modore 6-i computer. There are now is based upon the 64 basic sounds because it's not really synthesized at
several different voice-synthesis that make up all English words. By all. It's an electronic recording of
devices available for you to choose the careful use of phonemes, you someone's voice, stored away in
from, each with its own unique can make the computer say anything memory somewhere. When it is spo
properties. And there are at least with almost any inflection you wish. ken by the machine, it sounds just
two voice-recognition devices you The phonetic method produces like the original. It does have some
can buy. With the proper program- much clearer speech than the text- problems, however. For one thing,
ming, your 64 can be made a listen- to-spcech method, hut it is by far it's not an unlimited vocabulary. In
ing, speaking machine. the hardest to use. You must learn most cases, it is a few hundred
How can such a thing be possible? the phonemes to use them properly, words, and while you can add more,
Just a few years ago speech synthesis and each synthesizer has a different the)' eat up your memory fast. Also
required a great deal of computer way of representing phonemes in a there is no way to change the inflec-
power to generate. And speech rec- program. Luckily, most manufac- tion of the voice. As a result, it will
ognition was unheard of (outside of Hirers include a dictionary with the always say the same word the same
movies). But the same electronic most common words already in pho way. But if you need crystal clear
advances that have made computers netic form. speech and the vocabulary you need
rapidly increase in power while get- Text-to-speech is just that, you is available in digitized form, this is
ting cheaper have enabled speech type in the word and the computer the way to go.
technology to make its own quan- says it. For example, if I type, SAY
turn jumps in quality and to drop in "1 am the Commodore 64," the syn Personal Speech System
cost. thesizer will say, "I am the Commo- Votrax, in Troy, Michigan, produces
If you are thinking of adding a dore 64." But the quality of sound the Personal Speech System for the
speech device to your 64, you varies from system to system. Text- 64. it is a separate box with its own
should determine what your needs to-speech devices have a built-in set power supply and speaker system,
are and what systems are available. Of rules that determines the correct and is connected to the computer
For instance, what software (if any) phonemes to use. That means you through the RS-232C port. Votrax
is available for the device? Is the don't have to break the words down speech synthesizers are treated
device easy to program? (Especially into phonemes. This is great, except any external peripheral and can be
important if the software availability- that to get really good clear words programmed from BASIC; much the
is poor.) How understandable is the requires a very good internal set of same as a printer. You must open a
voice? Is the sound natural or rules. And some systems are better channel to the device and send the

data to be spoken. Tor example, the gramming. You also have some con
statement trol over the inflection by inserting
10OPENl,2,0,CHRS(6): commands into the phrase you wish
PRINT* 1 ,"i lello there":CLOSEl Comvoice to say. However, the Com-
There VOice does take away from the com
would tell the 64 to say "Hello there."
As you can see, the Personal Speech are three puter's RAM.
System has text-to-speech capabilities, There are two versions of Com
which means you simply enter the En major types of voice available. One has a cable to
glish spelling of the word you want plug into your monitor or TV, allow
and the voice synthesizer will convert speech synthesis: ing the sound to come from its
it as best it e;in to sound. That can be speaker. This retails for S99-95- The
quite difficult for English words, phonetic, second version has an external
which often don't abide by any rules speaker system with a volume con
of pronunciation. Foe instance, words
text-to-speech, trol, and sells for S I.W.95.
like "read" are pronounced differ One of the newer voice synthesiz
ently depending on the context they
and ers for the 6i is the Voice Messenger
arc used in, And how do you differen digitized. from Currah Technology. The Voice
tiate between "though" and "rough?" Messenger sounds a little less robotic
Votrax's Personal Speech System, than the Votrax-siylc systems, but its
nevertheless, has the best lext-lo- text-to-speech is not quite as good as
spcech capability of the systems we Comvoice. It is a cartridge device like
looked at in this article. It was almost the Comvoice, but does not take any
always clearer, sharper and more un There is no software supplied with BASK; RAM away from the computer.
derstandable when using direct-text the Magic Voice, but Commodore pro The cartridge adds live new BASIC
input. Its phonetic capabilities arc also duces three cartridges that use it. One commands: SAY, IN IT, BYE, KON and
very good, but arc very difficult to get is an educational package called KOFF.
used to because they bear no resem ABC's. My four year-old loved it, and SAY allows both direct text-to-
blance to the sounds they represent. was trying to answer the lady in the spcccli and phonemes to be used in
And at S.VJS, it was the most expen computer. The other two are arcade creating speech. IN1T is the initializa
sive system we looked at. games: Wizard of Wor and Coif. tion command that activates the car
But, to be fair, it also has several These two use the Magic Voice, but tridge. BYE disables the cartridge.
other features besides voice synthesis. have robotic voices instead of the digi KON is an interesting command. It in
For one thing, it has a 3.5K buffer, tized female voice. tercepts the keystrokes from the key
which means you can send quite a bit The documentation includes infor board and will speak the key you have
of data to it and it will continue to mation for both BASIC and machine pressed. This has advantages for both
work after the computer quits trans language programmers, so there will handicapped and young children, and
mitting information and is doing probably be quite a few software requires only the command KON to
something else. And because it is a packages appearing soon. In addition start it. KON also allows you to
separate device like a printer, it takes to the SAY command, the Magic Voice switch between two different voices.
no RAM from the computer. It also adds the commands RATK (for speed One is high pitched, while the other is
has a built-in clock, which many com of speech). ROY (to determine if the a deeper voice. And KOBE simply de
puters do not already have, and a rea computer has finished talking), and activates the keyboard Intercept
sonably good music synthesizer, so VOC (for adding additional vocabu started by KON.
you can add simple music to your laries, none of which have been re The manual is small, but contains
speech. However, since you are using leased yet). The Magic Voice retails for several demonstration programs you

a Commodore 64. the music from the S50. can type in. And it also has informa
Personal Speech System will seem tion for the machine language pro
very primitive to you. And we all Other Voice Synthesizers grammer. Currah is reportedly work
know the 64 already has a clock Commodore 64 users also have a ing on a program that will allow the
built in, couple of other voice synthesis sys Voice Messenger to speak Infocom ad
tems available. One is the Comvoice venture games like Zork. With that
Magic Voice from Genesis Computer Corporation. and the keyboard intercept, a blind
Magic Voice, produced by Commo Comvoice is a cartridge that plugs into person could play Zork with no out

dore, is a voice module that plugs into the expansion slot, and gives you the side assistance. The Currah Voice Mes
the expansion port and gives you an new BASIC command SPliAK. You senger retails for S50.
auxiliary cartridge port that is even can use it with the phonetic codes or There are other voice synthesizers
easier to use than the standard port. as a direct tcxt-to-spcech synthesizer. on the market, but these are good ex
The voice is not synthesized; instead it It is a Votrax chip-based system, amples of what types you will find.
is a digitized female voice that speaks which means it gives a good quality There are also some software voice
235 built-in words and phrases. These speech, although it is of the robotic synthesizers, and while they may be
words require no memory, leaving the style. cheaper, most of them are not as

user with all of the BASIC work space Comvoice is very good at speaking good. You can also still find voice syn
free. You access the words by using numbers, and will correctly say any thesizers that were produced by com

the command SAY, and the computer number between - 999.9y9.999 and panies that are now out of business,

speaks the word. + 999.999,999 without special pro and can often get a good price on

them. But don't expect to find new bility. And you can use the speech
software or get any repair service if without the hardware. In other
they fail to operate, because these arc words, 1 could write a program using
not likely to be available. Just afew years the voice capability, and give you a

Voice Recognition
ago speech copy that will work without the
Voice-Master hardware. That feature
Now, let's take a look al a couple of
really different voice products. These
synthesis required makes it stand out from the others.
In addition, a voice-recognition
are the voice recognition systems— a great deal of program is included that will work
the Voice Command Module (VCM) alone or with the speech system. This
from Eng Manufacturing, Inc. and the computer power to adds even more commands, all dedi
VoiceMaster from Covox. Inc. cated to voice recognition. They are
Voice recognition Is a totally differ generate. And TRAIN, RF.COG, BLANK, TPUT,
ent technical problem from voice syn TFIND, MAX and MIN. By using
thesis. Here the machine must listen speech recognition TRAIN, you can create voice-pattern
anil capture a sample of your voice,
compare it to a stored pre-recorded
was unheard of files for up to 64 different words.
These can be stored to disk with
sample, and then decide if it matches.
And to be useful, it must have a num
(outside of movies). TPUT, recalled later with TFIND, and
compared to a word inputted with
ber of words that it can understand al BECOG,
ready in its vocabulary. Hoth the VCM While the VoiceMaster often did not
and VoiceMaster arc able to More up to recognize words as well as the VCM,
64 different words for later recall, but it still gave satisfactory results. And,
the more words you use, the harder it balloon over trees and power poles to because of its speech recording/play
is for the computer to recognize [hern. land safely on the landing pads. It has back capabilities, it has considerable
The VCM is a dedicated voice-rec very nice, smooth-scrolling graphics, potential as a program-development
ognition device. It plugs into the 6-i's and is fun to play. It is also a good tool.
R.S-232 port with a supplied cable. It demonstration of real-time graphic There are other programs on the
is a small calculator-shaped device control by voice. VoiceMaster disk that demonstrate
that has a clip-on lapel microphone The VCM performed very well in speech recording, playback and rec
with a six-foot wire. You also get a our tests. It was able to correctly iden ognition. One of these is really
disk and manual. tify words more often than the Voice- unique. It is called the Voice Harp.
On the disk arc a number of pro Master, which is not surprising when Part one of the program is called
grams, including (he Speech Operat you consider it is designed solely for ■'Mum-Along." Here if you hum. sing
ing System (SOS) for creating your speech recognition. If your interest is or whistle into the microphone, you
own lexicons (user-creaied speech strictly voice recognition, you will will hear the computer trying to re
files). These can be any words you find the Voice Command Module a produce those sounds as music. In ef
wish, but for best results each word in good buy at S49.9S. fect, the 64 is accompanying you
the lexicon should sound different, VoiceMaster from Covox is really a while you sing. Part two is the "Com
and be spoken very distinctly. By cre very interesting device. More of a poser." It allows you to hum, sing,
ating a number of these disk-based voice digitizer than a synthesizer, it whistle or whatever you do to make
files, you can extend your vocabulary combines several features into one. It musical sounds into the microphone,
beyond the maximum 61 words in plugs into the joystick port, and has a and translates ihcm into written musi
memory. headset microphone that you speak cal notes. You can enter a song this
To allow you to use these voice files into. It can store these words or way, save it to disk, recall it and mod
in your program, the disk has a pro phrases in your own voice for later ify it with an editor, replay it (as mu
gram called "Chirpee." This is a ma playback. The software included with sic), and save it again. And part three
chine language program which lets the device provides 11 commands for is the "Score Printer." which will
the VCM listen to the- outside world, recording and playing back the voices print the score created by pan two on
and then compare what it heard lo the or sounds you have made. They are a dot matrix printer. While these pro
words in memory. So you could write LEARN, SPEAK, PUT, FIND, FFIND (a grams are not terribly sophisticated, I
a program that accepts your spoken fast file loader command), SCREEN, believe they represent an application
commands and proceeds accordingly! CLEAR, SPEED, PAUSE, VOLUME, that will soon be commonplace. 1
To do this requires some degree of and RATE. found them very impressive.
programming skill, but if you are By using the LEARN command, you Included with the VoiceMaster
comfortable, with a few simple peeks can make the 64 say anything you hardware is perhaps the most com
and pokes you should have no wish. For instance, if you typed plete documentation of all the voice
problem. I.EARN 1 anil said, "Hello," the com products I looked at. The 50-pagC
A number ol" Interesting programs puter will say, "Hello" in your voice manual, while: it was not an expen
are supplied with the VCM. One is a every time you type SPEAK 1. You sively produced document, did con
voice-controlled card file or mini data can have a maximum of 64 words or tain a lot of information. And Covox
base. It allows you to search, load and phrases available at any one time. You is good at sending updates lo regis
edit with the spoken word. Another can also save files of words to disk tered users. With all things consid
program is a graphic voice-com rolled that can be loaded into programs, giv ered, 1 think the VoiceMaster is a good
game. Here you must guide a hoi air ing you almost unlimited speech capa buyat 889.95. Q
The Amiga Personal computer Is an advanced graphics machine capable of producing very high resolution screens in
two separata graphic modes. Normal resolution provides a 320 x 400 (Interlaced) or 320 x 200 (non-interlaced) pixel
screen with a color palette of 32 colors selected from a possible 1096. High resolution provldesa 640 x 100 or 640 x 200
pixel screen with a palette of 16 colors out of the possible 4096. The following screens show the scope of graphic pos
sibilities on the Amiga.

ommodore's new Amiga computer is a
256K RAM personal computer based on
the 68000 microprocessor, it has 192K of
ROM and a built-in 3.5-inch disk drive. A
complete Amiga system consists of the
main computer unit with drive, the key
board, an RGB analog monitor and a
mouse. The monitor in this picture is the
Commodore 1080.

commodore: microcomputers 71
7 6


Preview ■RUH
' H

The keyboard includes a four-cursor pad, a
numeric keypad, ten function keys, a CAPS LOCK Palette
key with LED, an ESC key and special Amiga logo Pattern

keys on either side of the space bar. The key

board has lift-out legs on the top to tilt the
keyboard economically.

Estituttd Population Grovth ky Incwe Brackets



This Is the front of the main computer unit with the
memory expansion slot cover removed. To expand
the Amiga to 512K you insert a 256K expansion board
onto this edge connector and replace the cover. To
the right of the expansion port is the 3.5-Inch disk
drive. This is a double-sided double-density disk
drive with a formatted disk capacity of 880K. The
small led square below and to the right of the drive
slot is the drive busy indicator and the LED square on
the left middle is the power indicator.

This the right side of the main computer unit show

ing the two mouse/joystick connectors and the
system expansion bus. This expansion bus provides
access to virtually every signal line In the Amiga and
allows third party developers to create peripherals
using as much (or as little) of the Amiga operating
system as required. This is the bus through which
the external 8Mb of external ram will be connected.

This the rear of the main computer unit showing

the ports and connectorsforaccessing a wide vari
ety of peripherals, starting from the left, they are:

Keyboard connector
Centronics parallel printer port
External disk drive port
RS-232 modem port
Right- and Left-channel RCA stereo output jacks
RGB monitor connector (RGB monitor!
Composite video output port (composite monitor)
RF modulated video output port (television)
Below these ports and to the right is the main
power port
The Commodore 64 helps advance
the art of amateur radio.




/ i
/ i

According to the American Radio Relay
League, there are about 438,000 ham radio
operators in the United States, and at least 40%
of them are using microcomputers in their ham
shacks. The Commodore 64 is one of the most
popular ham companions, helping operators
translate RTTY and Morse code and keep logs.
I .f ever a marriage was made in
heaven, it's the joining of personal
computers and amateur radio. An
infatuation dating buck to the original
Commodore PET 2001 has blossomed
into ;t love affair that's made comput
ers one of the topics of conversation
heard most often on the nation's ham
bands. And the power, versatility, and
low cost of the Commodore 6-t have
made it one of the computers found
most often in the nation's ham shacks.
For radio amateurs, computers are
more than just a means of taking the
tedium out of record keeping and the
complexity out of math. They're a
tool for advancement of the radio art,
and a way to increase the enjoyment
of a fascinating hobby. A sampling of Contesting is a special amateur ra short-wave radio signal to its intended
tile most popular ham radio uses of dio activity requiring still further re destination. Doing it is easy with the
the Commodore 64 shows how. finement of computerized logging. help of software like Mam Data's
Contest operation involves contacting Propagation Chart. This software
Logging xs many different stations in as many provides compass headings and dis
There was a time when Federal different locations as possible within a tances to locations around the globe,
Communications Commission regula limited period of time. Logging for and. using readily available informa
tions required ham operators to main such competitions, therefore, in tion on the .sunspot activity which
tain detailed logs of their radio trans volves not only the recording of con governs radio propagation, calculates
missions. Those requirements are tact information, hut also assuring the frequencies most likely to reach
long gone, but most hams continue to thai no station is contacted more than those locations at any particular time
keep records of their on-air activities once. Programs like Ham Data's Con of day. Xantec Inc.'s The DX Edge
cither for the pleasure of recalling test Log guard against such duplicate takes advantage of the Commodore
particularly enjoyable contacts, or to contacts (a process known as "dupe 64's graphics capabilities to present
qualify for some of ihe many amateur cheeking") while keeping track of similar propagation data in the form
radio awards. Typically, hams log the how man;1 different locations have of a world map. and includes a real
date and time of a contact, frequency been logged to automatically calculate time clock and time /one conversion
band on which it's made, mode of op a running contest score, and provide a display to hoot!
eration (Morse code, voice, radio-tele- printed summary at the end of the Antenna orientation is crucially im
lype, etc.), callsign, location and sig competition. portant in amateur radio space com
nal strength of the station contacted, munications. The first Orbiting Satel
the name of its operator, and whether Calculation, Destination, lite Carrying Amateur Radio (OSCAK)
a "QS1. card' providing written con Propagation was launched in 1'Xil and nearly a
firmation of the contact has been The days of scratch paper covered score of others have followed from
received. edge to edge with scribbled electronic both the United States and the Soviet
Although conventional database equations are but a memory in today's Union. VHP and U1IF frequency
software can he used to computerize computerized ham shacks. Xot since bands once limited to local contacts
such records, it's far easier with spe the pocket calculator replaced the are now open to trans-global com
cialized programs typified by the Ham slide rule has there been a device as munications, thanks lo these orbiting
Data Company's Super Log series. useful as the Commodore 64 for relay stations. To use them, however,
Contact information is entered in a speeding the computations Involved it's necessary to determine when
screen format tliai's similar to a page in so much of ham radio. they're in range and which way to
from a log book kept by hand. Data Software like the Formulas series point your antenna to reach them.
on hundreds of contacts can be stored by RAK Electronics makes short work Thanks to tracking programs like the
on disk or tape cassette for later re of the mathematics of Ohm's Law, co ones available from the AMSAT Soft
trieval on screen or as a printout, ei axial cable losses, and series and para ware Exchange of the nonprofit ama
ther in tabular form or as a QSL ready llel circuits. HAK's flam Antennas teur Satellite Corporation, that once
lor mailing. Contact information also program is typical of software which tedious and time-consuming process
can be retrieved through a search for performs the .sometimes complex is now quick and easy.

any desired date, call sign, location. arithmetic for determining the dimen
or name. The programs also keep sions of the many types of ham Morse and RTTY
track of QSI, cards received, and prog antennas. Radio amateurs are as diverse as
ress toward operating achievements Pointing a transmitting antenna in their hobby, but they all have one
such as confirmed contacts with par the proper direction at the proper thing in common. Whether engineer
ticular states or foreign countries. time of day is the key to getting a or homemaker. schoolboy or univer-

sity professor, every ham has ;it least The Kantronics Interface II and CP- tics typical of that band at that time of
some proficiency in Morse code. FCC 1 Computer Patch terminal unit from day. Stations you "call," by sending
regulations require the ability to send Advanced Electronic Applications Morse as you would on the air, will
and receive CW. as hams call it. at five (AEA) are typical of the sophistication answer or fail to answer based on
words per minute for Novice and to be found in the CW/RTTY equip what the signal from your location
Technician clans amateur licenses. ment available for the 64. With appro would DC like as compared to the
thirteen words per minute for General priate software, they permit iransmis- other signals on the band at the same
and Advanced classes, and twenty .sion and reception of conventional time. The effect is described as so re
words per minute for the Amateur l-x- Morse, baudot (RTTY), and ASCII sig alistic that Dr. DX is rumored to have
tra ticket. nals, along with a newer radioteletype successfully "impersonated" an oper
Although primed charts of the code- system known as AM TOR which auto ating station ai a major amateur radio
show the letters of the alphabet as matically checks for garbling of text convention!
dots and dashes, learning Morse really due lo interference or fading of the ra One of the newest developments in
involves associating the characters dio signals. Microlog offers similar the bam shack is computer control of
with the "dit" and "dab." sounds features in the combination of hard on-the-air operations. Some of the lat
which those dots and dashes repre ware and software found in its AXR-1 est ham equipment provides for con
sent. Code practice and instruction interface cartridge. Tor a still newer trol of such functions as frequency
software like the Micxolog Corpora type of radiotelctypc operation and mode selection via an RS-232
tion's Morse Coach cartridge speeds known as packet radio, ABA offers its port, and lilectronic Equipment Bank
the process by using the Commodore PKT-1 Packet Controller, which offers a computer control interface
64's audio capabilities. equips the 61 for a combination of er designed lo male such gear to the
Probably the most popular use for ror checking, higher speed transmis (lotnrnodore (> j. Such an arrangement
the 64 among hams is for the actual sion, multiplexing of several signals could potentially allow remote con
transmission and reception of Morse on die same radio frequency, and elec trol via telephone through an auto-an
code and radioteletype (RTTY). In tronic mailbox capabilities. swer modem, or even fully automatic
much the way that telephone modems station operation under control of the
and terminal programs allow the use Simulation and Control computer.
of computers for communication via Perhaps the most fascinating appli
what hams call the "landline," special cation Of computerized Morse is ABA'S Finding What You Need
interface devices and software can Doctor DX simulator-trainer. In much The one difficulty you're likely to
link computers to ham radio transmit the way popular flight .simulation pro encounter in computerizing your

ting and receiving equipment. Such grams turn your 64 into an airplane bamming, is obtaining the hardware
arrangements have opened a new control panel, the Dr. DX cartridge and software you need. Most of the
world of ultra-high-speed CW opera makes your compuier behave like a programs and devices I've described
ham transceiver that's on (he air in the won't be found amid the games, joy
tion, as computers both generate the
Morse to be sent, and interpret the thick of an International c\v contest. sticks, word processors and printers
As you "tune" each band at a .speci in the typical compuier store. How
code being received, Likewise, as the
fied hour, you'll bear "stations" oper ever, both manufacturers and mail or
clatter of mechanical teleprinters has
given way to the glow of the com- ating from the parts of the world der retailers of ham-oriented com
ptner display, thousands of hams have which would actually he heard as a puter items advertise extensively in
discovered the joys of radioteletype. result of the propagation characteri.s- amateur radio publications. There's
also a considerable amount of public
domain software available at little or
Ham/Computer Resource Guide no cost through local amateur radio
clubs, and the American Radio Relay
Advanced Electron m DalaComp
League maintains a library of public-
Applications, Inc. HvhrookLane
domain program listings. A cataloguc
[».(>. HoxC-2160
of what's available from the League-
l.ynwood, \VA 9H03o
can be obtained by sending a
stamped, self-addressed envelope to
American Kadio Kela the ARRL's "TX" program exchange
11s, Main Street

From logging contacts to designing
antennas, tracking satellites to send
AMSAT Software Exchange
ing and receiving Morse code and ra-
Box £? dioteletypc, ham shack uses for the
Washington, D.C. 200-ii
Commodore 64 are as diverse as ama
teur radio itself. So it's easy to see
The DX
^ why the question for bams who own
P.O. Box 834 a 64 isn't, "What can I do with it?"
Madison Square Station
but, "What should 1 do first?" Q
New York, NY 1015
Met Granick is a radio mid electron-
Electronic Equipment B ics hobbyist who holds an Extra Class
16 Milt Street Amateur radio license.
Vienna, VA 22180
The Electronic Cottage Controversy
Computer Work at Home May Be Illegal of others; as long as they're using a
terminal or computer for work at
home, they're cottagers.
77m? AFL-CIO wants to protect cottagersfrom labor Working ai home is not at all a new
abuse. But electronic cottagers think their consti idea; folks have been doing it for
years. The computer, however, has
tutional rights are threatened. Journalist—and
made working at home an accessible
electronic cottager—Tom Benford offers his opinion reality to some members of ihe
workforce. In his best-selling book
on the controversy.
The Third Ware, author Alvin Toffler

BY TOM 1SENFOUD prophetically describes the next
"wave" of work trends and accepted
Ihousands of folks live and work In for writing magazine articles, doesn't norms for the business world-
electronic cottages, and thousands matter. The main criterion thai spawned by the emergence of the
more will join them over the ncxl defines an electronic cottage is thai electronic collage.
year, An electronic cottage is a home some form of income-generatinn By nature, electronic cottaging will
and workplace thai is wired to the computer work be done in the home. not work for a great number of jobs
world through a computer keyboard Those who work in such environ where physical presence at the work
and screen. Whether the keyboard ments are called cottagers, and this place is necessary. However, certain
and screen is attached to a dumb ter work/li lest vie is known as the "elec jobs requiring little or no interaction
minal linked 10 a mainframe through tronic cottage industry." Cottagers among people are ideally suited to
a modem, or a Commodore 64 used may be self-employed or employees this cottage industry.

Should Computer Work at Home Be Banned?
For instance, cottage workers can the largest labor organization in the home was cited. This incident
be employed to process claim forms United States, has resolved to seek a attracted some attention from the
by Blue Cross/Blue Shield, in such an ban by the federal government on all media, and efforts were undertaken
arrangement, these workers make computer work clone at home. It's to amend the ordinance; the success
[heir own hours and arc paid a fixed important to understand the implica or failure of these efforts is unknown
amount for each form they process. tions of such a ban. If it were made as of this writing.
The data is entered from a terminal in law, you would be breaking thai law
their home, scni through a modem id by doing anything for profit with a The AEC vs. the AFL-CIO
a mainframe at the company, and computer in your home. This means, With the increasing popularity of
their wages arc tallied from ilic num for example, lliat if you sent a pro cottage-industry work, small local
ber of completed transmissions re gram or software review to a maga "cottage" groups have sprung up. On
ceived by the mainframe. zine, and they bought it from you, a nationwide scale, however, the
Occupations such as this, involving you'd become a criminal. Association of Electronic Cottager;,
information entry, handling, manipu This example is not taking things to (AEC) was founded to provide a cen
lation or transmission, do particularly the extreme, hi fact, eottaging may tral organization for the cottage indus
well in cottage environments, Profes even he illegal in your locality already, try at large. It provides marketing
sions like consulting, writing, Pot instance, about a year ago, two assistance, business consultaiion,
researching, brokering and others fall writers working out of their apart assistance in setting up a computer-
into this category us well, and cottag ment in a Chicago suburb were served based home business, and other ser
ers in these fields are often self- with a ceasc-and-desist order. A vices to members.
employed entrepreneurs. municipal ordinance prohibiting any The AEC was formed in January.
Recently, however, the AFL-CIO, kind of income-generating work :ii , by Paul and Sarah Edwards, CO-
Dennis Ch:imnt Assot. Director Dcpt. for Profes
sional Employees A FUCK)


\ome-work in the past did lead to widespread, well documented

cases of abuse. . . low wages, long hours, poor health conditions.. .
authors of several books on home- cotiaging may promolc: child labor, Cbatnot: The APL-C1O Convention
based computer business Opportuni long hours, no benefits, and the like. passed a resolution about two years
ties, As of lhis writing, [he These points arc valid anil no one ago calling for a ban on computer
organization already has over 100 would argue their merit. The pro home-work. Since it is a convention
members, with Commodore users posed ban, however, is a blanket con resolution, that is the official stand of
comprising about H>% of the total demnation of all home computer ihcAFL-ClO.
membership, work, wilh no provision or suggestion llciiforei: Hut what aboui the rights
The ABC's most significant contri for regulating it. of people lo work on computers ai
bution to the cottage industry thus far hi ime?
The AFL/CIO Side of
involves writing an "Electronic Cot Chamot: There's a long history of
tage Bill of Rights" In opposition to the Issue home-work ant! problems with home
the AFI.-CIO ban effons. This "bill" Dr. Dennis Chamot, the Associate work in this country, which led to
reaffirms the right of an individual Director of the Department for Pro such a level of abuse that several
to choose cot tag ing ;is a legitimate fessional Employees at the AFL-C1O forms of Industrial home-work were
means of earning a living. The AEC Professional Employee offices in banned by the federal government
also functions effectively as an infor Washington, D,C, detailed what the decades ago. The most recent wrinkle
mation source on any legislative and proposed ban encompasses and who is the lifting of the ban for home knit
regulatory activities threatening the it affects. My phone interview with ting; the others still remain in effect.
rights of cottagers. Dr. Chamot went like this: 1 think it's important for people 10
According 10 Paul Hdwards, the BeitfOTd: What is the official stand understand why the original bans
AFL-C1O is predominantly concerned of the AFLcCIO regarding computer were put into effect, .since that will go
With ihe labor abuses thai electronic work done at home? a long way toward explaining why

Paul and Sarah Edwards. Authors nf Working/row
Home: Everything t'nti tietd to Know About i.tvttig
ami Working Under the Same Roof.

Were you work and whom you work for is your own business-
—and it should stay that way." —Electronic Cottager
many of us [personally]—not just the virtually impossible. Therefore, in the becomes very widespread, thai the
AFL-CIO—arc opposed to the lifting industries where the worst abuses definition of a "self-employed" or an
of the other bans and why we- have were prevalent, a total ban was put "independently self-employed" indi
our concerns about the development into place. Those ban.s have remained vidual becomes a little fuzzy,
of computer home-work. Home-work for decades until the advent of the BenforcL For the purposes of clar
in the past did lead to widespread, Reagan administration in seeking to ity as to what "self-em ployed" means,
well doc u men ted cases of abuse. The overturn them. The overturning of let'.s use me as an example.
abuses we're talking about here are the knitting ban was not a smooth Chatnot: We can't—you see, that's
low wages, piece-work systems, long process—there was opposition to the problem. The people from the cot
hours, poor health conditions, the use that There IS no attempt being made tage Industry association and the like
of child labor, and so forth. right now to eliminate the other bans. immediately |ump to the case of those
Benjbrd: Wasn't there an alterna I think there is a fairly widespread people who are least abused and who
tive to banning home-work that recognition of the feet that home- have the most ability to take care of
would prevent such abuses? workers can be and have been abused. themselves. Those are not the people
Cbamoti The Initial approach was lifitford: I understand this ban on we're worried about. There's a very
not to ban the work,kbut lo regulate it. computer home-work makes no hig difference between somebody like
I fere were people trying to make a liv exception to persons who are self- yourself and, say, a clerical worker.
ing and they were being exploited— employed, is that correct? That is, a worker who is given work
they needed some protection. After a Cbamoti If someone is truly inde by a major company, who has no abil
long period of tria!-and-error and pendent or self-employed, they take ity whatever to negotiate over pay
many problems, enforcing standards care of themselves. You start to come rates, who is not given any benefits,
for home-workers was found to be into an area, though, when the work Continued mi fitine I JO

r-go-nom-ics— Have you ever hud a long session ;u your computer and fell achy or stiff at
The study of the end of it? Perhaps the reason for your discomfort is that your equipment
isn't economically arranged. Regardless of whether you use your Commo
the relationship dore for gaming, word processing, programming or other applications, pay-
between man and his Ing some attention to the ergonomics of your equipment set-up will make
your computing more enjoyable—and more comfortable!
working environment, Virtually everything in your computing environment affects the ergonom
with special reference to ics lo some degree. Lighting, keyboard height, seating, disk and accessory
storage are some of the considerations thin come under ihe heading of ergo
anatomical, physiological
nomics. Several manufacturers have come out with economically designed
and psychological products, and we'll cover several of them here. Hut there are many Uiings
factors: human you can do yourself to make your computing more comfortable. In fact,
you'll find that having a good basic work area to begin with will help you
engineering. derive the maximum hencfit from any accessories you do add.

—Punk & Wag/tails

Your Work Area
Your computer work area doesn't have to take up much room. Mosi any
Dictionary place will do as long as it has sufficient lighting, enough electrical outlets for
your equipment, and is in a low-traffic area. If you plan to use your modem
for telecomputing, then proximity to a phone jack is also important,
although extension cords may solve this problem.

Your Work Surface

Once you've picked a spot to set up shop, you'll have to choose a work
surface for your equipment and accessories. The work surface can be any
thing from a sturdy card table to a desk to a custom-built wall unit or a
commercially available computer work station, The three main requirements
for a work surface are that it is large enough to comfortably hold your
equipment, sturdy enough so it won't collapse from the weight, and at a
comfortable height for typing on the computer keyboard. Most typing tables
arc between 25 and 2S inches—a range that is comfortable for most.
To find the height that's right for you, try keeping your elbows at your
side while assuming a typing posture with your arms and hands. Your fore
arms should be slightly elevated, with your wrists about two inches higher
than the crook of your elbow. Whatever thlfl height is, subtract three inches
from it and that's where your work surface should be (the Commodore 64 is

Virtually everything
in your environment
affects the ergonomics
to some degree,
including lighting,
keyboard height,
seating, and disk
I and accessory

about three inches thick at the keytops).

The work surface should be deep enough to hold your monitor or TV set
with the Commodore 64 in front of it. Allow six inches or more between
the computer and monitor/TV tor accessing the ports. A work surface depth
of 30 inches works well for the 64 and a 1702 monitor; other monitors or
TV's may require more or less depth.
Sufficient width is another factor to consider. I recommend a minimum
width of 30 inches to hold a (ri and disk drive or datassettc with enough
"breathing" room between the units. A iH-inch width will afford you plenty
of room to keep the computer, disk drive, disk storage file, notepad and
pen, joystick, and other small items with room to spare. 1 use a 48-inch
work surface, and 1 like the extra elbow room it provides me (I have a sepa
rate printer stand). To accommodate your printer on [he same surface, plan
on making it *>■$ or even 60 inches, depending on the printer.

Storage Space
lirgonomics come into play when you arc storing your disks, cartridges
and other Items. Depending on what you've chosen for the work surface,
you may already have drawers or shelves. If not, there arc still plenty of
options for your storage needs.
Shelving brackets and composition board shelves are an Inexpensive way
to clear up some of the clutter and yet keep everything within arm's reach,
You can create- shelves easily with metal "standards" which are screwed into
The latest item in the studs of the wall. Metal shelf brackets snap into the holes in the stan
dards, and the shelf rests on these brackets. Since the standards have holes
ergonomic seating is placed at half-inch intervals, you can adjust the height of your shelves—very
economically sound! The standards, shelf brackets and shelves are available
the "kneeler" or in the hardware or lumber departments of most large chain or department

"back" chair, which stores.

You tan also install fixed shelves if you're interested in doing a little
carpentry. Most home repair/modification hooks have plans for building sim
distributes the body's ple, strong wall shelving inexpensively, and many luniber/building-maierials
weight evenly over dealers have free brochures on shelving for the do-it-yourselfer. "Organizers"
also provide storage. They can he virtually anything from a sturdy card
the center of gravity. board box for holding your small accessories to a specially designed unit for
storing disks. Stackahlc plastic bins available in the housewares sections of
department stores make dandy containers for holding cables, joysticks, car
tridges and the like. Clear plastic shoe storage boxes also come in handy for
organizing your gear, as do shallow plastic trays, also available in
Hookends are another item you might want 10 include for holding your
user manuals and other documentation neatly, just about any heavy, free
standing objects can be used for bookends, even a couple of large rocks—
don't be afraid to be creative or innovative,
Psychological factors are also part of your work station's ergonomics. The
whole idea is to create a place where you will feel comfortable. To this end,
include any items that make you feel at home, such as favorite pictures,
knick-knacks and the like. This is supposed to be your place, so make it
I'm one of those people who constantly jots down cryptic notes and
reminders lo myself. Some inexpensive corkboard on the facing wall holds
these shards of paper in what almost approaches an organized manner, if
you're an incorrigible note-poster, then (he corkboard will allow you to
indulge yourself without poking holes in the wall.

Seating Arrangements
You'll he sitting down for 99% of the lime you spend at your computer,
so a comfortable seat is an important consideration. Choosing a comfortable
chair is largely a matter of personal taste, as long as it provides good back
support. Typing or secretarial chairs are good choices and are often adjusta
ble for back support and height. The height adjustment helps you compen
sate for a less -than -idea! -height work surface. These chairs frequently have
casters that allow you to roll about, another ergonomic point to consider if
your work surface is on the long side.
Comfortable cushioning and a design that fosters good posture will also
make for comfortable computing. The kitchen chairs were meant to be used
while eating, not for long stretches at the 64. Their intended purpose
becomes achingly clear after a couple of hours of computing while perched
on one. Comfort and support are the rules of the day when choosing the
right seat for your work area.
The latest item in the ergonomic seating department is the "kneeler" or
"back" chair available from several manufacturers. These odd-looking chairs
distribute the body's weight evenly over the center of gravity and are
extremely comfortable. The angle of the seat disiributes support between
the lumbar region of the hack and the knees. The thigh bones support the
bulk of the load. The result is an ergonomic support that promotes good
Several discount chain stores are selling inexpensive versions of this basic-
design, bul they may not have sufficient padding on the "kneeler" portion.

which makes them not so good for long stints. Good chairs 1 am familiar
with in this genre include the Back Chair from British Design (U.S.A.) Cor
poration. Constructed of oak wood veneer, it is available in either fawn or
brown and has comfortable padding. It assembles in about five minutes and
has a suggested retail price of $49.95,
Starshine of Santa Barbara also offers a knecler chair in a choice of two
models. The standard model is made of oak veneer with comfortable pad
Incandescent light is
ding for the seat and knee surfaces, priced at S2995. A deluxe three-posi easier on the eyes
tion adjustable kneeler chair on wheels is also available for S49.95. which
allows you to select the best angle and height for your particular needs. than fluorescent light,
Cable Jungle especially since
Cables are the veins and arteries of (he computers. Bui if you have a Com
modore 64, 1541 disk drive, monitor or TV and a printer connected fluorescent light also
together, then you have four power cables, the monitor/RI: cable, the disk
drive cable, the printer cable and possibly even a printer interface cable- causes some people to
more than that if you have dual drives, a modem, joystick or oilier goodies.
In addition to being unsightly, all these cables cause a very non-crgonomic
experience a "strobing'
effect on the video
While you can't eliminate them, you can eliminate some of the clutter. If
possible, try to route your power cables down the back of your work sta display.
tion, perferably in a neat bundle. You can purchase "cable ties" from elec
tronics supply houses, or you can make your own from garbage-bag ties.
Another good idea is to label each cable where it plugs into the electrical
ouilet to identify which device it is for. Masking tape is good for making
cable labels.
If your work station is flush with the wall, you might want to drill a hole
through it near the wall to route your power cables through. Just make sure
that there are no rough or sharp edges on the hole to fray or pierce the insu
lation on tlie cables, causing a shock/fire hazard.
You can also relieve cable duller by using a muliiple-outlet power box.
Better multi-outlet boxes have built-in surge suppressors to clean up the
power coming from the wall outlet, and often feature a master power
switch, which lets you turn the power on or off to all your equipment at
the same time. Built-in surge suppressors proteci the equipment from a sud
den jolt of power when it is first turned on. Some multi-outlet boxes can be
screw-mounted to the work station or wall.
Discwasher offers three such multi-outlet surge suppressors in its Spike-
Master line, all offering protection from sudden voltage surges while provid
ing interference filtering. Two of the models are designed for tabletop use,
and since they both offer four inputs and a master on/off switch, they're
ideal for ergonomic power-handling chores.

Shedding Some Light

Lighting is another ergonomic consideration, since too much can be as
bad as too little. Insufficient light will cause eye strain and discomfort, but
an overabundance of light will cause screen glare, which also coniributes to
eye strain and discomfort. Most folks feel comfortable with sufficient lamp
light to read by, but not enough to disrupt the readability of the video
Incandescent (light bulb) light is easier on the eyes than fluorescent light,
especially since fluorescent light also causes some people to experience a
"strobing" effect on the video display. Diffused light is preferable to direct
light, because it is less harsh on the eyes. A small table lamp with a translus-
cent shade is often all you'll need to shed some light on your work station
without overdoing it.
While we're on the subject of lighting and eye strain, it's also a good
ergonomic practice to give your eyes a break. This is merely a short period
away from the monitor or TV lo give your eyes a change of pace. Since your
eyes remain in a fixed focus when you work on your computer, they need a
rest and a chance to focus on some distant objects now and then. This goes
a long way to combat eye strain. Many offices give their terminal operators,
word processors and other CRT users an "eye break" every hour or two.
Eye breaks for employees are required by law in many stales as well, which
gives you an idea of bow important they are.

Leroy's Cheatsheets
There are several siml! items you may want to include in your computer
work area that will enhance both your productivity and comfort. Among
these are Leroy's Cheatsheets. These arc handy keyboard overlays that give
you all the pertinent Information and commands to run your favorite word
processor, terminal program or other applications software. Cheatsheets are
available for BasyScrlpt, VIP Tbrmtnat, Tba Swart 6-i Terminal. BASIC pro
gramming commands, and Other popular programs and applications, and are
available from Cheatsheet Products at S3.9^ each.

Monitor and Printer Stands

Because monitors and printers arc bulky and hard to place conveniently
on a desk, you may want to invest in specially made stands that get them up
off your work surface and Into a more comfortable position for use. Suncoro

Ill is one company that makes stands for hoth monitors and primers. Their
monitor stand is a nice unit that holds most video monitors or TV sets with
up to 14-inch screens. The stand allows you to swivel the monitor or TV

The Falcon 360 degrees and tilt it up to 12.5 degrees. It's great for reducing glare and
getting the best viewing angle—prevents stiff shoulders and neck from cran
ing to see the video display. It's available for (26.95.
Fire Extinguisher The Suneom printer stands are available in live sizes to fit most popular
is a compact printers. They are sturdily constructed of plastic-covered metal and have
rubber-tipped "feet." They're economically designed to tilt the printer
unit containing Halon slightly toward the user at a comfortable angle, and their wide-open con
struction won't inhibit the printer's ventilation. They also help to lessen both
1211, a residue-free vibration and noise while the printer is in operation. Suneom's printer stands
are available in the following sizes and prices:
extinguished that's 12" X 12" X2", S17.95
12"x 12"X-i". S19.95
safe for use on high- 15"X 12"X2". 521.95
18" X 14" X 2", S24.95
tech equipment. 21"X17"X4". 829.95
A multi-purpose stand that can serve as a work Station, printer stand or
desk, among other tilings, is available from Abstract Enterprise for S40.00
plus S2.5O handling. The sturdy unit assembles easily and looks good.
Abstract also offers a computer table with hutch for Sl60 that lias enough
room to hold all your equipment comfortably. An Illustrated catalog with
price sheet is available directly from the company showing their entire line
of ergonomic accessories.
Another ergonomic computer work station and its matching printer stand
arc available from The Furniture Byte. Both units are well made, assemble
with only a screwdriver and are available in either natural oak or walnut
woodgrain finishes. The work station features a desk shelf that swings up to
close the unit when it's not in use, an adjustable upper shelf for holding the
disk drive or other accessories, and plenty of room, at proper viewing
height, for the monitor on top. The matching printer stand has a shelf under
neath for holding the paper supply. Casters provide mobility for the printer
stand and complement the ergonomic design of the unit. The work station
and printer stand are available directly from The Furniture Dyte.
The DeskTopper (149.95 from Madison Computer) is a beautiful solid oak
stand that holds your monitor at an elevated height for easy viewing. A shell
provides ample room for holding two disk drives or a single drive and other
accessories. The lower compartment houses the 64 itself, when it's not in
use. The unit provides an ergonomic means of organizing your components
while hiding unsightly cables. Madison also carries other useful computer
accessories and has a free catalog.

Info-64 Ergboard
if you've ever gotten a case of wrist fatigue from a long computing ses
sion, then you'll welcome this nifty device from lnfo-64. It is essentially a
sloped platform that provides support for your wrists. Made from smoked
bronze acrylic, it has slots cut into it to accept the front "feet" of the com
puter and prevent if from moving around the work surface.
Three handy "I-rgcards" are supplied with the unit, The cards provide

Where to
Get It
The products mentioned in this
article or more information on
these products may be obtained
directly from the companies at
these addresses:

Cheatsheet Products
P,O. Box H299
I'lusburjili. PA 1521H
Leroy's Cheatsheets
Suncom, Incorporated
260 Hoibrook Drive
Wheeling, II 60090
Monitor station, printer stands
Rome 2. Box 198-E
command and control references for Gemini mx printers, ;i bask; program Iowa Cliy, IA 52240

ming reminder and syntax checker, and a code summary for Wordpro 3 lirgboard and Zrgcards
Computer Personals
Pllts/64, The Brgboard is available from lnfo-64 for $19.95 including the P.O. Box 376
postage and handling. Southampton. PA 18966
Coffee mugs, banks, pencils, gift wrap
Computer Hardcover paper, etc.
Diversified Mfg., Inc.
Diversified Manufacturing offers the Computer Hardcover for the VIC or P.O. Box 2240
64. This Ughwelgh! plastic lid combines crgonomic styling with functional Wlchill, KS 67201
protection for your keyboard when you're not using it. It's molded of beige Computer hardcover
plastic to match the Commodore 64, slips on and off the keyboard in an Microcomputer Accessories, Inc.
S721 Buckingham Parkway
instant, and sells for S9.95.
P.O. Box 3725
Culver City, CA 902.11
Rolltop Disk Files
Knlltop titsk files, other accessories
The Rolltop Disk File is available from Microcomputer Accessories, Inc. in Discwasher

two versions. The standard version sells for 836,00, while a locking version l-ii>7 Nonh Providence Road
P.O. Box 6021
is also available for 146.00. Either version of the Rolltop will hold 100 disks
Columbia, MO 65205
between 11 dividers and provide you with high-capacity, space-efficient stor SpltteMaster Surge Suppressors
age for your floppies. The company also carries other ergonomic accessories British Design (U.S.A.) Corp.
such as anti-glare screens, monitor swivel stands, and dust covers, all illus 4601 Oakpori Sireei
Oakland. CA 9-4601
trated in their free catalog.
Kneeler-type "back " chairs
Starshlne of Santa Barbara
Stationary Carriers
H16B Stale Strctl
Plastic check and stationary carriers provide an ergonomic means of prim Santa Barbara, CA 9S101

ing checks or letters on your tractor-feed printer. The vinyl carriers have Regular Mid adjustable "back" chairs
Abstract Enterprise, Inc.
true tor-sprocket holes in the edges, and slits in the carriers hold either
7210Jordan Avenue, Suite B24
checks or letterhead sheets firmly in place for printing. They're available for Canoga Park, CA 91.103
S11.95 including postage and handling from CHE Multi-purpose roltabout stand, computer
hutch, other accessories
Fire Extinguishers, Coffee Mugs The CIIF Company
P. O. Box 185
Falcon Safely Products offers the Falcon Fire I;.xiinguisher, a compact one-
Obcrlln. OH 4-1074
pound unit containing Hfllon 1211, a residue-free exiinguishent that's safe Vinyl check and letterhead carriers for
for use on high-tech equipment. The extinguisher has a suggested retail price line printers
of S39-95, and an optional wall-mount bracket is also available. Falcon aiso The Furniture Byte
P.O. Box 1757
carries an extensive line of computer-care products, all illustrated in their
9JiKlilh Place
free catalog.
l.ongvitw, WA 9H632
Computer coffee mugs, note paper, jigsaw puzzles, pencils, banks—even Computer work station and printer cart
computer gift wrap paper are all available from Computer Personals. These Madison Computer
items are great for tending an "ergonomic ambiance" to your computer 1825 Monroe
Madison, Vt'l 53711
nook, and they're all functional as well as cute. Some of the inscriptions
Ilvshtopper component stand, other
include "Software Scribble" and "Computer Comments" for the note paper, products
"Data Bank" for the coin bank, and "Input Device" and "User Friendly" for Falcon Safety Products, Inc.
the drink mugs. The mugs reiail for $5 each plus shipping and handling. A 1065 Bristol Road
Mountainside. NJ 07092
free catalog is available from the company showing the entire product line
Fire extinguisher, other products
and prices. Qj

Build This nomical
lomic Workstation
for $1O

Some folks don't mine! putting in

some extra work to save some bucks.
If you're budget-CODSClOus and can
handle a screwdriver, drill and saw.
you can make this computer work sia-
tion in several hours tor about 810.
It's easy, economical and crgonomlc!
The work station pictured here
used these materials at these prices:

1—3'X 4'sheet 3/4"

particle board — 85.99
2—8' lengths blemished
2X4®.97 -SI.94
28— 1 -112 " woodscrews
@ ,06 each - 51.68
4—2-1/2" woodscrews
®.09 each — S .36

With tax, il came out to less than S11,

so even if you purchase a quart of
paint and :i cheap brush, we're still
talking under S15.
I purchased the sheet of 3/4" parti
cle board and the 2Xi's from EUckels,
although similar prices will be found
at most home/lumber centers. 1 pur
posely chose blemished 2 X 4's
because of their low price (8.97 for an
8' length). You can get really nice 8'
lengths of 2 X -i for about S2.25 each
without any blemishes if appearance
is important to you.
1 bad the woodscrews in my work
shop, but a quick check with the
neighborhood hardware store yielded
[he prices I've listed here.
As far as tools go, you'll need a
screwdriver, power drill with bit,
countersink bii. saw. pencil, yardstick posely wasn't used so the screw loca "model" work station hasn't had this
or ruler, and a square. You can yet by tions would show up better. You may treatment (yet). A coat of paint or
with a hand saw and a hand drill, but notice that our prototype model uses stain will do wonders to cover up
the power tools make the going con two screws on each side to secure the slight imperfections and add the fin
siderably faster and easier. A power top shelf; three would be better. In the ishing touch.
screwdriver is also an asset. accompanying plans. 1 suggest using
Depending on the screws you're three screws to secure each joint.
using, you may want to countersink Also note that 1 recommend sand
the screw holes so the screw heads fit ing all rough edges with medium grit Measure the particle board halfway
Hush with [he surface. In the accom sandpaper to remove any splinters down and score a line with your pen
panying photos, a countersink pur produced by sawing, even though our cil, so it will yield two 2' X 3' halves.

point will make life easier. Place the
2'x3' particle board work surface
between the two side panels, resting
2x4-^-*F1-'| '*~>-top shelf
it on the 2x4 worksurface supports.
The work surface should be flush
with both the 2x4 ends and the side
3' long —6" Wide
panel itself. Drill these holes in the
- ■' i r ii-. ',!)[ .K (■ particle
s i de
left and right sides of the work sur
face and mount it to the 2 x 4's with
use 3 1-1/2" wood screws at Mount the three-foot 2x4
each Joint for extra strength.
erossbrace next. Place it between the
two side panels on top of the base
3 feet > COWUTER
support 2 X i's. Drill two holes in the
WORKSTATION ASSEMBLED UGRKSTATIOH left and right sides. Once again, make
DESK Cut froN 3'x4' optional
support j
sure everything is sitting flush. Use
f top
i. TOP X 3/4" Thick J two 2-1/2" woodscrews in each side
Particle Board to secure the crossbrace to the base
: G* for side Also cut 4
i L surfacr supports. This crossbrace gives the
I 6" for side 2' lengths of work station extra stability and
3' wide
T TOP 2x4 and 2 B" _ 2x4 strength, while providing a conve
1 12 11 SHELF
■3L lengths of 2x4
1 nient footrest at the same time.
Now it's time to mount the top
3' length of 2x4 will be used to
^-2' 2x4s- shelf The lop shelf should sit flush
cross-bract botto** of desk.
Crossbrace also Makes a good
with the fronts of the 2 X 4 mounting
2x4 scraps can be extra braces. footrest while providing extra cleats and overhang the rear of the
strength for the workstation.
cleats by six inches, as docs the work
surface (refer to side-view diagram).
and cut the sheet in half. Set oiu- half overhang the side panels by six inches Drill three boles in each side an fix the
aside. This will be [he work surface of to ihe rear of the unit. Measure six top shelf to the mounting cleats with
the workstation. inches and make pencil lines on each woodscrews. That's it!
Measure and cut ihe remaining two- of the four two-foot sections of 2 x i. From the scrap piece of 2 X 4 left
foot section into two 6" X 3' panels Line up the 2 X 4's and panels accord over, you can make additional braces
and one 1'x.V panel. The six-inch ing to your pencil marks, drill three or supports if you desire. An addi
panels will be the sides of the work holes for each joint, and install the tional support may be important if
station, while the one-foot piece will woodscrews, countersinking their you intend to keep both a monitor and
he the top shelf. heads for a flush fit. a printer on the top shelf. While the
Cut one of the 2x4's into four Next are the bottom 2x4's with particle board is strong enough to
equal two-foot lengths. These will the same six-inch overhang. Make support the weight of these two
make up the floor and worksurface sure that the 2 X -i's are flush with the devices, it has a tendency to bow
platforms. bottoms of the side panels, drill three slightly in the center when stressed. A
Cut the other 2 X 4 in half. Then cut holes and screw them together. 2x4 support brace in the center of
one half into one three-loot section The next operation Involves attach the lop shelf extending down to the
and two six-inch sections. The three- ing the six-inch 2X4 sections to the work surface will help prevent this
foot piece will provide a crossbrace tops of the side panels. Make sure bowing. In the front-view diagram,
for the bottom of Ihe unit, while the these art- positioned flush with the I've indicated ihe placement of this
six-inch sections will act as mounting tops and sides of the side panels, drill optional support by dotted lines.
cleats for the top shelf. Save the three holes and affix with Sanding any rough edges and paint
remaining piece of 2X-i for addi woodscrews (front-view diagram). ing or staining will finish the job and
tional (optional) support bracing. That At this point, you should have two make the work station look like a
takes care of all the cutting involved. side panels, each consisting of a six- commercial unit costing S100 or
Xext, determine what height you inch particle board panel with a two- more. Not bad for ten bucks, huh?
would like the work surface to be by foot 2x4 base support, a two-foot On a closing note, a Fiexidraw Light
using the method I've detailed in the 2x4 worksurface support, and a six- Pen and software facilitated the crea
main article. On our prototype here, 1 inch 2x4 top shelf support. You tion of the three construction dia
decided that a 27" worksurface height should also have your 2' X .V work grams. Special thanks are also in order
would be about right, so I measured surface (desk top), I'x.V top shell', to l.iz Benford for assisting in the car
26-1/4" (allowing 3/4" for the thick three-foot 2x4 erosshrace, and some pentry department, to Tom Benford,
ness of the particle hoard) and made a scrap 2x4. Take inventory now, and Jr. who immediately confiscated the
pencil line on both of the six-inch- make sure this is what you have. If work station for his own use, and our
wide panicle board panels. not, you've done something wrong, dog Freelance, who claimed the 2X4
Notice from the side-view diagram so backtrack to find where you erred. scraps as his properly and absconded
that the work surface and top shelf Having someone assist you at this with them. Q

commodore; MICROCOMPUTERS 89

ppj f
At Commodore, we think it's easier for school children to learn
about a computer by using it rather than by waiting to use it.
So, we sell the Commodore 64™ at about half the cost of
comparable computers.
With the money you save on the Commodore 64, you can afford
the things you'll really need: more Commodore 64's.
In fact you can create a powerful but economical "Local
Network" with 8 computers sharing one disc drive.
The Commodore 64 features: 64K memory. 66 key typgwriter-
styjekeyboard, J^ojgjihighj^s^utigjigraphics, 9 octave music
synthesizer and 3-dimensional sprites.
And the same commitment we make to hardware, we're making
to software. We have highly rated Logo and PILOT programs.
Much of the well recognized MECC™ courseware and the Edufun™
Series from Milliken will soon be available. There are hundreds of other
programs, including a wealth of public domain software for the
Commodore 64. Our newest additions are 30 early learning programs
from Midwest Software.
So you see, the all purpose Commodore 64 really is in a class
by itself.
For further information on the Commodore 64 and our 250
Educational Resource Centers, contact your nearest Commodore
Education Dealer.

c commodore
Commodore Business Machines Inc, PO Bo* 500Mr ConWofiockerv PA 19-128 Cariada—3370 Pharmacy Avenue. Agincouil, Ont Can M1W2K4
Edulunand MECC are Trademarks of Mil liken Pu blishmg Com pany end Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium r

The The
Commodore MiniScribe
64 Family word
alone is
Super Softwarefor worth more
Home Management than the
Computer: Commodore 64
Authors: Richard V. Daley ;ind
SallyJ. Daley
Publisher: Scott, Foresman & Co,
price of the
1900 Ea« Lake Avenue entire
Glcnvicw, IL 60025
Medium: Book and disk package.
Retail Price: SI9.95

JL he Commodore 64 Family Helper (What day of the week was March 31. funds and other financial fumbles.
is a 178-page paperback and a disk 1955? Thursday, in case you're the Transactions or monthly summaries
with live home applications: Memo least bit interested.) Another extra is can be sent to a printer, categories can
Calendar. Checkbook Manager, the ability lo calculate the number of be summed individually, or the cur
MiniScribe, Data Manager, and for days between two dates. These niini- rent balance can be calculated.
those less serious moments, marvels work as far back as 1582. This program works fine for the
Backgammon. Memo Calendar works fine for the most part, though it is a tad slow
Before yon rush out to replace Pa- most part, though editing obsolete when you insert or delete a check en
perCHp, BasyScript or The Manager, multiple entries (cancelled appoint try. This "'turtle stroll" doesn't come
you should know thai Family Helper's ments) is somewhat involved. (It's eas as a surprise, if you read the book.
routines are entry-level at best. This ier to just print the calendar in ques Like the other programs, this one also
doesn't mean they are worthless or tion and cross out the unwanted has a menu option that returns you to
poorly done. It simply means they entries.) BASIC. This is an unexpected refine
don't have the power and capabilities A printer isn't absolutely necessary ment which makes it easy for you to
Of DlOGt single-purpose programs. because the daily review option elimi load another application without hav
l-'irst, you must copy each program nates any output needs. A printer is ing to perform yet another system-
onto a working disk. Preferably only nice, however, because the calendar wide cold stan.
one routine per disk, since the data format and content are aesthetically Now we come to the tour deforce,
files reside on the same floppy as the pleasing. the one program on the disk that's
programs themselves. The copy pro A sectional summary recaps the worth more than the offering's list
cess doesn't take long. Program exe highlights of the Memo Calendar, as it price: the MiniScribe word processor.
cution is rather good too, considering does for every other application. This Another name for it could be "Son of
ihe routines are written entirely in is an important feature, because it re EasyScrtpt 64," the word processor
Ustable BASIC. Mr. Daley evidently inforces the material just introduced marketed by Commodore. Not only
knows how to make a program ac and provides a handy reference for does MiniScribe work like UasyScripl,
complish a good deal without a lot of later. it looks like it too.
code. The Checkbook Manager is an un You can set border, background and
In the first routine, Memo Calendar, assuming program that handles up lo character colors, toggle justification
you customize your appointment 22 categories, each composed of a on or off, alter spacing parameters, or
schedule, review it on-screen, or maximum of 20 characters. However, set text, page or margin sizes. As in
dump it to a printer. Permanent holi only \4 of the 20 characters per cate HusyScript, the status line displays the
days (Easter and Christmas) are In gory are displayed on-screen. cursor's whereabouts by column and
cluded, You add the important birth This program runs similarly to row. Output to a printer is less compli
days, anniversaries and medical Memo Calendar. You can enter a new cated since there are fewer options
appointments. month's checks and/or deposits, alter availahle (continuous paper and multi
Memo Calendar can quickly com a previous month's entries, or per ple copies just about wrap it up).
pute any day of the week of any year. form edits to weed out misapplied In a similar vein, there is no tab fea-

turc. Automatic centering, line inser THAN EVER
tion/deletion ;miJ block erasure/moves
can be performed quickly and effort
lessly. There's a handy scarch-aiul-re
place option, an all-caps mode, and ;
built-in disk-access mode for direc
tory listings, blank disk formatting,
and unwanted file eradication.
You can also force page breaks, Im Integrated Performance and Versatility
bed commands, place non-printing The really exciring thing about integrated software is thor you con raiior it to
comments within the body of the fir your needs. Use rhe word processing ro produce error-free copy.
text, or sei the vertical "start prim"
position. Most of these commands Organize file information, then use identifying keys to produce letters and
can be daisy-chained on a single line, reporrs wirhout retyping. Or you can keep research notes and selecrively
recoil them to include in q term paper. Rental properties? Stock portfolio?
provided each command is separated
Budgeting? The spreadsheet helps you to monitor your
from the others by a colon. (There arc
money and investments. To include a visual presenta
21 editing com ma mis in all.)
tion with your report, simply use the graphics capa
MlnlScribe is very easy to learn and
the manual's a real breeze to use.
The Data Manager, is really a file
Because the programs reside in memory together, you
manager, not a true database manager,
work wirhout breaking your pace. No fussing with load
Your options include creating and ed
ing various disks. No rime lost in creating daro transfer files. So you are free ro
iting data bases, performing primitive
creare new ways ro use you sofrwore.
sorts (alphabetic or numeric sequenc
ing), and priming rudimentary re Entertainment that Excites the Senses
ports. You can also produce labels,
Ride the winds on your magic carpet, explore
though that's something that can be
galaxies, leorn about wearher patterns. For think
done with MiniScribe as well.
ers graphic adventures provide hours of inrrigue
For the sake of a clear printout from
as you seek to rid a haunted rown of its ghostly
the Data Manager, the Daleys recom
visitors Or explore new rerntories in your quest to
mend a maximum (iota!) horizontal
rescue the princess from the evil wizard.
field length of no more than ho char
acters. Another restriction concerns
As You Grow, We Grow
the number of allowable files, though
the limitation is a more generous 130, $5.00 Update or C-128 Upgrade
Up to 20 different repori formats can $20.00 Exchange for Complete System
be saved to disk for later recall.
5oon, you'll be able ro create "macros" to record
Last but not least, we come to the
lengthy keystroke sequences and play them back wirh
entertainment section—video back
a single commond Search for information across multiple disks. Program
gammon. The computer is not an un
rhe sofrwore for specific applications. And more. Our upgrade/exchange
merciful foe. Sometimes it even policy allows you to expond your system without sacrificing data disks.
makes mistakes, giving the less-than-
adept player (like me) a fighting
chance. Though mostly a yame of
The More You Do,
strategy and cunning (once the dice The More We Help You Do It
arc rolled), the pixel portrait of (he Because so many people are doing more things with Tri
hoard is surprisingly dear and well Micro sofrwore, you'll never hove to worry abourodvice
or support. Just ask one of the more than 70.000 peo
Overall, the programs arc certainly ple who use it. "Thank you again for your phone call. It is refreshing ro deal
worth the minimal investment. Again. wirh a company that shows concern for the consumer." LJ. Hannert, CA.
1 must say that MiniScribe alone is
worth more than the purchase price "Tri Micro hos created a new set of standards for software integration that
of the entire package. orher manufacturers will surely wonr to march." RUN, July 1965.
The book also goes beyond being
simply a manual. It provides several
For rhe C-64", C-12B1". Plus 4'" and Ararf
dozen software critiques in educa

tion, entertainment, utilities, and re-
curd keeping. Most of the reviews are
good, making this one mighty useful 14072 5trorton Way, Santa Ana, CA 92705 (714) 832-6707
dual-purpose publication. Q
Circle Reader Service No. 35




COMMODORE 1541 DISKDRIVES lead you through the menus, you are
How to Get always a participant, not merely an

the Most Out of The book begins by explaining how

to become a member of CompuServe.

CompuServe From there, you learn how to log on

via a direct line, Tymnet or Telenet.
While too many variables prevent de
Authors: Charles Bowenand
PfiTENT PENDING tailed advice on using a .specific mi
David Peyton
COOt STACK is a aovlco Ihot allowa you lo alack
cro/modem system (Commodore or
Publisher: Bantam Books
your 1541's without lear of ovortiealitif). Highly effi- any others), directions are neverthe
cianl design eNeclivoly copla iwo drives using one 666 Fifth Avenue
(an. This syslem allows boiler utilization oi I fie less clear and concise, l-acb chapter is
New York, NY 10103
limned apace availaole on most comouier desks recapped and the important details re-
(Filler included} Retail Price:Sli.95
COOL STICK 15 built to last and priced at only
tS9.M Many of CompuServe's services,
Prolecl your inyeslmen! from damaging heal1 Use
if you're a novice, this how-to hand from the simple to the complex, are
book is your guide through the re detailed. The authors' honesty ex-
Visa, Masloicard, CMech. or Money Order
Georgia fualdenls add 3% sales lax
markable world of CompuServe tele lends to even illustrating the flaws
Shipping and handling within US add SO 00
Canadian orders in US doUais only communications. For those of you and pitfalls in the CompuServe sys
Shipping and handling lo Canada 52 00 plus
already f:imili:ir with CompuServe, tem. Like any good reference, ihe
applicable freigm cnarges.
Tesl dala available on request here's a ready reference detailing book contains a detailed appendix
Commodore 1541 is a trademark ol Commodore shortcuts and express routes. summarizing instructions, com
Business Machines
Through a series of on-line guided mands, and hard-won hints. The in
Call oi wnie today AC 4W-97S*12J
tour*, the authors Introduce numerous dex recaps major and minor topics
Circle Reader Service No. 14
facets of CompuServe, Including bul and Is an excellent time saver.
'ARBO letin boards, special Interest groups, For game players, there are detailed
electronic mail, games, and more. Fol summaries of three dozen games.
lowing (heir footsteps during your Once again, it's easier (and certainly
first forays into CompuServe mini less expensive) to read about them be
mizes your meanderuigs, while saving fore you're on-line.
% LOTTERY 64© | you time and money. These tours You might he able to learn the mate
introduce you to many of the ser rial covered in (his book by yourself,
$ $ but remember: you're paying for
vices of CompuServe while encourag
$ $ ing you 10 become comfortable with every minute you're on-line. Not only
$ 5 CompuServe's numerous menus and will the on-line savings pay for the
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5 $ CompuServe is introduced buffet enjoying the fascinating features of
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$ $ clopedic in content, the book is How to Get the Most Out of Com-
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$ $
$ $
$ $ Introducing Our New
$ $
$ $ Telecommunications Column
lottery 6J« has wen designed to use the
$ computing power of trie Commodore-64'* to $
$ Telecommunications networks are rising stars in computing. Already more
Help vou play the various lottery games- pick S
3, PICK i, LOTTO, SUPER LOTTO. 6/49, LUCKY than 3,000 public and private networks serve over one million subscribers.
$ ft
lottery, etc. It can be used witti any lottery The next issue of Commodore Microcomputers premieres our newest fea
$ game in which you pick the numbers $ ture: a regular column dedicated to helping you keep pace with the latest in
$ We have already won tnousands of $ telecommunications and videotex! services.
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$ $ Our readers' feedback tells us that on-line services are at times confusing,
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$ Si.CO postage and handling per oroer ta $ them to us at:
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$ Q Q Superior Micro Systems, Inc. $ 1200 Wilson Drive

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v Dealer inquiries welcome! ATTN: Howard Miliman
$ $
We'll answer as many as we can in our new column.

Cirlce Reader Service No. 29

We don't care
which computer you own,
We'll help you
get the most out of it.

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CompuServe puts a worl information. <'■>■■■ 'ami >ntertainmcnt at your fingertips.

CompuServe is (he easy to me videotex sopliislicalixi financial data, Plus, n Trie videotex service for you, no matter
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Circle Reader Service No. 8

now watch TV
Can I Play A package thatfo
What do you see?"
As the child responds, the chosen

with the cuses on both the de

characters appear boldly before him.
But of course the images don't just

Computer, velopment ofschool present themselves one-dimensionally

as in print. They're orchestrated with
"readiness" skills sound and movement. In this game,
Too? the "pinging" sound of old type

Computer: Commodore 64
and the beginning writers accompanies the pressing of
each key. In chapter two, the moving
Author: Bernard Palkoff use of the computer hands of the clock really tick. Flip the
Publisher: Banbury Hooks
disk lor chapters three and four, and a
353 West Lancaster
six-sided star separates magically,
Wayne, PA 19087
only to be reassembled as the child
Medium: Book and disk
uses the cursor keys.
Retail Price: 819.95
For its entertainment lure. Can I
I'lay with the Computer, Too? could
easily compete with the average video

JVccc-ntly, a new book/disk program game. Instruetionally, it provides
forged a bond between my four year- much more than a game. When Earl
old Student liarl and the Commodore heard the ABC tune, he was actually
64. As the letters Of the alphabet ap learning the alphabet through a valu
peared on the monitor screen, Earl able auditory association. Let's look at
heard the unmistakable notes of the the other instructional benefits chap
ABC tune. Earl's first question was, ter by chapter.
"Is that the ABC's 1 hear?" His second Chapter one, "Playing with the
was, "Can I play, too?" Keyboard," takes the child through
The answer to both questions was exercises and games to learn the al
an enthusiastic yes. The ABC tune was phabet and the keyboard at the same
pan of ;i package called Can 1 Play Since this is essentially an introduc time. Bad's favorite game in this chap
trilb the Computer, TboP, written spe tion to first grade, in a sense, Can I ter was the Alphabet (lame, but he
cifically for children between three Play with the Computer Too? is also enjoyed the Name Game. In the
and six by Bernard Falkoff lor Ban- "readiness" training for school. Hut Name (lame, he was required to type
bury Books in conjunction with So when you load the accompanying any letter or wore! that appeared on
phisticated Software. disk, it also becomes an introduction the top half of the divided monitor
Book/disk packages have been to the computer keyboard and to the screen. Next, he had to repeat what he
around for a few years now, but a commands of shift, cursor and func had just typed onto the bottom half of
package lhat focuses on both the de tion keys. This program is a pre the screen. To do this correctly, he
velopment of school "readiness" .skills schooler's first course in computer had to memorize images of the letters
and the beginning use of the com literacy. and carry them across space. No easy
puter is long overdue. Karl and I both Both the double-sided disk and the task for a four year-old, but excellent
agree thai Can I Play with the Com ^3-pagc book contain four distinct preparation to visual perception skills
puter, Tbo? gets high marks for both chapters: "Playing with the Key that later translate into spelling skills.
entertainment and Instructional con board," "Clocks and Time." "Learn The shapes, sizes, and thicknesses
tent. And a.s a reading teacher, 1 am ing about Stars," and "Numbers and of the letters varied from the key
especially intrigued by the innovative Pictures." Bach chapter contains from board to the screen. Sometimes Earl
manner in which print and computer one to six subsections that approach saw "M's" or "As" that were small
technology combine. So effective is the same topics through different and sharp-edged. Other limes, he saw
this partnership that one pan would games. liach game is presentee! to the the same letters with large and jagged
not be impressive without the other. child through nursery style rhymes forms. As an educator. 1 especially ap
As a book, Can I Piety with the read by the adult. For example, in proved of this. Noting these differ
Computer, Too? is a set of games chapter one's "1'ress a Key," the fol ences can develop the visual discrimi
about the ABC's, time, and numbers. lowing appears on the screen; nation skills that later become so
A parent or teacher reads one side of "Press a key important in reading. Specifically, it
the page while the child follows along and you will see develops the perception of form con
on his or her side. In addition, a "par loads of fun stancy. Form constancy is the realiza
ents' guide" is provided with every for you and me. tion that letiers may have small differ
chapter, to help the adult participant Touch numbers here ences in shape but still maintain their
make the best use of the material. or letters there identity.


The importance of visual percep utes to hours, for I;.arl, this didn't ami subsections. Expect to wait a lull
tion skills led American educator, really matter. He was happy just to ■lO seconds as this program moves
Marrianne Frostig (1968) to develop a identify (he numbers on the face of from chapter lo chapter.
program of shape-matching activities the pretty clock, and was absolutely Apart from thai, it's difficult not to
10 prepare youngsters for letter delighted by the "tick-tOCking" sound he in favor of Can I Play with the
Identification. In time, however, the thai correlated to the movement of Computer, Too?. It is certainly re
program fell into disregard because it both the mantel and docks. By freshing, from an educator's point of
assumed Identification of non-alpha grade two l-arl should he ready for view, to see books and computers
betic shapes had to precede discrimi this. Second-grade teachers should work together. As a teacher who uses
nation of differences in the actual let consider this program for this seel ion computers for instruction at all ele
ters. Luckily, Can I Play with the alone. mentary grade levels, I often lament
Computer, Too? successfully makes My favorite pan of the time chapter Ihe way mosi computer-assisted in
the leap straight into letter \v;is the first Section. As the sun and struction (C.A.I.) haB separated itself
discrimination. moon moved across [be sky. Earl and I from good print instruction. Useful
Chapter two, "Clocks and Time," talked about words such as "above," C.A.I, should send ihe student hack to
lakes an innovative approach to the "beside," "behind." "left," and the text for reinforcement. Can I Play
telling of time. As a logical prerequi "right." Mis understanding of these with the Coin/inter. 'Too? does not ig
site lo talking about clocks, section concepts will be especially beneficial nore the power of print, (Conversely, it
one of this chapter uses pictures to for spatially confusing letters such as adds another dimension lor extra im
demonstrate the passage of day and "b" and "d" and "m" and "w ". pact, in doing so. Can I Play with the
night, The screen shows a house sil The first section of chapter three, Computer, Too? is more lhan innova
ling on the Earth's horizon. The sun is "Constellations in the Sky." is purely tive: it is truly Instructional.
in the cast. A caption at the bottom of for fun. The child finds pictures in n Nothing prepares pre-school chil
the screen announces thai it is break night sky through a connect-thc-dois dren for the academic demands of
fast time. When the child presses ihe game. Karl tired of this activity grade one better than a storybook.
spiice liar, the sun moves to a position quickly, hut not before finding an out Read "Goldilocks ami the Three
ibovc the house, the sky brightens, line of a horse and a snake. Earl firs! Bears." for example, and suddenly
iiid the Caption announces lunch thought, however, llial [be snake was your three or four year-old begins lo
lime. Further pressing the space bar the Easter Bunny. Don't ask me bow; arrange events in proper sequence
results in similar changes: the moon it looked like:: snake 10 me. and to think about cause and effect re
ind stars appear and the program an- In the second section of chapter lationships. Letters of ihe alphabet
lounces bed time, In (his way, the three, "The Star Puzzle," a large siar take on their first meaning. Talk ex
child experiences a graphic represen appears briefly on the screen and then pands into a command of complex
tation before being introduced to the falls apart. The child must then reas sentences essential to reading compre
noreabstract notion of docks. semble the original six-pointed star hension. (.Counting bears paves the
The author of Can I Play with the while mastering the cursor keys. way lor adding and subtracting.
Computer, Too? recognizes that most Chapter four. "Numbers and Pic By using the computer to enhance a
ire-schoolers will have difficulty un tures." helps the child understand the child's pre-school learning, products
derstanding the connection between numbers from one to nine. By press such as Can I Play with the Com
docks and the notion of "lunch time" ing a number key. the child calls to the puter, Too? are breaking new ground.
ir "dinner time." Nevertheless, sec- screen a variety of objects, Prom here Finally, here is intelligently designed
Ion two of ihis chapter presents a it is possible lo count and compare the software that doesn't replace reading,
arge image of a mantel clock whose number of objects. but adds to iis appeal through the
lands move to the sounds of "tick- If all this praise is beginning lo computer.
oek." Beneath this clock, a digital sound redundant, it's nevertheless In closing, I should mention that if
rending also gives a lime. Although well deserved. My only criticism of your local bookstore does not carry
few children at this age can truly (.'an I Play with the Coin/niter, Ton? this hook/disk package, you can ask
comprehend the relationship of min is the time it takes to load chapters them to order it from lianbury, Q

( OMMODORG MK.Htx.OMl'l ll-.lis 97


Fabulous sketch it on paper first, assigning x. y

and /. coordinates and a number to
Create a high-
Figure Maker resolution picture of
each corner. Now develop an edge
list, i.e., the two corner numbers you
want the program to draw each of the
for the a plane or solidfig lines between. The program will
prompt you for the number of corners
Commodore ure, line drawing, or in the figure and then for each of their
coordinates in the form x,y,z (for ex
64 ample 19,-60,(1). Corrections may he
made as long as the RETURN key has
not been pressed. After all the corners

Xahulous Figure Maker is a learning have been entered, the number of

tool with use-fill output, it will allow edges or lines is entered, followed by
you to create ;i high-resolution picture the two corner numbers between
of any plane or solid figure, line draw which each straight line is to be
ing, or graph ih:ii can be drawn with drawn.
less than 150 points and edges. For After the figure data hits been en
example, you GUI generate large block tered, the second menu is displayed,
Built-in Octahedron
letters, numbers, or figures for teach 'fen choices are presented, ranging
ing :i pre-schooler, or perhaps com from P'lot to Q'ult. When you first try
plex three-dimensional solid figures the program, request the demo figure
or graphs for the high school or col (2), and P'lot it. The program will in
lege student. quire if text is to be entered or edited.
The program is much more than the It' ii is. enter Up to 35 characters with
normal high-resolution drawing pro no commas or colons. The text will
gram, because once the coordinates of be primed along the bottom row of
[he corners and edges of the figure the figure.
have been entered, they may be ma Now you should see a figure that
nipulated mathematically1 to present ;i looks like two pyramids bottom to
variety of views, it is this ability tocx- bottom. To return to the menu from
presa your figure as an array of mathe viewing the figure, press the space
matical equations thai will allow the bar. If you have a printer and wain a
computer, through your menu
Built-in Demo Bar Graph bard copy, press the P' key. Try K'otat-
choices, to project the figure onto the ing it about each axis 20 or 30 de
screen as a 3D figure with ilie proper grees. The figure will be recalculated
perspective. It may then be rotated 1900-2030), and Ml. data (lines lOIIO- and will then bring you back to the
aboul any of the three axes, changed 4530) subroutines should be cheeked menu, where you may P'lot it or S'i/.e
in size and moved to anywhere on carefully, since the special initializing it along any of the axes or change the
the- screen. The program will even al and draw commands move the high- size of the entire figure will] the
low you to generate two offset views resolution bit screen to the middle of global command. Again, you will be
of the figure 10 give a stereoscopic BASIC memory, where it will not in back to the menu. The Move choice
effect. terfere with your program or your will move the figure anywhere on the
As an added feature, you may program with it. Should one of these screen.

change your effective viewing posi portions of the program be improp Remember, the screen is plus and
tion to move into any figure you have erly entered, ii could crash the whole minus 160 and plus and minus 100
created and watch the perspective program. units along the x and y axes, respec
view change. Tcxi may :tlso be added When the program is running, the tively, from the middle of the screen.
lo the figure or graph. After you enter first menu will ask for a figure in the You should keep the figure on the
a figure, you may save it to disk or form of (I) a plane or solid object/ screen so that the border clipper does
tape to he loaded back in at some later graph, (2.3) a figure or graph demon* not introduce any distortion.
lime, or you can send it to a printer Mration. or (4) a saved figure. The Excellent three-dimensional graphs
lor a hard copy 10 use as a teaching solid figures will take a little time to may be created with the program. Bn-
aid or lor inclusion in a school paper calculate but will draw quickly, With ter the coordinates (x.y.z) of the ori
or home report. The figures provide the program's ability to accept ISO gin, and one set at the limits of each
samples of printer output. corners and ISO edges, very complex axis, then enter the data points or bar
Since the program is long, it is ad- figures may be entered—1'or example. graph corners. As in figure genera
visahle to save portions of it as you en a house, stick figure. .M) graph, or tion, number each point and/or cor
ter it. You should definitely save it be airplane. ner. Now develop an edge list by giv
fore you run it. The plot (lines To enter your own complex figure. ing the corner or points between

which each lint is to be drawn. II only modular in layout. The use of these
the point is to be plotted, then enter features allows ease of operation and
the edge by having the point termi Through menu flexibility After you have become fa
nate nn itself. For example, corner miliar with the program, you may
(20) to corner (20) will produce :i dot choices, project the think of other features or modifica
at the coordinates of corner f201.
After the corners :md edges have
figure onto the tions you want. It is then easy lo add
to the menu and use the subroutines
been entered. P'lot the graph. When it
screen as a 3Dfig in a different way. Since the program
is first displayed, yon will see only the is long, it is possible to make use of
x and y projection of the three-dimen ure, rotate it, change this modularity to enter the program
sional graph, and it may he the wrong in easy steps and '■run as you go."
size and position. The power of the its size, or move it Six essential modules should be en
program will now let you S'ize change tered to start:
and M'ove the graph to fil your needs. anywhere on the 1. The skeleton, lines 50-590.
But tt is still not 3D. so R'otate it y,45 This is the pan of the program
and x,8-10 degrees to achieve the ef that sets up the initial condi
fect desired. tions and menus.
Now that you have mastered these 2. The user input and demonstra
commands, try the View stereo tion subroutines, lines 600-
scopic command. The demonstration 930. These enter the corners,
figure is a good place to start. De edges and text for objects or
pending on the size of your screen, on graphs by using prompts. The
the prompt for offset you should demonstration programs give
move the object over far enough so you a built-in figure, an octahe
that when its twin is created on the dron, and a 3D graph that can
left, the centers of the figures are Bar Graph Tilted 8 test your program or any new
about four inches apart. Try an angle features you may have added.
Of three to four degrees. When the 3. The matrix initialization sub
two figures are drawn, try staring at routine, lines 1300-1320. This
your finger about half way to the routine creates the four-hy-four
screen. You should he able to see three matrices required to manipu
figures: the middle one will seem to late the x,y and z coordinates.
stand out |unt like the old stereoscopic ■i. The draw subroutine, lines
pictures in the holder. Some very in 1500-1540 anil 4000-4530.
teresting figures may be drawn with Bar Graph Rotated 45 Degrees This puts the computer into the
this mode. It is only limited by your high-resolution graphic mode,
patience in entering the coordinates allowing the 6-i's screen to
and waiting for the figure to be four matrices using the horizontal (x), have 64000 pixels. It may be
drawn. vertical (y|. and in-and-out (z| coordi done in BASIC or a machine
The remaining five commands are nates of the corners/points and edges language subroutine, or with a
for convenience and housekeeping. of the figure, object or graph you graphics drawing program,
Option (i) of the first menu will load want projected on the screen. The ex Commodore's cartridge 57-
previously saved figures. T'ape or amples demonstrate how the figure is mons' HASIC works well and
disk figure-save will output to disk or projected onto the two-dimensional leads to a simpler program.
tape the figure that was entered. TV or monitor screen. The DIM state Listing 1. gives the small modi
(Original figure will cancel all the ro- ments have been set for a maximum fications thai are needed to the
tations, moves or size changes that of 150 corners and ISO edges; how subroutines. We have included
were enured. N'ew figure returns ever, this may he increased somewhat. a machine language draw rou
you to menu one for your choice of The high-resolution HK bit ami color tine entered as data statements;
figures. Q'ult ends the program. This maps with MI. draw program are lo ii is a modified version of the
is a flexible program thai will allow cated in the middle of the 64's BASIC graphics routine by Frank Cov-
you to generate useful and unusual program area from 23500 to 53400. itz published in Commodore:
figures or graphs (hat may be drawn Since the program uses only 11000 The Microcomputer Maga
on the screen or sent lo a printer that bytes of memory, there should be no zine. June/luly 1983. BASIC
is able to print a high-resolution Interference with the high-resolution routines may also be used, but
screen. hit map. Once the projected corners the) are very slow, even on
and edges have been calculated, it is simple figures.
Program Details easy to generate a rotated, moved or 5. The projection subroutine,
The program creates and solves a sized version and then to plot it to the lines 1600-1690. The screen
number of simultaneous algebraic screen again. .x's and y's based on the cho
equations by manipulation of four-by- The program is menu-driven and sen, or default position of your

<.OM.\U>l)()Rl- MK I1O( UMI'l II lls 99

eye arc calculated. This sub other routines. The routine
routine is subsequently used by will prompt for offset (move)
the plot routine. to the right along the \ axis and
6. The plot, print and text subrou angle. Then Instead of going to
tine, lines 1900-2260. These the menu, it goes directly to
routines form, from the results the plot subroutine and draws
of the input initialization and 9. The size-changing subroutine, first a right and then a left fig
projection subroutines, the x's lines 3200-32^0. It prompts ure for stereoscopic viewing.
and y's that arc used by the ML for the axes and amount of size The '"locate eye" subroutine,
drawing subroutine to plot in change or allows a global line 1000. This routine may be
high-resolution graphics the change. Numbers greater than used to give the sense of what
Object to the screen and one increase the size of the happens when the perspective
printer. It also requests and en figure. changes on a figure as yon
ters any text that is to be dis 10. The move subroutine, lines move toward it or away from it
played as a part of the figure. 3400-3530. This routine along the z axis. If the figure's
With these six parts, the program prompts for which axes you x, y and z coordinates put it in
nay he run, and it will plot any object want to move along and how front of the screen, then as you
that is entered with the x, y and z co far. The center of the screen is move toward the screen, the
ordinates and edge list. To get the full considered the origin, i.e., x, y figure will increase in size and
features of the program, the other and z equal to zero. Left, then run off the screen. Since
Subroutines may be added. down, and into the screen are the screen is finite in size, the
7. The matrices multiplication, negative, while right, up and program limits the corners to
lines 2700-2710. This is the out of the screen are positive. within the screen's boundaries:
utility that is required to rotate, After this routine, you return this causes great distortions to
size and move the figures. to the menu for your next appear in the figure. It would
H. The rotating subroutine, lines choice. be nice to have a better clipper,
2900-2990, The routine- Now thai you have these subrou but for the time being we will
prompts for the axis you want tines, you may create any number of have to do with what is called
to rotate around and the num different views of the original figures the '"poor man's clipper." If
ber of degrees, then it uses the or graphs. In addition, you also have you move all the way through
multiplication subroutine to the following: the screen into '"minus z." it
generate the new x, y and Z's, 11. The Stereoscopic subroutine, will be as if you were looking
returning you to the menu for lines 3600-3650. This routine over your shoulder at the
the next command. consists of calls to most of the figure.

Listing 1. Modifications for Simons' BASIC Y(150) ,E1(150) ,E2(150) IX=1

LINES 30,40,70,1350-1370,2100-22&0 PGM":G0SUB 1350'CFJQ
1350 HIRES 1,0:IX=0
J.970 irW^iaRVaK>"lpTHEN TEXT 20,1.90, 120 PRINT"[SPACES,RVS,WHITE]2[RVOFF,
1380 FUPI = 1TQNE: II-E1CI) : JJ=E2U) : "'BAME
Fabulous Figure Maker 140 PRINT"[SPACE5,RVS,WHITE]4[RV0FF,
Before I yplng this program, read "How lo Enter Programs." L. BLUE] INPUT FIG/GRAPH FROM
30 POKE 55,0:POKE 56,92 FILE[DOWN]'"BAFI


40 BA=8*16"3:IN=BA;RS=BA+3:CL=BA+6 [WHITE,RVS]1-4[RV0FF,L. BLUE])";
50 POKE 53280,14:P0KE 53281,0 180 IF F<1 OR F>4 THEN 100'FHY.H
:DIM C(150,3),SH(4),MB(4,4),MC(4, 190 ON F GOSUB 600,800,800,1200'CRMI
4)'DWWM 280 GOSUB 1300:EZ=10000

RVOFF]IEW STEREOSCOPIC 810 DATA 6,32,10,40,-68,10,40,-32, 10,
FIGURE"'BAGH -40,68,-10,-4 0,0,60,-10,0,-60,
RVOFF]OTATE FIGURE"'BAPF 820 DATA 12,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,1,5,1,5,2,5,
330 PRINT"[SPACE6,WHITE,RVS]S[L. BLUE, 3,5,4,6,1,6,2,6,3,6,4,-999'BFVO
350 PRINT"[SPACE6,WHITE,RVS]L[L. BLUE, 840 DATA 21,-100,100,0,-100,-100,0,10,
RVOFF]OCATE EYE"'BAWH -130,108,70,-70,-170,-70,6,
RVOFFJAPE OR DISK FIGURE 850 DATA-70,-94,-28,0,-110,4 2,42,-100,
SAVE"1BAZM 0,-28,-87,-70,-28,14,-70,0,68'BJPS
370 PRINT"[SPACE6,WHITE,RVS]O[L. BLUE, 860 DATA-100,0,-82,-100,53,-92, • 47, 95,
RVOPF]RIGINAL FIGURE'"BABK -8 5,-88,42,-74,-140,42,76,
RVOFF]EW TYPE OF FIGURE"'BASM 870 DATA-65,-105,40,-32,-114,72,- 103,
390 PRINT"[SPACE6,WHITE,RVS]Q[L. BLUE, -50,0,-103,0,0,-103,50,0
440 INPUT"[DOWN,SPACE5]CHOICE";DS 880 DATA 24,1,2,2,4,2,3,5,6,6,7,7,5,8,
:D=ASC(D$)-75:IF D<1 OR D>11 THEN 9,9,10,10,8,10,5,8,7,11,12,12,13,
290'JUIO 13,11'BRMX
450 ON D GOSUB 1000,3400,1380,1300, 890 DATA 13,14,11,16,14,15,15,16,16,
190 0,3660,2900,3 200,140 0,1380, 14,17,17,18,18,19,19,20,20,21,
3600'CFFO 21"BJNW
460 IF D=9 OR D=3 THEN X00'FHCI 900 IF FO3 THEN 930'EFUG
470 GOTO 290'BDKG 910 I=1:V$="3D BAR GRAPH"'CFDJ
600 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN3,SPACttl3] 920 READ H:IF HO-999 THEN 1 = 1+1
64 0 INPUT"[RVS]";C(I,1),C(I,2),C(I,3) L. BLUE]ISK OR [WHITE,RVS]T
680 FOR 1 = 1 TO NE:~PRINT" [RVOFF,SPACE3] 1250 FOR N=i TO NC:INPUT#1,C(N,1),C(N,
1 EJMR 1260 FOR 1=1 TO NE:INPUT|1,E1(I),E2(I)


1310 HB(I,J)=0:IF I=J THEN MA(I,J)=l 1970 IF V$O""0R VV=1 THEN GOSUB 2200
1360 IF PEEK(32768)=76 THEN RESTORE 2000 GET A$:IF A$=""THEN 2000'EJYX
1370 CK=0:FOR 1=32768 TO 33618:READ ML 2020 PRINT"[CLEAR]":IX=1:SYS RS:RETURN
1375 IF CKO8800-3 THEN STOP'FHIM 2100 OPEN 4,4:DIM Z%(199)

1410 IF T$OnD"AND T$O"T"THEN 2120 FOR 1=39 TO 0 STEP-1

14001HIWE :FOR J=0 TO 24:FOR K=0 TO 7
NAME OF FIGURE FILE[RVOFF, 2130 Z%(Q)=Z%(Q) + (PEEK(S+320M + I*8+K))
1430 IF TS="D"THEN DT=8'EFJE 127J+128)'PTIR
1440 OPEN 1,DT,1,OF$:CR$=CHR$(13) 2140 Z%(QJ=Z%(Q)/128:NEXT K
VS'ETON 2150 PRINT#4,CHR$(8)P$:P$="":Y=Y+1
1450 FOR N=l TO NC:PRINT!1,C(N,1};CR$; :IF Y=7 THEN Y=0:GOTO 2170'KYLM
1460 FOR 1 = 1 TO NE:PRINTt(l,El (I) ;CR$; 2170 FOR L=0 TO 199:P$=P$+CHRSt(Z%(L)
1600 P(4)=1:REM PROJECT P(l 3) INTO 2180 Z%(L)=Z%(L)/128;NEXT L
1610 FOR J=l TO 4:EU=0:FOR K=l TO 4 :IF PP=0 THEN 2160'JJUQ
:PT{J}=EU:NEXT J'NOIR 2200 POKE 56334,PEEK(56334)AND 254
1620 W=1/PT(4):FOR K=l TO 3 :POKE 1,PEEK(1)AND 251:BC=53248
:PT(K)=PT(K)*W:NEXT K :BS=32280'IQRJ
:IF PT(3)=EZ THEN F=10000 2210 LN=LEN(VS):IF LN>35 THEN
1630 F=EZ/(EZ-PT(3)):REM PERSP 2220 FOR 1=1 TO LN:AS=ASC(MID$(VS,I,
1640 XP=F*PT(1):YP=F*PT(2)*.75 2250'LFNM
1650 IF XP<-159 THEN XP=-159'GKWK 2240 AS=32:REM BLANK FOR ALL
1670 IF YP<-99 THEN YP=-99'GIJM 2250 CM=AS*8+BC:FOR J=0 TO 7
1680 IF YP>99 THEN YP=99'EICL :POKE BS+(I-1)*8+J,PEEK(CM+J)
1900 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE2] 2260 POKE 1,PEEK(1)OR 4
1910 INPUT"[EPACE14,RVS]Y[RVOFF] 2700 FOR 1=1 TO 4:FOR J=l TO 4:EU=0
1940 P(1)=C(N,1):P(2)=C(N,2) 2900 PRINT"[DOWN] ROTATE ABOUT[DOWN,

102 MJ'ii \im:u.i>< I'oiil-R

2905 INPUT AX$,MD'BGEJ 4305 DATA 76,144,130,76,177,130,76,
2910 RA=MD*[PI]/180:C=COS(RA) 91'BCYJ
:S=SIN{RA}:FOR 1=1 TO 4 4310 DATA 130,76,137,128,76,236,130,
:FOR J=l TO 4:MB(I,J)=0'PLEW 32'BDNF
2920 IF I=J THEN MB(I,J)=1'EKXJ 4315 DATA 226,130,140,60,3,140,62,
2950'GLJM 4320 DATA 141,61,3,141,63,3,32,
2940 MB(2,2)=C;MB{3,3)=C:MB(2,3)=S 226'BYYG
:MB(3,2)=-S:GOTO 2990 4325 DATA 130,140,64,3,140,66,3,
2950 IF AXS<>nY"THEN GOTO 2970'FHIN 4330 DATA 67,3,32,198,129,169,0,
2960 MB(1,1)=C:MB(3,3)=C:MB(1,3)=-S 133'BAVH
:MB[3,1)=S:GOTO 2990 4335 DATA 254,56,169,199,237,64,3,
2970 IF AX$O"Z"THEN GOTO 2900'PHCP 4340 DATA 41,248,10,38,254,10,38,
2980 MB(1,1)=C:MB(2,2)=C:MB(1,2)=S 254'BBKI
:MB(2,1)=-S:REM 2 AXIS'GQVY 4345 DATA 10,38,254,72,141,80,3,
3200 INPUT"[DOWN] SIZE: S[WHITE]X, 4350 DATA 254,141,81,3,104,10,38,
[WHITE]Z[L. BLUE] 5. S[WHITE] 4355 DATA 10,38,254,109,80,3,133,
GLOBALfL- BLUE]";SH(1) ,SH(2) , 253'BBGO
SH(3),SH(4)'BYWL 4360 DATA 165,254,109,81,3,133,254,
3210 IF SH(1)=0 OR SH(2)=0 OR SH(3)=0 173'BDPK
OR SH(4)=0 THEN PRINT"[SPACE4] 4365 DATA 60,3,41,248,101,253,133,
3220 FOR 1*1 TO 4:FOR J=l TO 4 4370 DATA 173,61,3,101,254,133,254,
J)=SH{I):REM DIGNL=SIZE'MREQ 4375 DATA 41,7,101,253,133,253,165,
3230 IF I=J THEN MB(I,J)=SH(I) 254'BDFQ
:REM SET MAIN DIAGONAL ELEMENT 4380 DATA 105,96,133,254,173,60,3,
3240 IF 1=4 AND J = 4 THEN MB(I, 4385 DATA 7,170,189,41,131,141,68,
3250 NEXT J:NEXT I:GOSUB 2700 4390 DATA 96,32,226,130,140,62,3,
3400 INPUT"[DOWN] MOVES 4395 DATA 63,3,32,226,130,140,66,
[WHITE]Y,[L. BLUE]& MfWHITEJZ 4400 DATA 141,67,3,32,198,129,56,
[L. BLUE]n;SH(l),SH(2),SH(3) 173'BBYF
:REM MOVING'CAMN 4405 DATA 62,3,237,60,3,141,69,3'BWPJ
3410 FOR 1=1 TO 3:FOR J=l TO 4 4410 DATA 173,63,3,237,61,3,141,
:MB(r,J)=0:IF I=J THEN MB(I,J)=1 70'BYHG
:REM SET MB TO MATRIX'MQMR 4415 DATA 3,56,173,66,3,237,64,3'BWYK
3420 NEXT J:NEXT I:MB(4,4)=1 4420 DATA 141,71,3,173,67,3,237,
:FOR J=l TO 3:MB(4,J)=SH(J) 65'BYQH
:NEXT J:GOSUB 2700:RETURN'KMRP 4425 DATA 3,141,72,3,173,62,3,141'BXGL
3600 PRINT"[SPACE9]STEREOSCOPIC 4430 DATA 60,3,173,63,3,141,61,3'BWHH
VIEW"'BAHH 4435 DATA 173,66,3,141,64,3,173,
OFFSET, ANGLEfL. BLUEj";SH(1),MD 4440 DATA 3,141,65,3,169,0,141,79'BXSI
:SH(2)=0:SH(3)=0'DXWP 4445 DATA 3,44,70,3,16,23,173,69'BWSN
3620 AXS="Y":GOSUB 3410:GOSUB 2910 4450 DATA 3,32,231,129,141,69,3,
:UX=0:GOSUB 1900:REM 1ST 173'BAIK
VIEW'GFHO 4455 DATA 70,3,32,232,129,141,70,
3630 SH(1)=-2*SH(1):MD=-2*MD 3'BYZP
:GOSUB 3410:GOSUB 2910:UX=1 4460 DATA 169,2,141,79,3,44,72,3'BWWK
:GOSUB 1930:REM VIEW-2'LSNU 4465 DATA 16,27,173,71,3,32,231,
3640 SH(l)=SH{l)/-2:MD=MD/~2 129'BAIQ
:PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN2,SPACE11] 4470 DATA 141,71,3,173,72,3,32,
3650 GOSUB 3410:GOSUB 2910:RETURN1DKAJ 4475 DATA 129,141,72,3,24,173,79,

i.oM\ini>nm-Mi(.i«)Ci)Mi'i n:us 103

4480 DATA 105,4,141,79,3,174,69,3'BXWM
SOFTWARE PAK 4485 DATA 236,71,3,173,70,3,168,
4490 DATA 72,3,16,27,173,71,3,141■BXNN
4495 DATA 69,3,173,72,3,141,70,31BWQS
4500 DATA 142,71,3,140,72,3,24,
4505 DATA 79,3,105,8,141,79,3,173'BXBK
4510 DATA 69,3,32,231,129,141,73,
4515 DATA 173,70,3,32,232,129,141,
4520 DATA 3,56,48,1,24,110,74,3'BVKH
4525 DATA 110,73,3,160,0,140,77,3'BXBM
4530 DATA 140,78,3,240,55,174,79,
4535 DATA 24,173,73,3,109,71,3,
4540 DATA 73,3,173,74,3,109,72,3'BWTJ
4545 DATA 141,74,3,48,20,56,173,
A trio of Software PaksM where book
learning and disk instruction combine to
4550 DATA 3,237,69,3,141,73,3,173'BXUK
help you set all the power, and fun, out
4555 DATA 74,3,237,70,3,141,74,3'BWPP
of your Commodore. 4560 DATA 232,32,186,129,238,77,3,
MASTERING THE COMMODORE 64 by AnloniaJ. ■nts &
4565 DATA 3,238,78,3,177,253,13,
(!. Carpenter, bridges ilic gap between the beginner's knowledge
of isask; and a real understanding of what's Inside the
4570 DATA 3,145,253,173,77,3,205,
Commodore 6-t $39.90
COMMODORE 64 DATA FILE PROGRAMMING 4575 DATA 3 ,173,78,3,237,70,3,144'BXUR
by Glenn Pishcr, Leroy Flnkel SJerald Brown, a guide io 4580 DATA 180,96,138,10,170,189,10,
programming and maintaining data files, teaches you how to 131'BDKO
irack billings. Inventories and expense: maintain catalog 4585 DATA 72,189,9,131,72,96,173,
materials and mailing ItSIB $39.90 62'BAGT
4590 DATA 3,201,64,173,63,3,233,1'BXFO
4595 DATA 176,12,173,66,3,201,200,
64 bj Toby Matthews and Paul Smith includes ]() strategy
games that challenge your Intelligence. Games range from 4600 DATA 67,3,233,0,144,8,32,177'BXSG
Grand Prix auto racing to Investing In the stock market lo 4605 DATA 130,162,14,108,0,3,96,
running your own computer manufacturing company. You can 56'BYFH
devise your own strategy game or manipulate variables in 4610 DATA 73,255,105,0,96,32,50,
existing names. $39.90 130'BAEI
4615 DATA 165,253,41,7,73,7,240,8'BXWM
System Requirements: Commodore 64, Iv'd disk drive.
4620 DATA 230,253,208,17,230,254,208,
TV or monitor
Examine the books only in the ilemfs) selected FREE for IS 4625 DATA 24,165,253,105,57,133,253,
days. Either keep the pruduct(s) and return the accompany inn 165'BEIP
invoice with your payment (including postage S handling and 4630 DATA 254,105,1,133,254,96,32,
local sales tax] or return within 15 daiswithout 72'BBKK
further obligation. 4635 DATA 130,165,253,41,7,208,15,
Note: Returns will not be accepted if the seal covering the 4640 DATA 165,253,233,57,133,253,165,
program disk is broken. 254'BFNM
For Faster Service call: 1-212-850-6788 4645 DATA 233,1,133,254,208,8,165,
Or write: Leslie Blxd
Wilt) ftufissimul Saflwut 4650 DATA 208,2,198,254,198,253,96,
John Hile; & Sons, hit 32'BCHM
60S Third ftrenue 4655 DATA 17,130,14,68,3,144,13,
V 10158 46'BYGR
4660 DATA 68,3,165,253,233,7,133,
[teller IiH|iiirn> hinted
4665 DATA 176,2,198,254,96,32,240,
Mftl IrjiiniiukiNj1 l-a -lTr I11lerq11lkn.1l


4670 DATA 78,68,3,144,13,110,68,3■BXVN

4675 DATA 165,253,105,8,133,253,144,
4680 DATA 230,254,96,169,127,133,254,
4685 DATA 0,133,253,168,145,253,234,
4690 DATA 160,63,162,32,145,253,136,
4695 DATA 251,198,254,202,208,246,96, (VIC-2O ,ii;.o availabls>

16 9'BFAW LEROY'S CHEATSHEETS' are plasllc laminated keyboard

4700 DATA 176,162,0,157,0,92,157, overlays designed lor use with popular software and
0'BYJI hardware for Commodore's VIC-20 & C-64 computers.
4705 DATA 93,157,0,94,202,208,244, These cut-lt-out yourself overlays are designed to fit over
162'BCON the keyboard surrounding the keys with commands and
4710 DATA 232,157,255,94,202,208,250, controls grouped together for easy references.
4715 DATA 76,51,131,32,119,130,32, LEROY'S CHEATSHEETS®
91'BBEO make life easier for you

4720 DATA 130,173,0,3,141,82,3,

G Easy Stnpl
4725 DATA 1,3,141,83,3,169,249, D HES Wnlor D For The BEginner \
141'BYKP D Paper Clip D Sprites Only

4730 DATA 0,3,169,130,141,1,3,96'BWHK D

Ouic* Brown Fq.
Senpi 64
D Flight Simulator II
4735 DATA 234,32,91,130,173,17,208, D SpoedsCript 12-0 1 3.0 DAFETTE) D IM1 OlM
41'BCFQ D Woidpro 3/PLLfS 0 Shy Traval
D Qrnmwnter
4740 DATA 223,141,17,208,173,0,221, O Wmdpio 04 IPi Sii.i Punit
9'BBBM □ WrllD Honligi
4745 DATA 3,141,0,221,173,24,208, 0 Fteel Sytr*m 2
4750 DATA 7,9,16,141,24,208,234, D Cilc Re lull pM
O Bane
G CilcHeiulhui.i
234'BAKN O Eny Cllc
□ Heirnan 6*

4755 DATA 169,32,32,121,130,173,82, 0 Mulliplan

3'BBDS D PncliCaJC 64
D Pilot IC8U:
4760 DATA 141,0,3,173,83,3,141,1'BWAN
4765 DATA 3,96,32,253,174,32,158,
173'BBUT a vioi«
4770 DATA 32,170,177,96,32,15,128, D Tjip Consulloni iLnw □ I(ieSmarl61 Twmiml
D The Uanuoor iCDMj D VIP Terminal
D SupmBmei D Term 64
4775 DATA 0,177,253,13,68,3,145,
4780 DATA 96,72,138,72,152,72,32,
177'BBCQ fj PnniB^ ibv.iiis tfpsm i
Q!y.__X $3.95 S
4785 DATA 130,104,168,104,170,104,108, O Printer.ILBU lsnuPSKJ?
Shooing & handing $ 1.00
D Prinler.iltwiflji i ft so
□ Printer, Bhmiox - isn
4790 DATA 3,71,130,13,130,49,130, D Printer,Oi.aili 9 6% sales tax
[PA resijenrs urity)
4795 DATA 130,71,130,68,130,49,130, Dealer inquiries welcome total s _
2 36'BDDW U S FU'iDS
4800 DATA 129,16,130,13,130,16,130,
4805 DATA 130,239,129,68,130,239,129,
4810 DATA 129,128,64,32,16,8,4,2'BWSJ
4815 DATA 1,245,245,173,0,221,41, CHEATSHEET PRODUCTS me
PO.Boj II 1368 Pillsburgh PA. 15238
4820 DATA 9,2,141,0,221,173,17, (412) 'hi 1551
208'BYAL j Chiron My VIS* or UailBr Card NUMBER EIPIRAIION
4825 DATA 9,32,141,17,208,173,24, □ ATE

208'BBKQ I
4830 DATA 41,7,9,120,141,24,208,
4835 DATA 147,130,0,- 1■BMVO END

Circle Reader Service No. 6


In "SID I'luys Bach," the number

SID Plays Tap some of the mu placed in the attack and decay register
is a nine. This creates an attack cycle

Bach sicalpower hidden of l\vo milliseconds and a decay cycle

of 750 milliseconds. The sound at
inside your 64 tains its peak volume in a very short
A ho Commodore 64's Sound Inter- amount of time and then decreases to
ace Device (SID) makes ii the mas! to play Bach in the sustain level in a comparatively
ophistlcated sound-producing com- longer period of lime. The value
inter ever made. The SID chip is so
machine code. placed in the register Is obtained by
Kmcrlul thai often many program- multiplying the desired attack by 16
ocrs don't make good llst-"*J' >'■ 'i(-'" and adding the decay. Thus, a value of
Ides having to know about notes and nine means that attack is set lo zero
heir durations, anyone interested in and decay to nine.
The value placed in the sustain
irogramming music on the 64 musl
ilso understand the concepts of at- and release register is 1" (Sll). Ibis
and is also :i function of volume over means that the sustain volume is set to
ack, decay, sustain, and release. You
ilraosi have to be both a hacker and time. A fast decay makes the volume one and that the release level is also
in expert musician to take full advan- drop very quickly, while, a slow de set lo one. During the sustain part of
cay makes the volume drop much ihe sound, the volume will be the
aye of the 6-i 's abilities.
"Sll) Plays Bach" and its brother, slower. This drop is not all the way to lowest it can possibly be without be
'SID Plays Bach (Sad)" were created zero volume, but is instead to what is ing completely turned off, and the re
called a sustain level. lease will lake about 24 milliseconds.
0 demonstrate some of the musical
lower hidden Inside your 64. They The sustain level is not a function of Tlie release will thus be quicker than
ire straightforward assembly listings volume rising or falling over time. It is the decay section of the sound.
a volume level thai is maintained for a Uotlt assembly listings get note val
that, when assembled, produce a ma
period of time. The time period is de ues that are stored in a table called
chine code program that plays part of
1 Bach tune. Since the assembly list- termined by the delay loop used In "notes." This table contains the high
the program. Release is the final stage and low value that must be used to
ngS are self-documented, instead of
of a sound. It is a function of volume produce a given note ant! the relative
explaining what each line does. I'll
over lime and is the amount of lime duration of that note. You can use
explain some of the general things
that it lakes the volume to fall from these two assembly listings to pro
that go on in the programs, and some
the sustain level to zero. The release duce oilier musical tunes by jusl
of the musical concepts that must be
portion of the sound occurs when the changing the notes and durations.
understood Eo make sense of the as
bit zero is turned off in the voice con "SID I'luys Bach" and "SID Plays
sembly listings.
trol register. Bach (Sad)" are essentially the same
Volume on the 64 is set to the lotid-
"SID Plays Bach" uses only voice program with modified notes and a
CSt possible level by either poking or
one and thus only the voice control longer delay to Increase the sustain
Storing (STA) a value of 15 i" memory
register for voice one is affected. This period. You can see how the delay
location 54296 (SD418). Since mem
register Is location 5i276 (Sl)-t(M) was increased by looking at line -)55
ory location 54296 is a special loca
in the 64. Lines 490 and ly^ are used ol'each lisiing.
tion (hat is used by the SID chip, it is
for turning off bit zero of the register. If you are not musically inclined.
called a register. To turn off the vol
This bit is often referred to as the you might be able to obtain notes
ume on the 64, you must store a zero
from a friend and then convert them
in the same register. Any number be gate bit.
Attack, decay, sustain and release to the corresponding high and low
tween H and IS is valid to produce
are all set in lines 215 through 235 of values that your user's manual indi
slightly different volumes.
■'SID Plays Bach." As you can see, cates. You may be able to also get the
Attack and decay are a little more
there are only two registers to handle duration from your friend, or you can
difficult to understand. They can be
the four settings. This is because these experiment until it sounds right. Just
explained best in mathematical terms.
two registers are treated by the SID remember lo adjust the value in line
Attack is the rate at which a sound
chip as if they actually were four. 380 to the quantity of values stored in
reaches a certain volume (volume
Each four bits of each register is your table at the end of the assembly
over lime). A fasl attack means that
treated as if il were a separate register. lisiing. Line 380 currently holds a 96
the sound will reach a pre-dclcrmined
Hits zero to three of register ^ilT, for die f> i high and low values -and the
volume level very quickly and a slow
(SD4O5)are used for the decay setting 32 durations.
attack means that the sound will take
and bits four lo seven for the attack The two assembly listings (Listings
longer. If you were to graph these
setting. The release setting is stored in 1 and 2) were created using the 6-i's
two, a fast attack would have a
bits zero lo three of register 5i2~tf built-in BASIC editor and can be as
steeper slope than a slow attack. De
(ID406) and the sustain volume level sembled with PAL 6-1. PAL is an as
cay is the opposite of attack. It occurs
is stored in bits four to seven. sembler for the 64 that allows you to
after die attack portion of the sound.

create source code in BASIC lines and also he transferred to the Commodore and ■un Listings 3 or 4 instead. After
to assemble it by typing RUN. The sys assembler without loo m any changes, the (F.ADY prompt appears on ihc
700 in lint 100 activates PAL when If you prefer having the programs In screen, type SYS 491S2 to activate
you i ype RUN. The source listing can BASIC loader format, then type in either of the two. Q

380 CPX S$60 ; "IS IT 96?

Listing 1. SID Plays Bach Assembly
100 SYS 700:.OPT OO;*=SC000 390 JMP END ; YES, THEN GO TO END.
105 . *************************
110 . *
115 ,- * ML SOUND GENERATOR * 405 f


125 ; * ROBERT ALONSO * 415 LDY #$0 0 ; ZERO THE .Y OFFSET
130 . * «
420 1

135 1 425 SET LDX #$00; AND THE .X OFFSET.

145 ; EQUATES 435 CPX #$FF i "DOES .X=255?
155 SIGVOL = $D418 445 f

160 ATDCY1 = SD405 450 INY ; YES, INCREASE .Y

165 SUREL1 " SD406 455 CPY Jt$4B ; "DOES .Y=75?
170 VCREG1 = SD404 460 BNE SET ; NO, THEN GO TO SET.
175 FREL01 = SD400 465 f


195 1 485 1

215 LDA #$09 ;SET ATTACK/DECAY TO 9. 505 1

225 515 STA VCREG1 ; POKE 54276,0
230 LDA #$11 ;SUSTAIN/RELEASE TO 17. 520 STA ATDCY1 ; POKE 54277,0
235 STA SUREL1 ;LIKE POKE 54278,17. 525 STA SUREL1 ; POKE 54278,0
240 530 STA FREL01 ; POKE 54272,0
250 STA VCREG1 ;LIKE POKE 54276,17. 540 STA SIGVOL ; POKE 54296,0
260 LDX #300 ;ZERO OUT THE OFFSET. 550 1



275 565 XSAVE .BYTE $00

280 LOOP = * 570 ASAVE .BYTE $00
300 f
590 NOTES = *
305 LDA NOTES,X ;GET LO VALUE AND STORE 595 .BYTE $33,$61 ,$02
310 STA FREL01 ;IT IN REGISTER. 600 .BYTE $22,$4B ,$01
315 INX /INCREASE OFFSET AGAIN. 605 .BYTE $26,$7E ,$01
320 J 610 .BYTE $2B,$34 ,$01
330 STA ASAVE ;AND STORE IT IN ASAVE. 620 .BYTE $33,$61 ,$02
335 INX ;INCREASE THE OFFSET. 625 .BYTE $22,$4B ,$02
340 i 630 .BYTE $22,$4B ,$02
350 JSR DELAY ;AND GO TO THE DELAY. 640 •BYTE $2D,$C6 ,$01
355 645 .BYTE $33,$61 ,$01
360 LDA #$11 ;RESET TRIANGLE WAVE. 650 .BYTE $39,$AC ,$01
370 660 .BYTE $44,$95 ,$02


670 .BYTE $22,$4B,S02 320
630 .BYTE $33,$61,$01 330 STA ASAVE ;AND STORE IT IN ASAVE.
690 -BYTE $2B,$34,$01 340 1

700 .BYTE $2B,$34,$02 350 JSR DELAY ;AND GO TO THE DELAY.
705 .BYTE $2D,$C6,$01 355 f

710 .BYTE $2B,$34,$01 360 LDA #$11 ;RESET TRIANGLE WAVE.

715 .BYTE $26,$7E,$01 365 STA VCREG1 ;DELAY TURNS IT OFF.
720 .BYTE $22,$4B,$01 370 1

730 .BYTE $2B,$34,$01 380 CPX #$60 ;"IS IT 96?
735 .BYTE $26,$7E,$01 385 BNE LOOP ;NO, THEN LOOP AGAIN.
740 .BYTE $22,$4B,$01 390 JMP END ;YES, THEN GO TO END.
745 .BYTE $1F,$FF,$01 395 f

i Jsting 2. SID Plays B;ich (Sad) Assembly
410 DELAY = *
100 SYS 700:.OPT OO:*=SC000 415 LDY #$00 ;ZERO THE .Y OFFSET
105 420 1

110 * * 425 SET LDX #S00;AND THE .X OFFSET.

120 * SAD SOUNDING BACH * 435 CPX #$FF ;"DOES .X=255?
130 * * 445
135 ************************* 450 I NY ;YES, INCREASE .Y
140 455 CPY #S"?8 ;"DOES ,Y=120?
150 465 ;
170 ' /CREG1 = SD404 485
175 1 ^RELQl = $D400 490 LDA #$10 ;SILENCE SOUND BY SET-

180 ^REHIl = $D401 495 STA VCREG1 ;TING BIT 0 OFF.

200 IDA #$0F ;SET THE VOLUME TO 15. 515 STA VCREG1 ;POKE 54276,0
LIKE POKE 54296,15. 520 STA ATDCY1 ;POKE 54 277,0
210 525 STA SUREL1 ;POKE 54278,0
215 .DA #$09 SET ATTACK/DECAY TO 9. 530 STA FRELO1 ;POKE 54272,0
220 3TA ATDCY1 LIKE POKE 54277,9. 535 STA FREHI1 ;POKE 54273,0
225 540 STA SIGVOL ;POKE 54296,0
235 3TA SUREL1 LIKE POKE 54278,17. 550
240 F
250 3TA VCREG1 LIKE POKE 54276,17. 565 XSAVE .BYTE $00
255 •
570 ASAVE .BYTE $00
275 590 NOTES = * -

280 Loop = * 595 .BYTE $33, $61,$02

285 LDA NOTES,X ;GET THE HI VALUE AND 600 .BYTE $22, $4B,$01
290 STA FREHI1 ;STORE IT IN REGISTER. 605 .BYTE $26, $7E,$01
295 INX ;INCREASE OFFSET. 610 .BYTE $27, $DF,$01
300 r
615 .BYTE $2D, $C6,$01
305 LDA NOTES,X ;GET LO VALUE AND STORE 620 .BYTE $33, $61,$02
310 STA FRELO1 ;IT IN REGISTER. 625 .BYTE $22, $4B,$02
315 INX ;INCREASE OFFSET AGAIN. 630 .BYTE $22, $4B,$02

108 M.I'11.MUCH.! )l '['ODER

635 .BYTE $35,$39,$02 295 DATA 2,57,172,2,45,198'BRLN
640 .BYTE $2D,$C6,$01 300 DATA 1,51,97,1,57,172'BQGA
645 .BYTE $33,$61,$01 305 DATA 1,64,188,1,68,149'BRPF
650 .BYTE S35,S39,S01 310 DATA 2,34,75,2,34,75'BPEB
655 • BYTE S3B,$BE,$01 315 DATA 2,45,198,2,51,97'BQNG
660 .BYTE $44,$95,$02 320 DATA 1,45,198,1,43,52'BQDC
665 • BYTE $22,$4B,$02 325 DATA 1,38,126,1,43,52'BQVH
670 .BYTE $22,$4B,$02 330 DATA 2,45,198,1,43,52'BQED
675 .BYTE $2D,$C6,$02 335 DATA 1,38,126,1,34,75'BQBI
680 .BYTE $33,$61,$01 340 DATA 1,38,126,2,43,52'BQWE
685 • BYTE $2D,SC6,$01 345 DATA 1,38,126,1,34,75'BQBJ
690 .BYTE $27,$DF,$01 350 DATA 1,31,25 5,1,3 4,75,4'BSSF END
695 .BYTE $26,$7E,$01
700 .BYTE $27,$DF,$02
Listing 4. Sad BASIC Loader
705 • BYTE $2D,$C6,$01 100 REM ************************igygy
710 .BYTE -$27,$DF,$01 105 REM * *'BCBA
715 .BYTE $26,$7E,$01 110 REM * BASIC LOADER FOR *'BQBA
720 .BYTE $22,$4B,$01 115 REM * SAD SOUNDING BACH *'BRWG
725 .BYTE $26,$7E,$02 120 REM * *'BCBW
730 .BYTE $27,$DF,$01 125 REM ************************!gVBfi

735 .BYTE $26,$7E,$01 145 : 'ABHE

740 .BYTE $22,$4B,$01 150 FOR <= 49152 TO 49362'DLJE
745 .BYTE $1F,$FF,$01 155 READ A; B= B+A'DFJI
750 .BYTE $22,$4B,$04 EMD 160 POKE X, A : NEXT X'CFLD
Listing 3. Bach BASIC Loader 165 IF BO21324 THEN PRINT "DATA
bAnU ^ tun i*

100 REM ************************igYBY

170 END' 3ACC
105 REM *
*'BCBA 175 : 'ABHH
110 REM * BASIC LOADER FOR *'BQBA 180 DATA 169,15,141,24,212,169'BVYH
115 REM * HAPPY SOUNDING BACH *'BTRG 185 DATA 9,141,5,212,169,17'BSAM
120 REM *
*'BCBW 190 DATA 141,6,212,169,17,141'BUSI
125 REM ** * *# ****** ************* t BYBG
195 DATA 4,212,162,0,189,115' BTQN
145 :"ABHE 200 DATA
150 FOR X= 49152 TC 49362'DLJE 205 DATA 115,19 2,141,0,212,232'BVGF
155 READ A: B= B+A1 DFJI 210 DATA 189,115,192,141,114,192'BXBB
160 POKE X, A : NEXT X'CFLD 215 DATA 232,142,113,192,32,64'BVPG
165 TF BO20685 THEN PRINT "DATA 220 DATA 192,169,17,141,4,212'BUWC
ERROR"1FGQN 225 DATA 17 4,113,192,2 24,96,208'BWEH
170 END1 BACC 230 DATA 217,76,92,192,160,0'BTBD
175 : 'ABHH 235 DATA 16 2,0,2 3 2,224,255,208'BVPI
180 DATA 169, 15,141 ,24,212,169'BVYH 240 DATA 251,200,192,120,208,244'BXKE
19 5 DATA 9,141,5,21 2,169,17'BSAM 245 DATA 206,114,192,173,114,192'BXUJ
190 DATA 141, 6,212, 169,17,141'BUSI 250 DATA 208,234,169,16,141,4'BUXF
195 DATA 4,21 2,162, 0,189,115'BTQN 255 DATA 212,96,169,0,141,4'BSCJ
200 DATA 192, 141,1, 212,232,189'BVSA 260 DATA 212,141,5,212,141,6'BTGG
205 DATA 115, 192,141,0,212,232'BVGF 265 ~DATA 212,141,0,212,141,1'BTWL
210 DATA 189, 115,192,141,114,192'BXBB 270 DATA 212,141,24,212,96,0'BTKH
215 DATA 232, 142,113,192,32,64'BVPG 275 DATA 0,51,97,2,34,75'BPFL
220 DATA 192, 169,17 ,141,4,212'BUWC 280 DATA 1,38,126,1,39,223'BRYH
225 DATA 174, 113,192,224,96,208'BWEH 285 DATA 1,45,198,1,51,97'BQLM
230 DATA 217, 76,92, 192,160,0'BTBD 290 DATA 2,34,75,2,34,75'BPEI
235 DATA 162, 0,232, 224,255,208'BVPI 295 DATA 2,53,57,2,45,198'BQLN
240 DATA 251, 200,192,75,208,244'BWVE 300 DATA 1,51,97,1,53,57'BPGA
245 DATA 206, 114,192,173,114,192'BXUJ 305 DATA 1,59,190,1,68,149'BRMF
250 DATA 208, 234,169,16,141,4'BUXF 310 DATA 2,34,75,2,34,75'BPEB
255 DATA 212, 96,169 ,0,141,4'BSCJ 315 DATA 2,45, 198,2, 51, 97'BQ.NG
260 DATA 212, 141,5, 212,141,6'BTGG 320 DATA 1,45,198,1,39,223'BRGC
265 DATA 212, 141,0, 212,141,1'BTWL 325 DATA 1,38,126,1,39,223'BRYH
270 DATA 212, 141,24 ,212,96,0'BTKH 330 DATA 2,45,198,1,39,223'BRHD
275 DATA 0,51 ,97,2, 34,75'BPFL 335 DATA 1,38,126,1,34,75'BQBI
280 DATA 1,38 ,126,1 ,43,52'BQVH 340 DATA 1,38,126,2,39,223'BRAE
285 DATA 1,45 ,198,1 ,51,97'BQLM 345 DATA 1,38,126,1,34,75'BQBJ
290 DATA 2,34 ,75,2, 34,75'BPEI 350 DATA 1,31,255,1,34,75,4■BSSF END



Random ber of atoms, and made the calcula

"Random Crystalli tions run fairly fast. You can have a

Thoughts: zation " is a short

larger array, even a three-dimensional
one if yon like. (Hut let me know how
you display the 3-D Structure of that!)
Programming, BASICprogram that 1 defined the energy of an atom to
be [list -1 tor each neighbor it has:
Philosophy, and simulates the motion above, below, left, and right. An atom

Crystals of atoms in a two- with no neighbors has energy zero.

One in the middle of a crystal with
dimensional world. four neighbors has energy —i. You
Xiiis month we'll look at ;i specific may want to take into account neigh
application of randomness to one bors on [he diagonals in your energy
physical problem—crystallization. function.
The solution to thai prDblem turns out The temperature and the number of
to apply to lots of other Important atoms are entered by the user. A tem
real-world tasks, and we'll discuss perature of one or more gives a pretty

some of those, too. "fluid" situation, with lots of fluctua

tions, a temperature of o.l or less is
Crystallization preity solidly "frozen." 1 usually put
A crystal has a tegular arrangement in 50 atoms, so that the ten-by-ten ar
of atoms or molecules, yet it forms ray is half full.
from a chaotic melt or solution, where When running i!ie model. I simply
the atoms move around randomly rel watch the display and Interrupt the
ative to each oilier. Perfect crystals program whenever I want to change
form slowly. If you try to grow a crys the temperature, T. The program
tal too fast, defects or dislocations de takes about one second to :i single
velop. But annealing—a process of "step," so you can do thousands of
slow heating and COOlIng—can get rid steps in a reasonable length of lime.
of some defects without having to You may want to automate the tem
mcli the crystal and start over. perature variation, so that the value of
We can experiment with all of these T falls or rises in some regular fash
phenomena on a small computer. The ion. This is especially useful fur over
program listing accompanying this ar night experiments, which you may
ticle is my first effort. 1 hope some of want to run unattended.
you will extend and improve il! Let
me describe exactly what the program Crystal Simulation Results
"Random Crystallization" docs, and Some friends and I have tried a
how to use il. We'll begin With a gen Figure 1. number of experiments with the
eral broad-brush description, ami then "Random Crystallization" model.
go on to details, energy before and after the mine. We've found thai lowering the tem
"Random Crystallization" is a short Specifically, atoms obey the "Boltz- perature T in steps of 0.05 from 1.0
BASIC program that simulates the mo- mann Law," which says that the down in It. I can give a good crystal.
lion of atoms in a two-dimensional chance of a transition is proportional provided the temperature is lowered
world. (In real life, thin films depos [(1 (. :.!:.„„ ln«l«RHRimnlHTi ('|*lliS jS ;) V(/rV very slowly. A "perfect" crystal
ited on surfaces act a lot like two-di general relationship that holds for just would have all the atoms packed as
mensional systems.) The moms move about all real-world systems. From closely together as possible, and the
within a limited area, surrounded by a one viewpoint, it's the definition of vacancies also grouped together to
solid wall of "frozen" atoms to keep "temperature" itself.) It means that make a single big "void" of roughly
them confined. The area where the at things lend 10 move "downhill." to circular shape. That way, the energy
oms move is divided into discrete ward lower energy, with random fluc of the atoms is minimized—the sur
cells and only one atom (at most) can tuations about that general tendency. face area of the hole is as small as pos
he in a cell, The fluctuations go away as the tem sible, and most of the atoms have as
Atoms tend to "stick" to each other. perature goes to zero. many neighbors as possible.
They have a lower energy if they have in the Implementation of the "Ran If you lower the temperature too
neighbors. This "stickiness" accounts dom Crystallization" program, I made rapidly, or start out at loo low an
for the crystallization. The chance of some specific design choices. You initial temperature (a "supercooled"
an atom moving from one cell to an may want to choose otherwise. 1 set state), you'll get a crystal with many
adjacent empty cell depends on the the size of the atomic array to ten by imperfections. You can anneal the im
temperature and the difference in ten. Thai gave room for :i good num perfections out by wanning the erys-


t;i! and then re-coolinj> more slowly. Some possible extensions were men "Random Crystallization" idea? Well,
Try ii! tioned above; changing the grk! size, the fundamental Idea applies to man)
Here's an experiment I tried, i be energy function, or temperature con areas. Suppose you want to find the
gan with temperature T = i, and low trol. A more Important change would shurtcst path to travel among a set ot
ered the temperature by 0.05 every he to increase the computational effi towns—the famous "Traveling Sales
so smps, until m step number 1000, I ciency of the program. 1 kept the pro man" problem. This is a terribly hard
was ;it T = 0.1. Figure 1 shows the Ini gram logic very simple and, above all, problem to solve, if you demand the
tial state (random. 50 moms) and the worked to make it correct from a ran absolute best solution, but recently, in
state at step looo. The atoms art rep dom-number viewpoint. II' you try, vestigators have found that they can
resented as black circles. uikI the voids you can probably increase [he effi get excellent working solutions by
between atoms are blank. As you can ciency by a factor of two or more by starting out with a random path at
sec. the crystal is very Imperfect varying ihe algorithms used in the high "temperature," and then "cool
{lUinninfj;« T = o. i ibr another thou subroutines. ing" it down. The "temperature" isn't
sand steps didn't help much. The im You may also want to Improve the a physical temperature. It's just pun
perfections were "frozen in.") display part of the program (subrou of a rule for the chance to change
So, I raised the temperature to tine 9000). It's very "plain vanilla" from one order of visiting the towns
T = 0.5 and then lowered it by 0.1 now, simply priming out the zeros and to another, just as our temperature
every thousand steps until, at step ones of the atom array to the screen. was the chance for an atom to move
7000, it was back to T = o.l and had A better method would be to use from one location to another.
been held there for 1000 steps. That screen pokes to update only the posi Other difficult optimization prob
gave a much betier crystal, as the tion of any atom that moves. I avoided lems may be solved by analogous
third part of the figure shows. 'There that to allow people with different va crystallization methods. Its a very
are still imperfections, but no badly rieties of computers to run the pro new field of research—perhaps you
separated voids or isolated clusters of gram without modification, can contribute to understanding it
atoms. Remember, there is a wall of Theoreticians may want to figure better!
atoms surrounding the urea shown— out how fast one should lower the
so the atoms at the edge arc really temperature in order to get nice crys Programming Philosophy
touching neighbors which aren't tallization. I suspect that a good rate is Since I've encouraged you to partic
drawn on the figures. proportional to (number of atoms)/ ipate in the process of improving this
(Temperature), but I don't know how program, I'd like to elaborate on that
Extensions and Implications to prove it, or what the constant of process, in general terms.
The "Random Crystallization" pro proportionality should be. There are several central themes
gram can certainly be improved. What are the implications of the which underlie advanced work in all
Continued <>u base U5

Random Crystallization

30 REM
90 REM
2999 REM
120 REM
3020 E-XYW-1,1)-X»X' I .YI-KYU.Y-1 )-IY(X,y. 1 >
IMREM --W0RXBF.GUNI98.10CT0Br.R2l-- J040EN-n(i(N-I.YN]-IY«N.l,YNMY(XN.IN-1)-KY(ININ'l)-1 REM ADD ONf
280 gosub booo rem initialize array with border aho randcm
configuration of atcm5
300 oosub woo rem print configuration to 5creen 1)100 REMNOWFIll IN BOUNDARY CELL5 OF BOX. 10 AVOID A1OM5 DRIFTING
100 oosub 5000 reh pick an atom at random which "as an afljactnt
hole, return location in i,y am) hole inxn.yn
0220 FOB 1-0 TO II W0.D-1 JB(ll.K-t:xr(l,0)-l Wl,11)-I NEXT I
m0 gosub 3000 rem calculate enehgy of atom ie) and energy if it 0999 HEM
9100 PRINT
1999 REM
9120 *XT I

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Circle Reader Service No. 47

The Computer edge is theoretical, and depends on

A very strong case extensive investigations in advanced
Scientist mathematics. So CS is a mixture o(
can be made that the different kinds of information. De
What is Computer computer is an em
pending on your background, you
will find some parts of CS interesting
Science? erging species of
and easy, and others dull and difficult,
But all areas have in common their

ly ;i few years ago. computer

intelligent life. '■tiinelessncss"-what you learn today
will not be obsolete next year. And
science (CS) was considered a rather thai is one of the main reasons why so
narrow and difficult technical disci obsolete in a few years. many people are becoming interested
pline. It \v;ls taught at only a few ma Software and equipment will be in computer science.
jor universities and was studied different. Different programming lan
mainly by advanced computer spe guages will be used. Or perhaps even An Eagle's Eye View of
cialists. Now, however, CS is Studied tually, software may be created with Computer Science
ai thousands of .schools nationwide by out using a programming language. You have already seen a few exam
millions of people every year. Many of the concepts and DUSZWOrds ples of the kind of knowledge CS is
This is the first in a series of articles thai are important today will be obso Concerned with. Now, let's try to get a
thai will explore the field of computer lete or meaningless, and will he broad overview of the entire field. To
science especially for you, the Com replaced with new concepts, new do this, we will list some of the major
modore user. My aim is to give you a jargon. '"timeless questions" that CS is con
sense of what the field is about and 10 However, some of your knowledge cerned with.
acquaint you with .some of its major will still be valid and useful. Here are 1. What is a computer, really:'
areas of knowledge. I believe that: a few examples of current computer A very strong case can he made
• Computer science provides a knowledge which will probably be that: The computer is an emerging
great deal of valuable informa relevant for many years into the species of intelligent life.
tion for anyone who uses com future: This startling thesis is based on a se
puters frequently. • New programs usually have bugs. ries of elementary, non-technical ob
• You don't have to go lo college to With large programs, it some servations about computers, ami we
yet involved in computer sci times lakes years to shake out shall explore ihis thesis in a later arti
ence. Indeed, one of ihe best most of the bugs. With very cle. If the thesis is true, it suggests that
ways 10 explore CS is by running complex programs, it is unrea understanding the nature of comput
"experiments" on your Commo sonable 10 expect that all of the ers is much like understanding the na
dore computer. hugs could ever be eliminated. ture of other living things. To under
• You don't have to be a technical • The performance of a computer stand computers, we will need to
genius to learn ahout computer system will usually deteriorate understand the various "subspecies"
science. Although some parts of badly when its mass storage tic- of computers, their "anatomy," their
CS are technically difficult, many vices get close to full. "evolutionary progression." their "so
of the most important parts are • liven the "friendliest" computer ciology," and so on.
amazingly straightforward and programs exhibit weird behavior Hven if you do not accept this the-
intuitive. under sonic circumstances. ;.is, the biological analogy gives us
This kind of knowledge remains some important clues ahout what we
Definition of Computer valid and useful, despite the rapid need to know in order to really under
Science changes in computer technology. And stand what a computer is.
Computer science deals with the this is the kind of knowledge that CS 2. What are the simplest possible
"timeless questions" and "timeless deals with. CS is the body of knowl computers?
knowledge" about computers. edge (and questions) that do not go Computers are becoming more and
You probably know a lot about out of date, even when new genera- more complex and powerful, to a de
computers right now. For instance, lions of technology come to market. gree which sometimes boggles even
you probably know about software The goal of CS is to gather together the experts. Why is this happening,
packages, printers, disk drives, and fundamental information like this, and where are these developments
monitors. Depending on your inter and to organize it into an orderly headed? One way to gei a handle on
ests, you may be familiar with BASIC body of scientific knowledge. these issues is to ask, "What are the
or oilier programming languages. You CS gathers its knowledge in differ Simplest computers like? What are
are familiar with many computer con ent ways. Some of the knowledge is a their fundamental characteristics?
cepts and buzzwords ("spreadsheet." distillation of practical experience What are their advantages and disad
"word processing." "boot," "menu." with computers. Some of it is the vantages, compared against more
"bun"). However: Much of your result of laboratory experiments with complex computers?"
knowledge about computers will he computers. And some of the knowl In future articles, we will examine

RS 113
a couple of "minima) computers." As All computer systems seem to have ming involves performing common
you will sec, they arc- almost Startling certain features in common. For in tasks such as displaying text and
in their simplicity, yet they have the stance, they all have codes, machine graphic images on the screen, soriing
capabilities of :i true computer, They language, communications lines and information, printing reports, record
demonstrate beautifully some of the Communications protocol, an operat ing and updating Information on disk,
fundamental characteristics of all ing system which is built up in layers, searching for data in memory or on

computers. They also help us to capabilities for handling large hlocks disk, displaying error messages, and
understand why there is a need for of information, error-handling capa making appropriate responses when
very complex computer systems to bilities, and "human interface" capa an operator does something wrong.

evolve. bilities. Each of these features are en Tens of thousands of brilliant pro
3. What arc the best ways to pro tire subjects themselves, which can be grammers have worked on developing
gram a computer? explored in great depth. good techniques for programming
If you have tried any programming Just as ii is possible for a biologist to tasks like these. What are the most
yourself, you know it's difficult to map out the anatomy of a living orga common lasks that need to be pro
write a good eompuier program. The nism, so it should be possible for a grammed? What are the best recipes
more complex the application, the computer scientist lo map out the for programming each task?
more difficult it is to write a good pro anatomy of various kinds of computer
gram, why is computer programming systems. When we attempt to do this, More to Come
so difficult'' Can programming be some tantalizing questions arise: Whai Computer science deals with the
made easy? What are the best possible are the most Important '"organs" of a "timeless questions" and "timeless
ways to program a computer? What computer system'? As computers con knowledge" about computers. CS
kinds of programming language or tinue to evolve, how will these organs seeks lo gather this fundamental in
programming techniques work best? evolve? Will some organs which are formation and organize it into an or

4. What arc the best ways important in current generations be derly body of scientific knowledge.
for a computer to organize come unimportant in later genera- This information is a mixture of the
in for mat Um? lions? Will completely new kinds of theoretical and the practical, the tech
Computers typically deal with large organs come Into existence? nical ami the intuitive, the abstract
amounts of information, expressed in 7. How fast can a computer sys and the empirical. Depending on your
electronic codes. Some of the codes tem "think?" background and interests, you will
ant! some of the information-handling The speed of a computer depends find some pans of CS interesting and
techniques are highly complex, and on two major factors. First, it depends easy, and Other parts dull or difficult.
are certainly alien to the ways human on its "raw speed"—how many ele What all areas have in common is the
beings process information, mentary operations per second it can "timelessness"—what you learn to
What are the best ways for a com perform. (A Commodore 64 can per day will not be obsolete next year.
puter U) organize information? Are in form up to one million elementary Some areas of CS are of enormous
tricate codes necessary? Are there operations per second. The fastest commercial value (e.g., programming

simpler techniques that might be bet computers in the world are about methods, database design, system reli
ter? What are the advantages and dis 1,000 times faster than that.) Second, ability, computer "anatomy"). This
advantages of various informaiion- speed depends on how cleverly the helps lo explain why so many people
computer is programmed. (Some are learning about CS. Another reason
nanclllng techniques in terms of
speed, reliability, cost, flexibility, and times, a smart programmer can think is thai unlike mast of what you learn
so on? of shortcuts which allow a huge task about computers, what you learn in
5. How do you design computer to be completed quickly, even on a CS does not go out of date rapidly.
systems that are reliable? "slow" computer.) Are there any up The field of CS is really just begin
Kven expensive, sophisticated Com per limits to the potential "raw ning to take shape. Not only are a lot
speed1" of a eompuier? Are there any of fundamental questions unan
puter systems are vulnerable to sys-
lem crashes and information losses. limits to what can he accomplished by swered, but also we are still discover
And lo my knowledge, there has a clever programmer? ing what are in fact the most funda
never been a major commercial soft 8. Are there any tasks which a mental questions and areas of
ware package thai is completely free computer cannot perform at all? knowledge. In this article, we have
of bugs. What can be done about Are there any tasks that are impos listed some of the major "timeless problems? How do you design a sible to program? Are there any tasks questions" of CS. In future articles,
computer system thai is crash-proof? that would require more computing we will explore some of these
Is there any hope of eventually having power than is theoretically possible? questions.
Software packages thai are totally free Are there any tasks that require hu Isaac MeUitz is a computer consul
of bugs? If not, is there a way to de man intelligence, and which cannot tant unit system designer who spe
sign computer systems lo function re possibly be realized on a computer? cializes in accounting and database
liably, even if they contain software 9. What are the most important applications. He has written books
"recipes" for computer program on the internals of the Commodore
6. What is the "anatomy" of a mers to know? 64, He holds a Ph.D. in Philosophy /
computer system? A great deal of computer program Mathematical Logicfrom UCLA. 0

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Circle Reader Service No. 46

Commodore usei gioups nationwide and aiound the fl/orld provide rnvaluable assistance to Commodore computensts If you are looking foi
people who share youi computing interests, or ll you neet help getting started with your computer, contact the group neai you
This list is compiled from gioups who responded to a survey conducted by Pete Uaczoi, Commodores user group coordinator II you would like
your group to appear here. 01 li you need mlormation about Commodore's usei group support, contact Pete at Commodore Business MHclunes.
1200 Wilson Dtwe. West Chester PA 19380

ALABAMA CALrFORNrA Sun CrtMc^ Stinrtnrd Odando

Paninsula Curnrnodorn Cymmoilnr'* Us^r Group ol Cnnurkl Fluiiclu ConunodoiB
Uaois Group
EijLtnjnyhum Cunnnudore
Dun Keni-Ekins ThurmnJr] Low&on
CompuLw dull PCJ Bon 1277—91701
M3 Old Couniy Rd —M07U PO Do>l 1213—0fr397 POBoi 7326-32B&4
Hairy Jodbb
Wj Avenun V Lot 7-B—35208 Sgr. Francisco W>'5i Haven Palm Hmb<>;
PssBdma CommodDrs
PETonihoAlB U ol New Hflvpn Miciocomputer Suncofuit 64s
Enuiema Computer Club
BclaLowt Club Curtis J Milljjr

PO Doi 11B3—310O6 M McConeghy 2419 US 19 Noitfi—33fr63

U ol N«w Haven. 300 Oran^v Panama City
Wiilmin II Blown AutuuEn
Souih Bay CommodorQ £4 Ave —06&lfi Bny Commodore Uovra G^uup
109 K^y U^nil Hd —36330 Anlniffi Cammoduto
Useis Grnup Douq ScliipjU
JoseM Galiego PO Box 3187—33401
Commodore Club of Mobtle Pal Snub
PO Box 3193—92073
Torn Wyaxi lUlOMiraLomaDi -95603 Diamond StaLe UsecS Group Pensacota
386H H Ruo Maison— 3£#)8 Santa Mana CommodorR Advaniafje
MicruieL BuUer
Bald i p,.

Cenli^l Coasl Cammcdon Df anna Owens

Pinion Cal Poly CcstLiriodoio Users PO Bo>l 392—19943
User Group P O Box 1&45O—32&23
Conirnoilarn C]ub—South Group
Gilbert F Vela Ptwoeda
Willinm J Frcumati David Dt«ml N'^wnil' Commadoto Usetir
1237 Plumena Ct - 93455 ComniodoT-t UflHl Group u[
PO Hox 3J.-I—35126 V,G\7Vj Uumona Blvci — U170C OfWJp
SlAla Monicv
ScolWhid BtOOowa Hob Tnyloi
210 DlifaoDi— 19711
IXJH CrlJtipiWll PO BW3B33—32WQ
14144 Bnyou Avo — 9O/C0 Bantatlon
Sanm Rosa Avon PaiJt SubUlbtn Ir4 LJFiRis Gcoup
Sdn Femutiiltf Valluy aan^ Rcta Comrnodoro 64
Gerald Klimczak
Commixlon) Users Ctoup Users Group
Cnlgaty Commodore Gairy Palme: P O Ddx 3063—33825 33324
Tom Lyncli
333 E Ponies Ave —9£rtO7 7925 Sar.ibd
2150B N,i?.tiVLU<-— yiSU
Uuyil Noiir-in SlucktDn MATinM^tit Cunn^odore Sflinb^! Cainmoiloro VIC
BlOCmitekl Way SW—T2W 1K1 Usors Group
Frpann 'i-1 [Jwn Eiocliion Commodoia Phil UcLanguj

AlLCllOTJIUf \JivtB Group Boh Bronton 1119 Ptriwinhl-t Box 73—339&7

Ali'.i-.i m Commodcta Rra McCflnn 91GE 3SthAve Df — 33&QS
091 W 9lh #203—93612
COfnpucci Club 29?9 Calariva Di —»2W BlfthdM Ft VV.iLton Ueacti CoOIDOdan
Duuu G&nnon Biandon Users Group Us->( CJEoup
V O [Jo* 6M3— 99K2 Paul A DaugherTy Jim Moore
l.-i-:^ Gcaup Aspen
109 Anglcwood Dr.—33S11 P 0 Box 3—32W9
Dean Sceichen Rocky Mountain Commodorir
fust Ctly I'seis Group Tamnrac
PO Box 57155— 94520
Jim LJanos Cloarwaier Co^jfTioiloTe dub Ernwnrd Cornmodor*-
Costa Muss Pa/ Diooka
P O Uul KKK—99901 GFiry D Gould UfiHln Gciiup
C Tocli Us^rs vi Omnus Counly PO Hojt 377-81612
Sllku IWZLctnuJi &[[(---l 33516 Lfiwll Horn
Sitkn Coimnorloio Usutj Gioup I'O E)ox 25794—3332U
I'O Bon H9V—9203G ColOtndoCnmmudait'CiiJtitmfH
Dcntiia Lar.harn
I'O B«22M ■BSISIJSi GupvTUio Club
1"iinnul" Edurj<iLliJiL(l] Usr-is
HoycB Milchwl)
PO Box &4S-32922-054H G[ou|i
AlirZONA Mij vin ViirnJt?! KodL MOOFJmCl #&07B-B0221
Kmcjri Murk Joiin ^'"Jij]iji
22355 RanchoVemur.-gWM Grnnd Juncuor.
VJC'64 Hy.-irlSind User Gioup- P 0 Hex 32fi— 3277B
Aiiionj VIC & 64 Users Western Slope Comin'jJotu
Li Iceland ZepriyrbiJ
Thomas Monson DdnvjlJs U^ei5 G[Gu]j Users Group
!WIW MajlBmo Cu—86224 Palph D'Andiea JUncJail Liphatn East Pasco Cornmodote
Koni K Divjs
PO Box 912—33M0 Users Group
Glob* IBS From St Suiio 106—S4&26 PO Bm414Z— B35O?
PJ Bryden
Oilu riackcre HoUywwxl CONNECTICUT
GairuviUd Commodate
I'aulB Mochula HoUywood Curnmod^rg
Colchi.'sccj UwnOioup
Rl 1. Boi 34-85601
Compuier Useis Group GEORGIA
M [}[uw Hutliy
Mm tin ^lickwffU

P 0 Bon 1471fl—32GO4
I'ttoanix Arizona ComnHJdare 733 N Ru1tfflW«*l Btvd --90038
AftlUrV tll\M Amatudi
UNF Commodore Computai CainpucDnst
LssUn A Roberts PALS
Fdirheld County Commode [u liquid L Via
PC Ho* 3490b—8M67 Club
Jo Johnson PO Hun 54M— 3170b
SBS 5au<h K—94550
Jay S Huebnei
Slcijo Vlstn Kenneth H Hotleti Univcrally ol ftorih Plonda— Atlania
Thunder Muuuuiiii Cnmrnodoia Las Osob po Box ?,12—oeaio 322 Hi VIC'ttms
U,raB Go Son Luis Obispo Conitiujducu
Jnl! Tylm Camp Q\.
HarTford Cumily Curnnnhlotn
VICRnJ Hcnt'ianti U^HJft—-Tampa PO Pox'4fi7Db2-J3^6
I'O IIok 1799—86638
Um*[ gf> Tom KftoiJEjh Bnmjwieh
TucBon WGG Blh Suwji—03^02
H Cmti&fj HSOfiMorninj Vj -33549
Nevada Cily PO Box B5W—(fiOia RichnTd L Younu
(-■|jiri[njti'i Club Cfi4 Uaeia Utoup
MjicUlU. AFH
Souili Tdtnpni Commodore h<\ 13b StieiwrywJ FofUl Cir —
MiJ<t' LjE'aylm Gerry Fnodotici
Noithern C7 Comrnodoru Club Unnia Group 31520
3371 s MramnnD:—B5730 11614 PwII>Dy HmiI-9bUby
Mike Leveajue RanaJdS Clement CotiotfflPaiii
ARKANSAS 3 Maibie St —06C82 736F Second Di —33621 Commodoie Fcrrnflt
64/20 Hub Gregory Young
Greg Burns
C-ommodoro'PtT Uecie Club Commsdcre Eas\ CumpuLHr Mm mi Ztttrf 2HO4 Camp Ci«k Pliwy -303J7
215N Fimon SI—93023
Ovnpva Bowlm LTws Gcoup Jim LufirriaiL Moirow
Davit Str«K—72032 Oxnjutl htries'. Julian l2911SW49ih Si—33175 CCCWUG
CIVIC M 165 8 S Bifletow Rd —062-17 P.ivjiI I'.idctt
HUMWlUlllO Noiih Miami Botch
Nathan Okum
F ljkw-'LIvlSh' Commodore Mystic Carnmoiorn SducaltHi Us^t PO Box 842— 303GO
120W M.i'.jiiii'IJJi AviP 9 10JD
Urvin Gr^kip C64 Users Gcdup QE Mow London Grautf— Nanti Otkvcod
Hob BlUMl Pasadena A Estos Hcilwiit t'jgucioa NK G*-o(rj[in Commodore
101 S AilingionD]—72801 PCACC 57 Fiahiown Ln —O63bb 1633OWB 2nd Avb-—33162 Um^cs Group
Brian KJctz Ranndy Siiui^r
tU5CU[Gnul Av« —91107
Stamiord Cummodurt Til-County Commodore Bou[o#2. iiux22O- 305R6
Ujjci£. Gtoup Usurs Group
!It-in Czeinel Don Vandervenler
E^O Bo* 1337—06932 PO Buxll&l-3Zfi7l

116 si:rn:M
Riverddla INDIANA Bwaiti Rutland misdii CiLy
Clayton County C6-1 Uscis Gioup n.i Camnndotfl The Polyhedn]
Cohunbus Commodots Useis Group
Joyce Jay pob Hcxigcn Ji, o(; Cily
lni" ConunodoiB Club
bZ7 WanoJyn Way—30274 PO Hox 17 SrfJvmSui Ccidj
Slov-e MminUin PO Bew30492—64111
ui^v vic/fifl cin
Ronald Ltoskl
17B7 btu Vuljey Lane—30Ofl3 yug (Bnimwich)
V]C inrJy Club
Potoi O'fincn
- n ■■ li ,i, ji. . , Alan Eay*-i
IDAHO 20 CotumiiiJi Avh
Box H&13. -1812 E Bit LinilenwGod Lan^—R40fi3
Coeur d'Atens
Si -46201 John Chap^m
Coeui d ASene CftOpulBt Club Computer Society ol Pe
36 Bjchman El —O1B01 Ccmmodofp PAC
Gaty Edwaidi Ail Pan
PAUiOia Lucido
LOG Luncefoid Ln —83814 101 Qosbv Lob. MICHIGAN
Urwa Ciuup }laiac? Mrinn Leaimsiq Cp.ntp| -
Umngcvilta Ann Ailmr
RicNusd M
GuinguvLlr HS CumpulFl Club SoutlKD Mmna
&QG0E 9tli H ! ■ 1
Dun Kisutnu"! U o| Mich
i Group <j(
9103 D Suftrt—83U0 10 WolkPE Siiofi John J Gunnor
raahoFnUa SchooJ of Piiti
Duck Sommsrtiair.p
F^ylf Rock Commotion*
VUO [Sr U ol Mic
I'O Bos B93- 64093
Computer Club
Brown Avfl —17B03 MONTANA
Jo^m- Laison Bay Ciiy Uwis GfOsip
PO Box 3334—83SO3 3BB4 Jim Griflln
Commt«l™«Own«Es Western Monians Commodosc
ILLINOIS Yaui CcmmMav U&ois Group 1013 ft JohriTior. Si
User Grcup
20 Pfltiich Lmo—47906 Milnt Proas*- Oon Cart White
\lrun&ucr. Ueoia Group
PO Ron 611-0409? Mid'Mithig-in Cnmrnodort1
S00 KMiGinyroEi Ave —^9801
Chip Downey Vnuil (Jraham
1X3 Nvule #2-6100*
(,V.mnwxluii'Cu]ii|iuE^r Utwm pi ■ n ■
Bloom m<non COMPUCAT5
Iowa Mic 64 Us« AlUanen Crnimodore*.&i
Bk»m;ng»n ■ Normal
Curtis L SEiidet Oioup Luc Club
Commodoie ug i Ave—21001
PC- Be* 3140—50316 Chuc M Eel2«
Ca:L Buiress
HtuUbrd fl!tim«e PO Bax 1G^ Baise—69301
PO BoxiOSB—61703 1068
U,iH:rnrj[>' AiH Corrnnodoie
Canaan MfldLSoei Heights Gtring
Computoi Cf ub Uses Gloup
Canton Area Commodorrr Sli|>pcdDtsh Inc Plane VdJIey Commodcrc
Doi»n Huk-i MichnHM Broumlmo
Usair Groufi J Mwfcow Users Gjoup
*f —21206
Hobott ^ SjugLicji 31044 John P—18071 Jim Pdihs
Spoon Rsvcr Cotto^e Rfl #1 1720 Or Si—69341
t Group
61E2G Lincoln
PtcX VoOm Jaclt Wnltoy Compmr^r Pawer Urtfimit&i
94 b Lawnl—SO702 PO Bin 1603 21203
-1106 Weal Man Robert Efowajd
Champaign Ujl^na CommodoE
Users Group 416N27—6BSO3
Miku Long
EtovH Gasi COMF Omafia
1712 Al^rii^rjRd—2123-1
2C0G Crescent Dr —61B21 Rrihn Pnngfe Gieatcr Omaha C&i Useis Group
S.ilc Ciiy CcimiisadotQ Club
FoJlston 7b 14 Pulty Gull Ken Jnele
WondnUD Ttjnkaoti
tfaitord C*jniy Ccmmodoni 2932 LMWood Dr —63123
Fox VoUpy CommodtJio PO Box 2M*—OTWt
UnniB Oroup
LT(l#-[h GllAIJJ
MoeI) Groas EnthuMwu
PO Elox 2 Us Yogas
833 Piuspoa—(jO12() Stftvm Ltpagti
Lh?j Vyfl;js Amn Pf!T LTsera
□qlmbucg Group
KnnxCurnmuUajuCJiib bi30 F Chartofflonflhrd.—
Handy Vex DAE Couipulti Club
y—21701 Las Vegag
196 Oliva Si —61401 Dtinms Qurlincjton
SOG Comrr.odorf U-seis Group
Harvey P O Box b
Lqc Schidm
South SubmbM V20 UseiB Club MINNESOTA 4011 W ChaEEPfiionBlvd —
Oioup JOMphP RuUt
Nick Foite eg 103
Patncfe Kinioy 23 Covonuy T.n — 2 Llttll I'nlla
16409 EmaraJd—60426
PD En* IRf?- 40QCH Hudttlund Am,i Campu(a Co-op NEW HAMPSHIRE
HowLjjkp Gehhji Srun Wall
MowJitiij Gtt^oji CnrniiK DnvidJ TNmiblin 2401 WvmwTOd Hi &&3-Vj
Hill Brouillttt CG4U.SKR,1!
Ufl«[n Giuup 240Je|Jni«[iSt—20GW
RR #2, Bm Z29-H-GQ90J PO Box4022-^3867
Pocomui Winchester
Lincoln wiacd
Wtjttoui MoriL^nni'iry Cfi-1 Run Schilling
C-64 Usen Group, Inc 243 E 2n<JS[ -562G3
Monadncx^ Commodori? 64
David W 'lamkin Users Grouii
GlaasjQiv Commodcur Mississippi: Psu! Rule III
Usejjs Orciip RFD # 1 Poute 10—03470
Stauo Knql.irui
Ou[(Cfiri&i Cummodon* Club NEW JERSEY
PO nox 164—42141
Uarrre Gifiup W Haroy
HrindcrsoE] Tom |*oTindrj BoEo Mead
Ruben Cokn] 4BB0W, BauhQlvd 39631
Cumrnodoro L^EiriifciUon P O litjx RaO& Acr.NJ FETWIC/CBM Ueeu
SJOfiW Cch Avo —Cl-HiZ HoLUoabuig
Jnnmii K«mp Oroup
Ccsmmodw* CnnpuUB Qub Justph M. fVHM
ioio :; sm—42420 MiiJLliiurn'uy County
Ltn J MUhla 30 Pivnrview Tur —09^12
ComniodoiEi Soc
Jell Martin Depl □! Itall So —U of Mlks —
LOU [£1 AN A Mi'iyloH Pounds Crieuy Hill
16O0W Deveroux-GlfiH
M-dlJlULM P.Q Uox 6444-20906 South JecH'/ Cornmodora
Rockluid MISSOURI Ustrs Gioap
Sixw-Pour 'Urn Usois' Group Suldend
EluiibeihS Hodman EriiAon Cojumudoio Umis Group Capo Girnrrteau
4317 Sluckion 3t -7000] WiUlnmH Mrni HcoiiLand U^ci PO Box 4?C5-03031
Kathu Jfoynr
New Oilcans 4314Oxlofu Dr — 20746 Fn I. I
2507 PrihHm Rd —G11U7
O'ontEol Bctji lu^tiluii' 12t>S Lunmei #7-64701 FTCU.
m» Ara MASSACHUSETTS John RiriHldi
K«ni H CuuElnnyll OoJduri
Scale CumpULtf Uaeia' G:o je» Dl —701Z7 Tlmltuid ISO Stttlrtia Aw -G7720
MOA!*K CaRimcidO'0 Uswb
aillHiiiD HuJlond HiyihtH Conn™*loir- U^tic
dmup Morris I'Ihsjjc
P O R Gump
U .T«i Comniodwc frl Club Marshall B TufEior Morf]!i Aieii Commodoie
Jolin flmiy P C- Itox EO4—6EfibB Users Oioup
SpringlLeld PET Useis Group Rflyiheon Co —CRA6—017730 Fo^r1, J Seenng
Fmitw Avo — 71108 Jopljn
BilJEdidley PEBcbon 51 Femci:i(Fd—07950
Sulphui Joplin Commodore Cumpuie
3116 CDn Foxboio Aehh Cummodoip
SaDlhvml LA U9i>rs' Gioup
User Grouu
R D Conn^ly
Siniu'-t Kniuhl
M Aim—70603 422 5 FlMlfia Avc—64001
1M tlfnon Si -O2O3S

UMMUDOR1 Mil tint (>MI>I FERS 117

Moni^ Plains New P[&!i Manon Claiks Sumnul Rock Hill
N Amcncjn Cc-mmodorn Computer Mntrcpotis Mnnon Ohio Commodote Scinnion Cnniinoaoie Pock 13 ill Commodcrp
Teacher* Users Group Hue Dvan Uwim Group Usi'iy Otoup User Gtoup
Hobflii J Sooting PO Bun 3&-171 Mflin St - Hicfuifft Munru W.i r It A Deivii Srnar zik Gobble
61 fcrrichHttct -07950 126fit 77& WollmU"! Uti —43302 i'O Bax21t—18411 5CS ScaJcybark Cn —29730
Mount Holly Ntf w Yoik Mama Clllinn Hcujlits Spartanljurg
HCA Comtinxlorft Uaara Group Now York Cccnmodoci NK Ohio Cumrnoduitr CHUG SPARCUG
WLllLam Hqwq Users Group \)tnt-i Group KovmJ Daly James B Pnstey
432 Hemlock Ln —OaOGQ Ben TunJwlanu R0H BlAck i'O Eo<a3&—1901B 33&S Spring S'. —29332

Ocean View SBORi^erside Di 70—10025 PO Bk71B—M0G2 Oiwnsbuig TENNESSEE

Cap"-Atoruic Commodore Haw Yoik City V20/C64 Mlttcrd WtreccnoteLfnid Cofnputef
Users Gicup Users Giaup Clercotn 64 Users Club
MprnpJiis Commodare
Useis Club
1440 Old Sloan Coach Rd — 103 Wav^rly Plrtce—10011 fi771 ObnrrvaEinn Ci —45150 3021 Ben Vonua Di —lb60l
Steven A Guinea
06230 Nowafk Nhw PTiLlqdelph]4 MoeiisvlUd PO Box 3809^—36UrCOSS
Ridyiwpad Fm'j"[ Lake* ComEmxlm<> CommodocD 64 Uaeio Group Ixw! Ducks Uaflja Off.up
fca,iU aptinga
INFO 64 (J«>rs Ciroup J«ff Kklun<1 Don Mayer
Cornmodore Computer Club
Pete WuMty Todd Aodnwi 702pflikAvo NW—446C3 262 Mansfield Rd -19067
Many Gair^i
16 VJ Hidgewaod Ave-07432 220 W Union SI-1-1513 Totodo Mount HoUySpttngs PO Box 96—37330
Union City Commodore Computer Eight Squaied
Hudson County Commodofp Oawego Commodoie Club ol ToiedD Andy Skelter L" 1' ^jJ TT[ijifp f^wfi'iyr'i
C 1 trt 4.jO'S LiJClip
User Gioup Users Group Jim Cychlcn PO Box 76—17065
Kick .vcLi:
Dave Woslpha3en PO Bo* 8909—13fi23 New Kensington P O 00* 4[ft—37301
308 Palisade A*e - 07097 206 Pniik KnU-SUNY—13126
XnniQ A K 64 U<ai£ Gia^p
Mctjci Ke r' f'l^1: \.' i rr.iv. 7 ^. ^ ;*?
Wall Township RocTumE DnyToti Ahf* Comniortoiri Alton Glubuth
Ufrs Group
Jomy Shore Conunodttfu Cwninodom U*«ii Gioup ol Usotfj Gioup 1762 FanmoLint S\ —16068
Users Group
|3ob McKintoy Po'hox^U-I.^ 679 Muimy MlU Di —4it3«b
lin'jnij tlmp PffMiiuil
7405 Oxmooi ftd —37931

1905 Monmoutri BJvd —0772B KoOdy Diiisy

Svuaioga Spnngn CompuuH Club
OKLAHOMA CGflfVIC 20' * 4 Club
Wayne ArljiuiKlack CM Uwiii Group fiiitna McNichol
Aaron Kennedy
PO Bon 16858 P32-31—19142
2414 Blue Ridge Dc —37373
G CLpoUetti 20B Woodlawn Ave —12866 Muclioy wr Compu^r Soc.
Corninodour UstiS Gioup Pmtburgli
Hambuig Tpke —07470 SflBCUflfl TEXAS
Siovn Ford Bettis Cammodoie Users G-icup
WectwDod Bill CftmplHl Austin
202 S 12th Suwi-74401
Com module frl B-fijnn^r-, CM) *&2 AiboE Loiw—15236 Ctrnimodoro Computer Club
Thomas Manm I* 0 Uox 223?—13220 Oktnhumli City □1 Austin
I i"^ ■ jf■ jri i rl-' i 1 f|J LiEOUD
Gieam Uklohoma
Commodore Club JooJA Caul
Conipuirr Club o[ Rockland PO BOX4&133-7C76&
J'oitf1! BoUjfi Corpus C?lTL9tl
APO Now Voik 1401 N Puckwefl- -73127 VUQOP Corpus Cbnan Cammodoies
Zweibruecktn Commodose
OREGON Jim 0 Rear
Computei Club 1933 HocW&dBe— ^212
64 Southtowns Uscts Gioup Aibdiiy
Her.:y White
Michael Lvskuw AJbjici/ CoivhiUw C64 Dallas
200th TAMMC. Boh 114—09052 Ctmtinil PA User Group
iJr/ris Group 64 Use:s Group, lnc
06332-0347 Toj Commodore
Al Ru^rnua Sidti G^idm
Joseph W Cai!man
213BCfncjiij<jE.l SE -97323 P 0 Pcx fifli82R
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Fjiu CUure
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utnifl Group plenty, of
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Commodore Ushis at Frnjikljn Useis Group
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■1726 hlomomiin Dr —2-1019 bOb Willinmt SI #260—82007

with a
Mexico City □ r
Clulj Hena*Toc C64 sub
HVMHC Umn G.uuji
Alum Boimal
Tun Siiuna senp tion
Arlington Suacei 25—06140
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ltBi«W»WLn-B2S20 to both
Usofg Group
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CBM Usois Gioup
Rick Heater
User Group Support computers and
603 KucLul-MMl

Ft lows Poiier/J'luy,
6-1 PCS
Commodore u treating a pfojlram In support Commodore Send in the
Jim LndlMd
The two major compuiiL-nts—^pproi-ed usrr group status enclosed
Bunch A" Bytes
and j news^tti^r arc now avaibh^c. subscription
Joey Miller Approved user group status is gNn to any user group meet
49 IE 121m Plan NE-98272 togom hisic criteria. These user groups rccuire meeting card today.
Oak ilalbor posters and membership cards and arc automatically sent
'.VJiirltH'y IMurKi Cornmodorn Inpnt/Output each month. I" addition thuy can request it
Cumpuiri Club
speaker from Commodore to come and discuss land
bob Hindi
PO Box 1471 »203—9B277
demimstrale) new priHlmls ;il tine of their meetings.

The newsletter. I Nl't IT/OUT ['LIT, will mcltiaV
PNB UsdsGrnup .inniiunccmenLi. user group programs, calendar of events,
Rod Small letters, questions, product specifications, programs, and
91D515BUlSt E—98373 ■untyl It will be a newsletter TOR user groups BY user
Richland groups supported by Commodore without advertisements.
T(i City Curnmorlon-
For future issues o( the newsletter Commodore is
CompuKfi Club
Jur'K Gciivtn
atCfptinj! announce minis of user (Jroup activities, articles 111
1920 Pino SI -M362 of interest, leitvrs to the ediior, and general questions. .

Please forward all correspondence with the name of your
Art WiTbeck
user group t(i:

CommiidurL1 Business Machines

And save 20% off
5303 SlnMinlB Ave NW—98107

Commndoru Users Grcnip

12(1(1 Wilson Drive
West Chester, PA 1938Q
the regular
Richard Ball
Attention either New User Croup or InpuUOutput
2565 Doxlm N #203-98109
newsstand price!

ELECTRONIC CONTROVERSY < onttnued from page

who may have to purchase or rent the they're scattered in homes throughout
equipment from the employer, etc.
Thai's a very different situation,
ih'nfortl: So the official AFL-CIO
The consensus was the country.
Consider that many potential work
ers have extenuating circumstances
stand is a blanket condemnation of all that someform of which prevent them from working
computer home-work with no in a traditional job setting. Cottag-
exceptions? regulation may be ing allows these people a means of
Cbamnl: That's the way it reads bringing the work—and income—
now. Let me say thai die Al-'l.-ClO's
desirable, but that a into their homes—an opportunity this
ban would deprive iliem of.
calling for a haii is an expression of
total ban cannot be 2. Does such a ban undermine the
concern and an expression of opin
ion, as well as an Indication of the tolerated. free enterprise system? Whatever hap
directions in which the AFL-CIO will pened to the tenet of working hard to
move, li does not, in fact, institute a get ahead? If a cottager chooses to pm
ban; only the federal government has Other cottagers responded simi in some extra hours to make some
the power to do that. We have called larly. The concensus was that some additional money or further his or her
for a ban because of our belief that form of regulation may he desirable in career, is there harm in that? It's com
historical precedent requires thai kind some select areas to prevent labor mon practice to work overtime, even
of an action. The fact is that the han abuse, Agreement was unanimous, "burn tile midnight oil" in every
is not—today—in effect. Thai's an however, thai a lota! ban on home Other work environment, so should
important distinction. computer work cannot be tolerated. cottaging have its own set of rules?
$. Piece-work systems may be
The Cottager's Side Possible Implications
desirable in some situations. In the
Thomas Martin of Houston, Texas, of a Ban example I cited earlier Involving the
is an AEC member who uses a Com Such a blanket ban might be benefi mother of young children, an hourly
modore 64 lo manage his electronics cial to some, but does not seem to rate would be out of the question,
repair business. Thanks to the AEC consider ihe needs of people since her work sessions would be sub
and the MiCTOMoonltgbter newsletter who, for instance, can't work in a ject to interruptions. With a piece
(which contains AEC news). Thomas "traditional" setting because of a work system, the more she works, the
was aware of the AFL-CIO's position handicap, infirmity or extenuating more she gets paid. She determines
on COttaglng and the proposed ban. personal situation. The Institution of how much or how little she produces.
He summed up his views this way: such a ban would close off work ■i. Cottaging is a matter of choice.
"I think where people want 10 opportunities for these people- No Individual is forced into cottaging;
work—whether It's an Individual who opportunities thai have only recently it's a lil'e/worksiyle thai is chosen.
wants to work for himself at home begun to emerge. This ban, if enacted, will remove cot
or if an individual wants 10 work As another example, take the young taging as a choice.
for somebody else ai home as an em mother who is paid piece-work for 5- The ban won't thwart child
ployee—it's their own business. entering data or processing claims via labor, If some unscrupulous employer
Where you work and whom you computer in her home. Such an or parent is going to employ children,
work lor is your own business—and ii arrangement allows her to have flexi they don't need a computer to do it.
should slay thai way." ble hours and eliminates the worry of Itui it would seem that a computer ter
1'cggy I lerrington's byline is a finding a babysitter or day-care center. minal is far less dangerous than a
familiar sight to readers of Commo A ban on computer home-work puts meat-sliccr, hot stove or hand saw.
dore-specific magazines, and she's her out of business, as well. In addi 6. The sanctity and privacy of the
also an electronic cottager who works tion, writers, consultants and other home may be at stake. If the proposed
from her home in Albuquerque, New professionals who have offices at AFL-CIO ban is enacted, you will lose
Mexico. 1'cggy uses her 64 for writing home would have to rent or otherwise the right to decide what you do in
her magazine articles as well as for secure commercial office space to ply your home with your computer.
writing songs. their skills. In closing. I'd like to remind you
Said she of the ban: "A college that while only a small percentage of
course 1 took on macroeconomics
Food for Thought the overall population is immediately
enlightened me to a point of view that The AFL-CIO's proposed ban on jeopardized by this proposed ban, it
I had never thought of before: unions computer work at home raises a num has the potential to affect the lives and
and affiliations are really formed to ber of questions in my mind: livelihoods of many people in the
keep people out of an industry. They I. Whose purposes would this ban future, as computers become increas
do protect those who already belong, really serve? II' home computer work ingly absorbed into our lifestyle.
but they exclude the others. Based on is banned, all such labor would have More information on the Associa
thai and a gut feeling, 1 have to say to be conducted in a traditional work tion of Electronic Cottagers can be
"baloney' to the ban. It's counter-pro place, where the AFL-CIO already has, obtained from: AEC Headquarters.
ductive, in that it doesn't work for the or could in the future, organize the 6 ' Canyon Crest Drive, Sierra
people in general." workers. You can't organize people if Madre. CA 91201: (S 18| 3S5-O8OO. Q

The programs which appear In this TURN. This will list line ^"0 to the from data statements, then the prob
magazine have been run, tested and screen. Look tor any non-obvious lem is somewhere in the data state
checked for bugs and errors. After a mistakes like a zero in place of an O ments. Check the data statements for
program is tested, ii is printed on a or vice-versa. Check for semicolons missing commas or other typos.
letter quality primer with some and colons reversed and extra or II tile variable is not coming from
formatting changes. This listing is missing parenthesis. All of these data statements, then the problem
then photographed directly and things will cause a syntax error. will be a little harder to rind. Check
printed in the magazine. I'sing this There is only one time a syntax each line that contains the variable
method ensures the most error-free error will teli you the 'wrong' line to for typing mistakes.
program listings possible. look at. If the line the syntax error OUT OF DATA ERROR
Whenever you .see a word inside refers to has a function call (i.e., FN This error message is always re
brackets, such as [DOWN], the word A(.-})), the syntax error may be in the lated to the data statements in a pro
represents a keystroke or series of line thai defines the function, rather gram. If this error occurs, it means
keystrokes on the keyboard. The than the line named in the error that the program has run out of data
word (DOWN] would be entered Im message. Look for a line near the items before it was supposed to. It is
pressing the cursor-down key. II beginning of the program (usually) usually caused by a problem or typo
multiple keystrokes are required, the that has DEF FN A(X) in it with an in the data statements. Check first to
number will directly follow the equation following it. Look for a typo see if you have left out a whole line
word. For example, [D0WN4] would in the equation pan of this definition. ol data. Next, check for missing com
mean to press the cursor-down key
ILLEGAL QUANTITY ERROR mas between numbers. Heading data
four times. If there are multiple
This is another common error from a page of a magazine can be a
words within one set of brackets, en
message. This can also be caused by strain on the brain, so use a ruler or a
ter the keystrokes directly after one
a typing error, but it is a little harder piece of paper or anything else to
another. For example! [DOWN.
to find. Once again, list ihe line num help you keep track of where you are
RICHT2] would mean to press the
ber that the error message refers to, as you enter the data.
cursor-down key once and then the
cursor-right key twice. There is probably a poke statement OTHER PROBLEMS
In addition to these graphic sym on this line. If there is. then the error It is important to remember that
bols, the keyboard graphics are all is referring to what is trying to be the 6-4 and the PET/CUM computers
represented by a word and a letter. poked. A number must be in the will only accept a line up to SO char
The word is either SHFT or CMD and range of zero to 255 to be poke-able. acters long. The VIC 20 will accept a
represents the SHIFT key or the For example, the statement POKE line up to HH characters long. Some
lt)2-i.26() would produce an illegal times you will find a line in a pro
Commodore key. The letter is one oi"
the letters on the keyboard. The quantity error because 260 is greater gram that runs over this number of
than 255. characters. This is not a mistake in
combination (SUIT E| would he en
tered by holding down the SHIFT Most often, the value being poked the listing. Sometimes programmers
key and pressing the K. A number is a variable (A,X...). This error is tell get so carried away crunching pro
following the letter tells you how ing you that this variable is out of grams thai they use abbreviated com
many times to type the letter. For range. If the variable is being read mands io get more than 80 (or SH)
example, [SHFT A-i,CMD B3J would
press the A four times, then hold
down the Commodore key and press
the B three times.
The chart on this page tells you the ifi ■ ID0WN|" = CURSOR DOWN "tBLUEl"-CONTROL 7
keys to press for any word or words Q "|UP1" "CURSOR UP H "(YELLOW!11 - CONTROL a U "[P4|"-F4
inside brackets. Refer to this chart fj 'UiGHTI11 -CURSOR RIGHT I] [ORANGE! -COMMODORE 1

whenever you aren'l sure what keys II :leftt-cursorleft P BROWNI" -COMMODORE 2 Qj "|F6!"-F6
to press. The little graphic next to |jj IRVSf-CONTROLS ' IL RED] ■ -COMMODORE 3 H 'IF7]"-F7
each keystroke shows you what yon |8 1|RVQFFri = CONTROL 0 3TFBI--F8
will see on the screen.
Q ' [BLACKI" = CONTROL 1 H ■i:gray2!11 =commodore 6 £r|FOUND|"-ENGLISH

This is by far the most common 9 RED|" - CONTROL 3 Q jL BLUEI'-COMMODORK? jjjl ISHFT'l = PISYMBOL
error encountered while entering a fj "[CYAN]" "CONTROLS H ■■GRAY.ll" -COMMODORE B -UP ARROW

program. Usually (sorry folks) this

means that you have typed some
thing incorrectly on the line the syn
tax error refers to. ]f you get the
message "FSyntax Error Break In Line
270", type LIST 270 and press RE


characters on one line. You can enter How to Use the Magazine Entry Program lines by abbreviating the com-
nands when you enter the line. The
Abbreviations for BASIC commands
are on pases 133-134 of the VIC 20 The Magazine F.ntry Program on IMPORTANT
user guide and 130-131 of the Com- page 123 is a machine language pro If the Magazine Entry Program
nodore (A user's guide. gram that will assist you in entering sees a mistake on a line, it does not
If you lype a line that is longer the programs in this magazine cor enter that line into memory, This
than HO (or 88) characters, the com- rectly. It is for use with the Commo makes it impossible to enter a line
uiter will act as if everything is ok, dore b4 only and was written by incorrectly.
until you press RETURN. Then, a syn Mark Robin using the IEA Editor/As
sembler. Once the program is in Error Messages and What
tax error will be displayed ■
place, it works Its magic without you They Mean
having to do anything else. The pro There are six error messages that
This is the hardest of problems to
gram will not !et you enter a line if the Magazine Entry Program uses.
resolve-, no error message is dis
there is a typing mistake on it, and Here they are, along with what they
mayed, hut the program just doesn't
better yet, it identities the kind of mean and how to tix them.
run. This can he caused by many
error for you. NO CHECKSUM: This means that
small mistakes typing a program in.
Getting Started you forgot to enter the apostrophe
First check that the program was
Type in the Magazine F.niry Pro and the four letters at the end of the
written for the computer you are
gram carefully and -save it as you go line. Move the cursor to the end of
using. Check lo see if you have left
along (just in case). Once the whole the line you just typed and enter the
out any lines of the program. Check
program is typed in, save it again on checksum.
each line of the program for typos or
tape or disk. Now RUN the program. QUOTE: This means that you for
missing parts. Finally, press the
The word POKING will appear on got (or added) a quote mark some
RUN/STOP key while the program is
the top of the screen with a number. where in the line. Check the line in
'running', Write down the line the
The number will increment from the magazine and correct the quote.
program broke at and try to follow
491S2 up to 5O052,and just lets you PARENTHESIS: This means that
the program backwards from this
know that the program is running. If you forgot (or added) a parenthesis
point, looking for problems.
everything is ok, the program will somewhere in the line. Check the
IF ALL ELSE FAILS linlsh running ami end. Then type line in the magazine again and cor
You've come to the end of your NEW. If there is a problem with the rect the parenthesis.
rope. You can't get the program to data .statements, the program will tell KEYWORD: This means that you
run and you can't find any errors in you where to look to find the prob have either forgotten a command or
your typing. What do you do? As al lem. spelled one of the BASIC keywords
ways, we .suggest thai you try a local Once the program has run, it is in (GOTO, PRINT.) incorrectly. Check
user group for help. In a group of memory re;idy to go. To activate the the line in the magazine again and
even just a do/en members, some program, type SYS49152 and press check your spelling.
one is bound to have typed in the RETURN. When the READY prompt is # OF CHARACTERS: This means
same program. displayed, type TEST and press RE that you have either entered extra
If you do get a working copy, be TURN. You are now ready to enter characters or missed some charac
sure to compare it to your own ver the programs from the magazine. ters. Check the line in the magazine
sion so that you can learn from your Typing the Programs again. This error message will also
errors and increase you understand All me program listings in this occur if you misspell a BASIC com
ing ot programming. magazine that are for the 6-1 have an mand, but create another keyword in
If you live in the country, don't apostrophe followed by four letters doing so. For example, if you mis
have a local user group, or you sim at the end of the line (i.e., 'ACDF). spell PRINT as PRONT, the 64 sees the
ply can't get any help, write to u.s. II Tlie apostrophe and letters slxjiilrf be letter P and R, the BASIC keyword
you do write lo us, include tile fol entered along with the rest of the ON and then the letter T. Because it
lowing information about the pro line, This is a checksum that the Mag sees the keyword ON, it thinks
gram you are having problems with: azine Entry Program uses. you've got too many characters, in
The name of the program Enter the line and the letters at the stead of a simple misspelling. Check
The issue of the magazine it was in end and then press RETl UN, just as spelling of BASIC commands if you
The computer you are using you normally would. can't find anything else wrong.
Any error messages and the line If the line is entered correctly, a UNIDENTIFIED: This means
numbers bell is sounded and the line is en that you have either made a simple
Anything displayed on the screen tered into the computer's memory spelling error, you typed the wrong
A printout of your listing til (without the characters at the end). line number, or you typed the
possible) If a mistake was made while enter checksum Incorrectly. Spelling er
Send your questions to: ing the line, a noise is sounded and rors could he the wrong number of
Commodore Micrucom/'i tiers an error message is displayed. Read spaces inside quotes, a variable
1200 Wilson Drive the terror message, then press any spelled wrong, or a word mispelled
key to erase the message and correct Check the line in the magazine again
West Chester, PA 193HO
ATTN: Program Problem the line. and correct the mistake. C


Magazine Entry Program The Magaiine Entry Piogram is available on disk, along with the other progiams in thtl magazine.
forS9.95.To Loadstar at 1-800-831 2694.

1 PRINT " [CLEAR]POKING-" t 1050 DATA 41 ,52 ,45 ,4E ,54 ,43 ,45 ,53
5 P=49152 :REM $COC0 1051 DATA 49 ,53 ,00 ,C8 ,B1 ,7A ,D0 ,FB
IB READ AS:IF A$=" END "THEN 80 10 52 DATA 34 ,FD ,C0 ,09 ,10 ,03 ,4C ,C7
20 L=AS.C(MIDS(A$,2 fl) ) 10 53 DATA Cl ,88 ,88 ,88 ,38 ,88 ,B1 ,7A
30 H=ASC(MID$(A$,1 ,1) ) 1054 DATA C9 ,27 ,DC ,13 ,A9 ,00 ,91 ,7A
40 L=L-48 : IF L>9 THEN L=L-7 1055 DATA CO ,A2 ,00 ,B1 ,7A ,9D ,3C ,03
50 H=H-43 :IF H>9 THEN H=H-7 1R5S DATA C8 ,E8 ,E0 ,04 ,D0 ,F5 ,60 ,4C
60 PRINT" [HOME, RIGHT1 2]" P; 105 7 DATA F2 ,C2 ,A3 ,00
,B9 ,00 ,02 ,99
70 B=H*16+L: POKE P ,B: T=T+B: P=P+1 1058 DATA 40 ,03 ,F0 ,F2
,C8 ,D0 ,F5 ,A0
! GOTO 10 1059 DATA 00 ,B9 ,40 ,03
,F0 ,E8 ,99 ,0!i
80 IF TO 103233 THEN PRINT" MIS TAKE IN 1060 DATA 02 ,C8 ,D0 ,F5
,20 ,D7 ,C1 ,4C
,A9 ,00 .99 ,03
90 PRINT" DONE": END 106 2 DATA CD ,8D ,3C ,03 ,38 ,10 ,F7 ,A9
1000 DATA 4C ,23 ,Cfl ,00 ,00 ,00 ,00 ,00 136 3 DATA BO ,85 ,02 ,20 ,1B ,C3 , Aft ,00
1001 DATA 00 ,00 ,00 ,00 ,00 ,00 ,00 ,0D 1064 DATA 20 ,9B ,C1 ,20 ,CA ,C1 ,20 ,31 -
1002 DATA C0 ,58 ,C1 ,5E ,C1 ,66 ,C1 ,76 1065 DATA C2 ,E6 ,7A , EG ,7B ,20 ,7C ,A5
1003 DATA Cl ,83 ,C1 ,8F ,CL ,EA ,EA ,EA lfl6G DATA AO ,00 ,20 ,AF ,C0 ,Ffi ,CD ,24
1004 DATA 4C ,83 ,C0 ,A2 ,05 ,BD ,1D ,C0 1067 DATA 02 ,F0 ,0fi ,20 ,D7 ,C0 ,4C , 12
1005 DATA 95 ,73 ,CA ,10 ,F8 ,6a ,A0 ,02 1068 DATA C2 ,C9 ,22 , DO ,06 ,20 ,BC ,C0
1006 DATA B9 ,00 ,02 ,D9 , 3C ,C1 ,D0 , OB 1069 DATA 4C ,12 ,C2 ,20 . E7 ,C0 , 4C ,12
1007 DATA 88 ,10 ,F5 ,A9 ,01 ,8D ,10 ,C0 1070 DATA C2 ,A0 ,00 ,B9 ,00 ,02 ,20 ,A3
1008 DATA 4C ,1P ,C1 ,60 ,A0 ,03 ,B9 ,00 1071 DATA C0 ,C8 ,90 , OA ,18 , 6D ,09 ,C0
1009 DATA 02 ,D9 ,38 ,C1 ,D0 ,E0 ,88 ,10 1072 DATA 3D ,09 ,CD ,QC ,33 ,C2 ,88 ,A2
1010 DATA F5 ,A9 ,00 ,8D ,10 ,C0 ,4C ,1F 1B73 DATA 00 ,B9 ,00 ,02 ,9D ,00 ,02 ,F0
1011 DATA Cl ,60 ,A0 ,03 ,B9 ,00 ,02 ,D9 1074 DATA 04 ,E8 ,C8 ,D0 ,F4 ,60 ,18 ,AD
1012 DATA 34 ,cx , DO ,E0 ,88 ,10 ,F5 ,A0 1075 DATA OB ,C0 ,69 ,41 ,8D , 08 ,C0 ,38
1013 DATA 05 ,B9 ,A2 ,E3 -99 ,73 ,B0 ,88 1076 DATA AD ,0C C3 -E9 ,19 ,90 ,06 ,8D
1014 DATA IS ,F7 ,A9 ,00 ,8D -18 ,D4 ,4C 1077 DATA OC ,CD 4C ,60 ,C2 ,AD ,OC ,C0
1015 DATA IF ,C1 , E6 ,7A ,D0 ,02 ,E6 ,7B 1078 DATA 69 ,41 8D ,0C ,C0 , AD ,05 , cc
1016 DATA 4C ,79 ,00 ,A5 ,9D ,F0 ,F3 ,A5 1R79 DATA 6D ,37 CO 48 ,AD ,06 ,CC ,6D
1017 DATA 7A ,C9 ,FF ,D0 ,ED ,A5 ,7B »C9 1080 DATA 08 ,C0 3D OE ,C0 68 6D , OA
1028 DATA 01 ,D0 ,E7 ,20 ,5A ,C0 ,AD ,00 1081 DATA CO ,8D OD CR AD OE CO 6D
1019 DATA 02 r20 rA3 ,C0 -90 DC ,A0 ,00 1082 DATA 09 CO 3D OE CO 33 E9 19
1020 DATA AC , EA -Cl ,C9 r30 ,30 ,06 C9 1083 DATA 90 06 3D OE Cfi 4C 96 C2
1021 DATA 3A ,10 ,02 ,38 ,60 18 ,60 C8 1084 DATA AD BE, CO 69 41 8D 0E CO
1022 DATA Bl ,7A ,C9 ,20 ,D0 03 rC8 D0 1085 DATA AD f)D CO E9 19, 90 Of'8D
1023 DATA F7 ,B1 ,7A ,60 ,18 C8 ,B1 7A 1086 DATA 0D C0, 4C AB C2 AD GD CO
1024 DATA F0 ,35 C9 ,22 ,F0 F5 ,6D 05 1087 DATA 69 41, 8D, OD C0, A0, 01
" * AD
1025 DATA C0 ,8D 05 C0 ,AD 06 ,C0 69 1088 DATA OB CO, CD, 3C 03, DO, 20 C8
1026 DATA 00 8D 06 CD 4C BD CD 18 1039 DATA AD OC, CO, CD 3D, f)3( DO
. ** " .17
1027 DATA 6D 07 C0 8D 07 CO 90 03 1090 DATA C8, AD, OD, C0, CD, 3E, 03, DO
1028 DATA EE 08 C0 EE 0B C0 6 0 18 1091 DATA 0E, AD, OE, CO, CD,
"* • IF, "
•* 1 DO
1029 DATA 6D 0A C0 8D OA CO 90 03 1092 DATA 06, 20, 64, C3, 4C, 7A, cn.i AD
1030 DATA EE 09 CO EE 0C CO 60 OA 1093 DATA 10, CO, DO, Hi 98, 48, 68, 4C
1031 DATA A8 B9 11 CD 85 FB B9 12 1094 DATA F7, CO, AD, 10, CO, FO, 01, fifj
1O32 DATA C0 85 FC A0 00, A9 12, 20 1095 DATA A9, 04, 4C, F7, CO, A4, FD,( A9
1033 DATA D2 FF Bl FB FO, 06 20, D2 1396 DATA 27, 91, 7A, A2, 00, C8, BD, fJB
1034 DATA FF C8 DO, F6 20, 54 C3, 20 1097 DATA CO, 91, 7A, C8, E8, EH, 04, DO
103S DATA 7E C3, 20, E4 FF, F0 FB, A0 1098 DATA F5, A9, 011, 91, 7A, 20, 64, C3
1036 DATA IB, B9, 3F, Cl 20, D2 FF, 88 1099 DATA 4C, 7A, C0, AO, 00, B9, lid. 0 2
1037 DATA 10, F7, 68, 68, A9, 0 0 8D, 00 1100 DATA F0, 11, o, 28, DO,F 03, EE, 03
1038 DATA 02, 4C, 74, A4, 4B, 49 4C, <1C 1101 DATA CO, C9, 29, D0, 0 3, EE, 04. CO
1039 54, 45, 53, 54, 41, 44 44, 91
DATA 1102 DATA C8, DO, EA, AD, B3, CO, CD, 0 4
1040 DATA 91, OD, 20, 20, 20, 20, 20, 20 1103 DATA C0, DP, 01, 60, A9, 05, 4C, F7
1041 DATA 20, 20, 20, 20, 20, 20, 2a, 20 11(14 DATA CO, A9, 20, 3D, 00, D4, BD, 01
1042 DATA 20, 20, 20, 20, 20, 20, 91, OD 1105 DATA D4, A9, 09, 3D, 05, D4, A9, flF
1043 DATA 51, 55, 4F, 54, 45, HO, 4B, 45 110G DATA 3D, 18, D4, GO, 20, 41, C3, A 9
1044 DATA 59, 57, 4F, 52, 4 4, 00, 23, 20 1107 DATA 81, 20, 77, C3, A9, 811, 20, 77
1045 DATA 4F, 46, 20, 43, 48, 41, 52, 41 1108 DATA C3, 4C, VI, C3, 20, 41, C3, A 9
1046 DATA 43, 54, 45, 52, 53, 00, 55, 4E 1109 DATA 11, 20, 77, C3, A9, lfl, 2f), 77
1047 DATA 49, 44, 45, 4E, 54, 49, 45, 49 1110 DATA C3, A9,0(1, 3D, 04, D4, 60, 3D
1048 DATA 45, 44, DO, IE, 4F, 20, 43, 48 1111 DATA 04, D4, A2, 70, AO, (12., 80, DO
1049 DATA 45, 43, 4B, 53, 55, 4D, 00, 50 1112 DATA FD, CA, DO, FA, 60, END


Cttittiiiut'tt frrtJii ptlge 22
so place the cursor on the word water for the fountain, extra windows with COLOR. And. if you just don't
COLOR and hit the fire button. Magi- in all different shapes, and various like an object no matter where you
Cfllly, the cursor transforms into a pieces of picket fencing, posis and put it or what color it is. delete it with
paintbrush and the rest of the menu finials. the HRASE icon.
area becomes a palette of 16 color?.. Now the menu along the bottom of Besides record-breaking paint jobs,
Dip the tip of the brush into any one the screen looks a little different as effortless moving about of heavy ob
of the colors, press the joystick hut- well. The HAMMER and MOVING jects, and instantaneous "cloning,"
ton, and your brush fills with an end VAN symbols are still there, but the there are a few other tricks you might
less supply of color. Now move your icons for Color, Erase, Move and Copy want to try your hand at. You can
brush up to any part of the house, hit have been replaced by a FLOORPLAN build an addition to your house by us
the fire button, and a small block area Icon, EXTERIOR house icon, and 1N- ing the universal building blocks,
fills in with your selected color. TERIOR house icon. Two new icon shingles, windows, shutters and orna
You may find that the first time you words, SAVE and LOAD, have also ap ments from storage. You can replace
press the button, only a part of the se peared. If you press either one of your next door neighbor's house with
lected area is colored in. This is be these, you follow the on-screen In a big side yard by using COLOR to
cause there are two different "layers" structions to either save to your own paint it a solid sky blue, and then
to every part of your house. Basically, formatted disk the house you are piece together a lush green lawn in its
the lirst layer, the foreground, is the working on, or load in a previously place. Create a nighttime scene by
outline and/or detail of the area, and saved house. Fortunately, the direc painting the sky a dark blue or black,
the second layer, the background, is tory of your disk is automatically with white stars dotting the heavens.
the area contained by the outline. This listed before any actual saving or load Or turn the season to winter Simply
means that, for example, you can ing takes place, which saves you from by coloring the green grass snow

paint one of the Victorian turnposts having to remember those weird white.
Ughl blue and then embellish and out names you might give your different Now for something that will really
line the detail work. Or, create a win house files. The last icon is labeled knock your socks off: If you've placed
dow with bright yellow light coming ZAP. This is what you do to your a number of stars and the water foun
from inside the house, while the rails house if you have let your creativity tain from storage into your picture
and sashbars are black and the sur get out of control. then you're all set for the big crowd
rounding casing is rust. Pick up a tree trunk, branches and ple-.tser. Place your cursor on the ANI
To change your working color, all leaves, the fountain and fountain wa MATE ALL symbol and hit the fire
you have 10 do is dip your brush into ter, some stars, and a few picket fence button.
another color on the palette and fill pieces by placing your cursor over the Ta-da! The stars start sparkling and
'er up. In a matter of minutes, you can object or part and pressing the joy twinkling, and the water fountain
try out all 240 possible combinations stick button. A tone lets you know bursts into gushing, trickling life. Try
of the 16 available colors. Try doing you've picked up each choice you've thiil with paper and pens!

that with colored pens and graph made. The VAN can hold only 12 When you're finished marveling at

paper! items per load, but you can always the exterior of your house, wipe your
When you're satisfied, albeit tem come back for more. feet and head for the interior. Place
porarily, with your house painting, When you're ready to return to the your cursor on the MOVING VAN to
there's still much more you can ilo outside of your house, place the cur get to the storage screen menu. Then
here on the outside of your house sor on the EXTHBIOR icon, hit the with your cursor on the INTERIOR
How about landscaping the front yard button, and you and all your stuff house icon, hit the fire hutlon to go
with trees and plants, and perhaps a from storage are back in the front inside your house. If you have not al
picket fence? Dip your paintbrush into yard. Objects arc dropped off in the ready used the SAVE icon to preserve

the water glass to the left of the color reverse order that they were gathered, your exterior design, a message will
palette, hit the fire button, and you're so as you move up from the menu area appear asking you if you want to ilo
back to the previous menu of words onto the screen, you will notice that so. If you do, just follow the on
and icons. Now, with your cursor on the last object that you picked up screen instructions.

the MOVING VAN, bit the fire button from storage is clinging to the back of The inside of the house is un-
again and you'll be transported to the your cursor. Move il around for place palnted, undecorated. and unfur
first of several storage areas. ment, drop it in place by hitting the nished. The virgin walls beg for color,
Your house disappears (don't firc button, and the next object from the hare wood screams for a good
worry, it'll still be there when you gel storage is now stuck to the end of coat of stain, and the untread floors
back), and all sorts of colorful objects, your cursor awaiting its destiny. ache for wall-to-wall carpeting. This
and parts and pieces of objects, fill Once your cursor is "empty," you is a real enticement for those of us
the screen. There are hushes anil can go back to storage and pick up ad who have always had to scrape,
flowers, and fountains and window ditional objects, or you can play with steam, sand and fill before any surface
shutters. There are tree trunks and and perfect the items you've already was ready to accept a finishing touch.
branches and limbs with bright red got. Rearrange their locations with You ma)- want to paint, decorate

apples. There are stars for the sky and the MOVE icon. Create duplicates and furnish each room as you go. or

bricks for the house. There is spurting with the COPY icon. Paint them all perhaps, like me. you prefer to tackle

a job step by step, painting every three other areas labeled "mom and can make your entire dream house
room first, then refurnishing, and fi pop." "kids" and "pets." Seleet the come to life with movement and
nally adding all the finishing touches. Storage area you want lo go to by plac sound effects. Hit the ANIMATE AI.l.
Moving from mom to room is easy, ing the cursor over the appropriate icon and watch the washing machine
and you can take your paintbrush, pal icon and hilling the fire button. spin, the chicken slowly lurn in the
ette, and any furniture or decorating You pick up and place the Storage rotisserie, the goldfish swim around
items with you. Simply position your objects the same way you did for the in its bowl, the candles flicker, and
cursor on the black area (which looks outside of the house. And you are tree the bird hop and sing in its cage. Still.
like a natural shadow) In any door to COLOR, COPY, MOVE and ERASE there are a Few surprises left. Like
way, press the letter "D" on your key [hem any way you like. Some Items, what happens when yon place your
board, and you will find yourself in such as the grandfather clock, art- bro cursor over the mouse, [he refrigera
the next room. You will find a similar ken down into parts within their stor tor, and the telephone and then bli the
black area at the foot and head of age area. This is because the computer letter "A" on your keyboard. And like
staircases which allow you to "floor- allows only two colors for each indi what goes on up in the Secret Attic in
hop" in multi-level houses. vidual shape or object. By breaking the cottage.
When you're ready to furnish, take certain objects down into separate But 1 siill have a thing for graph pa
the MOVING VAN to Storage. Once in pieces, it is therefore possible [o end per. My passion for rulers and tem
side the first storage area, press the up with, say, u clock of six colors plates and automatic pencils is unwav
MOVING VAN once again and you'll rather than two colors. With this sys ering. Colored pens still turn my
see an icon lisi of all the different stor tem, you can also lake things like the head. And I still dream of Early
age areas available for pick up or pe black-and-white rotisserie into the Gothic Revivals, Eastlake Victorians.
rusal. There :tre areas for [he living kitchen, and [hen put the golden Norman Manors. Trench Colonials,
room, dining room, kitchen and bed roasting chicken into it. You can as and EngHsh Tudors. It's true. Dream
rooms, '['here is another area lor land semble a candlestick, chandelier, a House has not replaced nor dimin
scape and another called "weather painting for the walls, or even a ished my old Stand-by dream-weaving
and entertainment," There are two ar patchwork quilt, all in multi-colored habitual hobby. It's just thai, with
eas of "workshop shapes" for building splendor. Drectm House, dreaming comes thai
your own objects, and [here arc even Once everything is in place, you much closer to coming [rue. Q

Continued from pg. Ill
areas of human endeavor. They are vantage of clever engineers and mass hard to build up a big BASIC program
"obvious" in some ways—so obvious production to solve our problems on out of modularized routines while
that they are generally overlooked. standard machines. We hardly ever worrying about variable names con
But, if we examine these key ideas and begin programming in machine lan flicting with each other, parameicr
become conscious of them when they guage. Instead we take advaniage of passing, recursion, and so forth.
appear, we can apply (him to solve higher-level language interpreters or Though FORTH and LISP are steps
our problems. compilers to give us a head siari. If in the right direction, programmers
One of these concepts I'll call pig possible, we run a "canned" program still have a long way to go before they
gybacking. (It has many oilier names, to do the Job, really use the extensibility of those
of course.) Piggybacking means tak- Bui, at a still higher level, we too languages effectively. Most programs
ing advantage of other people's work often do "re-invent the wheel." We still begin with the old, standard cen
and of your own earlier labors. It look at a complex problem and imme tral language core, and only then be
means, "Don't re-invent the wheel!" diately begin writing BASIC code gin to build. It would be as though
Life is too short to spend re-doing the without asking whether some stan every writer were restricted to a firsi-
same things over and over again. The dard subroutines we've written earlier gradc vocabulary and had to define
most exlraordinary progress has al could be adapted to help. We ignore every word in terms of that before it
ways been made by people who look the possibility of putting together was used!
what was available and built upon it. pieces of other programs to make a What does it all mean for you? Just
Sir Isaac Newton, who developed cal solution. this: Keep an eye on extensible lan
culus, the- laws of gravitation, optics. One development that may help is guages, and maybe try learning one
and a large part of the rest of physics. in the area of extensible languages. yourself. Make every effort to write
once said, "If I have seen farther than These are programming languages your programs in modular form and
oilier men, it is because 1 stood on the like FORTH or LISP, which make it re-use pieces of old programs when
shoulders of giants." easy to add new words and integrate ever possible. Share your discoveries,
In computing, we take advantage of those words with the rest of the lan and take advantage of other people's
piggybacking in several ways. We guage. BASIC has subroutines and work. Above all, think before you
hardly ever build new hardware to functions, but they fall short of being program. "Do I really have to write
solve a problem. Instead, we take ad true language extensions. It's just loo this afresh?" q

< OMM( >1)< IRE MICRO! .< 'MI'l fTERS 125

Typesetting Service
Kr)r Commodore computer users who need quality typesetting and high-resolution graphics prints without investing in expen
sive hardware, Compu-Print is the economical alternative. Compu-Print, accessed through a modem, allows writers, publishers,
advertisers, and office managers to upload the material to be typeset directly to Compu-Print. The Compu-Print service is open 15
hours a day, seven days a week. Typeset copy is mailed the next day to the user or desired location. Yearly subscription fee is S65,
and there is no charge for on-line time. Normal processing charge is 75 cents per page (300 or 1200 baud).
To date, 24 Compu-Print centers have been established around the country to allow quick turnaround, In most cases, Compu-
Print will deliver camera-ready copy as quick as an in-house printing department at much less the cost. For more information or to
locate the nearest Compu-Print Center, contact C-Band DBS/Encycloware, 715 Washington Street, Ayden, NC 28513. Call 919-746-
3589 or call collect 919-746-2773.

Software for
Pressing the RETURN hey is micd the
saying please,
nrnory1 Beginning
Computer Users
r you haue tuppd j xessise to ne,
you nust press RETURN ...


Type the word print,

trolier Electronic Publishing (95 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016)
has released Step One, an entry-level program that teaches the fundamentals
ana renenber RETURN1
of the Commodore 64, BASIC, and word processing. Other features of the 64 are
introduced with activities such as a simulated piano and several computer
games. It retails for S39.9S.





Make sure you send in your change of address so
Commodore Microcomputers will arrive at your new PRODUCE TESTS FROM 1 TO 999 ITEMS
home when you do. Just till oul the form and attach your PRODUCE ALTERNATE FORMS
label. then send il to our subscription office. OF THE SAME TEST


address ;ipt. ft
I'lease Add S2 00 Per Order For Postage and Handling

Commodore Microcomputers MIDWEST SOFTWARE

Box 214 Farmington, Ml 48024
Subscription Department
Phone (313) 477-0897
Box E51
Holmes, PA 19043

Circle Reader Service No. 22

126 M IM1.MHI
Disk Tree
±he Disk Tree Company (404 Liberty Lane, Westerville, OH 43081) has released
the Disk Tree, a plastic desk accessory that holds up to SO floppy disks. Special tilt-out
grooves hold each disk so dust is minimized. There are hand holes to lift and move or
rotate the Disk Tree without touching the disks- The Tree is made of 14" x 6" x 4"
transparent plastic and retails for S9.95.

Printer Interface
Uardco (300 S. Topeka, Wichita, KS 67303! has introduced
G Wiz, a sophisticated interface which connects Commodore
computers to virtually any Centronics printer (dot matrix,
daisy wheel, or plotter). The G Wiz performs all the functions of
Cardco's + G interface, but with greater speed. It features two
character sets, open-access dip switches, and a more compact
case, which eliminates the ribbon connector by directly attach
ing to the parallel port. Retail price was unavailable at press

J.AB Books (Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17314) has released Artificial Intelligence Projects for the Commodore 64 by Timothy
O'Malley. Using programs designed to take advantage of the 64's unique memory and graphics capabilities, the author introduces
such concepts as heuristics, language processing, pattern recognition, and robotics. Readers see how a computer decides what is
the best move in a board game, what happens when the computer is programmed to carry on a conversation, and even how to train
the computer to program itself. Most importantly. Artificial Intelligence Projects for the Commodore 64encourages users to write
their own programming adventures. It Is designed to sharpen problem-solving thought processes, increase BASIC programming
knowledge, and provide ways to put the Commodore 64 to better use. The book retails for 817.95 hardbound and 812 45

Software Protection Disks

LXlenco Engineering (3920 Ridge Avenue, Arlington Heights, IL 60004) has introduced the Safeguard 64 disk, a disk that pro
vides highly sophisticated copy protection for the Commodore 64, Safeguard 64 disks prevent unauthorized duplication of your
software programs. The program to be protected is first encrypted using the Protect module provided. Each disk has a special
magnetic fingerprint which must be found before the application program can be decrypted and allowed to run. The Safeguard
series does not require a hardware add-on because the protection system is installed right on the disk. Backup copies of the pro
gram can be made, but they will run only on Safeguard disks. Prices are set by volume of disks desired.

Amateur Radio Contest Operator

Winner's Edge Software (2003 Sarazen Place. Reston, VA 22091) has announced The Contester, a fully Integrated software
package for the amateur radio contest operator. The Contesterma.ns.ges all of the "paperwork" functions involved In amateur
radio contests. Designed by active contest operators, it logs and keeps track of up to 3000 contacts on up to six bands, alerting the
operator to avoid duplicate contacts through a fast., sophisticated search algorithm. At a single keystroke command, The Contester
also sends either preprogrammed messages or ad hoctexts in Morse code from 5 to over 50 words per minute. The computer con
nects to any amateur transceiver through a simple solid-state interface. The program retails for S39.95,




64 SALES gS Reader
MANAGER Advertiser Index
The System Designed By
Safes People For Sales People Abacus Software 2 24-25
SS 64 Sales Manager* contains programs (or
Academy Software 3 33
SS the on-line input, update, and inquiry □(.
customer, prospect, appointment, and ex
Aprotek A CIV
pense information as well as for printing
mailin3 labels, customer/prospect master
ss Batteries Included ■ 5
cq lists, scheduled appointment repPrts, ex
mD pense reports, and more. Cardco 5 cm
cc ■ There is no complicated manual to learn GO
1.MO CarboTech 14 94
■ Simple on-line (optionally printable)
SS ■
No data base to design or define
Cheatsheet Products 6 105
as ■ Simply load the programs and begin
C.O.M.B. 1 59
ss ■

Handles all types of c>pcrise categories.
Supports IRS record keeping requirements
C.M.S. Software Systems 7 2
■ Report expenses ay category or all Commodore Corporate ■ CIM/90-91
cc ■ 13,29
■ Report reimbursed and unreimbursed Commodore Software
cc cc 8 95
- Up to 500 customers/prospects per tile. \mO CompuServe
■ Extensive customer information.
CQ Computel 9.10 53,104
V.MVJ ■ Report expenses fof selected time period imO
qq orannualry CC Computer Centers of America 11 41
vm:d available on diskette onlv
f™^ To oratr, send Iflfl Qi For entri diskette ptu* ce ComDUter Revelations 12 94
13.00 Tor postage and twndJing per order to:
CO Oilman residen(i add 6% *ale5 tffiO Data most 38 37
Superior Micro Digital Vision 15 49
mO Systems, Inc. ss 16 15
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Dsa'c' lnQuin« Welcome' ss Howard W. Sams & Co., lnc, 37 19
ss ss Integrated Software Systems 17 64
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ss Kyan Software 45 61
ss ss ss ss ss ss ss ss ss Loadstar 36 65
Mastertronics 40 9
19 38-39
BaFTUUflRE Megasoft Limited
Micro League Sports ' 7
COMMODORE 64< Microware Distributors 20 17
35 PROGRAMS (DISK) Midwest Software 21,22 33,126
Moog 47 112
Nanosec ' 31
Navaronne 30 11
Pacific Tri-Micro 35 6,93
20 PROGRAMS (TAPE) Peripherals Systems of America 34 51
COMMODORE PLUS 4 Protecto Enterprizes 23 44-47

30 PROGRAMS (DISK) RJ. Brachman 24 112

or $15.95 Smada Enterprizes 25 128
Subloqic Corporation 27,28 21,23
FOR ALL ORDERS 29 49,128
Superior Micro Systems
add S2.00 ihipping & handling
(foreign, sxcopt Canads-$3.00) Systems Management Assoc 46 115
lelactad public domain program! Tele-Learning Systems, Inc. 31 63


BUSINESS, EDUCATION. Wiley Professional Software 33 104
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•end chuck or money order to

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COMMODORE 64. 16. and PLUS 4
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61,183 delicious bytes for your Commodore G4

S'MORE Memory, S'MORE features

far programming power

• Over 60 new and enhanced basic

S'MORE Fun! commands & functions
• No peeks or pokes (direct access to
Now, 61K available memory
normally peeked/poked items)
S'MORE frees up 61,183 bytes of C-64
• Full error trapping and automatic error helps
RAM memory for un-restricted Basic
• Full up/down scrolling through program listings
programming (57% more than Ihe
standard C-64). • Structured programming
A bridge to C-1SB • Relative files
The S'MORE command structure • Print using
is similar to the C-128's new Basic • Formatted inputs
7.0, providing C-64 users advanced • Print at...and much,
programming techniques. much more. cardeo, inc.

The Wizarda from the Land of Dz Have done it Again!

jo. 5
Circle Reader Service No. 5 CARDCO, lnc/300 S. Topeka/Wichita, KS 67202
If you have been searching fur a letter The buiil in 2K buffer allows a page or THE BEST PART
quality printer you probably fuund that two of concurrent printing and use of When pricing a daisy wheel printer
the flood of claims and counterclaims your computer fur the next job. To really with all these features (if you could find
were a real roadblock in your search. take advantage of your printer's optional one), you would expect to pay $600 or
Not long ago we were in the same posi features, the automatic Cut Sheet Feeder 5700 dollars. The options would add
tion. We tried to determine which daisy eliminates tiresome paper handling. Also much more, but our exhaustive research
wheel printer had all the features anyone available is the adjustable Tractor Feed has paid off for you the Commodore
could want, but would also appeal to the option. Compare our option prices! user. We can now offer this printer for
cost conscious buyer. Recently .several Besl of al! the Daisy 112(1 is quiet: only S353. Order yours today!
manufacturers introduced printers that only 57 dB-A (compare willi an average
had features we were seeking. After a of 62-65 dU-A for others). NO RISK OFFER
thorough assessmenl we eliminated all Try the Daisy 1120 for 2 weeks. If you
COMPLETE COMPATIBILITY are not satisfied for ANY reason we will
but one wliicli precisely met our
qualifications. The Daisy 1120 uses industry standard refund the full price—promptly. A full
Diablo* compatible prinlwheels. Scores I-year parts and labor warranty is
THE RESULTS ARE !N of typeface styles arc available at most included. Another indication of quality
We found the printer which has all the computer or stationary stores. You can and reliability.
features anyone could want. We've pop in a 10. 12, li> pitch or proportional
named it the Aprotek Daisy 1120, a rea! THE BOTTOM LINE
prints*tied and ua: paper as wide as 14".
heavy-duty workhorse printing at 20 Al 15 CI'l you can print 165 columns—a Aprotek Daisy 1120 (Order* 1 120) $353
characters per second, The manufacturer must (or spreadsheet programs. w/standard Centronics parallel interface
is Olympic Co. Ltd.. a highly respected The Daisy 1120 uses the Diablo and 2 It buffer.
Japanese firm, Hytype II"' standard rihhon cartridges. Options
FEATURES GALORE Again universally available. Auto Cut Sheet Feeder
This printer hits it all. To start with, it No! only is the hardware completely Tractor Feed <*I112fS77
fias a front control pane! witli indicators compatible, the control codes recognized Interface with cable for all Commodore
for Pitch Selection which allows for 10. by the Daisy 1120 ate Diablo 63B« (except PET) (#1103) S44
12, or 15 characters per inch (CPil or compatible {industry standard). You can
Ask about tables and interfaces for other
Proportional Spacing. There is a Select take advantage of all the great features
(Online) button (with indicator! and a of word processing packages and
Shir>|!]it|i is SH-llt'S ciiniintnijl USA. If you lae
Line Peed button. You can also set Top- automatically use superscripts, subscripts, a hurry. ID'S Blue or Air Parctl Posl (Second rJay
of-Fvirm or Komi Peed with t