2006 International Conference on Power System Technology
Switching Frequency Analysis of Dynamically
Detuned
ICPT
Power
Pickups
Ping Si, Student Member, IEEE, Aiguo Patrick Hu, Member, IEEE, Simon Malpas, and David Budgett
AbstractDynamic detuning methods have been used in inductive contactless power transfer (ICPT) systems for power flow control. However, the highly variable switching frequency involved in the detuning operation will contribute to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and power losses. It is difficult to determine the detuning frequency precisely due to nonlinear features of power pickups. Uncertainty in the operating frequency can result in difficulties in designing filters with suitable bandwidths and choosing suitable switching devices. Based on detailed analytical analysis in four segments of the detuning process, a numerical method is developed in this paper to determine the boundaries of the switching frequencies. An iterative algorithm is presented using a flow chart to illustrate the process taken in the numerical analysis. Simulation and practical experiments are conducted to verify the algorithm so as to ensure the calculated results are sufficiently accurate for designing EMI filters and choosing suitable switching devices.
Index TermsDynamic detuning, inductive contactless power transfer (ICPT), switched capacitor circuits, frequency estimation.
is utilized in ICPT systems because it is of high voltage boost up ability [8]. A rectifier is employed to convert the ac voltage to dc. For achieving maximum power transfer capability, a dc inductor Ldc is commonly connected on the dc side of the rectifier. This is because the dc inductor helps to maintain current flow in the circuit so that the delivered power from ac to dc can remain continuous [9].
+
POWER CONVERTER
s
ArMA
L W T
~~~Ldc
c
c1tdc
R
R
Primary
Fig. 1. Basic structure of ICPT system.
Secondary
I. INTRODUCTION INDUCTIVE contactless power transfer (ICPT) technology has been developed to supply power over relatively large air gaps to one or more moving objects. It has been adopted in many practical applications such as materials handing,
A main concern in such a system is that the voltage supplied to the load may vary if there is a change in circuit parameters such as the load R, the magnetic coupling M, and primary operating frequency. To solve the problem, a novel detuning control technology has been developed to dynamically control the power flow for supplying a constant dc voltage to the load [10]. Fig. 2 illustrates the principle of the dynamic detuning control technology.
transportation, coalmining, battery charging and implantable biomedical power supplies [1][7]. Fig. 1 shows the basic structure of an ICPT system which includes a primary power supply and a secondary power pickup. To transfer power from the primary to secondary, a high frequency alternating electromagnetic field has to be generated by the primary coil (or track) L, and links to the secondary pickup coil L by a mutual inductance M. The pickup coil is connected in parallel to a tuning capacitor C, forming a resonant circuit to improve power transfer capability. Such a parallel tuned configuration
Fig. 2. Power pickup with dynamic detuning control. This project is supported by School of Engineering Guaranteed Financial Support Scheme (GFSS), The University of Auckland, and Telemetry Research Limited, New Zealand. P. Si is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, New Zealand (email: psiOOl @ec.auckland.ac.nz). A. P. Hu is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Univeristy of Auckland, New Zealand (email: a.hu@ieee.org). S. Malpas is with the Department of Physiology, The University of Auckland, New Zealand (email: s.malpas@auckland.ac.nz). D. Budgett is with the Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, New Zealand (email: d.budgett@auckland.ac.nz).
It can be seen from Fig. 2 that in addition to a tuning capacitor C, a detuning capacitor C, and a semiconductor switching device S are also employed in the pickup. They are connected in series, forming a branch connected to the pickup coil L in parallel. Thus, when S is switched on, the resonant circuit includes both capacitor C and C,. When the switch S is off, only capacitor C is involved in resonance. Because the maximum power transfer ability is achieved only in the fully
1424401119/06/$20.00 c2006 IEEE.
In this paper an approximate closedform example. Current idc maintains zero in this detuning depends upon many parameters. In the (shown in Fig. Dynamic detuning waveforms. Vref. the voltage across the dc inductor Ldc becomes the random switching frequency can cause difficulty in negative. undertuning means that the power transfer of the pickup is reduced by controlling the tuning capacitance under the nominal value required by the full tuning. as shown in Fig. two detuning methods are constant. hence the voltage can build up quickly to enable the circuit to start functioning. When the load decreases. when the output voltage voc is under the reference power pickups. the switch S is turned and the ac voltage vac of the resonant circuit. 2) of the pickup decreases from the maximum application of inductive power supplies for implantable value because the pickup is detuned from the primary biomedical sensors. Fig. and final segment.C decreases more slowly than the resonant voltage communication channels between the primary and secondary. During this period the resonant voltage Vac interference (EMI) to surrounding equipment. The initial segment is finished when determining the switching frequency upper boundary is very the dc current idc reaches zero. the pickup is fully tuned initially. uF) for filtering out high frequency harmonics. is not connected to the resonant circuit. primary period because no current flows through the rectifier. as shown in Fig. causing the pickup to be detuned from the primary operating frequency. Calculating the upper boundary of the switching
. Each period shows a complete dynamic required by full tuning. the voltage across the dc side of the rectifier vdc is dc inductance. in the resonant circuit. on so as to add capacitor C. DYNAMIC DETUNING PROCESS maximum power transfer. In principle. Most practical power pickups utilize overtuning method for dynamic detuning control to manage startup problems. boundary frequency of the dynamic detuning circuit in the Otherwise. transfer efficiency. for example. the capacitor C. 3 shows the current and voltage waveforms of the pickConsidering the fact that when the pickup is fully tuned the up shown in Fig. load does not need full power capacity. 2. is also within the duration switching frequency of semiconductor switch for dynamic of the detuning operation. the switch S will be turned on to detune switching frequency. In addition. output dc for the contactless power supply systems combining voltage v. For a switching circuit. The switch control signal V. As a result. 3. By overtuning. Therefore. value. charging. dc capacitance. is over the analytical analysis. discharging. Although the dynamic detuning technology works very well in controlling the power flow while maintaining high power Fig. 2 if the output voltage v. 2) of the pickup is normally very large (greater than 10 microvolt level bioelectric signals being recorded [5]. vac. If the circuit operates undertuning. is removed from the resonant circuit by switching S off to detune the pickup from the primary operating frequency. To transfer maximum power the switch S has to keep on so that both the capacitor C. overtuning and the pickup. and C are connected to the resonant circuit to achieve full tuning. is high (on) for detuning developed for controlling the power flow. 3. only the minimum detuning process.2
tuned condition. the average value of output voltage voc would be maintained at desired level of Vref. Therefore. as well as numerical analysis of the reference voltage Vref. operating frequency. the switch S will be turned off to fully tune the pickup for II. where a full bridge rectifier is employed oscillation frequency of the resonant circuit is equal to the and the coupling between the primary and secondary is primary operating frequency. and low (off) for full tuning. the switch S is off so that the initial. Also. To calculate the maximum switching capacitance C is needed for full tuning to achieve maximum frequency. the power flow can be controlled by switching frequency accurately is not easy due to the nonlinear feature of S on or off to change the tuning conditions of the pickup. important for choosing suitable switching devices. the noise generated in sensitive operating frequency. Since the dc capacitance Cdc (shown in biomedical sensors from an ICPT system may exceed the Fig. In this situation. The division capacitor C. Initial Charging Alternatively. resulting in a dc current (idc) drop from its peak designing filters with a suitable bandwidth. When the is based on the changes in the dc current idc of the dc inductor. During the startup period the switch S can only be off because insufficient power is available to drive it on. The The next segment. as controlled by capacitance variations above the nominal value shown in Fig.. are undertaken to determine the upper the pickup so that the power transferred is reduced. the highly variable switching frequency of The initial segment starts from the beginning of the the semiconductor switch S may cause electromagnetic detuning operation. Overtuning means that the power transfer is under steady state conditions the waveforms are periodical. maximum power rating. discharging. one complete process is divided into four segments: power transfer. 3.
of pickups are normally between 4 to 15 [9].
Vsi< Adc
vocii
i
Initail

*
'dc kt +JI
Time
Time
In ICPT systems the quality factor Q.. The voltage source vdc represents the voltage across the dc side of the rectifier. times higher than the open circuit voltage when the pickup is fully tuned. If their values become lower than the reference voltage Vref. a model representing the dc side of the pickup can be represented as shown in Fig.. STEADY STATE ANALYSES
in this segment. The final segment begins when the rectifier conducts again. vdc=IvacI.
III. 5 shows the current and voltage waveforms of the model..IpR) (3)
Since the output dc voltage is very close to the reference voltage Vref. 4. During this segment the resonant voltage vac increases from the minimum value because the pickup is fully tuned to the primary operating frequency. Because the current conducts through the rectifier
frequencies. where the decrease of current idc from peak value Ip to zero is assumed to be linear at a rate of k. ending the discharging segment. Voltage and current waveforms of pickup for initial segment.. Secondly. 5. is assumed to be relatively large and its equivalent series resistance (ESR) is zero. (4) can be simplified:
Ldck Vref k
(5)
Then the duration T1 of the initial segment can be determined as:
. when voc equals to Vref..
Using the model shown in Fig. This results in significant resonant voltage (vac) variation according to the changes of the tuning condition. The dc current idc increases from zero to its maximum value during this segment. And the dc capacitor Cdc is charged by the current idc so that the output dc voltage vOC increases again to approach the reference value. 4.. In a practical pickup... However. although it can be boosted up to be Q. two assumptions are made to reduce the complexities resulting from the nonlinear features of switching circuit. the output dc voltage voc can be obtained as:
kt + I RP is vclt=O=Vref
=
(2)
voc = kRtkR2CdC +IPR +e RCdc (Vref + kCdcR2. the dc current idc remains at zero. Firstly. the voltage vd. As a result. Solving (2). and Rmin is the minimum load resistance of the pickup [9]. As the dc capacitor Cdc is discharged through the load resistor R. where co is the angular frequency of the electromagnetic field generated by the primary power supply.C drop. the detuning capacitance C.
Considering that the reference voltage Vref is much higher than the vdc and the current idc decreases linearly in this segment. the rectifier keeps blocking since the voltage vac is still lower than the voltage vdc (voc) in this segment. Initial segment To analyze the initial segment of a dynamic detuning process. The charging segment starts from the beginning of the full tuning operation. is generally required to be at least larger than C for a fast response in dynamic detuning. if the pickup is detuned from the primary operating frequency the resonant voltage Vac is nearly as low as the open circuit voltage of the pickup coil. both of Vdc and v..
~~~~~.3
equal to the output dc voltage v0c.. Simulation and practical results show that these assumptions are valid for calculating the upper boundaries of the switching
where initial condition because the initial segment starts at the beginning of the detuning operation. Model of dc side of pickup for initial segment. The finial segment finishes. Fig. the dc current idc is assumed to decrease linearly in this segment. To achieve the maximum power transfer ability the inductance of dc inductor Ldc has to be larger than the value determined by (1). the relation between the current and voltage of dc inductor Ldc can be written in the form of (4):
t
LdC
dic
dt
Vdc vle d

(4)
Based on these assumptions. 4 a differential equation can be obtained as:
Ldc = Rmin / C
(1)
dc dv' dc
dt
+ °'
A. the switch S is turned off. and the next dynamic detuning process starts.. In other words.
1
Ti
Time
Fig. [11]. Vref... Thus the resonant voltage of vac quickly drops down to the minimum value at the beginning of this segment due to fast discharging caused by the detuning capacitor C. idc
Fig. the capacitance C. is equal to the absolute value of the resonant voltage.
Since the dc current idc is zero.IR)
(10)
Vf e CdR rf
(14)
C. 7. the output dc voltage v. t=O R
L dt = VSP sin(wt) vac
Solving (11) and (12). The result can be shown as:
voc
T2= RCdclrn V. Charging segment In the charging segment.
iac
% Va. So the duration of the discharging segment can be determined by calculating the discharging time of the capacitor Cdc. if the discharging segment begins at time zero. the output voltage must cross the level of the reference voltage Vref.ef
kCdcR+ekRct
Vef +kCdcR2 .C can be obtained as:
voc= kCdCR+ e kC R (V1ef + kCdcR2 IpR) eCcR
(9)
The discharging segment is finished when dc output voltage voc drops down to the reference voltage Vref. the load resistor keeps discharging the dc capacitor Cdc.C will equal Vref. where the voltage vac and current iac under a detuned condition (discharging segment) are much smaller than its fully tuned condition (charging segment). However. (t) = 2 SP sin(wt)
I
2
V SP tcos(t) Vre eC
oft
=0
(15)
It should be noted that the duration T3 of the charging
. This is valid for a pickup with a high boostup factor Q. the dc current is still zero. Model of ac side of pickup for charging segment.C in the discharging segment is the final value from the initial segment. As the pickup is fully tuned in this segment. This means that the initial value of v. the resonant voltage vac during the charging segment can be obtained as:
Vac =
pR)
IVp sin(wt)
Vp Ca cos( C)
(13)
Therefore. this also means that the charging segment ends when the rectifier first starts to conduct (Ivacl=voc). the discharging segment is finished when the voltage v. As discussed previously. where co is the angular frequency of the primary operating frequency. which is induced in the electromagnetic field generated by the primary. Fig. the resonant voltage vac starts to increase.f~C
(11)
(12)
Fig. where the ac voltage source V. At the same time. It can be assumed that the initial value of the resonant voltage vac and current iac are zero.4
T =
k
P
I Ldc
Vref
(6)
B. In the model the voltage source is connected to L in series. the output dc voltage v. 7. This also means that the dc and ac sides are separated by the rectifier. Therefore.
Fig.Psin(cot) represents the open circuit
The charging segment finishes when the dc current starts to increase from zero. reducing output dc voltage v0c. 6 shows the model for the dc side of the pickup. Therefore.
L
I
T
dc
+
1
R
I
sin(a)
Vac
. 6 because no dc current flows through the rectifier.. Discharging segment The discharging segment is still within the duration of the detuning operation. The charging segment starts from the beginning of the tuning operation. The model for the ac side of the pickup is shown in Fig. Model of dc side of pickup for discharging segment. The dc capacitor Cdc is discharged through the load resistor R.
Using this model.
voltage of the pickup coil L. The following two equations can be obtained based on the model:
C dvac
dVac
Cdc dcdt + R
=0
(7)
dt
=

Since the initial value of the voltage v. As shown in Fig. a differential equation can be written as:
The relationship of C02=1/(LC) is valid in this segment since the pickup is fully tuned to the primary frequency. the rectifier disconnects the ac and dc sides of the pickup circuit.C can be solved using (7). the following equation can be obtained:
IV FT. the initial condition of (7) can be determined using (3) with t=Tl. as shown below: IV = kCdCR +e kRCdc (Vllf + kCdR2 _ I (8) V. 6. The model consists of the parallel connected dc capacitor Cdc and the load resistor R.P is the peak value of the induced voltage. The duration T2 of the discharging segment can be obtained as:
The mode of the dc side for the charging segment is the same as that for the discharging segment shown in Fig. and V. the initial condition is different. 8.C drops down to the reference voltage Vref.
When this stopping criteria is met. NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS It would be very complicated to achieve a closed form explicit solution to the maximum switching frequency using equation (6). the duration T4 of the final segment can be solved as:
D. (10). Although it is very difficult to obtain an explicit solution of T3 from equation (15).g. 9.C by reference voltage Vref. The simulation and practical results have demonstrated that this approach is valid in calculating the upper boundaries of the switching frequencies. L. 10 shows the flowchart designed for calculating the maximum switching frequency of the dynamic detuning.
'dc
Ev
a
T4
c~~~~~~~~~c
Time
Ial )
Fig. dt = env(vdC ) V.C and vdc. Pmax and V. as shown in Fig. T4 and peak value of dc current Ip can be solved using (6). Voltage and current waveforms of pickup for charging segment. instead of v. Voltage and current waveforms of pickup for finial segment. e. t3(0) is an estimated initial value of T3.
The duration T1.2Vref )2 + 16IPLdCVSpC
(20)
2Vp co
Finally. So. Final segment In final segment.f
(17)
IV. Fig. the
.f ) + 4(VspT3. Because the dc current idc is very small compared to the resonant current iac.p. The program starts with given circuit parameters LdC. an approximate solution is obtained by replacing the vdc (vdc=1vac1) by its approximate envelope env(vdC). the approximate solution of iac can be obtained as:
T3
Time
Vs. The load resistor R is determined by the maximum power transferred by the pickup Pmax and reference voltage Vref. (20) and (21). (20) and (21). cot2//2+
tdc
(Vsp coT3 2Vref ) t
2Ldc
(19)
Fig. the dc current idc flowing through dc inductor starts to increase from zero to a peak value Ip. Fig. Simulation and experimental results show that the numerical results obtained according to this flowchart are most accurate when the minimum load resistance is applied. (15). _=10 .
Since when t=T4 current idc reaches its maximum value Ip. So the numerical solutions utilizing computer programs are adopted. 4. the iteration terminates with T3=t3(i). According to (13) the voltage vac for the final segment can be written as:
Vac =
T2(V pO32V. However. T2.5
segment is the minimum solution of (15) because the first time of 1Vac1=VOc is the boundary between this segment and next segment. otherwise.. An iterative computation is applied in the calculation of T3 based on the function FT3(t3) shown in (15).
As the dc current is not zero during the final segment. the average value of the dc current idc can be considered to be equal to Vref/R. Then the duration T3 of the charging segment is calculated first because it can be determined independently using (15) and is used later in the calculation for the final segment. its effects on the resonance are ignored. enabling that the slop k of the dc current to be equal to Vref/L in the initial segment. then the
switching frequency is given by f=l/( T1+T2+T3+T4). Errors introduced separately by Vref and env(vdC). the following equation can be obtained:
Iae av
I
I sin[t + T)]Vs Vn[(+T]
(T1 +T4)Ip/2 T. (10). The next step is to check whether F13(t3(i)) has converged to a given error index £. it is very difficult to achieve an explicit solution to idc by solving the differential equations obtained from the model. Cdc. and v. 8. the approximate envelop of vdc is a smooth curve crossing vdc at the angle of co(t+T3)=nn where n is a positive integer. because in the steady state conditions the output voltage v. Vref. + T2+ T3 + T4
_
Vlef
R
(21)
T3)cos[(t+T3)]
(16)
where the zero time is at the beginning of this segment. T3. have a canceling effect. Considering the initial condition of idclt=o=0.
env(vd ) = 1 V o)(t + T3) 2
(18)
idc
Ve
Time
IVacli
o
In fact.C is controlled to approach the reference voltage Vref. Therefore. f. the model of the dc side for this period is the same as that for the initial segment shown in Fig. as shown below:
Ld. 9 shows the voltage and current waveforms of the pickup for this segment. 9. Based on this. numerical solution can be achieved easily by utilizing a computer program. the amplitude of the resonant voltage vac increases at the same rate as in the charging segment. (15).
At this load. L=83.4 uH. T2. 11. and not what power converting method used.9 kHz. the detuning switch remains off most of the time achieving the maximum power transfer condition. The switching device used for dynamic detuning is a BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) with an integrated body diode. Pmax=50 mW and
Fig. the program checks whether the average value of the current lave determined by (21) has converged to the value of Vref/R under a given error C'. when the load resistance becomes too large.6
iteration repeats with the next estimated t3(i+1). Finally. Pmax=7. After determining T3. the switching frequency f is solved based on f=l/( T1+T2+T3+T4). 10 are also suitable for calculating the maximum detuning frequency of the pickup with a half bridge rectifier. f=38. This happens when the detuning switch starts to stay on longer to match the much reduced power requirement. not the switching frequency.
V. The switching frequency increases dramatically with the increase of the load resistance since the detuning switch starts operating to detune the pickup for reduced power transfer. Although the numerical solution is from the analyses of the pickup with full bridge rectifier. As a comparison. the duration T1. showing the computed solution is sufficiently accurate for determining the detuning frequency range for purposes such as designing EMI filters and choosing the proper switching devices. f=200 kHz. 11 shows the simulation results of the switching frequencies at different loading conditions.
I
N
IRmin
U
a n 120 180
Load Resistance(Q)
Fig. Vref=30 V. T2 and T4 are calculated according to (6) (10) and (20). Variation of switching frequency at different loading conditions. Vref=3 V. Cdc=10 uF. The main parameters of the pickup used includes LdC=450 uH. 11 it can be seen that the switching frequency of the detuning is about zero when the pickup operates with the minimum load resistance. This iteration starts with an estimated initial value of the peak current lp(O). simulation and practical results show that the computation shown in Fig. Then the frequency almost remains stable around the maximum value while the resistance continues increasing. However. The maximum value of the detuning frequency achieved in the simulation is about 8. This is because the frequency of the dynamic detuning circuit reflects how much power transferred. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Fig. 10. In this situation power transferred is mainly affected by the on duty cycle of the switching signal.5 kHz.5 W and VSP=6. the upper boundary of the frequency is also computed according to the flowchart shown in Fig. T2 and T4. The parameters of the simulated pickup circuit are LdC=497 uH. and a half bridge rectifier is employed to convert ac power to dc. From Fig. Then. and T4. Once the stopping criteria is met. 10.4 kHz. The result of the computation is 8.4 V. L=17 uH. the program runs another iterative process to calculate durations of period T1. A power pickup which is used to supply wireless power to biotelemetry devices has been built and tested. Cdc=22 uF. Finally. the iteration terminates with final value of T1. Flowchart for calculating the maximum switching frequency of dynamic detuning circuit. the switching frequency drops back to zero when R is infinitely large (no load condition). the switching frequency starts to decrease.
. In the next step.
The maximum power is required when the implantable telemetry device communicates with an external transceiver. Australasian Universities [4] G. J. The frequency decreases at both ends of high and low loading conditions. Covic and J. the iterative computation shown in Fig.
~
~
~
~
~
. the maximum switching frequency has been recorded under this loading condition. discharging. Hu. 12 shows the waveform of the voltage across switched capacitor Cs when the equivalent load resistance is approximately 190 Q. 2004. It has been demonstrated that the maximum detuning frequency occurs around the nominal load and is maintained roughly constant over a wide range of load conditions although switching duty cycle varies. Based on detailed analytical analysis of each segment. T.. In addition. S." IPENZ Trans. 13 shows the measured waveform of the pickup output dc voltage when the equivalent load resistance is 380 Q. IV with a 200 kHz harmonic component resulting from the EMI of the primary. Thus the minimum voltage across Cs would be close to the minimum peak value of the resonant voltage. REFERENCES [1] J. 10 is also conducted based on the practical parameters of the pickup circuit. T. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Fig. 1997. 13.. W. Green.)
TPOWWWRW
MMEL. This is because the detuning capacitor Cs is charged through the body diode of the BJT. P.7 kHz which is the switching frequency caused by the dynamic detuning. A. adding the detuning capacitor Cs into the resonant circuit.. This is identical to the analytical result shown in Fig. In the experiments.5 V when the pickup is fully tuned. This is due to the charging and discharging of the dc capacitor Cdc caused by the dynamic detuning. the voltage across the detuning capacitor is sinusoidal because the switch is on in this situation. The computed results are in a good agreement with the simulation and experimental results.2
Fig. Elliott. Boys and A.
~
~~~~~ ~~~
~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
. 3340. 10391044. [3] A. T. "Magnetically coupled systems for power transfer to electric vehicles. and Telemetry Research Limited. Si. 2. The result is 23. From Fig. Boys. 22. Such a low switching frequency appears in this situation because the pickup load is close to the maximum loading condition. 12 it can also be seen that the voltage across Cs maintains a level of approximately 4. Boys and A. although the BJT itself is off for full tuning in this situation.. From the measurements of Fig.
VI. No." in Proc. Australia. which is in
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Bioengineering Institute of the University of Auckland. which is associated with the maximum switching frequency. 12. "A dynamically onoff controlled resonant converter designed for coalmining battery charging applications. charging and final segment. pp.
VII. "Intelligent roadstuds .lighting the paths of the future. From the waveform it can be seen that the average voltage is controlled at about 3. A.
:
~
~~
~
~
~
~
~
~
. 11. J. 13 it can be seen that the shortest period lasts about 45 uS." in Proc. When the pickup is detuned. pp. Experimental waveform of output dc voltage of pickup.
. Z.
. [2] A. (Loading
condition: R=380 Q. 12 and 13 also verify that the switching frequency is very low when the pickup operates under very heavy loading conditions.. As a comparison. CONCLUSIONS This paper has analyzed the dynamic detuning operation employed in ICPT pickups for supplying a constant output dc voltage. the measured frequencies shown in Fig. Hussmann.5V due to the detuning operation.. Vol. "A low cost portable car heater based on a novel currentfed pushpull inverter. G. W. The dynamic detuning process has been divided into four segments: initial.. At the same time the peak value drops down to about 1.
VSP=450
good agreement with the measured value. 2002 International Conference on Power System Technology. Green. The fundamental frequency of the waveform is about 1. These results are very useful in designing EMI filters and selecting power switches for power pickup circuits.
Fig. J.
VIII. 1995
Power Engineering Conf:. Fig. P. Increasing the capacitor value would reduce the amplitude of this ripple. an iterative method has been proposed to obtain a numerical solution for the detuning operating frequency.075 kHz.)
across
detuning capacitor Cs. The lower frequency ripple appears as sawtooth waveforms. Hu and P. 5V. Chen. in Proc. (1) EMCH. 24. Brisbane.2 kHz (1/45 uS1).7
mV. Experimental waveform of voltage (Loading condition: R=190 Q.
Simon Malpas received his PhD from Otago University in 1990. 12661272. power converters.Hu. P. He is currently Associate Professor in the Dept of Physiology and the Bioengineering Institute at the University of Auckland. 2004. Vol. . 135138. 38. P. Vol. P. University ofAuckland. Jun. He leads a team developing implantable telemetry devices in the Bioengineering Institute. Spain. and coauthored a book on electrical machines. T. Sep. with BE and ME degrees in 1985 and 1988 respectively. 2004. the Asian 2000 Foundation Scholarship for a fourmonth study visit to the National University of Singapore. F. P. A. Xu. Kano. He is currently a senior lecturer in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 40. Germany. Covic and Y. Benalmadena. Jul. "Designing the dc inductance for ICPT power pickups". Issue 4. Hu. Boys. He is also a cochair of the New Zealand IEEE Power Engineering and Power Electronics Joint Society. 29642966.162167. A. Matsuki and T. "Selected resonant converters for IPT power supplies". pp. in Proc. The 5th IASTED International Conference on Power and Energy Systems. Sato. 2005. J. Oct. M. Perrottet.8
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems. Hussmann. S." IEEE Trans. Si. T. pp. Sato. He is head of the Circulatory Control Laboratory whose research focus is on the role of sympathetic activity in the development of hypertension. IEEE Power Electronics Letters. Hu. 2005. 2. From 1998 to 1999 he worked as a Engineer at the Northwest Electrical Power Testing Research Institute. and later the director of a
. Magnetics. He is currently a last year PhD student in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. He worked as a postdoctoral research fellow in Japan. pp 477482. pp. Si and A. BIOGRAPHIES
r Ping Si (M'2004) received his Bachelor degree in Electrical Engineering from Xian JiaoTong University. an electrical engineer. Bieler. pp. Budgett. G. Perriard. 1st Internation Conference on Sensing Technology. He received the University of Auckland Ph.
David Budgett gained his PhD in Biomedical Engineering from Imperial College in 1995. He has held academic positions at the University of Sussex and the University of Auckland with research interests in medical devices. "Stabilizing the operating frequency of a resonant converter for wireless power transfer to implantable biomedical sensors. in 2002. D. University of Auckland. "DC analysis technique for inductive power transfer pickup". PhD thesis. Vol. 797801. Before that he worked as a lecturer. 2003. Industry Applications. A. Vol. Gao. United Kingdom and Australia from 1990 1996 in the area of blood pressure control with particular reference to the role of the sympathetic nervous sy stem. 5153. Nomoto. Nguyen and Y. Palmerston North. New Zealand. China. New Zealand. and application of power electronics in power systems. Vol. Yang and J. Issue 2.
IX. He received his Graduate Diploma in Computer Science form the University of Auckland. " A new contactless powersignal transmission device for implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES). 2001. After migrating to New Zealand in 1996 he received his Ph.
technical section in China.D from the University of Auckland in 2001. in 1998. J. T. His research interests include wireless power transfer. 2. Vol. Hu and S. "Contactless power and information transmission. Malpas. P. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. 1. V. China. P.D scholarship. G. A. "Improved power flow control for contactless moving sensor applications" IEEE power Electronics Letters. pp." IEEE Trans. the University of Auckland. China. 2002. pp. He holds a few patents in microcomputer control and inductive power transfer technologies. and an industrial scholarship from Wampfler AG." in Proc. His research is to develop high quality wireless power supplies for implantable biomedical devices. the University of Auckland. H. group leader.
Patrick Aiguo Hu (M' 1998) graduated from Xian JiaoTong University.