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Running Head: COLLABORATION

Integrating Technology into the Social Studies Curriculum

Module 7: Assignment 3

Group A: Glenda Ainsworth, Karen Dunker

Integrating Technology Into Classroom Curriculum: E6805 UA

Dr. Cedrick Gilbert

Argosy University

February 25, 2010

and

Collaboration Reflection

Module 4, Assignment 1

Glenda Ainsworth

E6925: Capstone Project

Dr. Cynthia Mishlove

Argosy University

March 12, 2011


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Collaboration Reflection

Collaboration, or the act of working in cooperation with others, is an essential part of learning

and helps create effective teams in relation to academic projects. In today's world, people collaborate

effectively when they share, exchange and distribute information in a variety of ways (Henrico, 2011).

Email, chat rooms, Wikis and video conferencing are common ways to collaborate within the online

community. According to Merchant (2009) Wikis provide provide resources through which students in

many locations can collaborate. Many students at Argosy University communicate via the chat rooms

and email, and also the occasional phone call that has also been necessary at times.

Collaboration of resources and knowledge comes about for various reasons. Some scholars

collaborate because they need certain data, because it is time efficient, or when they lack the expertise

to take the next step in the project or research (Harley, Acord, & King, 2010). Others collaborate to

produce shared works that fulfill the requirements of specific courses or classes.

Merchant (2009) sees collaboration as a way to stress social participation and to advocate

sharing and working together, but successful collaboration is not always easy. At Argosy University

students avoid arguments and conflicts that might cause misunderstandings and hurt feelings during

their chat room communications by maintaining an agreed upon code of conduct. Namsock, Nielsen,

and Chan, (2010) indicate that misunderstandings occur because on-line communication makes it

difficult to process social and emotional cues. This is true at Argosy University as well, but with

multiple email messages and questions students work through the confusion and reach the

understanding necessary to complete their work. Beames, Klenowski and Lloyd (2010) suggest that

modeling the social elements during the collaboration process, such as social protocols, is considered

fundamental to success.

Jahnke (2010) also indicates that collaboration can bring students up to the same level of

understanding "for a particular task" (p. 232). This is true for students who are not afraid to ask
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questions of their peers or those who read other student's work to get a glimpse of the greater

knowledge available.

This teamwork project in this example has been a process of getting to know the subject of

integrating technology into the curriculum and also learning from my fellow classmate. Dalsgaard and

Paulsen (2009) propose that collaborative learning requires participation in a learning community but

limits individual flexibility. This has not been the case with this group project. Instead there has been

creative flexibility, the rewarding social participation, the working through the confusion, and that sight

of greater knowledge from peers and instructors.


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Integrating Technology into the

Social Studies Classroom Curriculum

Roblyer (2006) proposes that: "just as different learning needs call for different teaching

methods, effective technology integration depends on a well-planned match of needs with resources

and teaching strategies, along with classroom conditions that support them" (p. 36). Schools that

prepare students by integrating technology into the curriculum also help students become competent

and proficient technology users (Argosy, 2010). Integrating technology is more than just plug and play,

it is identifying and assessing the technology needs, determining the strategies and tools;

implementation of the program; and finally, after implementation, the process begins again with

assessing how the technology accomplished its goals.

Components of Curriculum

This project integrates technology in the Social Studies curriculum for middle grade school,

grades 6-9. The components of the curriculum are Geography, U.S. History, Civics and Economics

with one project from each class identified for technology development.

Curriculum Evaluation

According to Argosy (2010), some important issues to consider when selecting instructional

software include addressing learner needs and evaluating the effectiveness of the applications and its

relevance to the lesson. The four components of the unit pertaining to Social studies, for middle grade

students, include Geography, Civics, Economics and U.S. History. The technology that was integrated

into these components reflects the learner needs of this cohort, as well as, their relevance to the lessons

objectives. Students in this age range, according to Argosy, (2010) are referred to as the neo-

millennials. Hence, these students were born in the year 2000 and after. Their learner needs are

described as needing cooperative learning experiences, a preference for a teacher that implements a

constructivist approach, and the need to utilize multi-media sensory learning experiences due their
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tech-savvy skills.

In order to meet this generations learner needs, the four components were designed utilizing a

constructivist approach combined with technology such as the Internet, PowerPoint™, interactive map

and world atlas websites, and web-hosting websites. According to Roblyer (2006), integrating

technology into the lessons that are designed with utilizing a constructivist approach, including

cooperative learning experiences, discovery, addressing real-life situations and group activities that

foster group problem-solving to create group PowerPoint™ presentations, a group website, utilizing

interactive map websites and desktop publishing software to create a travel brochure, are beneficial for

students. Hence, these lessons serve to facilitate the development of higher ordered thinking as students

collaborate together to comprehend, apply learning, analyze, synthesize and evaluate data.

Areas of Technology Integration

Social Studies provide a myriad of possibilities with regards to integrating technology into the

curriculum. In this report the focus has been on Geography, U.S. History, Civics and Economics.

Additional areas of focus could be religion, humanities or the natural sciences.

Consider these important points integrating the sources and resources of technology and

integration. Students need to know how to locate, critically evaluate, use, and communicate through

technology resources. Students need to know about the hardware, how to use the devices and how to

prepare multimedia presentations. Students need to know how to comprehend the language of visual

images and how they play a role in communication. Students need to know how to separate out bias

and inaccuracies and learn to question the validity of what they see and read (Roblyer, 2006). Taken

into consideration when building a Social Studies curriculum, these objectives can provide a course of

action or itinerary to fledgling and veteran teachers alike.

Technology Integration Strategies

The five technology integration strategies that were used in conjunction with the four
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components include cooperative learning, discovery learning, problem-solving, inquiry teaching and

case study-based learning. Cooperative learning reflects activities that are designed for small groups

and in each of the four components, cooperative learning is utilized. Hence, it promotes intellectual, as

well as, social/emotional development as students learn to share ideas, negotiate, problem-solve and

establish group roles (Seifert & Hoffnung, 2000).

In the lesson pertaining to U.S History, the students work collaboratively to utilize the internet

and select a famous African American leader. Additionally, they are to answer a specific set of

questions related to birth place, death (if relevant), family and marriage, educational background and

major contributions and then present these components in a PowerPoint™ presentation.

Discovery learning involves students posing questions and seeking answers. In essence,

utilizing this strategy requires the student to know something before they can discover something

(Orlich, et al., 2007). In the Geography activity the student is required to select a geographical location

and create a brochure utilizing desktop publishing software including location, travel schedule,

historical sites etc. The student enters into the activity with some information about locations, time

zones and perhaps some historical information, but lacks a more in-depth understanding that will come

from the discovery experience of researching and acquiring the data through the internet, interactive

map and world atlas websites.

Problem-based learning involves questions that are presented to the student to be solved.

Additionally, the strategy of inquiry teaching is also utilized in this lesson as students must investigate,

analyze data and draw conclusions. In the lesson on scarcity pertaining to the Economics component,

students work collaboratively in groups and research economic scarcity after a devastating earthquake

as it might pertain to real life. They utilize the internet for research and then evaluate, analyze and

synthesize their data and create a PowerPoint™ presentation.

Case study based learning is a method that involves group discussions pertaining to real-life
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situations with the goal of building knowledge. In the lesson on citizenship pertaining to the component

of Civics, students are asked to take an in-depth look at the role of being a citizen pertaining to rights

and responsibilities. Additionally, they are asked to investigate ways citizens can take part in civic life.

After gathering all data using the Internet and various websites, students will analyze, evaluate and

synthesize information and create a website to share with others.

Technology Integration Tools

The tools used for this curriculum development are Microsoft Word™ and other text editing

programs, desktop publishing programs, PowerPoint™ and other presentation software, and free

website hosting, along with various Internet sites including roadmap websites, atlas of world maps

websites, and African American leader’s websites.

Using Microsoft Word™ as a technological tool has been found effective especially for students

with learning disabilities. Hetzroni and Shriever (2004) state "Illegible handwriting, spelling

mistakes, and lack of text organization skills affect the academic outcomes of students with writing

disabilities" and Word™ can help strengthen these abilities in all students.

Desktop publishing software is designed to permit the student to communicate with specific

audiences. As the students learn the software they are also learning communication skills that

effectively convey an appropriate message to other students and their intended audiences.

PowerPoint™ and other presentation software are used to teach students to be technologically

competent in the area of multimedia. Students can achieve competence in computer skills using these

software resources in the form of tutorials, student presentations, and creating resources for other

students. PowerPoint™ presentations as tutorials can be used by students who have missed classes or

who are having particular difficulty in understanding concepts or who may need a refresher for difficult

subjects.

Free WebHosting is a resource that is gaining acceptance in the academic world. Students are
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creating sites that are used by other students as references, but at the student's level rather than a

textbook level. These resources are great for "encouraging future generations to get the most out of web

hosting to support knowledge growth" in various academic areas (WebHostingclue.com, 2009). And

according to Melissa Monti (2005) student created resources have been found to be "good sense and

good practice and appears much more interesting and relevant" than what comes from the teacher

alone.

The various Internet sites used as tools for integrating technology into the classroom curriculum

are only limited by the time it takes to search. Roadmaps website, Atlas of world maps website,

and Great African American leaders website are just a short list of possible websites that could be used

and provide only a starting point for the students to begin their investigation. For instance, in the area

of Geography the possible sites could be found using the key words countries, continents, maps,

landforms, states, aerial maps, cartography, capitols etc. Additionally, as students become familiar with

the subject they are studying they could also be asked to recommend sites that they have discovered.

Plan for Integrating Technology

Geography

“Creating a Travel Brochure”, Grades 6th-8th, Length of Duration- six weeks

Phase 1: Purpose: To provide students with a collaborative learning experience by giving the

students an opportunity to select a geographical location and utilize desktop publishing programs to

create a travel brochure with pictures, a travel schedule, historical sites and other geographical features

that would want to make visitors go there.

Phase 2: Objectives and assessment: To foster cooperative learning combined with the use of

technology (desktop publishing to create brochure) and (Word™ to create narrative) and the Internet, in

order to increase students' knowledge of geography, time zones and traveling, historical sites and other

interesting geographical features.


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The following objectives and assessments will help identify student achievement.

1. Objective- student will obtain information pertaining to maps, road and travel distance, and

various locations with the outcome of creating a bibliography. The assessment tool utilized will

include a rubric.

2. Objective- student will participate in a computer lab experience and learn how to utilize desktop

publishing with the outcome of creating a brochure. The assessment will include a rubric for the

final project.

3. Objective- student will report the information obtained with the outcome of creating a narrative

utilizing Word™. The assessment tool will include a rubric.

Phase 3: Design Integration Strategies: The following timeline reflects the integration.

Week 1- The unit will be introduced to the class whereby students will be informed of usage of

the Internet to conduct their research on a specific location that they want to focus on, as well as,

websites that the teacher will provide concerning maps and road distance. Examples of completed

brochures will be shown to the students, groups will be formed, and specifics regarding the narrative

and bibliography will be discussed pertaining to expectancies and grading.

Week 2- The students will go to the computer lab and the Media Specialist will conduct training

on usage of desktop publishing.

Week 3- The students will work in groups and conduct the necessary research on the internet

and obtain information for their brochure including location, travel schedule, pictures, and document

sources for bibliography.

Week 4- The students will utilize Word™ and complete their narrative and bibliography.

Week 5- The students will create their travel brochures utilizing desktop publishing software.

Week 6- The students will present their brochures to the class as a group.

Phase 4- Preparing the instructional environment: Prior to introducing the unit to the class, the
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teacher will prepare a list of necessary websites for the students to utilize; collect samples of completed

brochures; and reserve the computer lab time with the Media Specialist.

Phase 5- Evaluate/Revise: After having previously implementing this unit and evaluating the

outcomes, it became clear that utilizing desktop publishing software to create the brochures provided

more opportunity to develop skills as well as utilizing technology than the prior usage of paper art

materials.

U.S. History

“A Famous African American”, Grades 6th-8th, Length of Duration- five weeks

Phase 1: Purpose: to facilitate discovery learning with in the context of cooperative learning

groups of 3 students each, combining technology in order to research biographical data to construct a

timeline pertaining to the historical figure. Specific areas include: place and date of birth; place and

date of death or current status; details of early life; marriage/family info; education background; major

contributions and accomplishments.

Phase 2: Objectives and assessment: to foster discover learning in a cooperative learning

context, integrating technology in order to increase student knowledge of chosen historical figure,

major impact on the world, and to develop technology skills.

The following objectives and assessments will help identify student achievement.

1. Objective- student will obtain information using the internet pertaining to famous African

American leaders regarding six specific areas with the outcome of creating a word document

with the detailed information. The assessment tool utilized will include a rubric.

2. Objective- student will participate in a computer lab experience and learn how to utilize

PowerPoint™ with the outcome of creating a six-slide presentation. The assessment will

include a rubric for the final presentation.


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3. Objective- student will work in groups and create a PowerPoint™ presentation with the

outcome of presenting final product to class. The assessment tool will include a rubric.

Phase 3: Design Integration Strategies: The following timeline reflects the integration.

Week 1- The unit will be introduced to the class whereby students will be informed of usage of

the Internet to conduct their research on famous leader’s, as well as a website to facilitate the search.

Example of completed PowerPoint™ presentation will be reviewed by the class as well as the

expectancies and grading.

Week 2- The students will go to the computer lab and the Media Specialist will conduct training

on usage of PowerPoint™ or other presentation software.

Week 3- The students will work in groups and conduct the necessary research on the Internet

and obtain information for their chosen famous leader and utilize Word™ or other text editing software

to document the specific six areas provided by the teacher to be included on the presentation.

Week 4- The students will utilize presentation software and work collaboratively on developing

their presentation.

Week 5- The students will present their presentation as a group.

Phase 4- Preparing the instructional environment: Prior to introducing the unit to the class, the

teacher will prepare a list of necessary websites for the students to utilize; collect sample of completed

Power Point presentation; and reserve the computer lab time with the Media Specialist.

Phase 5- Evaluate/Revise: After having previously implementing this unit and evaluating the

outcomes, it became clear that utilizing presentation software such as PowerPoint™ to create the

presentation provided more opportunity to develop skills as well as utilizing technology than the prior

usage of submitting a written report.

Civics

“Role of the Citizen”, Grades 6th-8th, Length of Duration- five weeks


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Phase 1: Purpose: to facilitate case study-based learning within the context of cooperative

learning groups of 3-5 students each, combining technology in order to research historical data to

construct a website page pertaining to citizenship and what each student or group of students feel about

what comprises citizenship. Specific areas include: rights of citizens, responsibilities of citizens,

notable examples and why they are important, ways that citizens can take part in civic life (what is

civic life?).

Phase 2: Objectives and assessment: to foster case study-based learning in a cooperative

learning context, integrating technology in order to increase student knowledge of citizenship; the

impact they can have on their world; and to develop technology and social networking skills by

building a website and sharing it with others.

The following objectives and assessments will help identify student achievement.

1. Objective- student will use the Internet and other resources to obtain information concerning the

roles of a citizen in America regarding six specific questions with the outcome of creating a

website with the detailed information. The assessment tool utilized will include a rubric.

2. Objective- students will participate in a computer lab lesson and learn how to create web pages

with the outcome of creating a 6-10 page website. The assessment will include a rubric for the

final website.

3. Objective- student will work in groups and create a website with the outcome of presenting

final product to the class. The assessment tool for the presentation will include a rubric.

Phase 3: Design Integration Strategies: The following timeline reflects the integration.

Week 1- The unit will be introduced to the class whereby students will be informed of usage of

the internet to conduct their research on their roles and responsibilities as citizens of the United States.

A handout with website suggestions will be provided to facilitate the search as well as other key words

that might be used. Students will compile documents, images and commentaries and references to
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include in the website. Example of a completed website will be reviewed by the class as well as a

detailed rubric for grading specific elements (documents, images, commentaries and references) of the

website.

Week 2- The students will go to the computer lab and the Media Specialist will conduct training

on web page development, hosting and maintenance of websites. Students will also continue with Week

1 assignment as needed.

Week 3- The students will work in groups and continue the necessary research on the internet

and obtain information for the questions regarding citizenship and utilize Word to document the

specific six questions provided by the teacher to be included on the website.

Week 4- The students will utilize free WebHosting at a specified free hosting site and work

collaboratively on developing their website and the presentation of the website.

Week 5- The students will present their website as a group, use a rubric to critique the websites

and the presentations of the websites of their peers.

Economics

“Scarcity - Productive Resources are Limited”, Grades 6th-8th, Length of Duration- five weeks

Phase 1: Purpose: to facilitate problem-based learning within the context of cooperative

learning groups of 3-5 students each, combining technology in order to research scarcity after a

devastating earthquake. Students will research historical data to construct a presentation using

PowerPoint™, or other presentation software, pertaining to scarcity and what each student or group of

students could do to prepare for it, prevent it from happening or find other solutions to the problem.

Specific areas of interest include: definition of scarcity, examples from current world situations,

resources that show signs of dwindling, substitution resources, present and future possible

consequences, evaluation of choices.

Phase 2: Objectives and assessment: to foster problem-based learning in a cooperative learning


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context, integrating technology in order to increase student knowledge of the economic problem of

scarcity, the impact of scarcity on their world, and to develop technology skills creating presentations

and sharing them with others. Assessment will be determined by rubric.

The following objectives and assessments will help identify student achievement.

1. Objective- Students will be presented a problem-based learning scenario regarding a small,

secluded community that has been devastated by an earthquake. Students will work

collaboratively to answer the questions of Standard EC.5-8.1: Scarcity - Productive resources

are limited. Therefore, people cannot have all the goods and services they want; as a result, they

must choose some things and give up others. The assessment tool utilized will include a rubric.

2. Objective- Students will use the points expressed in the standards to articulate solutions to the

problem of scarcity and determine possible solutions and consequences of those solutions. After

research and essay writing, students will present their version of the solution to other groups of

students and then debate the best possible solution. The assessment will include a rubric for the

final presentation using PowerPoint™ or other presentation software. Points expressed in the

standards include the following:

1. Scarcity is the condition of not being able to have all of the goods and services that one

wants.

2. Like individuals, governments and societies experience scarcity because human wants

exceed what can be made from all available resources.

3. Choices involve trading off the expected value of one opportunity against the expected

value of its best alternative.

4. The choices people make have both present and future consequences.

5. The evaluation of choices and opportunity costs is subjective; such evaluations differ

across individuals and societies.


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3. Objective- student will work in groups and create a presentation using PowerPoint™ or other

presentation software, with the outcome of presenting final product to the class. The assessment

tool for the presentation will include a rubric.

Phase 3: Design Integration Strategies: The following timeline reflects the integration.

Week 1- The unit will be introduced to the class whereby students will be presented a problem-

based learning scenario regarding a small, secluded community that has be devastated by an

earthquake. Students will compile information regarding what goods and services will be available and

what will be scarce or not available. Students will be assigned groups that simulate community

members including demographics, attitudes, levels of preparedness etc. In groups students will decide

on appropriate actions to take before the Community Emergency Committee. Students will research

possible scenarios and solutions using the Internet and other resources provided

Week 2- The students will go to the computer lab and the Media Specialist will conduct training

on presentations using various software and Internet search options including EBSCO and other

database sites that might be available. They will also attend a session with the Library Media Specialist

who will conduct training on APA style, citations and references. Students will also continue with Week

1 assignment as needed.

Week 3- The students will work in groups and continue the necessary research on the Internet

and obtain information for the questions regarding scarcity and will use word processing software to

document the specific points provided by the teacher to be included in the final presentation.

Week 4- The students will work collaboratively on developing their debate strategies and their

presentation.

Week 5- The students will present their presentation as a group using presentation software,

answer questions that debate their conclusions, and use a rubric to critique the presentations of their

peers.
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Social Studies Blueprint

Content Area Activity Strategies Constructivism/Blooms

Integrating Taxonomy

Technology
Geography Groups create Cooperative learning, Collaboration in groups,

brochure Desktop publishing, Reciprocal learning

Microsoft Word™, Analysis and Evaluation

Internet
U.S. History Groups create Cooperative learning, Cooperative learning,

PowerPoint™ Internet, Critical Exploration,

presentation on PowerPoint™ Evaluation and

famous leader Synthesis


Civics Groups create website Cooperative learning, Cooperative learning,

on citizenship Case Study-based Collaboration among

learning, Website learners,

development, Learning as an active

Microsoft Word™, social process

Internet Teacher engages

students while they are

completing activities

Analysis and Synthesis


Economics Groups create Cooperative learning, Collaboration among

presentation about Internet, Excel™ for learners, Problem-based

scarcity graphs, PowerPoint ™ learning

or other presentation Knowledge should b


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software (e.g. learned as an integrated

SlideRocket, whole

OpenOffice Impress, Comprehension and

ThinkFree etc.) Application


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References

Argosy University. (2010). E6805: Integrating technology in the curriculum: Module four and module

seven. Retrieved from www.myeclassonline.com

Beames, S., Klenowski, V., and Lloyd, M., (2010). Matching intention with agency: Lessons from

practice. Journal of Learning Design, 3(2), pp. 50-61.

Buehl, D. (2008). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE: Reading

Association

Dalsgaard, C., and Paulsen, M.F., (2009). Transparency in cooperative online education. International

Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3), pp. 1-22.

Harley, D., Acord, S.K., and King, C.J., (2010). Assessing the future landscape of scholarly

communication: An exploration of faculty values and needs in seven disciplines. The Center for

Studies in Higher Education. ERIC search EDS12040.

Hetzroni, O. E., and Shrieber, B. (2004). Word processing as an assistive technology tool for enhancing

academic outcomes of students with writing disabilities in the general classroom. Journal of

Learning Disabilities, 37(2), pg 143-154.

Jahnke, J., (2010). Student perceptions of the impact of online discussion forum participation on

learning outcomes. Journal of Learning Design, 3(2), pp. 27-34.

Merchant, G., (2009). Web 2.0, new literacies, and the idea of learning through participation. English

Teaching: Practice and Critique, 8(3), pp. 107-122.

Monti, M. (2005). No-hands teaching: student-created lessons based on authentic material.

Pennsylvania Able, Fieldnotes. Retrieved from www.able.state.pa.us/fieldnotes.07


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Namsock, J., Nielsen, W., and Chan, E.K.H., (2010). Collaborative learning in an online course: A

comparison of commication patterns in small and whole group activities. Journal of Distance

Education, 24(2), pp. 39-58.

Orlich, D., Harder, R., Callahan, R., Trevisan, M., & Brown, A. (2007). Teaching strategies: a

Guide to effective instruction. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Centage Learning

Roblyer, M. D. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River,

NJ: Pearson Publishing.

Seifert, K., & Hoffnung, R. (2000). Child and adolescent development (5th ed.). Boston, MA:

Houghton Mifflin Company

Texas Education Code (1998). Technology applications, computer literacy, grades 6-8. Chapter 126.

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Technology Applications. Retrieved from

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/ch126.html

WebHostingClue.com, (2009). Students receive free web hosting from Microsoft and Web Fusion.

WebHostingClue.com, Find Reliable Affordable Web Hosting with Review and Guide.

Retrieved from http://www.webhostingclue.com/


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Appendix A

Website references used for strategies and topic information

Answers.com. (2011). http://www.answers.com/topic/citizenship

Argosy University. (2010). E6805: Integrating technology in the curriculum: Module four.

Retrieved from www.myeclassonline.com

Black history month links (2010). Retrieved from http://jc-schools.net/techupdate/blackhstry.html#bio

Buehl, D. (2008). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE: Reading

Association

Case-study-based learning. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tscbt.php

Definitions of citizenship. (2011). Google Search. http://www.google.com/search?

hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=ZvI&rls=org.mozilla:en-

US:official&defl=en&q=define:citizenship&sa=X&ei=qrFWTbb8MZC4sAO07sCjDA&ved=0

CBMQkAE

Maps of world (2010). Retrieved from http://www.mapsofworld.com/road-maps/usainterstateroadmap-

product.html

Orlich, D., Harder, R., Callahan, R., Trevisan, M., & Brown, A. (2007). Teaching strategies: a

Guide to effective instruction. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Centage Learning

Problem-based learning. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tscbt.php and

http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/forsythe_pbl and

http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Problem_Based_Instruction

Roblyer, M. D. (2006). Integrating educational technology into teaching (4th ed.). Upper Saddle

River, NJ: Pearson Publishing.

Seifert, K., & Hoffnung, R. (2000). Child and adolescent development (5th ed.). Boston, MA:

Houghton Mifflin Company


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What does citizenship mean? (2008). Retrieved from

http://www.citizenorange.com/orange/2008/03/what-does-citizenship-mean.html

World atlas explores your world (2010). Retrieved from http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/world.htm