ASSIGNMENT # 02

SUBJECT:
Switching

Digital

TOPIC:
Blocking Probability

SUBMITTED TO:
Saad Mustafa

Sir.

SUBMITED BY:
Akbar Mughal

Naveed

REG #:
SP08-BTN-065

Blocking networks are used because not all users require service simultaneously.DATE OF SUBMISION: 2011 2nd MAY Comsats Institute of Information Technology Abbottabad Question 1): What does blocking mean in networks? What is the importance of blocking in interconnecting devices? Answer: Blocking means in network to block certain users to access the resources of network while too many users are accessing the network simultaneously. linked together. When small PABXs or routers may be built from a single switching processor. Multistage interconnection networks or “link systems” or “Switching Fabrics” are required when the capacity to be switched in a given node exceeds the capabilities of a single switching element. collision. Blocking is implemented to avoid all of above problems and also the available bandwidth can be efficiently utilize. hubs etc. which means that there is a probability that no paths may be found available at a given moment between a given inlet and a given outlet. jitter. Importance of Blocking in Interconnecting Devices: Blocking is very important in interconnecting devices such as switches. Blocking is used so that the network utilization can be efficient and effective. delay and other network issues can be expected which degrade the performance of network. Certain statistical distributions apply to the patterns of user demand. When the amount of dat that a devices can handle exceed then there can be loss of data. hubs etc. larger nodes have to be organized with multiple stages of switching elements. The art of switch design consist in finding link and switching elements configurations that minimize or even cancel this Internal Blocking . Especially it is used to avoid collision in devices like switches. A network that has fewer transmission paths than would be required if all users were to communicate simultaneously. Such link systems present the inconvenience of internal blocking. routers.

Every network has a maximum probability of blocking. Lee’s approach of determine the blocking probabilities of various switching system is based on the use of utilization percentage or loadings of individual links. required availability. LEE’s Assumptions: . C. The calculation of internal blocking probabilities in multistage connecting networks is therefore a fundamental problem in the switching industry for switching fabric design. Jacobaeus. In 1955. It is a most versatile and straight forward approaches of calculating probabilities with the use of probability graphs. It is one of the aspects of the grade of service of the telephone company. This used to be the case with analogue switches. It is more accurate than Lee graph method. Consequently the Lee method has been very extensively used in the industry for switching fabric design. In 1950. There are variety of techniques to evaluate the blocking probability of a switching matrix. priority. C.probability. Y. when non blocking conditions are not feasible or would be too costly. geographical area. Here. complexity and applicability of different network structures. although more approximated method. It was proposed by C. Jacobaeus of LM Ericsson [JAC] established a method for computing internal blocking probabilities in a point-to-point selection within a three-stage interconnection network. it is presently the case with very large asynchronous switches like ATM switches or IP routers.Y. the techniques are varying. Both these techniques are approximate techniques and provide reasonably accurate result. It was presented in 1950 by C. Question 2): What does blocking probability means? Discuss Lee graphs and Jacobaeus blocking probabilities? Answer: All the switching systems are designed to provide a certain maximum probability of blocking for the busiest hour of the day. Lee of Bell Laboratories [LEE] proposed a much simpler. Lee.  Jacobaeus method.Y. two techniques are described. Depends on the accuracy. The Lee approximation had the advantage of being easily extended to any number of stages and of giving a worst-case assessment since it usually overestimates the internal blocking probability. to compute internal blocking probabilities. Lee graphics: C.  Lee graphs.

........... the blocking probability B is the probability that all links are busy is given by B = p ........(4) p′ = probability that any particular intersatge link is busy k = number of centre stage arrays.1) Traffic Distribution is uniform. shown in Fig.... 2) The network is considered to be a multiple-server queuing system......... the probability of blocking is given by B = (1 – q2) ....... 4) During the network operation....e.........(3) where q′ = probability that an interstage link is idle and k q′ = 1 – p′ . inter-arrival rate follows a pattern..... 3) In steady state........................ then n B = 1 – q ....(2) n 3 stage n/w: For a probability graph of three stage network.. a certain WORKLOAD is maintained which is defined by Network Utilization..... Network Utilization is the ratio of “Total no of busy links to no of input ports”...... below....(1) n = no of parallel links used to complete a connection........ constant or Poisson traffic i....... when a series of n links are all needed to complete a connection.. call arrival rate is equal to departure rate... The probability that a link is idle is denoted by q=1–p When any one of n parallel links can be used to complete a connection.......... Let p be the probability that a link is busy... ........

............ ......... β = k/n .......[1. the probability that an interstage link is busy is given by p′ = p/β ..(6) β is the factor by which the percentage of interstage links that are busy is reduced... the switch size of N with n = 8..If p is known. we set q′ = 1 –p/β .(7) Substituting (7) in (3) we get complete expression for the blocking probability of a three stage switch interms p as B= [1 ..................625 requires 2560 crosspoints...... Fig................................ Substituting in (5) in (4) ..p/β]2]k.. β = 0............. h = 5....(8) with inlets of 10% busy... Probability graph of three stage network.(5) where....

. According to C. Because the probability graphs entail several simplifying assumptions.. Jacobaeus: The Lee’s graph approach is not much accurate.MERITS: The merits of this method are (i) It provide accurate results (ii) Its formulas are directly relate to the network structures (iii) It provides insight of the network and thus provides ideas to change the structure for high performance. those techniques are not considered here. In fact the probabilities not independent and highly dependent when significant amounts of expansion are not present. The important one which gives erroneous values of blocking is the assumption that the individual probabilities are independent. More accurate techniques can be used for systems with high concentrations and high blocking.(9) where n = number of inlets (outlets) per first (third) stage array k = number of second stage array p = inlet utilization.. Jacobaeus the blocking probability of a three stage switch is B =[( n!)2/ k! ( 2n..k) !] pk(2-p) .... As the high blocking probabilities not having much practical value.

References:  R Syski. Bellamy. Improved Networks and End-to-End Probability Theory  John C. Digital Telephony  Claude Rigault . Introduction to Congestion Theory.  S. Katz. CLOS NETWORKS . S.

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