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SUBMITTED BY 1. SACHIN G. KUMKAR 2. PRASAD L. JAGTAP 3. VIPENDRA PANDEY 4. KARAN N. KUCKIAN
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF PROF. N. CHANDRAN
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SARASWATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
KHARGHAR, NAVI MUMBAI-410 210
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
SARASWATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
(AFFILIATED TO UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI) Kharghar, Navi Mumbai-410 210
This is to certify that the following students 1. SACHIN G. KUMKAR 2. PRASAD L. JAGTAP 3. VIPENDRA PANDEY 4. KARAN N. KUCKIAN have completed the project entitled “POWER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FOR OCEAN WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION” and duly submitted the project report as fulfillment of the curriculum for ‘Bachelor of Engineering’ degree under University of Mumbai during the academic year 2010-2011.
(Mr. N. Chandran) INTERNAL GUIDE EXTERNAL EXAMINER
(Mr. G. N. Thokal) PROJECT CO-ORDINATOR (Mr. S. N. Teli)
(Dr. S. Jairam) PRINCIPAL
We would like to express our deep regards and thanks to our honorable principal Dr. S. Jairam for his continuous encouragement and support. We would like to acknowledge Prof. S. N. Teli (HOD, Mechanical Dept.) and all our staff members for co-operation and valuable guidance which they provided us to complete our project. We express our gratitude and sincere thanks to our project guide Prof. N. Chandran. Our vocabulary does not have suitable words befitting to high standards of knowledge and extreme sincerity, devotion and affection with which he has regularly encouraged us to put our heart and soul in this work. We want to extend our cordial thanks to workshop Superintendent Prof. T. Z. Quazi for granting us permission to use the college workshop and all its facilities to full extent without which our project could not be completed. We also thank the workshop staff Mr.Vaibhav, Mr.Subhedar for their timely assistance. We sincerely acknowledge Prof. G.N.Thokal for the guidance provided for completing the project report. Our parents have been an endless source of support and inspiration throughout the course of our study; it is indeed our great privilege to express our heartfelt gratitude towards them.
SACHIN G. KUMKAR PRASAD L. JAGTAP VIPENDRA PANDEY KARAN N. KUCKIAN
This report is a summarized volume of various techniques, procedure and fabrication method employed in the design and manufacturing of the power transmission system for a float type ocean wave converter. The important feature of this project is the unidirectional gearbox. This report concentrates on the unidirectional gearbox, its principle, design, layout, functioning. This type of gearbox employs a chain and sprocket arrangement for the unidirectional motion of the output shaft regardless of the direction in which the input shaft rotates. This report also gives an overview of the ocean wave energy conversion as a whole, its components, layout and advantages to human life. Various important formulae’s for extracting wave power have been included in this report. We sincerely hope that all our efforts put forward in recording this project report, bears fruitful to all our fellow students and guide them in the interesting field of non-conventional energy sources.
Acknowledgement Abstract List of Figures
i ii iii
Particular Page No. 4 7 7 8 9 11 12 17 18 22 35 38
Block diagram Representation Of Wave Energy Conversion System Wave generation Forms of energy In Ocean Wave Nomenclature Of a Wave Wave Creation Schematic Of Wave Power Generation Device Pilot Plant Of Ocean Wave Energy Converter At Ratnagiri, Maharashtra Schematic Of A Unidirection Gear Box. The Working Model Of Uni-Directional Gearbox Vertical & Horizontal Bending Moment Diagram Schematic of side plate Model of input shaft
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 5.1
5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9
Deformation in input shaft Analysis of a solid shaft Model of a Plate Deformation in a plate Analysis of a plate Model of a Plate 2 Deformation of a Plate 2 Analysis of a Plate 2
39 39 41 42 42 44 45 45
List of Tables
Table No. 2.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Particular Types of float designs & their parameters Horizontal & vertical forces on pulley & sprocket Bearing series selection of chain Elemental quality of shaft Properties of Material selected shaft1 Forces & moment acting on the shaft1 Elemental quality of side plate 1 Forces & moment acting on the Side plate 1 Elemental quality of side plate 2 Material properties of side plate 2 Forces & moment acting on the Side plate 2
Page No. 13 21 27 32 37 37 39 40 41 43 43 44
Comparison of different types of mechanical drives 29
1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3. 3.1 3.2 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5. 5.1
INDEX INTRODUCTION Motivation Ocean Wave Energy Conversion Overview of Project Literature Survey Wave Energy Physics Wave Creation Wave Energy Formula Wave Power Generation Device Float system Simulation Tank Problem Definition Scope of project Concept of uni-directional gearbox Design Calculation Shaft Design Bearing selection Importance & features of chain drive In unidirectional gearbox Chain Design Side Plate Design Analysis Analysis of shaft
1 2 4 4 6 7 8 9 10 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 26 29 31 35 36 37
5.2 6. 7. 8.
Analysis of side plate Conclusion Bibliography APPENDIX
40 46 47 48
CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION
Today more than 80 per cent of the world’s electric power production comes from fossil-fuelled plants.Future energy supply projections suggest that there will be problems in matching supply and demand in the next century. Furthermore, since the cost of primary energy will almost certainly rise, alternative forms of energy conversion must obviously be investigated and developed as their supplementary or insurance technologies. Power generation in India today is mainly from hydroelectric and thermal power plants. The present total installed capacity hardly meets the grid demand. Uncertainty of the monsoon and problems of coal transport put a strong limitation on expansion of present generation capacity. However, the increase in standard of living and rapid industrial growth necessitates a high rate of growth of power supply. The price of oil continues to be high in India. The present contribution of power generation from nuclear plants is small, and the uncertainty in the protective measures against all environmental hazards of such plants indicates that development of renewable energy sources is important for India.  As the demand for electricity is forecasted to increase, there is an urgent need to find new methods to extract electric energy from renewable sources. Hence, the need for renewable energy is fast-becoming essential in today's world energy market. The world needs a source of energy that will last longer than our limited supply of fossil fuels. Pollution is also an issue, and many environmentalist groups are pushing toward more "earth-friendly" energy sources. Renewable electric energy supply is today one of the highest priorities in many parts of the world.
The Kyoto declaration 1997 and the last agreement at Marrakech 2002 are significant proof of this. One important renewable energy source is ocean energy. Ocean waves represent a vast unexplored source of renewable energy. Solar radiation, which sustains life on earth, is continuous and inexhaustible. It has been estimated that about 1016W of solar energy reaches the earth. The ocean, which covers nearly 71% of earth’s surface, acts as a natural collector of this energy. Thus, the ocean has an enormous potential to supply energy in many different ways. The major advantages of ocean energy are that it is renewable and continuous throughout the year, is pollution free and has minimum health hazard. For remote islands, ocean energy will be the most important form of alternative energy since it comes from the immediate vicinity. The incessant motion of the sea surface in the form of wind waves constitutes a source of continuous energy. About 1.5% of the incoming energy from the sun is converted to wind energy. Part of the energy from the winds is transferred to the sea surface, resulting in generation of waves. This energy is carried to coastlines throughout the world, where it is dissipated as the waves break. If this source can be tapped properly and used economically, it can generate a sizeable portion of world energy needs. Extraction of energy from waves is more efficient than directly from wind, since wave energy is concentrated through interaction of the wind and the free ocean surface. The sea behaves like an immense energy collector whereby the wind energy, transferred to the large sea surface, is stored as mechanical energy in waves. The inertia of waves provides this short-time storage and partly smoothens the high variability of the wind over time and space. Wave energy has the potential to be a much larger resource than tidal power. Unlike tidal current extraction, which works best in the small number of highly favorable sites wave energy can be extracted in many places along a coastline as well as offshore. With the substantial resource potential, a wide variety of methods for extracting energy has been developed. The different devices and systems not only employ different techniques for “capturing” the wave energy, but also employ a large
variety of different methods for converting it to electricity (i.e., the “power take-off” system). The above mentioned causes have thereby motivated our project i.e. ocean wave energy conversion which is based on a float and pulley mechanism.
1.2 Ocean Wave Energy Conversion
Basic wave energy conversion can be stated as the force (or torque) produced in a system by an incident wave causes relative motion between absorber and reaction point, which acts directly coupled to electric generator. Block diagram representation of the proposed wave energy conversion system is shown in fig.1.1 .It consists of energy conversion device which converts ocean wave energy into mechanical or some useful form of energy. Converted energy (in the form of mechanical shaft power) is again converted into electrical energy by an electric generator. Generated energy is further stored by using suitable storage device such as a battery.
Fig. 1.1 Block diagram representation of wave energy Conversion system
Ocean wave energy is total sum of kinetic potential energy of moving water blocks. Wave energy available at Indian Coasts is in the range of 5kW/m to 70kw/m. Using this energy conversion device 1 kW energy can be easily extracted.
Overview of the Project
The Ocean wave energy conversion system is a real time project of Saraswati
College of Engineering. The system is less efficient and hence requires more research for the wide scale application of this system in our country. India has a major potential for harnessing energy from ocean; the coastline of India being 7515 km. Our project is a
part of this research that can make this system more efficient by testing this system in a laboratory against various parameters. The two important objectives of this project are1. Modelling of the ocean wave energy conversion system 2. Increase in efficiency of the system The project is based on modeling of the following systems:1. Float system 2. Ocean wave simulation 3. Power transmission system The scope of the system being vast, it has been divided into three sub-groups based upon the above three modeling systems. Out of the above three sub-groups, our group is responsible for the modeling of the power transmission system and increase in efficiency of the same. The power transmission system forms a very important part of the project. The efficiency of the entire project is largely dependent on this system. This system basically comprises of the rope and pulley system, the unidirectional gearbox, a generator and a storage battery. The original project on the lines of which our project is modeled consists of similar components except for the high speed gearbox and uni-directional clutch. This is what makes our project different from the original work which has been described in detail ahead.
CHAPTER: 2 LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 Wave Energy Physics
Fig. 2.1 Wave generation
Among different types of ocean waves, wind generated waves have the highest energy concentration. Wind waves are derived from the winds as they blow across the oceans. This energy transfer provides a natural storage of wind energy in the water near the free surface. Once created, wind waves can travel thousands of kilometers with little energy losses, unless they encounter head winds. Near the coastline, the wave energy intensity decreases due to interaction with the seabed. Energy dissipation near shore can be compensated by natural phenomena as refraction or reflection, leading to energy concentration (“hot spots”).
Fig 2.2 Forms of energy in ocean wave
Ocean waves encompass two forms of energy: the kinetic energy of the water particles that in general follow circular paths; and the potential energy of elevated water particles. On the average, the kinetic energy in a linear wave equals its potential energy. The energy flux in a wave is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the period of the motion. The average power in long period, large amplitude waves commonly exceeds 40-50 kW per meter width of oncoming wave. 
2.2 Wave Creation
Ocean waves are created by the wind. When the wind blows across a smooth water surface, air particles from the wind grab the water molecules they touch. The force or friction between the air and water stretches the water surface, resulting in small ripples, known as capillary waves. Surface tension acts on these ripples to restore the smooth surface and thereby waves are formed. As waves form, the surface becomes rougher and it is easier for the wind to grip the roughened water surface and intensify the waves. The highest part of the wave is called the crest and lowest part that is depressed beneath the surface is called the trough. The overall vertical change in height between the crest and the trough (= 2 x amplitude) is called the wave height. The distance between two successive crests is the length of the wave or wavelength (L). The time required for two successive crests or two successive troughs to pass a point in
space is called the period (T). The number of peaks (or troughs) that pass a fixed point per second is the frequency.
Fig. 2.3 Nomenclature of a wave
The air moves faster at the wave crests (point A) than in the troughs (point B). By the Bernoulli principle, this produces a pressure differential that tends to increase the elevation difference between the crest and trough. The area over the ocean in which a particular set of waves is developed depends on the size of the pressure fronts involved. This area is called a “fetch.”
Fig.2.4 Wave creation
2.3 Wave Energy Formula
Ocean waves are random in nature. The power available in random sea is
Where, H=significant wave height (defined as average of highest waves) in meters T=zero crossing period in seconds. The above formula states that wave power is proportional to the wave period and to the square of the wave height. When the significant wave height is given in meters, and the wave period in seconds, the result is the wave power in kilowatts (kW) per meter of wave front length. From the above relation for a significant height of 2m and a zero crossing period of 7 sec, the power is 15w/m of wave front.
For a sinusoidal wave of height H, the average energy E stored on a horizontal square metre of the water surface is:
Where, kE = ρ g / 8 = 1.25 kW-s/m2 ρ = mass density of sea water ≈ 1020 kg/m3 g = acceleration of gravity ≈ 9.8 m/s2 Half of this is potential energy due to the weight of the water lifted from wave troughs to wave crests. The remaining half is kinetic energy due to the motion of the water. As the waves propagate, their energy is transported. The energy in the waves travel with the group velocity cg. The individual waves travel faster - they are born on the rear end of the group, and they die in the front end. On deep water this phase velocity is twice, the group velocity.The energy transport velocity is the group velocity. As a result, the wave energy flux, through a vertical plane of unit width perpendicular to the wave propagation direction, is equal to:
P=E × Cg
Where, Cg = group velocity (m/s) On deep water the group velocity is cg = g T/4π
2.4 Wave Power Generation Device
The combination of forces due to the gravity, sea surface tension and wind intensity are the main factors of origin of sea waves. While we know that wave power is more energy dense than wind power for a large percentage of the year, we still do not know how to calculate the power available from a wave. This is important for the design process of a wave energy convertor. First, the power and forces acting on the device should be assessed, and then the device may be sized for the desired energy output.  The main components of the ocean wave energy conversion device are:1. Float system 2. Rope and pulley system 3. Power transmission system (uni-directional gearbox, generator)
The wave energy conversion device consists of float, flexible ropes, pulleys, unidirectional gearbox, counter weight, electric generator, storage battery and supporting frame. Float and counter weight is connected to each other using flexible rope. Rope is passed over pulley system as shown in fig.2.5, which shows weight of float and bouncy force is balanced by counter weight. Counter weight is designed such that float is always half immersed in the water. The float is displaced when an ocean wave crest or trough strikes the float. When a wave crest strikes the float, it is raised against the dead weight and this rotates the input shat of the generator on which a pulley is mounted. When a wave trough appears, the float is lowered raising the dead weight and thereby again rotating the input shaft of the generator. Thus, the float is subjected to two types of movement, one is the horizontal movement due to horizontal thrust and the second one is the vertical movement due to the vertical thrust. Therefore, it is the prime requirement to measure these horizontal and vertical movements of the float. By measuring the displacement of the float, we can calculate the wave energy absorbed by the float by using the wave energy formula.
Pulley system is further connected to a unidirectional gearbox through couplings. The unidirectional gearbox converts the to and fro motion of shaft to one direction motion which is the prime requirement for generation of electrical energy via electrical generator. The generator is further connected to storage battery or it can be directly connected to electrical supply transport system.
Fig.2.6 Pilot plant of ocean wave energy converter at Ratnagiri, Maharashtra
2.5 Float system
The float is one of the prime requirements of the ocean wave converter. The float receives the energy in the form of waves. The float is displaced when an ocean wave crest or trough strikes the float. When a wave crest strikes the float, it is raised
against the dead weight and this rotates the input shat of the generator on which a pulley is mounted. When a wave trough appears, the float is lowered raising the dead weight and thereby again rotating the input shaft of the generator. Thus, the float is subjected to two types of movement, one is the horizontal movement due to horizontal thrust and the second one is the vertical movement due to the vertical thrust. Hence, the selection of best design and material for a float is essential.
1.943 kg (approx)
2.4856 × 10-3 m³ (approx)
-28.80 N (approx)
1.856 kg (approx)
2.37356 × 10-3 m³ (approx)
-37.16 N (approx)
1.9363 × 10-3 m³ (approx)
-38.11 N (approx)
Table 2.1: Types of float designs & their parameters
2.6 Wave generation tank
The figure below shows the varios components of the wave generation tank along with there dimensions:
Fig.2.7 Dimensions and labelling of tank
Fig.2.8 Components of wave generation tank
Dimensions are as follows : Length of tank : 6 feet Width of tank : 2 feet Height of tank : 2 feet The wave generation tank used for the simulation is made of marine wood.
Why wood is selected as material?
1. It is light in weight hence easy for transportation.
2. It is cheaper compared to metal and plastic since their fabrication cost is much higher. 3. Wood is easy to craft compared to metal and plastic. 4. Modifications can be easily done on wood hence proves a better option for our experiment. 5. Since marine wood is used there is no question of swelling of wood.
Components of tank .
➢ Piston giude: • To guide the vertical motion of the piston • To achieve the constraint motion of the piston so that there is no deflection while applying force on water surface. ➢ Piston • It is used to get a uniform pressure distribution on the water surface. ➢ Valve • It acts as aone way valve. • It is used to prevent the non-return motion of the water. ➢ Variable Inclined plate • To vary the outlet discharge area of water from the water column. • With the help of variable inclined plate, we can obtain different wave height and wave length. ➢ Fixed angle plate
It is adjusted at a fixed angle of 600 as obtained in the calculations.
• It directs the water coming from the water column. • The forced water takes the profile of the fixed angle plate and comes out as a wave.
➢ Variable sea shore angle plate
• Its function is to minimize the back force of water striking thw tank wall. • To examine the effect of back force of water on the float at different sea shore angle.
Components of Mechanism :
➢ Piston ➢ Connecting rod ➢ Crank ➢ Dead weight ➢ Bearing ➢ Handle
Fig.2.9 Mechanism of simulation tank
CHAPTER 3: PROBLEM DEFINITION
3.1 Scope of project
An ocean wave is a sum of a wave crest and a wave trough. The float is
displaced when an ocean wave crest or trough strikes the float. When a wave crest strikes the float, it is raised against the dead weight which is connected to the other end of the rope moving over the pulley. This movement of the rope along with the dead weight rotates the pulley and thereby the shaft in a particular direction say anticlockwise .This rotates the input shat of the generator on which a pulley is mounted, thereby producing electricity. When a wave trough appears, the float is lowered raising the dead weight and thereby again rotating the input shaft of the generator. Thus, in the ocean wave converter, the input shaft on which the pulley is mounted rotates in both the direction. However, for the continuous power generation at the generator a unidirectional motion (rotation) of the output shaft is required. This problem gives a wide scope for our project. This report mainly gives a solution to this problem. This can be achieved by using a mechanism which converts the bi-directional motion of the shaft into unidirectional motion. We have sought a solution by using a uni-directional gearbox utilizing a chain and sprocket arrangement. The Uni-directional gearbox converts bi-directional motion of a shaft in to unidirectional motion of another shaft. It converts the alternative rotation into continuous rotation with no significant loss in transmitted energy. This captured and converted energy in the form of mechanical rotation could be used for further utilization. This unidirectional gearbox is capable of converting any clockwise or anticlockwise directional rotation at its input shaft into continuous unidirectional rotation at its output shaft. This process happens with no significant energy loss.
3.2 Concept of Uni-directional gearbox
Fig 3.1 Schematic of a Uni-direction gear box.
Construction:This type of unidirectional gearbox consists of sprockets and chain which convert the bi-directional motion of the input shaft into a uni-directional motion, which is the prime necessity in a generator. components of a unidirectional gearbox
1. Sprocket (6 NOs.)
2. Chain (2 NOS.) 3. Shaft on which sprockets are mounted (4 NOS.)
4. Bearings (8 NOS.) 5. Side Plate (2 NOS.)
Fig.3.2 The working model of uni-directional gearbox
Working: 1. On the input shaft are mounted the pulley and the sprocket between the bearings. 2. When the pulley rotates in anticlockwise direction sprocket 1, 3 &4 rotates in
the same direction as that of the pulley (i.e. anticlockwise direction).
3. However the other three sprocket i.e. 2, 2'& 4' rotates in the clockwise direction. 4. It should be noted that 2'& 4' always rotates in the clockwise direction. This is
due to the free wheel mechanism in the sprocket.
5. When the input shaft rotates in the anticlockwise direction the free wheel
mechanism start acting in the sprocket 4.
6. When the shaft rotates in the clockwise direction the free wheel mechanism start
acting in the sprocket 2.
7. This mechanism gives uni-directional motion to the output shaft which is
connected to the generator irrespective of the direction of input rotation.
CHAPTER: 4 DESIGN CALCULATION
4.1 Shaft Design
Velocity of float=V= 0.5 m/s Diameter of pulley= Dpulley= 0.052m V = π DpulleyN60 N = 60×0.5π×0.052 =183.64 rpm Torque, Mt= force on pulley× radius of pulley =75 × 0.026 =1.95 N-m Power, P = 2πNMt60 = 2π×183.45×1.9560 = 38W Vertical and Horizontal Forces Pulley at A Weight of pulley = 2.34N Weight of Dead wt. = 75 Cos 40=57.453N Tension in rope = 75 Cos 40=57.453N
∴Vertical force on pulley
(FV) A = Wt. of pulley + Wt. of Dead weight. + Tension in rope =2.34+ 57.34 + 57.453
∴ (FV) A =117.246 N
∴Horizontal force on pulley, (FH) A = 75 sin 40
∴ (FH) A =48.209 N
Sprocket at C Weight of sprocket = 1.86 N Diameter of sprocket=D sprocket = 65mm
TtTs= eμθ TtTs=1.05 …………… µ very less=0.02θ=180o
( Tt – Ts) Dsprocket2 = Mt (1.05Ts – Ts ) 652 = 1.95×103 Tt = 1200 N Ts = 1260 N Resultant tension, Tc = Tt + Ts = 1260+1200 = 2460N Vertical force on sprocket (F V)C = Tc sin 40 + W Sprocket =2460× Sin50 +1.86
(F V)C = 1583.117 N
Horizontal force on sprocket (FH)C = TC cos40 = 2460 cos40
(FH)C = 1884.469 N
Table 4.1 : Horizontal & vertical forces on pulley & sprocket
Pulley A (FH)A=48.209 N
Sprocket C (FH)C=1884.469N
Fig 4.1 Vertical & horizontal bending moment diagram
MB=0 117.246×36+VD ×103=(1583.117 ×33.5)
VD = 473.91 N
117.246 + 1583.117 - 473.91 = VB
VB = 1226.453 N
Vertical Bending Moment (MA)V = (MD) V = 0 (MB)V = 117.246 ×36 = 4220.856N-mm (MC)V = (117.246× 69.5) – (1226.453× 33.5) = 32937.57 N-mm Horizontal Reaction
MB=0 48.209 ×36+ HD ×103=1884.469 ×33.5
HD = 596 N
48.209 + 1884.469 – 596 = HB
HB = 1336.678 N
Horizontal Bending Moment (MA)H = (MD) H = 0 (MB)H = 48.209 ×36 = 1735.524 N-mm (MC)H= (48.209 × 69.5) – (1336.678 ×33.5) = 41428.187 N-mm
Resultant Bending Moment (Mb ) B = MBH2+ MBv2 = 4563.734 N-mm (Mb)C = MCH2+ MCv2 = 52926.158 N-mm Thus from BMD, the critical point is at point C Mb= (Mb) C = 52926.158 N-mm Mt =1.95×103 N-mm Material Selection Shaft material: - C-50………………………………….. P.S.G1.9[ 6 ] σyt = 380 N/mm2 Allowable stress: σt = σytFOS = 95 N/mm2…………………..F.O.S = 4 (assume)
τ=0.5 σt …………………………… (as per Maximum Shear Stress Theory)) =47.5 N/mm2
Combined fatigue and shock load factor………………P.S.G7.21 ( Kb , Kt - revolving shaft and assuming minor shock load factor) Kb= 2, Kt = 1.5 Equivalent Bending Moment
= 12 52926.158×2+52926.158 ×22+1.95×103×1.52 = 105.872 ×103 N-mm
Equivalent twisting Moment
Te = (MbKb)2+(MtKt)2 = 52926.158 ×22+1.95×103×1.52 =105.892 ×103 N-mm Diameter of shaft 1) Based on maximum normal stress d = 332 Mbeπ (σt) =332×105.872 ×103π × 95 d = 22.474mm 2) Based on maximum shear stress d
316 Te π ( τ)
= 316 × 105.892 ×103π × 47.5 d =22.475 Taking greater value i.e. d =22.475
∴Standardizing the shaft diameter,
d = 25mm
Optimizing shaft design
Table 4.2:- Effect of variation in shaft dia. on various parameter
Hollow Hollow Hollow Compone Solid shaft shaft with shaft with shaft with nt I.D. = 10 I.D. = 12 I.D. = 13 Material C-50 C-50 C-50 C-50
Area 0.016 0.021 0.022 [m2] Volume 7.9955 x 9.8574 x 10-5 8.5646x 10-5 [m3] 10-5 Density 7860 7860 7860 [Kg/m3] Mass 0.775 0.673 0.628 [Kg]
0.022 7.6723 x 10-5 7860 0.603
Graph 4.1: Shaft dia. Vs Mass of shaft
We know that, hollow shaft are stronger per kg of material and they can be forged on a mandrel, thus making the material more homogeneous than in case of solid shaft. Therefore, instead of solid shaft for same strength, we can use hollow shaft which will reduce material and overall system weight. This reduces the cost of the system.
: For B Radial load (Fr) Axial load (Fa) For D Radial load (Fr) Axial load (Fa) = 0.473 KN =0.596 KN = 1.226 KN =1.336 KN
Load on bearing
Bearing speed Expected Life in hours Probability of survival Temperature factor Type of bearing
: N=185rpm : Lhr =17520 : : P07= 93% Kt =1
: Ball bearing
Expected life of bearing in million revolutions (mr) for 93% probability of survival:
L07 = Lhr×N×60106
=17520×185×60/106 =194.47 mr Life of bearing expected for 90% of probability of survival:
ln ( 1/P07)ln (1/P10)1/b
Where, P07=0.93, P10=0.90 b=1.34 ……………….. (For ball bearing P.S.G. /4.2) L10=256.853 mr
Fixing bearing series based on excessive radial load factor: Pe= [V × X × Fr × Kr ] S × Kt Pe= equivalent load V= Ring rotation factor, If outer race is fixed, V=1 If outer race is moving, V=1.2 S=service factor =1.2… (Assuming medium shock load ) X=Radial load factor =1 Kr=Excessive radial load factor If Fa/Fr < 0.3, then Kr =1.2 If 0.3 < Fa/Fr >0.5, then Kr =1.3 If Fa/Fr > 0.5, then Kr=1.5 Pe= [1×1×1.226×1.5]1×1.2 Pe = 2.206 KN Dynamic capacity (C): C = (L10)1/K× Pe K= 3 ………………………… (For ball bearing P.S.G. /4.2) C = (267.45)1/3×2.206 =15.5017 kN (1550 kg-f) Selection of suitable bearing series:
Table 4.3: Bearing series
Series 6305 6306 6207 6009
I.D. (mm) 25 30 35 45
C0 (kgf) 1040 1460 1370 1270
C (kgf) 1660 2200 2000 1630
Max. RPM 10000 10000 10000 10000
Based on economical criteria and safety condition, selecting
Bearing Series 6305 Dynamic capacity (C) =1660 Kg-f Static capacity (Co) =1040 Kg-f
Checking for the actual bearing life : Equivalent load on bearing Pe = [(V × X × Fr) + (Y×Fa)] S × Kt To find X and Y: For bearing at D, FaCo = 59610400 =0.057
∴ e = 0.27 FaV×Fr = 596 473.91 =1.2526 > ∴
X=0.56 , Y=1.6,
Pe = [(1 × 0.56 ×473.91) + (1.6×596)] 1.2 × 1 = 1462.78 N Life of bearing for 90% probability of survival L10= 166001462.783= 1461 mr Hence, Bearing is Safe. RESULT: Selecting the bearing series 6305 on dynamic load carrying capacity of 1.660 kN for 93% probability of survival and then checked it so that whether its L10 life is more or less from the expected life. Hence, it is a safe condition. > expected life
Importance Of Chain Drive In Unidirectional Gearbox 
Noise/Vibration Avoid Water, Dust Avoid Heat, Oil, Water, Dust Avoid Heat, Oil, Water, Dust Avoid Water, Dust
Surrounding Condition Space Saving (High Speed/ Low Load) Space Saving (Low Speed/ High Load) Lubrication
Less Durability Due to Less Engagement Required
Excess Load onto Bearing
Table 4.4: Comparison of different types of mechanical drives
Excellent Good Fair Poor
Generally, under the same transmission conditions, the cost of toothed belts and pulleys is much higher than the cost of chains and sprockets.
Features of Chain Drives:
Speed reduction/increase of up to seven to one can be easily accommodated.
Chain can accommodate long shaft-center distances (less than 4 m), and is more versatile. It is possible to use chain with multiple shafts or drives with both sides of the chain. Standardization of chains under the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the International Standardization Organization (ISO), and the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) allow ease of selection. 5. It is easy to cut and connect chains.
The sprocket diameter for a chain system may be smaller than a belt pulley, while transmitting the same torque. Sprockets are subject to less wear than gears because sprockets distribute the loading over their many teeth.
4.4 Chain Design
Power to be transmitted, N = 0.97KW Input speed n1 =210rpm Velocity ratio, i =2 Service factor KS =K1 × K2 × K3 × K4 ×K5× K6 ………………………. K1, load factor =1 K2, distance regulation factor =1 K3, center distance factor =1 K4, position of sprocket factor =1 K5, lubrication factor =1 K6, rating factor =1 KS = 1×1×1×1×1×1 =1 Number of teeth on driver & driven Since i =2 Z1 = 16 , Z2 =32 Selection of pitch (P) Since n=210 rpm …….(200 < rpm < 500 ) Hence selecting pitch P =12.7 Pitch circle diameter of sprocket (p.c.d) d1 = Psin 180Z1 = 12.7sin 18016 = 65.09 mm d2 = Psin 180Z2 = 12.7sin 18032 =129.56 mm.
Speed of chain (V1) V1= πdN60,000 m/sec.
= π×65.09×21060,000 = 0.715 m/sec. Power transmitted on basis of Breaking Load (Q) ....…………….. P.S.G.7.77
N=Q ×V1102 ×n ×KS Q=102 ×N ×n ×KSV1 Q=102 ×0.97 ×7.8 ×10.715
= 1079.34 kg-f Chain selection Based on breaking load ………………………P.S.G.7.71
Table 4.5 : selection of chain
Roller Chain No. Pitch Dia. Max. Iso/din 08A-1 Rolon R40 p mm. 12.7 Dr mm. 7.95
Pt mm. 11.7
A cm2 0.44
w Kg-f 0.69
Q Kg-f 1410
Check for bearing stress σbr =Allowable bearing pressure = 3.15 kg-f/mm2 ……………………………………………………P.S.G.7.75 Induced Bearing stress(σ) σ =102 ×ks ×NA×V
σ =102 ×1 ×0.970.44 ×0.715 =314.49 kg-f/cm2
= 314.49×10-2 kg-f/mm2 = 3.1449 kg-f/mm2 Since σ < [σbr]
∴ Design is Safe.
Lp =2a + ( Z2+Z1 2 ) + Z2-Z12π2ap Where LP , length of continuous chain in multiple of pitches aP ,approximate center distance in multiple of pitches ap = a0p where a0 ,assumed center distance (a0 = 90mm ) ap =
Lp = (2×7.086) + 32+162 + 32-162π27.086 Lp = 14.17 + 24 + 0.162 = 39.087 Corrected to even no. ∴ Lp = 40 Exact center distance (a) a = e + e 2- 8 m 4×pitch e = LP - Z1 + Z2 2 = 40 - 32+16 2 e =16 (assume e=16) m = Z2-Z12π2 = 32-162π2 = 6.48 a = 16 + 162 – 8 × 6.484 × pitch = 7.57 ×12.7 a = 96.16 mm ( m = constant)
L = LP × P (L = chain length) = 40 × 12.7 = 508 mm Actual factor of safety [n]………………………………………… P.S.G.7.78 [n]=Qp Q=1410 kg-f
P = Pt+ Pc+ Ps
Where, Pt = Tangential load
=102×N×KSV= 102×0.97×10.715 = 138.37 kg-f
Pc = Centrifugal load
=w ×v2g =0.69 ×0.71529.8 = 0.035 kg-f
Ps = load due to sagging
= k × w × a =4 × 0.69 ×90 × 10-3 = 0.248 kg-f. Where, K= coefficient of sag, w= weight per meter length, a= center distance in meter. P =P t +Pc +Ps P =138.37+ 0.035+ 0.2484 = 138.66 kg-f
= 141038.66 = 10.16
As [n] > 7.8 (min f. o. s ) ……….. Safe condition.
Effect of no. of sprocket teeth on the output shaft on various parameters of Uni- Direction gear box
1. No. Of teeth on sprocket of input shaft = 16 ( Fixed) 2. No. Of teeth on sprocket of ideal shaft = 16 ( Fixed) 3. Speed of input sprocket = 180 rpm. 4. Tension in the chain = 1200 N. Sr. No. No. of teeth on O/P sprocket P.C.D. Of sprocket (m) 0.0659 0.049 0.041 0.0371 O/P Shaft speed (rpm) 180 240 288 360 Torque (N-m) 39.06 29.4 24.66 22.26 Power (W) 738.2 740.9 745.7 841.4
1 2 3 4
16 12 10 8
Table 4.6 :- Effect of no. of teeth of sprocket on various parameter of Uni- Direction gear box
Graph 4.2. Graph showing effect of decrease in no. of t teeth on the output shaft speed & power
Therefore, selecting sprocket with 8 teeth on the output shaft to increase the output speed, torque & power.
4.5 Side Plate Design
Fig.4.2 schematic of side plate
Material Selection:Cast Iron (MEEHANITE CASTING) GE50 (flake graphite / pearlitic)…....... PSG1.3 Yield strength (σyt)= 140 N/ mm2. Assume F.O.S =7. Tensile stress, σt= σytF.O.S.= 1407=20 N/mm2. Shear Stress, τ=0.5× σytF.O.S.= 0.5×1407=10 N/mm2 A] Tearing Failure in plate section 1-1
σt = LoadArea
= Wmax. (195-47)×12= 1814.08316 (19547)×12 = 1.021 N/mm2
Shearing Failure in plate section 1-1
τ = LoadShear Area
= Wmax. 2×45×12= 1814.08316 2 ×45×12 = 1.68 N/mm2. C] Tearing Failure in plate section 2-2
σt = LoadArea
= Wmax. (295-94)×12= 1814.08316 (295-94)×12 = 0.75 N/mm2.
∴ Hence, Design is Safe
CHAPTER: 5 ANALYSIS OF SHAFT
5.1 Analysis of Shaft
Entity Nodes Element MESH:
Size 416 1228
ELEMENT TYPE: Connectivity TE4 ELEMENT QUALITY:
Statistics 1228 (100.00%)
Table 5.1 : Elemental quality of shaft
Criterion Stretch Aspect Ratio
Good 1226 (99.84% ) 1196 (97.39% )
Poor 2 ( 0.16% ) 32 ( 2.61% )
Bad 0 ( 0.00% ) 0 ( 0.00% )
Worst 0.278 5.813
Average 0.568 2.218
Table 5.2 : Properties of Material selected shaft 1
Material Young’s Modulus Poisson's ratio Density Coefficient of thermal expansion Yield strength
Steel 2×1011 N/m2 0.266 7860kg/m3 1.17×10-5 /K deg 2.5×108 N/m2
Fig.5.1 Model of input shaft 1
STRUCTURE COMPUTATION: Number of nodes Number of elements Number of D.O.F. Number of Contact relations Number of Kinematic relations : : : : : 416 1228 0 0 0
LOAD COMPUTATION: Applied load resultant: Fx = 4. 610e-008 N Fy = -1. 933e+003 N Fz = -1. 700e+003 N Mx = 3. 842e+001 N-m My = -1. 450e-007 N-m Mz = 1. 659e-007 N-m
Table 5.3 : Forces & moment acting on the shaft
Relative Magnitude Error
Fx (N) Fy (N) Fz (N) Mx (N-m) My (N-m) Mz (N-m)
4.61×10-8 -1.9327×103 -1.7004×103 3.84×101 -1.45×107 1.6594×107
-4.698×10-18 2.0188×10-12 1.9327×103 1.5916 ×10-12 1.7004×103 1.3870× 10-11 -3.8415×101 -5.187×10 -13 1.4500×10-7 -1.391 ×10-13 -1.6594×10-7 8.928 × 10-14
6.5414×10-15 5.1572×10-15 4.4941×10-14 1.6427×10-14 4.4074×10-15 2.8281×10-15
STATIC CASE SOLUTION - DEFORMED MESH:
Fig. 5.2 Deformation in a shaft
STATIC CASE SOLUTION - VON MISES STRESS (NODAL VALUES):
Fig. 5.3 Analysis of a solid shaft
5.2 Analysis of Side Plate 1
MESH: Entity Nodes Elements ELEMENT TYPE: Connectivity TE4 Statistics 1437 (100%) Size 588 1437
Table 5.4: Elemental quality of side plate 1
Criterion Stretch Aspect ratio
Good 1437 (100%) 1437 (100%)
Poor 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
Bad 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
Worst 0.429 2.647
Average 0.591 2.161
Table 5.5: Material properties of side plate 1
Material Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Coefficient of thermal conductivity Yield strength
Iron 1.2× 1011 N/m2 0.291 7870 kg/ m2 1.21 ×10-5 /kdeg 3.1×108 N/ m2
Fig. 5.4 Model of a Plate
STRUCTURE COMPUTATION: Number of nodes Number of elements Number of D.O.F. Number of contact relation Number of kinematic relations Linear tetrahedron LOAD COMPUTATION: Applied load resultant: Fx= -4.459 × 10-8 N Fy = -5.347 × 103 N Fz = -4.906 × 103 N Mx = 8.688 × 102 N-m My = 2.943 × 101 N-m Mz = -3.208 × 101 N-m
: 588 : 1437 : 1764 :0 :0 : 1437
Table 5.6: Forces & moment acting on the Side plate 1
4.4587×10-9 -5.3467×103 -4.9058×103 8.6884×102 2.9435×101 -3.2080×100
-1.7792×10-11 -3.5470×10-11 -2.0009×10-11 6.4801×10 -12 -3.1797×10-12 4.6185× 10-13
Fx (N) Fy (N) Fz (N) Mx (N-m) My (N-m) Mz (N-m)
-4.4605×10-8 5.3467×103 4.9058×103 -8.6884×102 -2.9435×101 3.2080×101
2.0716×10-14 4.1299×10-14 2.3297×10-14 2.5150×10-14 1.2341×10-14 1.7925×10-15
Relative Magnitude Error
STATIC CASE SOLUTION - DEFORMED MESH
Fig. 5.5 Deformation in a plate
STATIC CASE SOLUTION - VON MISES STRESS (NODAL VALUES)
Fig. 5.6 Analysis of a plate
5.3 Analysis of Second Side Plate 2
MESH: Entity Nodes Elements Size 588 1437
ELEMENT TYPE Connectivity TE4 ELEMENT QUALITY
Table 5.7: Elemental quality of side plate 2
Statistics 1437 (100%)
CRITERION Stretch Aspect ratio MATERIAL
Good 1437 (100%) 1437(100%)
Poor 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
Bad 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00%)
Worst 0.429 2.647
Average 0.591 2.161
Table 5.8: Material properties of side plate 2
Material Young’s modulus Poission’s ratio Density Coefficient of thermal conductivity
Iron 1.2× 1011 N/m2 0.291 7870 kg/ m2 1.21 ×10-5 /kdeg
3.1×108 N/ m2
Fig. 5.7 Model of a Plate 2
STRUCTURE COMPUTATION Number of nodes Numberof elements Number of D.O.F. Number of contact relation Number of kinematic relations Linear tetrahedron LOAD COMPUTATION Applied load resultant: Fx= -1.048 × 10-9 N Fy = -1.422 × 103 N Fz = -1.788 × 103 N Mx = 2.654 × 102 N-m My = 1.073 × 101 N-m Mz = -8.53 × 100 N-m
: 588 : 1437 : 1764 :0 :0 : 1437
Table 5.9 : Forces & moment acting on the Side plate 2
Relative Magnitude Error
Fx (N) Fy (N) Fz (N)
-1.0477×10-9 -1.4217×103 -1.7880×103
1.0477×10-9 1.4217×103 1.7880×103
5.3788×10-12 -7.9581×10-12 -7.7307×10-12
1.7851×10-14 2.6412×10-14 2.5657×10-14
Mx (N-m) My (N-m) Mz (N-m)
2.6539×102 1.0728×101 -8.5304×100
-2.6539×102 -1.0728×101 8.5304×100
1.8190×10 -12 -1.0676×10-12 9.700 × 10-14
2.0123×10-14 1.1811×10-15 1.0808×10-15
STATIC CASE SOLUTION - DEFORMED MESH
Fig. 5.8 Deformation of a Plate 2
STATIC CASE SOLUTION - VON MISES STRESS (NODAL VALUES)
Fig. 5.9 Analysis of a Plate 2
COST ESTIMATION OF ENTIRE PROJECT
Component Side Plate Shaft Material MS MS Volume m3 0.00222967 2 0.00077910 6 Density Kg/m3 7860 7860 Mass 17.52 6.5 Cost 876.26 1 390
Sr. No. 1 2
Bearing Cost Quantity of bearing = 8 Nos. Cost per bearing = Rs. 90/Total cost of bearing = Rs. 720/Cost of chain & sprocket Cost of chain = Rs. 130/Cost of Sprocket= Rs. 330/Others (including nuts & bolts) = Rs. 200/Total cost of gear box unit = Rs. 2,646.26/-
The power transmission system (i.e. Uni direction gear box ) fabricated in laboratory by using chain & sprocket mechanism gives an output of 9.196 W. This brings the efficiency of the system to 24.2 % . Input power = 38 W. Output power = 9.196 W.
∴ ηsytem= Out put powerIn put power
In the Uni- direction gearbox, reduction in the no. of teeth on output sprocket increases the speed of output shaft and power available at output. Reduction in shaft diameter contributes to the reduction in the net weight of the system thereby increasing efficiency of system.
1. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
1. The size of system can be reduced, by reducing various parameter like shaft
diameter, no. of teeth on sprocket, so that efficiency can be increased.
2. Analysis of chain sprocket mechanism can be done to check for any failure. 3. Uni -direction gear box also can be made by using other technique like worm
and worm wheel type.
Energy from sea waves-the Indian wave energy programme- M.Ravindran and Paul Mario Koola, CURRENT SCIENCE,VOL. 60,NO.12,25 JUNE 1991
Wave Energy Generation Device: Design, Development, and
ImplementationS. G. Kanitkar, J.G. Kori, Suhas Deshmukh, S. N. Teli.
Ocean Wave Energy Conversion-Jennifer Vining
Ocean Wave Energy Overview and Research at Oregon State University- Ted K.A. Brekken, Annette Von Jouanne, Hai Yue Han. Ocean Energy Conversion in Europe,Centre for Renewable Energy Sources,2006
P.S.G. design data Machine design-v.b.bhandari
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
http://chain-guide.com/basics/1-chain-basics.html http://www.urbanhart.com/shopsite/rope_rollers.html http://www.definition-of.com/OCEW">OCEW</a> http://www.oceanpowertechnologies.com/projects.htm4. http://www.oceanpowertechnologies .com http:// www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ocean/Waves.shtml http://www.wavesenergy.com/links.html http://www.oceanpowermagazine.net/2010/03/01/india-studies-feasibility-ofover- 100-megawatts-of-tidal-energy-projects.
CATIA V5R17 AUTOCAD 2010 MICROSOFT OFFICE 2010
H T E P Cg V Mt Tt Ts Tc
Significant wave height Zero crossing period in sec. Energy stored in a horizontal square metre of the water surface. Wave energy flux Group Velocity of wave(m/s) Velocity of float (m/s) Torque on the shaft Tension on tight side of chain Tension on slack side of chain Resultant tension Angle of wrap of the chain Combined fatigue and shock load factor. Equivalent bending moment Equivalent twisting moment Shaft diameter radial Load Axial load Bearing speed Expected life in hrs. Temperature Factor Equivalent load Ring rotation Factor Excessive radial load factor Dynamic capacity Static capacity Service factor for chain design No. of teeth on driver & driven sprocket
Kb , Kt
d Fr Fa N
Kt Pe V Kr C Co Ks Z1, Z2
N Q Lp ap a
Power transmitted Breaking load Length of continuous chain Approximate centre distance between the sprocket Exact centre distance
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