Submitted to: Submitted by:

Sir Zaheer Abbas

Muhammad Khuram (2007-chem-45) Usman Ashraf (2007-chem-63) AbaidUllah (2007-chem-47) Tahir Haroon (2007-chem-105)


and 32% of estuaries are unsafe for recreation due to toxic water pollution. 37% of rives. Types of water pollution FIGURE 1 There are various types of water pollution based on different types of pollutants. in contrast with petroleum products that are easily seen as sheens on top of water surface. nutrients. Freons) which sink in water (are denser than water) and are quite persistent and to 558 xic. radioactive material. PCE. but their effects can.1. Pollutants fall into three main categories: 1) biological. xylenes. 1. carbon tetrachloride. and wastes. or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses. Fertilizers (including nitrates and phosphates) ² while small amounts are useful to life. including heavy metals. 2) chemical. Chlorinated solvents (including TCE.Environmental Engineering Water Pollution Water pollution can be defined as "any biological. part of these compounds dissolve in water and. such as sediment. and heat. ethylbenzene) 2|P age . The following chemicals are the most common water pollutants: Crude oil and various petroleum (including gasoline. diesel fuel. such as bacteria or viruses. even in small amounts may be harmful and at the same time may remain unnoticeable by the eye. approximately 44% of lakes. cannot be seen by the eye. kerosene. chemical. These contaminants cannot be seen themselves in water (as they do not form sheens or color the water). pesticides. toluene. 3) physical. These compounds thus. The typical effect of water pollution by fertilizers (usually through agricultural runoff) is the fast and abundant water growth. motor and lubricating oils. Types of water pollutions are Physical Pollution Chemical Pollution Biological Pollution I) Chemical Pollution When various chemicals are mixed into the water then chemical water pollution causes. higher amounts of nitrates and phosphates in water are only benefic to algae and harmful microorganisms and are poisonous to human and aquatic life. jet fuel). These compounds are lighter than water and thus always sit on top of water forming sheens of ´free productµ. However. Petroleum solvents (including benzene.1-TCA." In the United States.

g. Examples of such compounds are: chloroform. Heavy metals harm humans through direct ingestion of contaminated water or through accumulation in the tissues of other organisms that are eaten by humans. Heavy metals represent a common type of chemical pollution in water. And so is the effect of water pollution on aquatic life. etc. too (e. in Chile. slash and burn practices. Thus. Metals and their compounds ² of higher health risk are the organo-metal co 558 mpounds which may form when metals from water react with organic compounds from water.. if water is polluted with both metals and organic compounds the health risk is higher. Causes damage to nervous system. Texas or California where natural formation of per chlorate has been observed). and vision. as well as many other applications such as fireworks. dichlorobromomethane.Environmental Engineering Organic water pollutants are: y y y y Food processing waste. However. inflation bags. The following are some common heavy metals found in water: Mercury (Hg): Enters the environment through the leaching of soil due to acid rain. kidneys. coal burning. and mining wastes. natural formation in arid areas may account for perchlorate in water. or industrial. This contaminant is usually associated with military bases. Common examples include Hg. household. 3|P age . bromoform. explosives. a huge range of organohalide and other chemicals Tree and brush debris from logging operations Bacteria from sewage or livestock operations Inorganic water pollutants are: y y y pre-production industrial raw resin pellets heavy metals including acid mine drainage silt in surface runoff due to logging. Trihalometanes ² these are usually byproducts of water chlorination and may pollute groundwater and surface water via leaking sewer lines and discharges. As. and Cr poisoning of water. including pathogens Insecticides and herbicides. construction sites or land clearing sites FIGURE 2 Antibiotics and other pharmaceutical products Per chlorate ² perchlorate salts are used in rocket fuels. road flares. construction sites (when explosives are used). They can be found naturally in bedrock and sediment or they may be introduced into water from industrial sources and household chemicals.

and nerve and red blood cells. Source: Authors. and reproductive effects (spontaneous abortions and stillbirths). Cancer and vascular effects are the dominating effects in other arsenic-polluted areas (WHO 2001). lungs. This number increases to 46 million to 57 million if the WHO guideline level of 10 micrograms per liter is used. hypertension. the prescribed limit for drinking water in Bangladesh (Kinniburgh and Smedley 2001). water from lead pipes and solder. Example of Chemical water Pollution: Arsenic in Bangladesh The presence of arsenic in tube wells in Bangladesh because of natural contamination from underground geological layers was first confirmed in 1993. Estimates indicate that 28 million to 35 million people of Bangladesh·s population of 130 million are exposed to arsenic levels exceeding 50 micrograms per liter. Causes damage to kidneys. the United Nations Children·s Fund had introduced the wells in the 1960s and 1970s as a safe alternative to water contaminated with microbes. learning ability. liver damage. Ironically. and plastic industries. Other effects reported. Cadmium (Cd): Sources include electroplating. but not epidemiologically confirmed. ability to synthesize protein. nervous system.Environmental Engineering Lead (Pb): Sources include paint. mining. which contributed to a heavy diarrheal disease burden. The most common sign of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh is skin lesions characterized by hyperkeratosis and melanosis. incinerator ash. mining wastes. and bladder). 4|P age . include cancer (particularly of the skin. Causes kidney disease. and automobile exhaust. as well as sewage. diabetes.

parasites. bacteria. almost half of the water withdrawn in the United States is used for such cooling. Sources of sediment include erosion. Thermal pollution results in death for many aquatic species. and it can destroy the feeding and spawning grounds of fish. physical or otherwise. Sediment may also carry pesticides. harbors. Sediment chokes and fills lakes. and other aquatic environments. 5|P age . Thermal pollution in water lowers dissolved oxygen levels and makes aquatic species more susceptible to disease. deforestation. Each year. Thermal shock occurs when an organism adapted to a certain temperature range is suddenly exposed to a temperature outside of that range. reducing photosynthesis and disrupting aquatic food webs. Heat is another physical water pollutant. solid fragments of inorganic or organic material that do not dissolve in water. and agricultural and hydroelectric projects. FIGURE 3 and other harmful substances. represents the most significant source of water pollution. Excessive heat in water results when large quantities of water are used for cooling of electric power plants. reservoirs. and toxic chemicals.Environmental Engineering Physical Pollutants Sediment.

5-1 NTU Visible: >5 NTU Higher during storms 6|P age .Environmental Engineering FIGURE 4 Physical Pollution is measured in NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units) Normal levels: 1-50 NTU Drinking Water: 0.

and harmful microorganisms is called biological water pollution. and protozoan.5 million Americans become ill as a result of bacterial contamination in drinking water. Though microscopic. Pathogens are another type of pollution that prove very harmful. storm drains. these pollutants have a tremendous effect evidenced by their ability to cause sickness. and particularly boats that dump sewage. protozoa. and they cause a variety of serious diseases. Pathogens include such organisms as bacteria. They can cause many illnesses that range from typhoid and dysentery to minor respiratory and skin diseases. The United States Environmental Protection Agency uses the number of coli form bacteria per 100 milliliters of a water sample in order to determine the severity of biological pollution in water.Environmental Engineering Biological Pollutants Water pollution which is caused by bacteria. Other examples of biological pollutants include viruses. and parasitic worms. and that swimming water contain no more than 200 colonies per 100 milliliters. FIGURE 5 7|P age . Each year. These infectious agents enter the environment from human and animal wastes. The EPA recommends that drinking water contain zero colonies per 100 milliliters. These pollutants enter waterways through untreated sewage. viruses. septic tanks. runoff from farms. about 1.

Environmental Engineering Oxygen-Demanding Waste Dissolved Oxygen Added by: turbulent water and photosynthesis.Good = 60-80%) Water quality FIGURE 6 8|P age . Removed by: Increased temperature (exsolution) and respiration/decomposition Good: > 6 ppm (mosquitoes can survive in 1 ppm) (also measured in % of maximum .

Point-source pollutants in surface water and groundwater are usually found in a plume that has the highest concentrations of the pollutant nearest the source (such as the end of a pipe or an underground injection system) and diminishing concentrations farther away from the source. Thus. However. mining activity. etc. FIGURE 7 Point and Nonpoint Sources 9|P age . Non-point Resources ² include un-localized sources from which pollutants are carried away by water discharges and runoffs. These sources are usually regulated and thus their effect may be predicted and of low impact. an exception related to accidental leaks and spills.Environmental Engineering Point Resources including any localized source such as an industrial process. non-point pollution may involve a broad range of pollutants usually at lower amounts than the point sources.

or one every 17 seconds. Demand for freshwater is increasing by 64 billion cubic meters a year (1 cubic meter = 1. Energy demand is also accelerating.Environmental Engineering Water consumption Worldwide. industries consume more than half of the water available for human use. For example. Changes in lifestyles and eating habits in recent years are requiring more water consumption per capita.000 and 4.000 liters of water are needed to produce a single litre of biofuel.000 liters) The world·s population is growing by roughly 80 million people each year. causing some three million early deaths. Water consumption Country vice 10 | P a g e . Between 1. with corresponding implications for water demand. uses 80% of the water available for industry. Belgium. Freshwater withdrawals have tripled over the last 50 years. 5. with significant impact on water demand. The production of biofuels has also increased sharply in recent years.000 children die every day from diarrhoea. agriculture accounts for 70% of all water consumption. for example. however. compared to 20% for industry and 10% for domestic use. Almost 80% of diseases in so called "developing" countries are associated with water. In industrialized nations.

New and dangerous diseases are taking place due to water pollution. Government environmental protection agencies should emphasize chemical industries not to throw heavy chemicals in the river or lakes.Environmental Engineering Conclusion Water demand is increasing in the world and resources are going to be scarce. We should try to reduce our activities that may contaminate water. Every kind of life is facing the serious effects of water pollution on earth. There will come a time in near future when drinking water will not be available due to increasing pollution in the water. 11 | P a g e . Increasing water pollution is a threat to life on earth and directly or indirectly every human being is involved in it. Experts say that the third world war will be due to water and it will be final.

waterencyclopedia.html#ixzz1Dq24LRVj ( Retrieved on 12/02/2011) http://www.html (Retrieved on 12/02/2011) http://www.uk/evidence/statistics/environment/inlwater/kf/iwkf1 1.org/04oct/01590/pollution/pollutants.gov.htm ( Retrieved on 12/02/2011) 12 | P a g e .thinkquest.environmentalpollutioncenters.org (Retrieved on 12/02/2011) http://library.com/Po-Re/Pollution-Sources-Point-andNonpoint.defra.Environmental Engineering Reference: http://www.

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