ivgntuuuv.. Hate (College ot



N. 1-


Cornell University Library

SB 125.M81
A complete work on the
P''""'"9 °*


3 1924

000 354 559






Px>ice 3s. 6d.


(P^l?v3c2^ /. l.U. /. /.\l\\ . /.

Vic. Pakenham. FRUIT INDUSTRIES COMMISSIONER.JAS. . F. N.W. Oi'chardist and Irrigationist. Kameruka Estate.S. MOODY. Bega. Late Man^ngei' Toomiic VoJley Orchards.


Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. 122 122 Renovating old trees . Cherry 87 91 Almond Peach and the Nectarine Fig Olive 93 106 Do. Do. 106 107 108 110 . 112 115 Lemon Loquat .INDEX. . Do. Tools 5 7 Tlie I'arts of tlie Tree 10 11 Time lor Pruning Pruiiing to inside Kemarks on Buds in order to spread tlie Tree 12 1. Plum and Prunes Summer Treatment Do.3 Objects of Pruning Prvining 16 Pruning the Apple Do. Do. Persimmon CTOOseberry Orange and Mandarin . Walnuts and Cliestnuts Do. Do. 21 Pear Apricot 59 70 75 80 87 Do. PAGE Introductory Pruiiint. Do.


and the principles laid ent varieties. when I know more about these local conditions. Australia for fruit growing. on the grower " i. for trees cannot part. they must carefully avoid repeating the same mistakes that have been made in the Eastern States. I have as far as possible taken into consideration any such local conditions as my short residence in the Western State has permitted me to become acquainted with. Clear the land well. down liave laeen gained by close observation of the differThat the system adopted has proved most successful in making trees bear heavy crops of fruit can be substantiated by those who have known me both in New South Wales and Victoria. carry the heavy crops of the quality here illustrated. unless well manured and In practically all the most suitable parts of Western irrigated. and in modify it on moving into a new were totally different. because being a practical man myself I quickly others can grasp idea=5 when put before them in an illustrated way. have know how I wish growers to fully recognise that to get the highest financial results from the methods of pruning I advocate. when necessary. or ignorance on the growers' They must also be prepared to practise intense culture. | | To THE HON. During the past ten years I have not only carefully watched the results and improved on them. but the general principles laid down hold good all the world over." : Select the site and soil of the future plantation carefully. but have taken photos. and parts of both New South me how necessary it is for the orchardist to always many ways I have had to change my system or district where the climatic and soil conditions In this work. plough deeply or subsoil. freely illustrated this work. Having gained Wales and Victoria my experience in different districts it has taught study local conditions. for niost failures in fruit growing can be laid to mistakes. and later on. showing the trees at different stages. I am practical experience extending over 20 years. I may have to revise this work. neglect. and the practical grower can use them while adopting any particular I method he has proved suitable to his locality. " ii. In offering giving this work on pruning them the benefit of ray own to tlie growers of Western Australia." . provision can be made for irrigating by storage dams I would urge the following as is done in several of the Victorian fruit districts. and my plates now number some hundreds. THE MINISTER FOR AGRICULTURE. carelessness. also beginners can more quickly follow the reading niatter. getting out all roots and stumps (a source very often of serious trouble later).i i INTRODUCTORY.

and I trust mj' efforts will be appreciated. so as to cultivate at angles and save district manual only labour. )iin't jilant a bigger area than you have ca])ital to manage thoroughly^ Keep yoiu. and see that the trees are well grown and " ^i. feeding it well. " v. 1912. select tlie best couimercial export varieties only for your " main " plantation. " vii." m. but let it carry can without distress and without losing quality or " X. all it Xever allow a tree to overbear." If these JAS." " ix.and simply as possible before the reader. has been to place the matter as clearlj.framework and leaders right through the tree's existence." l-ieiug Choose your trees carefully." Lay out the orchard well. xii. size." " xi. F.'" Keep the " tree strong and vigorous from the start. Fruit Industries Commissioner. Cultivate deeply and frecjuently. . Perth. Western Australia. I do not think the grower will have cause My object all through to complain about the Hnancial results from any plantation. MOODY." Drain wlierever neeossai-y. all " iv. stock and variety suited to selected. twt'he rules arc well observed. Department of Agricultme. it is moiiey well spent. " viii. " ^Manure heavily when the trees bear heavily . tlie and free from all diseases." •' ]\[ake pi(i\ision for irrigating I whenever possible.

small limbs. spare blades can be obtained. | Pruning Tools. the former method being the best pruning knife. shows a thin steel blade with keen teeth. Pruning saws. II. All . They are most suitable for cutting large or Figure Fig.I THE PRUNING of FRUIT TREES. . Beginners often require information as to the tools necessary for pruning. Pruning knife. Figure II. rapid cut. these have a bow of steel and I. The blade can be inserted to cut either by drawing to the operator or by pushing Fig. I.. should always be on hand for trimming saw cuts. The from him. They can be adjusted to any angle and make a very clean. two forms of pruning saws.

111. tools. IIT.8 saw luts must be trinimed smooth. a DepTise secateurs. iUustrates two other makes scratems and a large two-handed secateurs. Pruning . A jiair of Jiepi'i^e serateur Fig. ot illusti-ates Figure otlierwise the wound does not lieal over. used principally in \ine pruning. v\ii:. while Figure IV. IV.

and theRieser being among the best. Pruning shear for etc. lieilges. The pruning saw shown at the foot of Figure IV. the Mexeur. while the Depose is a cheap and very satisfactory . Figure V. and by some operatorspreferred to the frame saws. the Wiss. \y VI. well oiled and clean. shows a very suitable orchard ladder with only one leg behind. There are many brands of secateurs on the market. is a Wingfield. whicli is much used. All tools nuist be kept very sharp.when hea\'y stubs or old arms ha\'e to be removed. namental trees. iUustrates a long j^runing shear mounted on a light pole about eight feet long. which can bepushed down between limbs or into the centre of the tree without doing any damage. Orchard ladder. V. It is chiefly used in pruning hedges and or- Fig. 16" T Mipge V^ yy Fig. FigureVI.

These secateurs can berobtamed in various sizes and spare parts are to^be obtained for them. damaging the bark so Ijadlv that the wound does not heal over readily. When using the secateurs the blunt lower jaw should never be allowed to come in contact with the bud. the blunt portion of the secatem's coming in contact with the portion of the tree removed.10 tool. These fine hair rootlets penetrate in all directions between the soil particles and absorb the moistiu-e through the cap cells at their extremities and transfer it to the tree above. It is considered that the crude sap rises by osmotic or cell pressure chiefly through the sapwood. and for this reason whether the secatem's are held with the blade up or do'W'nwards the blade should always be next to the portion of the limb or part remaining on tlie tree. The steel wire coil and the steel telescope are the best forms of springs. A strong. so have included a few remarks on Root is tlie main centre root of the tree this root should alwaj'S be cut back when planting so as to promote lateral root gro\'\'th and good bearing habits in the tree. after being manufactured in the Those foliage. Tlie secondari/ arms are the branches or subdivisions thrown the inain the nrain arms. Tlte lateral roots are tliose tlu'own out laterally Tlie se. will cut a limb over an mch in diameter if the operator pushes the limb to be cut away from the blade when using the secateurs. where it is elaborated by the foliage in conjunction M'ith the carbonic acid absorbed by the stomata or mouths of the leaves into the material used in building up the parts of the tree and fruit. roots are the fine rootlets tlirown from the lateral and secondary Tlic root hairs are the minute hairs thrown oh by the fibrous roots: these supply the nuti-iment to the tree in a soluble form. main stem of the tree. is distributed during the night to the different parts of the tree. with a good hook. — The Many I 3V(c Tajj Parts of the Tree* this subject. wide-mouthed pair of secateurs. and spare ones should always be on hand. The leaders are branches off the subarms . substuncc^s not i-equired oi' of a poisonous iiatiue are either exuded on the outer . covering of the tree or returned to the i-oots with the downward flow of sap. in other words the eading shoots. chiefly I'oots as hiuiiic through the inner bark and exuded by the Tlie trimh is the or toxic substances. the water being evaporated through the foliage the nutriment required for tlie building up the parts of the tree. the <:-lilorophyll or green eolomnng matter in the foliage aiding in this assimilation jjrocess which can onlj' take place in sunlight.co7i<l_arii by the tree. this blunt portion of the secateurs always leaves a slight bruise on the stem. leaving a clean cut behind. therefore during the day time. roots are the branches from the lateral roots. If this is done properly there is no necessity to work the secateurs up and down as is often done. If this practice is always observed the bruise will be on the portion of the tree removed. TJie main arms are the first main branches from the trunk or stem formed off in the first pruning. . which become the permanent leaders. : growers find the terms used in describing prunmg very confusing. off ThA fibrous roots.

will then be able to tell whether the buds are sound if faulty. July. which show the same fault. Time for Pruning. even the Goldmine Nectarine this season threw its buds. Ramified spurs. tree aged. —A fr\iit spur which lias increased and multiplied as the Terminals refer to the extremities of the leaders or laterals. lateral. and yet this variety as a rule is a sure would advise not pruning peaches until late in the season about the end The pruner. of — August.Julj.Ijark found just under the outer bark through which downward flow of sap mostly takes place. by giving the tree or the limb a vigorous shake. New the hark is the ring of ne«. I down. one which only ]iroduces leaves and a flower hud one whicli produces a flower or fruit. containing buds. — — . (1912) in some districts cropper. —The is node . of the plant or tree. of the shoot at each leaf a bud is is produced during the produced. and should finish before the buds Vjurst . For instance. layer is tlie Cambium inner covering next to the sapwood. outer covering of the tree which has beeri hardened by the This hard co\"ering forms the protection to the tree. also those apricots and those varieties which shed their buds. leaf or wood bud usually found at regular intervals along the wood growtli and at the extremities. they will fall in a shower. such as a a division occurs in the gi'owth. These are found at the base of the leaf. aad leaders. Inter7iode the space between two buds. is a slight swelling wliere a leaf growth vine. Spurs fruit are short growths from the arms. for each variety acts differently. : Node. those which will throw a shoot in the Spring a leaf hud. — The and early varieties of peaches. — Tlie bud —The shoot at the extremity of a leader or at the extremity of a leader or lateral. The winter pruning should be done dui'ing . cambium layer through which the Woody fihre Pith. Buds. The exuding leaf forms the foliage is Outer hark tlie of calciimi salts. Sapwood. : . Lateral spurs are spurs developed on the lateral growth. Terminal shoot.and August being the best months for this work. Terminal hud. otherwise all the fruit may be cut off. is the younger « ood co\-ered by the up\vard flow of sap cliiefl_\' travels. should not Vje winter-pruned until the pink of the flower-bud shows. and August. or laterals. and the early part of September. and in some plants. is is the old woody formation of the tree. The dormant flower.June. the soft material usually found in a tube in the centre of the heartwood.The laterals are lateral growths from tlu- main arms. leaders. No hard-and-fast rule can be laid according to the season. sub-arms. Tlie buds are classed as: wood-buds.

Many varieties of young trees require both summer and winter pruning of top as well as laterals apricots, and some of the plums belong to this class. Other varieties of fruits rec^uire summer j)runing or nipping of the laterals, the top growth being thinned out and the permanent leaders left intact. Summer pruning of ;s-tiung trees shovild be done early in the season, about NovemberDecember, as this permits the new top growth to mature thoroughly before the fall. It is fm-ther necessary to summer-prune the lateral growth again, about


Early peaches and apricots which throw their buds should have the growth summer-pruned after the fruit has been harvested.



Young pears should have the


growth treated twice

dui-ing the


All varieties of bearing trees which recjuire sununer treatment of their lateral growth should be summer-pruned about the end of February or early in ^larch.

Remarks on Pruning

to inside


in order

to spread the Tree,
Some prunors are practising pruning to inside buds in order to spread trees. The top bud always takes the sap and makes the strongest shoot, and, if pruned close, will grow straig])t up. On the other hand, the second bud, which is on the outside, makes a weaker shoot at a wide angle, because the wood above prevents

from growing


l-!emo\-ing the first or inside shoot,

and throwing the





wide but weak second slioot, will certainly cause the tree to spread opposed to the principle, for there is too much risk attached to its practice, as it is noticeable that in the case of young trees the second bud does not always shoot. Should the second bud fail to shoot, the gi'ower is in a most unfortunate position he has ruined his tree for good by throwing the shoot inward. During this season, in t^^o districts, I came across trees which, as the I'esult of this practice, had been tlirown inwards instead of outwards.
Jeader into







outside lateral happens on upright growers, by all means make use form a fork or to widen the base by throwing the leaders into tlie lateral but I caution growers not to make a practice of pruning to inside buds with the (.)bject of widening the base of the tree, (iet all the strength and growth possible into your main leaders, and this you can do with certainty only by obtaining the growth on the terminal bud left in the previous pruning of the leader. There is, besides, no necessity for the practice of pruning to an inside bud in order to spread the tree, for you can obtain the required results from the top outside bud if the shoot is pruned well abo\'e, although it will not throw so wide as the weaker lower shoot. When the leader is pruned close to the bud, the shoot goes straight up, perpendicular to its parent but if the leader is pruned well abo\-e the required bud, pruning just below the bvrd above it, the shoot canniit grow straight up, and is forced out at a wider angle, just as a lateral shoot grows the angle at which tlie top shoot gr(.)ws being governed entirely by the strength of the shoot. The illustration siiows limbs pruned well above the Vjud the second bud has certainly thrown wider owing to its being of weaker growth.

Where an





I trust, therefore, groweis will consider this sure and safe method of directing growth in place of the risky one. 1 have always succeeded in spreading my base by pruning well above the bud. Let any grower pause and study the illustration, and he will at once recognise tliat it is impossible for the bud to grow at any but a wide angle with the strip of wood abo\'e the bud. In these illustrations tlie top shoots are particularly vigorous, being four feet long, and half-inch in diameter at the base of the new wood. The stub sliown must, of course, be


in the following


necessary to throw a leading shoot wide, whether outwards for an upright gi'ower, or inwards for a wide grower, prune well above the bud, so as to leave a bare stub at least one inch long. If requiring to grow the leading shoot straight up, jierpendicular to its parent stem, prune close to the bud. The reason why a lateral gi'ows at a wide angle to its parent stem is simply that the wood above prevents its growth in an ujiright direction. A stub of a cjuarter of an inch in length abo\'e the bud will throw the shoot only slightly out, but a stub one inch long will throw the shoot well out, the angle of its growth being governed by the strength of the shoot.


If it is

Objects of Pruning*
The objects of pruning are and quantity, and to extend the

to regulate fruit-production both as to equality
tree's jDroductiveness over long periods.



if left to herself, seeks merely to reproduce herself, and the tree, unless by intelligent helji, generally lacks Cjuality in its production and gradually goes back in legularity of bearing, eventually producing unpalatable and and the tree soon becomes a wreck. inferior fruit

intelligent priming and cultivation are practised witli the object on Nature and Iceeping lier up to a high standard of perfection.


must be studied.

can be pruned by rule-of-thumb. Locality, soil, and climatic conditions A good pruner will study the reciuirements of the tree to be treated, together with local conditions. He must understand circulation of sap, balance of root and top, action of light ar.u air, and the necessity for keeping a good,


stout framework in (irder to meet the requirements of economically working and hai-^-esting the crop, as -well as spacing of the leaders to carry the laterals and give the tree free circulation of air and sunlight for the healthy maturing of both wood



closest attention must be given to ha\-ing the tree sufficiently open in the centre, and yet not too open the centre should be hollow, and no more. Many growers in this State have theii- trees far too open and without sufficient leaders. The tree, if a wide grower, can carry from 18 to 24 main leaders comfortably, whilst an upright grower can carry 15 or 18 mahi leaders. These leaders should


form a double row right round the circumference of the tree, and should be placed with ample intervening spaces, so that smi and light will have free entry yet it must be borne in mind that too much smi must not be permitted to plaj- on the bark or the fruit, as this would cause the fruit to scald and the tree to become l^arkbound. The latter trouble is indicated by a hard or red appearance of the bark, and its effects are to interfere with the sap-flow, so that the spurs are not properly nourished and the wood-growth becomes poor and weak. In pruning, one should always consider how the tree will appear when in foliage, and one should give sufficient space only, according to \ariety, to clothe the tree amply with foliage, withiiut sheltering the fruit too nuieh (as this would pres'ent its colouring up well), j-et at the same time not failing to protect both bark and fruit thoroughly from sun-scald.

foliage als(.> has another and important function the assimilation process. a very important duty, on the proper performance of which the entire growth and productiveness of the tree depend. The foliage absorbs from the air the carbonic acid needed for building up the parts of the tree and the fruit. This carbonic acid is converted )jy the lea\es, hi conjunction with the nutriment supplied by the roots, into starch, sugar, cellulose, fats, tissues, acid, all woody



fibres, bark, spins, buds, etc., necessary for the building-up of the tree and fruit the foliage acting as a veritable laboratory during the process.



the foregoing




it «ill be recognised how \'ery necessary it is to provide keep that foliage healthy during the spring and summer

When summer
remove too much



practised, care

foliage, otherwise serious


and judgment miLst be used not to will result to the tree and crop.

It is very essential that the tree be kept thoroughly vigorous at all times. matter what quantity of fruit it maj- be carrying, at least one foot to 18 inches of top gro's^'th on each of the leaders must be maintained to keep the tree healthy. This top growth not only ensures the sap being drawn to the extremities of the and this, again, limbs, but maintains a health}' sap-flow throughout the tree ensures not only the thorough nourishment of all fruit, but the complete development and matiu'ing of spur and Ijud formation for the following season's fruit. Unless proper attention is given to maintainuig the healthy sap-flow, the best With scalded bark and nc.) top-gi'owth, a healthy results cannot be obtained.



flow of sap


not possible.

trees must be kept in a healthy growing" state right through the summer. practice of discontinuing the cultivation as soon as the fruit has matured is not a wise one, especially in a climate where no summer rains fall, for the tree



e. To note this action of a tree is most important for not only does the following fruit-crop depend on the fruit-buds being developed up nice and plump.n is to store up in its tissues (i. or inner bark). and in the spurs and buds and roots. that deep and constant cultivation be ixiaintained through the summer months. never permitting the tree to become so exhausted as to be unable to mature spur' and bud formation for the following season's crop. for the tree cannot take up nourishment except in a soil-water soluble form. It Besides it is impossible to matiu'e the spui'S if moistm'e fails too early. therefore.rains do come autumn.. . If the moisture fails. but to develop its spm. must be borne in mind that the tree has not only to mature its fruit.15 late in becomes seini-dormant if the nourishment fails and when the. ESSE . to supply the necessary moisture. Apart from this fact. the cambium layer. but the spring growth depends on the stoi-e of nutriment held in the tissues of the trees. and he manures accordingly. no amount of fertiliser is of any value.growth and fruit-buds as well. the last action of a tree before going dormant in the late autun-. If he expects a heavy crop. he will fertilise heavily to meet the tree's coming demands. It is essential. the tree is apt to start a second growth or come in flower out of . and cannot make use of it vmless the foliage is sufficient and healthy. suflicient mitriment to start the tree off in the spring. seasoTi. A good orchardist can generally tell from the development of the buds what sort of a crop he is likely to have.

with no centre leader. stout base of main arms to build the future tree upon these main arms jointing at different jiarts round the trunk give a very strong base. pruning to an outside Ijud or to a bud which will throw tlie shoot in tlie recjuired direction.5 Upon . of no matter what variety. . these the sulj-arms cone. the object being to — form a wide. Figure shows tliese same trees pruned. . Choose well-growm yearling trees. unpruned. and leaders are built in the form of an inverted The tree must be kept well balanced on all sides. at a wide angle if possible. Fig. Planting the tree.' always remove the centre leader. Select three well-placed arms starting from different portions of the main stem. Figure 1 depth to plant.young fruit-tree.16 Tuning. and see that they are free from all disease. . Shorten the three arms back to three or four buds. shows liow the tree should be planted Figure 2 shows the correct and Figure 3 shows the correct way to prune the young tree. Wlien planting a . and (" c " and " d ") two young peaches unprvmed. and remove all others. 1. with a double row of leaders evenly placed all round. The main stem should be short not more than IS inches high. from a reliable nurseryman. must show Figure 4 represents (" a " and " b ") two young apples no crowding anywhere. The centre hollow.

2.Fig. Correct ilepth to plant. .

18 Fig. . Corret-t 3. way to prune tlie young tvee.

two young Peaclics. 4. and (c) ami (d). Fig. Tile 5. same trees primed. tivo yoiuig Apples. (c) (d) Showing (a) and (b). .(a) (b) Fig.

Narrow-growing trees can often be spread by cutting out the leaders to an outside lateral and throwing the growth into the lateral. Fig. First rear 's pruning of a young tree. prune fairly hard. but not cut short only the extremities should be cut where jagged by the spade in digging up. about nine inches to one foot being left. but do not fork vipright growers until the second year's pruning. " b." These trees can then be formed in the following winter. be treated under its own heading. 12 to 16 leaders. Figure 7 illustrates the first year's pruning of a well-forked tree. Should a tree have all its shoots bunched up together. which will now give from . being left. otherwise the base of the tree is too eramjaed. . Cut out any bruised. and obtaining a well-placed fork on each. various plums and prunes. leaving up to 18 inches on each leader. or damaged roots. which will give from six to eight or more leaders. which is considered the first pruning (the tree now being one year old from planting). the tree is again pruned hard. 7. according to Remove all but a few laterals from the inside variety and growth of the tree. broken. In the third winter's pruning. and sliorten in any long ones before planting. such as the apricot and by summer pruning but each of these will . are improved manner for the first three years so as Some varieties. The following winter. and a well-placed fork being obtained on each of last year's pruning. .20 All roots should be trimmed. and the arms being thrown as wide as possible. to 9in. Figure 6 shows how a " whip " should be pruned when planting. about Gin. Practically all trees are treated in this to obtain a strong open framework. In the second year's pruning the trees are again pruned hard. In wide-growing varieties obtain forks where possible. also thin out any excess of laterals on the outside of the limbs and of the tree slightljr shorten back those left. then every shoot except the centre one should be removed and the young tree cut as in Figiu'e 5.


In the foiirtli pruning, forks are again left if sufficient leaders have not already been obtained. As a rule 15 to 18 are left on the i)ear and on all upright growers, and from 18 to 24 on wide-growing \'arieties are arn]:)le, and then no crowding results. Any crowding of the top of the tree means starvation and barrenness of the base and main arms, because sunlight and air must be given free circulation throughout the tree in order to keep the lower fruiting-wood strong, liealthy, and productive.

We now ha\'e the framework of our tree, and each \ariety of fruit must 1)0 treated and studied separately and pruned to suit its particular reqviirements. When once tlie recpiisite number of leaders has been obtained, no further forks or brandies are permitted, unless to fill u]:) a space caused by a broken limb and so forth, and the leaders must be kept intact so as to draw the sap direct to the extremities. Once the leaders are lost, the grower is soon in difficulties for he

with them, control into fruiting wood.





and the extremities are converted

After the third year we have to consider our future crops of fruit and throw the tree into bearing. This must be done gradually, as the young tree must not be exliausted by being made to bear heavy crops but should be gradually brought into full bearing as it approaches and reaches the age of eight or ten years, according to variety the object being to maintain a strong, healthy, and vigorous low-set tree, capable of bearing regular and heavy crops of fruit from base upwai'ds, on tlie framework or leaders established, without any breaking-down of the limbs or stunting of the tree, this framework being so well spaced as to allow plenty of room between each leader, and the centre of the tree being kept as well open as the variety and climatic conditions require, and all the main and secondary arms being at an angle and not upright to the trunk.




or spiu's should be built


gi'adually each year



varieties of trees.

Having obtained
the frame

unpruned on those


of the tree, the laterals Iiaving

sliortened each year are


alloM'ed to go

been thmned which

carry their fruits on the lateral growth. This checks tlieir growth, and lias the additional advantage of throwing all the strength of the tree into the main leaders. These laterals, if left unpruned, in some varieties in one year, in others in two years, develop fruit-buds along their full length. These laterals must then be shortened back, and only jjermitted length enough to carry and mature only good quality In some strong-growing varieties it is necessary fruit, as local conditions permit. to allow the leaders also to go unshortened, but whenever this is done the leaders should be shortened back the following winter to strengthen them, otherwise This process should they become too weak and willow}' to carry future crops. not be jwactised until the fourth or fifth year, according to the vigour and size of the tree, and only then if all the leaders recjuired have already been obtained, and the process must be repeated until the tree is thrown into bearing habits by checking the wood growth and pronroting fruiting spurs. By letting the leaders go in this manner every bud along the leader develops into a fruit-bud, but provided the tree is vigorous no hesitation need be made in shortening the leader back, for This applies equally to the terminal buds will burst and continue the leaders.


pear and -[ilum as tu the apple. Jonatliaii leaders vnist never he allowed to Kiishortnu'd eaeh in'ntrr jinnihuj, not only because it is unnecessary with this variety, but, more important still, because it so weakens the leaders that it is diffi:

cult t(_i get strength into them again they will bear fruit to the extremities and break down, or the tree l.iecomes a dislocated wreck so far as shape and form is


Such varieties as the Rome Beauty do not spur on the laterals if they are impruned, but only on the tips, therefore, none but the short laterals should lie left unshortened. They make strong lateral growth after each winter pruning, liut can be thro-i\Ti into bearing by judicious summer pruning of the laterals. The leaders of apple trees should never be summer pruned, only the lateral growth. Other \-arieties are naturallj- prolific and form their spurs readily unaided, and the laterals can be short pruned dm-ing the winter as they spnir readily under this treatment, l;iut in all '' Natural Spurrers,'' such as Dunn's Seedling, Five Crown. Statesman, Cleo]iatra, Kokewood, and others of the same class, consideration must be given to the due protection of the bark of the tree from sunsoald mentioned before and to allow sufficient foliage for the assimilation process. It is therefore very necessary to leave longer laterals at regular intervals up the leaders so as to provide the necessary foliage, for it must be remembered that these natviral spurs are only ^liort pointed spurs until the tree ages, and as each carries a fruit or two with perhaps onlj' two or three leaves close into the leader, very little foliage is provided

good, vigorous, healthy tree should be permitted before this age is reached, or otlierwise serious harm will result by stunting its growtii, and the grower will pay dearly who tries to make a tree productive before it reaches an age when it may be productive without distress. The crop can be gradually increased each year until the tree is carrying up to its full capacity. After the fourth year the leaders are left longer (if not permitted to go unpruned for a season) in priming so as to gradually decrease the wood growth and throw the vigour of the tree (which must be kept up) into fruit production, but the leaders must never be allowed to become too weak and willowy to carrj' their fruit, and no fruit must be permitted on the tops of the leaders luitil they are strong enough Once the tree has to carry the weight without breaking or becoming distorted. reached a suitable height and begins to bear good crops of fruit, the leaders should be hard pruned so as to maintain the top growth, because the maturing of the fruit will now check the excess of wood growth.
either for shelter or for the assimilation process.
will Ijear in its fourtli or fifth year,


and only a

little fruit

The Jonathan. This tree requires nrore skill in pruning than most varieties, but no apple repays proper handling better. It is ^•ery often necessary to priuie the Jonathan to inside buds or to an upright lateral to prevent the tree from spreadThe laterals (and leaders) should onlj- be shortened to good stout ing too wide. buds, as the first two are invariablj' blind. Figures 8 and 9 show a well groTvn threeyear old Jonathan, unpruned and pruned. It will be seen, although the tree is only three years old, that a number of leaders have alreadj' been obtained, there being 12 in the illustration, and a few more will be added during the fourth pruning, bringing the number up to about 18 or 2i in all, the nvnnber being dependent on the S|)read of the tree. It will be noticed how well spaced these leaders are, no crowding, ample space being left not only in the centre of the tree, but also between each leader, with plenty of room for the lateral growth so necessary for the king laterals ha\-e been shortened in, esthis A'ariety to bear its fruit upon pecially those towards the tops of the leaders, wliile shorter ones of lighter wood have not been cut back. It is not advisable to fornr too many fruiting spurs on such a young tree, especially on the extremities of the leaders; these spurs are gradually Ijuilt up each year, a greater number being left un])runecl each winter. In this way the bearing capacity of the tree is not overtaxed but gradually built up from year to year each seas(.iu the spins on tlie previous year's wood being
; ;

formed so that no fruit enough to support the



allowed on the tops of the leadei'S viiitil they are stroiij; This is most necessary in the Jonathan because










the leaders do not obtain the necessary strength as quickl5- as other ^arieties. laterals left unpruned are shortened back when the fruit spurs are fcrnied

cut where marked at (b) (e) shows last and this if not cut back where marked (d) will also become barren near its lateral . This process is continued each year." a Jonathan which was allowed to go unpruned the ))re\'ious winter.24 each season. and productive by shortening in after they form fruit-buds. " B " illustrates hoM' the otlierwise the wood will become barren after bearing. more especially the longer ones. from four to eight buds being left. according to the number of spurs and their strengtli and the requirements of the tree. . This lateral should be shortened back where marked (a) to strengthen the spurs. the extremities being kept clear of all lateral growth so as to ensure a clean get away of tlie shoot. and tlie laterals kept liealthy. this should have lieen quite barren owing to not having been shortened back (c) shows two-year old growth with developed spurs. . Figure 10 shows. but each lateral will soon become barren Fig. 10. The laterals must be shortenedin the following year after being left unpruned.Jonathan laterals. strong. It will be noticed tliat the wood-buds along its full length have been converted into fruit spurs. base in place of increasing and multiplying. "A. (a) shows three year-old wood laterals become barren if not shortened back. not only because the tree will overbear. tlie leaders kept strong and vigorous. As soon as we have the rei[uired number of leaders they are not again forked or branched in pruning but kept intact right through. . .

binatlian jiniued. . by the free entry of air and sunlight. ground without the aid class export fruit. 10 cases of fruit. not only have we an open centre. and this the tree. Foiu'-yeav olil . Fig. but ample room is provided between the leaders for the carrying of the laterals and the free entry of sunlight and air. Figures 13 and 14 show the nine-year old Jonathan unpruned and pruned built up in this manner. and Figiu-e 12a the same tree pruned. wliile Figure shows a five-year old tree unpruned. 24 main leaders and yet there is no crowding. . Figure 16 shows the base of a 23-year old Jonathan clothed with fruit and making good Figure 17 shows a portion of a 15-year old Jonathan carrying lateral growth. It will be seen liow prolific in fruiting wood the tree has become This tree has and how strong and healthy also how well balanced the tree is. The tree is well clothed with fruiting wood from the base up without excess or crowding. n.year's growth. Tliis tree was primed from the . and by judicious pruning. One of the chief aims of a good orchardist is to keep the spur growth round the bases of can only be done by properly nourishing all trees healthy and productive. 12 Figvire Jl shows the four-year old tree pruned. of a ladder and bore the previous season six cases of first some fruit is permitted Figure 15 shows the tree in foliage towards the top but the leaders are carrying the fruit without difficulty.





Figures 18 and 19 show a five-year old tree unprrmed and pruned.loiiathar. readily. By judicious summer treatment of the laterals they are made to spur The summer spurring should be done about the end of February or beginning of March. to an outside lateral this opens the tree out. 17. and under proper treatment the Rome Beauty is as productive as the Jonatliati. Fig. . It is inclined to be upright and close. Care must be taken never to allow the tree to become stunted or lose vigour from any cause either of over-bearing or lack of nutriment or cultivation. The short laterals should not be touched but the longer ones should be both winter and summer Beauty. Figure 20 shows a portion of an aged Rome Beauty in fruit. Stable manm-e is the best fertiliser to apply. but only bear fruit as a rule on the extremities. The Rome Beauty does not spur like the Jonathan when the pruned. . is Rome —This a and vigorous.29 Iteep healthy somewhat difficult apple to luring into bearing and In its young stages it is very vigorous and readily takes woolly aphis badly. The young tree must not be forked at its first pruning but at the second. . wherever possible. Care is required in forming the tree and bringing it into bearing. laterals are left unshortened. It will be seen how the tree has been opened out by using the outside lateral growth for leaders. cutting well above an outside bud or. while as it reaches its seventh or eighth year it is likely to stunt unless well fed and stimulated. Portion of ayed .

30 .

all^ others being removed. It should be planted on the Cleopatra. after it reaches five years of age. bear very young. pruning so The Cleopatra is inclined to overbear and to as to admit plenty of air and light.59 the lateral and spur growth is not developed properly. Sonip limbs of an aged Eome Beauty. the leaders may be let go for a season. Devote the first fovir years to getting a good. A first class New South Wales seedling and a \'ariety well worth growing for long storing or export. The leaders can then be left longer each pruning until the growth lessens — . Whenever the leaders of trees are allowed t<. tree also is too crowded. — — Fig. only those required permaneiith." The tree is inclined to be upright and should be forced well open during the first few years. if the gi'owth is in excess. Xotc. hardy grower. Figures 21 and 22 sliow a five-year old tree mipruned and primed. It is a strong grower and. higher drier land owing to its liability to " JJitter pit. roomy.31 Granny Smith. This is a strong. strong tree by pruning fairly hard both top and lateral growoh. and often stunts from this cause. illustrate how this should he done. . otherwise the . The tree bears on the lateral well and on short spurs and should be treated in a similar manner to the Jonathan. and not only the permanent leaders are weakened but Figures 58 and .being left unpruned. 20.i go unpruned they should always be brought back one-third to one-half according to their strength and length the following winter also the leaders should be thinned out. care being taken to bring them back cine half the following winter.

-1 'n bjj p .' * f.

33 b(i o (i .

is for the fruit otherwise. runs small in size. and at the fifth it can carry. if well grown. The tree bears on both lateral and spur growth. Owing to its fine qualitj^ and long keeping it always commands a high cold store. otherwise Only the centre are liable to fall badly. 2. some 1 (_) . This is done the winter. The Yates very unsatisfactory on the lateral and only a few laterals should be allowed up the leaders. Figure 23 shows a five year old Cleopatra. A light crop and strong wood growth generally means that large soft fruit liable to " pit '' will result. I do not acb'ise any grower to plant this variety largely unless prepared price. This is a permanent lateral carrying spurs which are multiplj'ing each year and is now seven years old. and some laterals should always be permitted go unpruned and these should be shortened in when spurred these longer lateral spurs give. As all the apples in the cluster joint at the one base. It should then be picked a greasy skin appearance. It should be encouraged to carry as much fruit as possible with all due regard to healthy top growth. to irrigate. at once. The tendency of lateral growth is to slightly check the sap flow and cause fruit development. if any of the outside ring is taken away it This means causes all the others in the ring to fall. it loosens all the other apples. as the tree ages. leaving only the centre apple. It throws as a rule from three to five apples from each it should therefore Vje short spurred to two buds only. which apple of a cluster is removed. The Cleopatra responds well to summer pruning of the laterals. because. This A'ariety prefers a heavier clay subsoil than most varieties which retains the moisture right through the sunxmer months. leaving the stalk behind. by taking the centre apple between the thumb and forefinger and rolling it over. The fruit should not be picked until it assuines a dark red coloxu' and Yatca. It is naturally a small apple and requires forcing by manure and water to grow commercially. and improves in flavour in to fall badly. Figvu-e 25 shows a lateral wliicli was left unpruned (it takes as a rule two years to develop the spurs on an unpruned Cleopatra lateral).34 fruit may be allowed at four years old. . The laterals should also be simuner pruned but care shcjuld be taken not to cut them too short and thus depri-v'e the Most of these laterals must be oiit closer back in tree of too much of its foliage. for it is a very late \'ariety and makes its greatest fruit growth during the last month before picking.5. The fruit should be thinned when the size of marbles. A spurred Cleopatra lateral. a payable crop. when the fruit will come away. and Figm-e 24 shows the same tree pruned. just as the leaves begin to fall. . and these short spurs Vjud should be left at every bud from base to tip. |irotection to the tree and encoiu-age fruit development. for within two or three weeks after this period is reached the fruit begins It is the best cold store apple grown. the stalk must on no accomit be removed. Figures 26 and 27 show a nine year old tree unpruned and pruned. — — subsoil Fig.

35 t- CD .

becomes as fruitful as tliis the grower should use great care and judgment and never allow the fruit to develop on the extremities of the leaders until they are stalk sturdy enough to carrj. as a result of proper treatment. how the fruit should be thinned. and. therefore. Five year olil YatcH carrying a very heavy crop of fruit. The centre fruit. and also shows time. if not removed causes the others to be pushed off as it fills out. . The it will be seen how wasteful Nature is if left to do this work herself. The fruit will be seen right to the extremities of last year's growth. -S. centre apples in many of these clusters will be the only ones remaining at harvest Figure HI shows some limbs of Yates properly short spurred. The fruit on these trees was not thinned out. due to early development of When a tree the spurs by summer pruning and proper leeding and cultivation. Figui'e 30 shows two rows of aged trees Fig. Where three apples are shown in the illustration Figure 32 shows a row of aged Yates a centre apple has been removed.the weight. Figure 29 shows a six year old tree also sunrmer pruned and carrying a fine crop.36 that the crop will be too heavily thinned. the nice crop of fruit the tree is carrying. It will be noticed how sturdy the growth is. and properly summer prmied. Siiiiiiuei[iniiieil. Figures 28 shows a five year old tree summer pruned. It is not safe to remo\'e more foliage than has been taken off tliis tree. The centre apple lias a very short and the outside ring longer stalks.

The spur must therefore be thinned out where marked (a) leaving only are seven developed As the trees age the spurs buds in this cluster about three frui -buds as wide apart as possible. when the required formation and necessary leaders (about 15 to 18) have been obtained. Such close attention to the 35 shows a tree carrying a heavy crop of fruit. —This is a valuable late variety doing exceedingly well Western Australia and a first-class cold store apple. where cultivated and treated properly. only some laterals being left long. The tree is a very vigorous grower and. It requires the same treatment and j — ipinfv^ Kr'ivi me^^MX Fig. Ghandler''s Statesman. thinning of the fruit is not so necessary as is the case with the Yates. It should be close spurred. and Figure conditions as the Yates. It will be readily seen how impossible it would be for this spur to carry all the fruit which will set.37 be noticed that although tlie trees are carrying to ensure sufficient growth on the extremities of the leaders for a thoroughly vigorous sap flow throughout the tree. In all these ilhistrations it will fine crops ample nourishment has been supplied increase and multiply as shown in Figure 33. There and a number just developing. Dougherty (wrongly called inrproved Yates in Western Australia). Six year Yates Slimmer uruued. and the Figure 36 shows how this tree will overbear if not laterals can be left longer. in . Figure 34 shows some limbs of this variety. given proper attention and thinning to the spur growth and fruit. 2P. This is another valuable cold store apple doing exceedingly well in Western Australia.

31. Two rows of aged Yates.38 i * *Y7-^ Fig. of Yates properly pruned and thinned. Some limbs Fig. •uned and thinned. 30. .

39 6J3 P .

Figui'e 40 shows a limb. fruit a fine colour. Figure 38 shows a portion of a tree heavily laden showing even distribution of fruit. A famous American apple. as fruit over 2|in. A well known late apple and long keeper. Figure 39 shows rows of this variety illustrating every tree doing its duty and carrying its load without any breaking doivn of the limbs. Figure 37 shows a tree carrying a heavy crop of fruit and yet making good top growth. The tree Delicious. doing well in Victoria. Rokcwood. and flavour addition to our export varieties. promises to be a welcome cropper. Figure 41 shows a limb of this variety. Figure 44 shows a limb of this variety. Thinning Yates spur. — . It will be seen by running the eye along these rows that although every tree is carrying up to its full capacity the leaders have made good top growth ensuring that the sap will be drawn to the extremities to nourish all fruit and spxii" gi'owth and ensure a healthy sap flow throughout the tree to keep it thoroiighly healthy and vigorous. 33. They spur readily under this treatment and bear heavily. but some laterals must be left long for protection. Figures 42 and 43 show portions of trees of this variety. all others being shortened in close. it — Black Ben Davis. does well in Western This tree is inclined to overbear and stmit. The tree is a very heavy bearer and a strong vigorous grower which does not spur too well on the lateral except in light soils.40 tlie permanent leaders can be allowed to go vmpruned for a season but tliey must be shortened back again the following winter. The fruit is of good colour and rich aromatic flavour. shows a limb of this variety. It is inclined to Pig. The tree is a natural spurrer and only a few long Figure 46 laterals should be permitted.5 shows a limb of this variety pruned . Figui-e 4. giving some idea of how the tree carries its fruit. The tree should be well Australia. size. shape. the object being to grow the fruit from 2J to 2-| inches in diameter. where has been growing for some years. well in Victoria of great — An American apple and exports well. for a season can be thrown into bearing if very vigorous by letting the leaders go unpruned as for Statesman. Another American variety grown in Victoria but not proved successful. and is of fine colour and quality. The fruit cold stores well. in size does not keep well. — Another fine American variety in bearing in Victoria a good Senator. in the same manner as for Winesap. promise which has done remarkably be large and requires heavy cropping to keep it down to size. The fruit bears on both the lateral and sliort spur growth. Stayman's Winesap. — . owing to its having a very tender skin it is not able to stand the Bordeaux spraying for spot. fed and encouraged to bear as much fruit as possible without checking its growth. It has proved a regular bearer in Western Australia. This variety stands storm and wind conditions without casting its fruit. It is a heavy cropper and a good quality apple.


42 .

.:» Fig. Statesman carryi)ig heavy crop. Statesman carrying a heavy crop. 39.43 ?^-5rsH*=t. Fig. 39.

.44 I.

. Oh '^^>>-'^ as a S s .

-t4a. O .46 Fig. Showing a limb of Commerce.

44b.47 Fig. . rig.5. 4. Showing a limb of Senator. Showing a limb of Champion.

Sliowiiig a limb of Edkewood. Stunner Pippin.leaving orfly some laterals for protection and foliage. but this variety is a consistent and heavy bearer and pays well. fine export. The fruit brings poor prices even for export. It is a natural spm'rer but some laterals should be left long pruned. as the w-eek in February. Figures Figru'e 54 shows 52 and 53 show a five year old tree unpruned and pruned. of tlie the sap flow. Figure 51 shows the base of an aged tree showing how productive the base can be maintained byproper treatment. variety vmcler — — Fig. it has a very bad reputation for irregular bearing. The Five Crown is a natural spurrer it is therefore necessary to close spur.48 A well known variety. Figure 49 shows an aged tree in flower. 4(i.s. 6d. per case in London. — . flr. a lieavy bearer and proper treatment. per the " Summerset." the fruit bringing 12s. often going se\'eral years without setting its fruit. This tree carried 31 cases of fruit. This tree carried 11 a limb of this tree (the leaves removed to show the fruit). Figure 50 shows some limbs heavily laden (the leaves removed to show the fruit). and checkingLondon I'ippin or Five Croifn. Another \\en knowji variety mucli growji in ^'ictoria and Tasmania. but the writer has been very successful with it both in New South Wales and Victoria. Figures 47 and 48 show a five year old tree unpruned and pruned. In the latter State it is their leading variety. tree ages.^t The spurs must be thinned as they increase and multiply when The -writer exported 750 cases of this variety in 1910 as early s.

4!) \ 6J0 'H Ph E ° .

50. in Aged Five Crown flower. 49. Slniwing limb.s of Five Crown carrying fruit (lenves removed). Fig.50 Fig. .

Muiircis Favourite or Dwim'a t^ccdliiuj. All varieties which ha^'e this habit of forming fruit on the tips. past three years. The tree is a strong vigorous grower. but the . they must be shortened in as soon as the spiu's develop. Figure 58 shows a six year old Dunn's Seedling which was not headed back the previous winter. Kiijjure 55 shows an aged Stunner. should be treated in this maiuier. which willdevelop spru'S irj tM'o years if left unprmied. often bears frrrit on the tips. S)io«iiig the base of an aged fruit. This \ariety.cases for the.)oes particirlarly well in this State is a lii'st class apple both for the English and (jiennan markets and for cold storing. 51. otherwise the limVjs will he ]iermanently distorted by bending over. the leaders therefore should be removed. the Hcn\ers become \\"eak and sterile and the tree does not set its crop \\ell.)ii and then If the laterals are left unpruned brought back again the following season. when the The tips of leaders are permitted to go uujjruiied. when the leaders Figures o(i and 57 are left unshortened. ilhistrating the correct method of pniiiiiig with strong leadei's. Tlie spru's so increase and multiply in this A'ariety as the tree ages that it is necessary to heavily thin them. The lateral answers well to srmuner jiruiung. J. Tive Grown clotlicd witli the tree reaches its fifth yeai' the leadei' should be let go for a spas(. otherwise they rolj eacli otlier. or the fruit removed immediately it develops. show a four year old tree unpruned and prruied. rather slow in conhng into bearing but spui'swell both on natural shortspurs and on the lateral. When — and Fig.

52 'on X — .

53 < 5JJ ^-' O) OJO .

54 .

(^ ^ at .

It ^^-ill strengthen them but also to prevent the tree becoming too high. All 60. and the spur development interfered with. out as the crops become lieavy up the leaders. otherwise the tree is checked by being too crowded. but in pruner need have no hesitation in pruning to a fruit vicrorous tree the The Dunn's spur for the terminal spur will force out into wood growth.ied out and only those required to form the permanent leaders were left. a be seen that these leaders have all been cut to fruit spurs. and the tree has a hollow centre. . It will be noticed that the leaders ha-\'e been shortened back about one-half. owing to obtaining a wide base at the start. yet. Figu e 59 shows how this tree should be pruned.56 leaders were thii^. Seedlinc is an upright grower. ample room bethis tree is carrying 18 main leaders without crowding. for there is The tree will also gradually open tween each. It will be seen how well clothed with short fruit spurs (as well as sufficient laterals to give protection and foliage) the leaders have become. This thinning out must always be attended to. not onljr to Fig. the permanent leaders are weakened. old uiipriiiied braiiflied lalerai.

All the necessary leaders should be obtained in any variety of tree by the fifth season. Ths same lateral pruned. The leaders in this tree must not again be forked or branched. (11. but also to prevent the tree from overbearing and producing undersized fruit. Fig. for we have ample for the requirements of the tree. The length the lateral is to be left is dependent upon the vigorous state of the tree. the heavy crops of fruit will then steady the gi-owth. the variety and the number of letting their t:ees go year after year unpruned. these nrade than that practised by some growers in the . be left unpruned until they spur but they should then be shortened back not only to strengthen those spurs nearer the base.57 Should the ti-ee stiU make heavy growth it wiU be necessary to again let these leaders go impruned for a season. for there are no main leaders. No of greater mistake can be having The laterals can been lost amongst a lot of weak willowy top growth. and they must all be obtained before the leaders are allowed to run unpruned. and this practice long run proves disastrous.

as a rule. otherwise.spiu's an aged apple tree which has never been primed. not sufficient foliage on many varieties results. and if they still make strong growth let them go unpiuiied iox a second time. leaders must winter. and only in rare instances should they be allowed to go unpruned for a longer term. as stated before. they rob each other. leaving either for pjrotectifin or for the assimilation purposes. Figure (il illustrates how this lateral branch should be treated.not pruning but the trees are absolutely ruined. As the trees age tliinned out.J(jnathan of and aiuoiuit of an old branched lateral fruiting wood the tree contains.ever be treated in this manner but always shortened back each Figure 62 shows a fine crop brought about bj. and although the tree flowers hea\-ily the setting of the fruit will not be satisfactory owing to the weakness and nonpe\'elopment of the Vjuds. purposes. the spurs iiicrease and nndtiply and they must then be about three fruit-buds as far apart as possible. and if they do set their fruit. the leaders have been allowed to go vuipruiied they should be shortened back the following winter as illustrated in Figures 58 and 59. If this is not pruned back those spurs nearest the base will become so weak and exhausted that they will either fail to produce fruit or else die out. Unju'imed trees —a wreck. the spur is not strong enough to matme so many fruit. It is far better to bring them back. 62. There are far too many spurs and buds on thii for the branch to nourish properly and matru'e the fruit. . r. Figure (it) illustrates Fig. and small fruit of poor quality and flavour Apart from this there is. The . When. besides it is crowding up the tree too much.

.which has dividtid and multiplied as the Owing to want of proper thinning it has become far too crowded. pyramid form of growth. 63. as base. open. Most pears Not only will such naturallj' assume an upright. with wide base and at least 15 to 18 leaders. tree aged. framework as is same low. For economical working conditions it is most important that no centre leaders be permitted. Figure 64 illustrates this forni of tree. stout needed by other varieties of fruit. because these if left will take the sap and race away. on account of the resulting starvation of the outside ones. These spurs are to be found on both the aged apple and the pear. being grown on the extremities and the tops of the trees. the growth will be thrown. equally divided. (Jrowers are far too timid about pruning the pear hard in its early years. the result of hard pruning. It should be heavily thinned where marked. into those leaders arranged and spaced equally round an open centre. lie Aged I'niit spur. being few. The The pear requires the Pear. and throwing it well open at the Growers who allow their trees to grow in this manner complain that. it is not possible to obtain a sufficient number of leaders for the The centre leaders. and the tree can be brought into bearing by allowing the permanent leaders to go unpruned for a season and . and it represents a fair average specimen of many trees to be seen in certain districts of this State. if the tree contains many of them. leaders take all the growth. Fig.59 Figure 63 shows an old fruit siJui. If very vigorous. growth. should pruned where marked. but. do not spur readily. . and the effect is that the fruit. breaks them down or distorts them. the tree grows ranker than ever and of course tlie trees will do this as long as orchardists persist in growing the trees in this manner but if the trees are pruned in a proper manner. and very rank in tree to carry its fruit upon. these leaders (which should be obtained by the fifth year) can be checked.

Wind knocks the tree about. as illustrated in Figure 66. will make verj' strong growth .ck again. are Some varieties of pears have a rank. showing the same tree pruned. to develop fruiting spurs and ripen lateral growth. and the lateral growth also is weak and poor.wood has not developed what there is. on the weaker leaders and this is what is required the more growth the better Next winter this tree should be pruned in the ordinary way.60 thereupon bringing tlieni . and if they not treated with great care and attention dm'ing the first few years a very unsightly and unsatisfactory tree results. This tree.. bj. . All the growth has gone to the centre of the tree. These permanent leaders are then allowed to go unpruned for a season. and this must be both winter and summer-pruned. for the future of the tree. limbs . Figure Co shows a WiUiams grown in the manner described above. and brought back again the following winter. limbs Wind knocks the tree about. left . is weak. The only way to treat this specimen is to remove the centre altogether. LTnder this system they spur readily.. Pig. thinning out the top so as only to retain the permanent leaders required. Badly trained Pear. (U. The lateral growth will also be heavy. spreading habit of growth. thin out the tree right through. wliich is so crowded up that the fruiting. and let light and air well into and rovnicl and about the leaders.reaso7i of the i-emo\'al of so much timber.». as illustrated for apples.

Ui Fig. 66. tvaiiied Willianif Fig. The same tree pruned. Bafllv 65. .

and the necessary number of leaders can often be quickly obtained. This can often be attained by using an outside lateral to form a fork. . on each of last year's arms back and thinned. if possible. prime hard. and cut out all laterals on the inside thin and shorten in those on the outside of the main arms.62 are badly broken and distorted. the tree's tendency to run to the centre is checked or negatived. The short laterals have not been touched. so that light and au. The earlier you can obtain a number of leaders. for it natiu'ally runs up. the leaders are sturdv and carry fruiting-wood is well-balanced and shapely . and also exercise care in treating the spur-growth. These latter can be quickly converted into fruiting laterals by both summer and winter-pruning of the laterals. and prune hard.placed fork on each of last year's arms. In the first pruning. for the strong growth which the pear makes can be spread over a number of sub-arms. and obtain a well. yet the tree The tree has 17 leaders. and have plenty of room. and fruit is badly marlced and injured by the limbs coming in contact with each other treated in pruning. Thin out the lateral growth and shorten in that required. since bare limbs must not be permitted. and required. much as illustrated pruned hard to obtain wide. again obtaining a well-placed fork on each of the previous year's arms. at\d have been obtained by the growth fifth j-ear and it should be possible from the time of planting. Williams Bon Chretien or Bartlett. and ultimately a leader. Keep the tree well-balanced. for the first three years. . . stocky. and although this can be rectified in the manner shown. again throw the tree wide. The tree was two years old when I in its early stages took it in hand. These latter should be subdivided and forked until from 15 to 18 main leaders is The pear for other fruit. We should now have at least eight leaders. leaving only a few. main and sub-arms. Figures G7 and 68 show a four-year short spurs or laterals always being left alone. The lateral growth should be both sunnner and winter-j^runed. according to gi'owth and stoutness of the tree. Trees can often be widened by utilising these laterals in the early stages of the tree's growth. for the Shorten base must not be crowded. and it will be seen that these are now left fairly long. and the tree of room for the 18 leaders it carries. and the pruner must use great care and judgment in training each variety to the required form. but the narrow base is a very serious fault. and by this means. but space thein well all round the hollow centre. together with widening the base. but all the longer ones have been shortened hard back. This is a very easy pear to prune. A good wide base is required to build upon. obtains some height before the needful width is gained. while others take years of winter pruning to develop fruiting spurs upon the laterals. The fourth year prune a little longer. giving a wide open tree with plenty These leaders are well-placed. if possible. remove the centre and throw tlie tree into wide. In the third year prune from one foot to 18 inches. provided a good start is made. — and keep all laterals cut ever possible. the better. As before stated. — . By throwing out the sub-arms and utilising outside laterals for future leaders a fairly shapely tree has been secured.can penetrate round and about each leader. and a more even development of tree and leaders is obtained. well-placed laterals. When planting. leaving about two feet. to leave about nine to 12 inches. The tree in question has a nice roomy base. in and thin the lateral growth. It will be noticed how badly this tree was pruned WilliaittS unpruned and pruned. Figure 69 shows an aged tree built up in this manner. all necessary leaders should be got by the fifth season. and do not have more leaders on one side than on another. The second year. the base is all orami^ed up. again getting a fork where. and will be again primed in the summer about the beginning of March. about six to nine inches being left. to obtain all the necessary leaders Each variety should be carefully studied. for there ace great differences in the of many varieties. for some trees will spar naturally on the short laterals if these are left.

63 M E .

The points of the leaders must be kept clear. which has been kept healthy by thoroughly noui-ishing the tree and permitting ample light and free air-circulation everywhere. —A .64 evenly distributed rurougliout and the base. . (iO.\ged Williams Pear iiviineil. so as to ensiu'e a clean get-away of the top shoot in . Flu. when it will bear heavy crops. very erect grower. As soon as the tree settles into bearing habits. . is well furnished with fruiting-wood. and bend them over by tying them down with light binding-wu'e from near the extremities of the leaders down to a band placed round the trmik. thus feeding and nourishing all fruit as well as the spur and bud growth for the following season. unless planted alongside another variety flowering at tlie same time. It should be done before the leaders become This will cause the lateral growth to be thrown out strongly all along too rigid. thejsaine manner as for apples.. although the tree is an aged one. It should be formed with as wide a base as possible and pruned as f or WilUams but some growers in the fifth year let the leaders go unpruned.Jto keep down the height of the tree and to encourage good top-growth. and a ^'ery unsatisfactory cropper Kieffers Hybrid. the loaders should be hard pruned back. taking care not to break them when bending. which ensures the sap going to the extremities.

Tliis nnist be done each season until they spur. 70. as shown in Figure 71. As soon as the tree settles into bearing. lateral growth which will now have become strong and of good height. the old leaders bent down (the wire should be removed as soon as the leaders become fixed in their tied position) can be cut off flush with the outside new leaders selected from the tlie Fig. It will be seen that the leaders were allowed to go unpruned the previous season and they have now been cut hard back. A row of Kietfer 's Hybrid Pears pruned and in flower. but in a vigorous tree these terminal flower buds will throw a strong wood shoot so that the pruner need have no hesitation in pruning to such buds. will bear a heavy crop. trees the following These new spurs summer. Two of these laterals suitabljr ])laced.65 length of the leaders. as shown in Figure 70. Those laterals selected for future leaders are pruned back each winter in tlie ordinary manner so as to keep them strong. open and sturdy. The balance of the laterals are b(jth summer and winter pruned close back and thinned out where excessive. a row of aged Kieffer's pruned and in flower from base to tip. treating them just as ordinary leaders. one in toM^ards the centre and one well out on each of the leaders bent down are then selected to make future leaders. spurs have been developed along their full length from every bud. This leaves the tree very shapely. . the same row of The leaders it will be noticed are cut to flower buds.

Tlio wirrie 71.()(j Fin. in fniit. i'(ju' Hliowiiig tlio qiiiintity of fniit (iii thpKi^ li'udi'i-y .

gonelle. and as soon as sufficient Fig. Clapp's Favourite. s . LTnconnue.Showing a limb of Kieffer heavily laden. etc. JarGlou Morceau.67 Although these trees are carrying verj^ lieavj' crops they liave made good healtliy top growth ensiu-ing a good sap flow. Gansells. This can generally be done by the fifth year. just as good results can be obtained by followmg the ordinary methods of pruning. Josephine. Beurre Capiaumont. If this system is not followed. repeating this p)rocess if necessary until fruitThe laterals should be both summer and winter pruned ing habits are formed. but special attention must be gi-\'en to the manner in which they carry their spurs. as soon as they are strong enough. to encourage fruiting spurs to develop. The leaders. otherwise it takes years to develop them. have been obtained. should not be headed back but allowed to go unpruned.. taking advantage of every outside lateral suitable for throwing out the tree and increasing the number of leaders. They must be brought back again the following winter to strengthen them. . Beurre Bosc. Figure 72 ihustrates the quantity of fruit these leaders are carrying. 73. until the old leaders are out back. and others can all be formed with a wide base and built up in the same manner. The main arms must be thrown as wide as possible in the first few years' pruning. but it gives very satisfactory results if properly carried out. Winter and Madam Coles. No for many of these varieties can be made to carry their fruit on the laterals. This method causes some inconvenience in_oultivation. Beurre Clairgeau. while Figui'e 73 shows the quantity on the older portion of one of the leaders.

now Pears of the Winter Nelis tj'pe. Figures 74 and 75 show seven-year old trees of Winter Coles and Bailey's Bergamotte varieties. and shape them later when they commence to bear. Pig. and apart from this the tree becomes a wilderness without main leaders. and thos& difficult . There are always some of the shorter laterals which have never been cut back in previous seasons which will give some clue as to linw to treat the lateral growth. When pruning Gansells and Vicars in one district this season (1912) I noticed well spurred tAvo year old laterals. Tliese points must be watched for. In such cases the laterals should not be shortened too se-verely either in winter or summer pruning. This tree was started hard-and-fast chniatic .08 rule can bi^ laid down. These spurs have been kept well clothed with fruiting spurs from base to tip. and the tree is then even still more difficult to shape. ^^•ith a verj? narrow Ijase. choosing Those which go out too wide. . Winter Coles. roomy tree carrying its 17 leaders without crowding. to an upward lateral. and growers should watch and experiment with the laterals for themselves by doing this they can work with Natiu-e in place of forcing her unnaturally. It generally takes more than one season to develop spurs on pear laterals. while Figure 76 shows an aged Beurre Capiaumont pruned and in flower. but it was thrown wide in subsequent p)runings and is It is a very shapely. and in some oases are better left unp)rmied for a season or two. a seven-year old tree. but much growth is lost by doing this. thinned out. Shape such trees as for other varieties for the first four years. 74. well placed shoots for future arms and sub-arms. better still. or. are verv to prune to shape in their early stages owing to their unshapely Some growers prefer to let such trees go unpruned manner of growth. for varieties differ in this respect owing to and soil conditions only observation can demonstrate this. Figure 77. cut well above a top or inside bud.

69 fH s '- OB .2ffq « .

therefore. and started as for other varieties. if the tree is vigorous. and very sturdy. for by doing so they will not only carry and mature heavy crops. cut well above an outside bud or to an outside lateral. The apricot should be pruned with a short main stem. Owing to its brittle nature. INIuch good work can be done during the summer. In willowy. The Apricot. but it enables them to matm-e If the trees become exhausted from want \v()od and spurs for the following season.s of the 77. . for they are greedy feeders and it x^ays to irrigate them. Pear. but do not allow the leaders to become too the young trees the limbs can be forced in the direction you wish them to go by forcing forks apart or forcing leaders into or away from each other by inserting By giving a little extra attention both summer light pieces of wood between them. this type of tree can be grown to very good shape. for by judicious thinning and rubbing off of those shoots not required and pinching back others. ot attention they bear very irregular crops. I •*> y * Fig. wide main and secondary arms. It is always advisable to plant different varieties of pears flowering at the same time alongside each other. This Pears must be well fed and cultivated to get the ensures a good setting of fruit.70 which grow too upright. . a very shapely After the thii-d pruning it is best to prune fairly long tree can be quickly made. best results. and also because they are more liable than wide forks are to gumThe main arms should be well spaced. 12 to 1. so that the blossoms can be cross fertilised.5 inches high. jSTelis Winter type. mino-. and winter dm-ing the first four years. be avoided apricot wood is ver}' liable to split for that reason. narrow forks should.

a b'l) 1^ Ph fit '^^ .

naturalljr prolific if . as well as Summer pruning Both the summer and the winter prunings should be tliree or four years. and well cared for. all round tlie main and secondary arms and light and air circulation are well provided by the wide system of pruning. and the clusters referred to are not required for chocking the sap-flow. the pruning becomes much more severe. when they sliould be cut back gradually. showing the same tree in foliage. or of its being knocked about by the wind. which are the fruiting spurs. similar Ij' to that seen on the previous year's wood below. . are best removed flush. and fur the first four years it sunmrer and winter ])runed. unmarketable fruit The short laterals are best left alone until after bearing. Water shoots. earlier. The tree has 24 The leaders. and it is not then desirable to have any further forks or branching. it bears a good croji in its fourth year.tlie tree is a strung. as will be seen on reference to Figure 80a. even when the tree is in foliage. The tree is planted in suitable soil and situation. bare wood will result along the leaders. no the cluster throwing out light laterals. As the top growth ceases. The leaders will now be gradually shortened at each pruning. as a rule. but in . as they begin to branch. strong tree and to check the natural tendency of the apricot. duce small. this will cause have been headed just above the cluster referred to previously the bare wood below to develop fruiting spurs. By heading off during summer. the spurs will be too long. to grow wild and rampant. cutting just beyond otherwise the tree is liable to overbear and profruit Ijuds and to a wood bud and. . sliould be liotli . as well as the lateral growth. and the sunnner treatment has ceased. base of the tree is wide. Figure 79 shows the same tree pruned It will be noticed that the leaders and Figure 80 the same tree in flower. hastens tlie building-up of the tree and brings it into bearing helping to form a sturdy. priming tlie leaders and thinning them. The summer pruning will develop plenty of fruiting laterals. This causes the sap to be slightly checked. If \yell oared for. and early Figure 78 shows a five-year old apricot which has been both summer and winter pruned for the previous four years. which is nicely spaced and distributed throughout the tree. while the limbs are strong and the forks wide. which ensm-es the full ripening and development of the fruiting wood. after fairly hard for the first which the leaders should be in its bearing : left longer. the required number of leaders are quickly obtained. Summer pruning should not. Notice how well distributed the fruiting wood is from base upwards no bare limbs exist. unless needed to fill a space caused lay the breaking or rerao-v'al of a limb. without any crowding. air and light have free entry everywhere. It is now bearing heavy crops of fruit. but after the discontinuance of summer treatment the leaders should in the winter pruning be headed just above the cluster of small lateral growth usually to be found about half-way up the last season's growth. resulting in the buds below With proper attention to this point. because it is then necessary to prune the leaders hard in order to encourage top growth. because every year the tree will make less and less . every care must be given to the thinning and shortening in of the longer laterals to from four to six buds. The suinmer treatment is permissible only when the trees are strong and vigorous but the lateral growth may be treated during every summer uj) to the fourth or fifth year. When pruning for fruiting wood. It throws out short laterals. when young. which have not been forked or branched for the last two seasons. Thus the tree is able to carry and mature a heavy load of fruit without fear of its breaking. be jjractised after the tree has settled into good bearing habits and tlie wood-growth has steadied. . Although there are 24 leaders in this tree. wild grower. top growth. the tree open and roomy. apart from this. yet there is no crowding of the fruiting wood.

soa. . Fig. in Five year Apricot foliage.Fig. Five year Apricot in flower. 8(1.

at " A. Figure above. Figure 82 it will be observed that the the result in the absence of shortening old portion has become barren. opinion. a fruit -bud and to a wood-bud. Pig. therefore. " a " will begin to branch as illustrated in Figure 84. . It should. 82. and the new shoot and it should the lateral. water shoots will take the sap and rob the rest of the Umbs. to replace that lost. 8t. there are still some dormant buds at the base. dry summer of . Fig. shorten the Figiu-e 81 . however. is largely due to the long. before they get too strong and too long. 81. If it is necessary to retain the lateral. the water shoots should be retained. Fig. shows shows a lateral spur which should be shortened back." then be pruned as illustrated new growth back beyond m constant attention. The next course is to cut this back where marked " a at the joint of the old and new growths.and many parts this. after bearing." After bearing wikter. Apricot laterals. to force out new growth as illustrated be^'cut back.arms. in my Western Australia the apricot is a very misatisfactory cropper. long-lived trees. By .83. the usefulness of lateral spurs can be maintained they are Apricots in this State have reached the age of 60 years for long periods. and fully utilised by constant cutting By or nipping back during the summer. If left alone.74 the case of old trees not too well clothed with fruiting wood on the main and secondarj. Fig.* the old portion " B is then removed at " A " is pruned to a wood-bud at " b. In . In all probabiUty. this means good fruiting wood can be produced along bare limbs." when pruning in the following 83. as stated '" " a.

and although tliey flower well thej^ will not set their fruit. It will be noticed that an upright grower. English Some Plums and Prunes. has been experienced in getting these plums to bear in Western Australia. which I attribute to the early failure of the soil-moisture. The leaders however. for the difficulty cannot be overcome except by intense cultivation. These are practically the same varieties for a prune difficulty is only a very sweet plum. and tills method may pro'S'e suitable in this State. to and develop the spur and bud-growth and enable the tree to store up plant foods tissues. and. I had considerable trouble in New Soutli Wales with these varieties.75 the tree is too exhausted to mature its spurs well. I think this difficulty will be largely overcome. but if the varieties are planted in close proximity so that the pollen will cross fertilise the blossoms. The tree should be watered just as the fruit begins to in its fill out fill out.5. and causes them to fill out. . It often fails for several years. shapely tree as illustrated in Figure this tree (a a three year old tree pruned. Myrabolan or cherry plum. or on soil with a stiff clay subsoil. • . wet soils. owing to the strong growth the trees made. soils The apricot should be planted fruit to feel the effects of frost. running. '. It is not advisable to remove too much foliage. because the apricot the first by a frost which is Most other varieties of fruit will not even be affected severe enough to ruin the apricot crop. Any prunes and plums which make strong growth should be both summer and winter pruned up to the fourth year in the same manner as for apricots. obtaining a nice. the plum stock. in well-drained soils in districts not subject is to severe frosts at flowering time. 8. will prove more suitable. peach stock could be used to advantage in place of apricot stock while on heavy. and again after the crop is harvested. for if any good is to result from the summer-pruning. that is. Under projjer soil and cultivation conditions many of these varieties make strong rank growtli. best to plant only in places where the trees can be watered. and prune regularly every winter and summer if the growth is strong. and that no forks have been permitted so. Ijotli the laterals and leaders should be pruned during the summer. or to late frosts. old wood. Much can be done without this strengthens the The apricot bears on young and In lighter . sufficient foliage must be retained for the assimilation process. and adapted the following method of pruning with great success. the tree cannot mature It is its spurs and store up the necessary nutriment for the spring growth. Prune d'Agen) is . since cultivation is frequently neglected after harvesting. in consequence. > The fruit should be well thinned when the trees set heavy crops. without which function the buds cannot Ije developed. . and it has been necessary to throw the arms well out in this last pruning. March water. in such cases by pruning the tree about buds. -. are best left alone until the winter-pruning. Start the trees off as for other varieties of deciduous fruits with low stem and open sturdy main and secondary arms and hollow centre.

76 .

even with a large number of leaders. lie 81io\viiig liDW tlie tree should \Yi liter. provided tlie tree is gi\-en a roomy base. no fruit set. find free access and circulation. which ri]iens later tlian is still the The foui'th season tlie tree pruned 3-^ig. referred to before. tri>. only leaving those required. The following winter the tree throughout the . and the leaders are thinned out. Figure 86 shows how the tree should be treated in the fifth winter's pruning the laterals and spurs are carefully pruned and thinned. The small growth round the base. how evenly distributed the fruiting wood Although the tree shows splendid blossom. but left unpruned as shown This is an average specimen of a very large acreage treated in the illustration. \vill be in this manner.iteil the tnllowing hard?and a fork obtained on each of the present leaders. ST. for a greater imml^er of leaders are necessary in thes& prunes and plums than in any other variety of fruit. and unless a numl^er of leaders are obtained the foliage is too scanty to protect the fruit and it is liable to sunscald on very hot days and especially during hot winds. owing to the strong growth the tree was making. and fruit later on this small growtli bears fine above. fairly tree . The small growth round the base and up the main arms should not be removed. but should be pruned every season. These leaders should not be headed back. Hun and light can. is It will also be noticed tree. This shelters the main arms and trunk. After this the must be specially treated to get the best results.77 as to give ample room. because the foliage is scanty and the leaf very small. seen in flower. and extends tlie harvesting. j^^' croi)s of fruit.

78 GO S e so .

but as the growth was still heavy the leaders had to be allowed to go unpruned a second time.79 should be thinned out. Figure 88 shows the seven year old tree pruned. Tliese trees now bore heavy crops of plums and the excessive top growth ceased. . The result of this treatment is to check the top growth of the tree and develop fruiting buds. The fruit The lateral spurs must be is borne on spurs of one year's wood and upwards.iut as this tree lias becom? stated before it is not advisable to have too few leaders on these varieties. . Tlie pruner need. and the tops brought back one-lialf say two feet being left. The strong top growth will be noticed in this . Tliese trees set some fruit. l. but kept strong and productive. It also causes fruit spurs to be thrown out at every bud along the full length of the leaders left unshortened the previous winter. These leaders it will be seen are cut back to fruit spurs. It will be noticed how well clothed with spurs also note the number and closeness of the leaders. spur pruned. however. have no hesitation in cutting to fruit spurs for the tree is so vigorous that the terminal buds will force into wood-growth and continue the leaders. for they branch and multiply. and the leaders again brought back about one-half. Shoivira' the tree iu full Ijeariiig. t >r*. kept thinned and shortened back where rec^uired. Figure 90 shows a nine year old tree in flower. After five years of this treatment the tree The tree now requires little is now bearing heavy and regular crops of fruit. as illustrated in Figure 87. but must be run over every winter. prunmg. illustration. Fig. and they must not be allowed to become crowded. with the leaders unshortened. 90. for all the buds are converted into spurs. shortening the leaders back to a few No forking or branching buds and keeping them intact as for other trees. to strengthen them. -4. and Figure 89 shows the tree in its eighth 3'ear pruned. must be permitted after the necessary number has been obtained.

the same results obtained by the summer systenr This tree onty requires the short top growth out back and the of pruning. I^IUW f IS. laterals run over in the winter. already illustrated will show identically. Figure 93 shows a five year old tree on the 1st December Figure 94 shows the same tree sunrmer pruned. 91. These trees should be pruned about Christmas time. The lateral jatera 1 me r ne latera 1 . Silver. :. and a comparison the winter made with Figure 97. when they were headed back as illusBy that date all the spurs had developed along the leaders trated in Figure 95. . the s]iurs had developed well all up the leaders. and Sugar_ prunes may not require treatment. Figure 96 shows this tree when the foliage fell in as shown in the illustration. if desired. the following winter the leaders are jjermitted to go unpruned until the second winter. December. .S(l Summer Treatment* Owing to the strong growtli some of these plums and primes make both of top and lateral (as illustrated in Figure 91 eight j'ear old trees on tlie 1st DeoemVjer). . Figure 92 shows these trees so treated. Fig. .iuv\ ei. a tree treated by the winter system of pruning. or. / . identically the The following illustrations show the system of summer pruning (which gives same result as the winter treatment). such this as the Golden. Some plums.s. they can be headed back during the summer. cutting back and thinning the laterals and thinning out the tops. it is sometimes necessary to do some summer pruning even at this age. the leaders being untouched until the following 1st December. as a rule. ramjiant growers. . Showing eight year old Prunes requiring summer pruning the leaders have been tliinntd out and the laterals cut close back. This tree was thinned and the lateral spurs run over only during the winter. about . because they are not.

All tlie lateral spurs must Vje shortened . It can be of fruiting picked three weeks before it is ripe as it both ripens and colours well off Figiue 101 shows a young Shiro Japanese plum carrjdng frvut. This is a nice.i Fig. Figure 98 shows two rows of Wicksons. It is best to prune them fairly hard during the first few years to get a shapely tree. Figure 100 shows one of these trees in flower. and thinned because all the Japanese plums are inclined to over-bear. In this way tlie tree can. throwing the tree well up by pruning to inside buds. trees it is to grow successfully. the tree. In these. an open centre must be kept. if do not prove profitable small and undersized. open sturdy tree carrj'ing its fruit well round the base. be made fairly open and shapely. showing the even distribution wood. These trees should be carefully pruned and shaped in their early stages and every care taken to prevent them growing wild and straggljr. or utilising upward laterals if the limbs are growing wide and low.81 growth should be left longer and encouraged to brancli. — "l^«i|##/. should be irrigated in this climate. These are upright growers and the trees must )je forced open by throwing the leaders into an outside lateral and by utilising the outside laterals to obtain a fork or an additional leader. The spurs must be well thinned and shortened. moisture fails. Figure The tree is a wide-spreading 102 shows this tree pruned the following winter. The Wickson is a first-class export plum. and Figure 99 shows the same trees pruned. as in other trees. in a few years. growing across each other. should not be summer pruned.-. Every effort should be made to throw the tree well up and prevent limbs from. The and Wickson and Kdsey. Thewe varieties as a rule The prune. grower like the Burbanl-c and Satsuma and otliers. The same trees the following winter. 92. they drop tlioir fruit badly. . especially as the tree ages.

8li !/^^ Fig. Kg. pruaerl. Showing a five nnd-a-lialf vear old Prune on 1st December. 93. mmer . summer prunprl. Showing the tree 94.

83 Fig. Showing the tree headed back on the Ist Decemtiev following Fig. . 96. 95. Showing the tree when the foliage fell.

97.S4 Fio'. svKteiii. Tree treated by winter .

99. .85 Two rows of Wickson Plums. 's The same Wickson jinmed. FiK.

8(j bi p b£i .

The cherry requires deep. and great care and judgment are needed in the choice of district. trees on the Narrogin State Farm. wet subsoil they fail drained soil near M'ater. free subsoils on the • lower hillsides. I have no doubt that many of the Californian varieties will prove successful under proper conditions of soil and cultivation. free. soil. . obtaining Figures 103 and 105 show as wide forks as possible. producing a better and more even class of fruit. bruichy. However. owing to liability to gum. as for other deciduous trees. cross-limbs or branches and shortening in any laterals which require attention All new lateral growth should be pinched back during the summer. for after this period it is not advisable to prune again. or the light loams with good.87 The Quince* . the same trees pruned Avoid having three shoots trees are not again pruned during the winter. retentive. and varieties. as a rule. moist. but to allow the tree to go without any Then the tree should be run over every summer. and excessive. but with no excess of water during either sununer or winter. removing any winter-XJruning. planted on a sandy soil with free subsoil. well-drained soil. ^ . . . and every effort must be made to spread the tree during the first few years and to obtain a sufficient number of leaders. are most suitable \ but irrigation must be provided. The lateral growth. prune verj? judiciously and spread the tree well. The varieties which so far have proved the best in this State are — Heart of Midlothian. The trees are not satisfactory in a heavy. . away from the coast. High. early and gum badly. Werder's Early Black. and the lateral growth thinned and shortened. alluvial. The cherry is a difficult tree to prune in this State. though the leaders are best not pruned during the summer. The quince as a rule gets little attention in the way of pruning yet the tree responds to good treatment under the secateurs. and summer pruning and tliimiing should be practised. A good formation should be obtained. The fruit is borne on short growth thrown out from the previous season's wood therefore care must be used not to cut away too nuich of the short spur growth. well_ This fruit should be planted in the cooler districts. Most varieties are upright growers. situation. for narrow forks gum badly. and the plantation at Cherrydale. and Bijarreau Napoleon. Donnybrook.courses. as the coming from the one close base by removing the central one barks come together the limbs will be apt to gum very badly indeed. is very rank. For the first three j^ears. It is best to obtain as many leaders as possible during the first three or four years. are doing well. is now bear- Some cherry ing well. or . St Margaret. these three year old trees and Figures 104 and 106. The Cherry* Only very few portions of this State are suitable for cherrjr cultivation. otherwise. Early Purple Guigne.

but throw the tree In the case of a wide grower. to obtain a fork. to fill out and strengthen the fruitingwood and buds for the following season. however. . and should be done in niidsunime:'. In the second and third i)runings cut liaclv to from 12 inclies to IS inches according to growth. not. >y judieious tTeatrnent during the first three years a shapely tree can be formed. if there is room. When the cherry trees are planted. owing to our long. till deep right up the The culti\-ation must be kept autumn rains fall. Tlivec Te:ir olil ( hpiry. cut them back as for other trees. cut the leaders back to from eight inches to 12 in. if it All big cuts should renui\-e l)ig liniljs this be painted o^er with white lead. obtain forks if it is possible and as wide as ])ossible. 103. and again imme- diately after the fruit has been liarvested. . and obtain a fork on each of last season's leaders. irp and be very thorough and Fig.88 Wide 1 gi'o\A prs sliould l. by pruning to inside liuds nr to u]iward laterals. is necessary to The tree should be watered just as (he fruit begins to swell. This is very necessary. and spreading tlie irpright growers as wide as possible. attempt to obtain forks on the upright grcwers. dry summer. using a lateral if necessary. removing In the the centre and retaining three well-placed laterals for the main armDo first winter-pruning. lies.)r encouraged t(i grow inure upright.

Any growtli starting from the main stem during the first season is also Itest pinched back instead of being removed altogether. according to the vigour of the tree. This as interference with the sap-flow is largely the cause of the disease known gumming. be pruned as little as possible. . for by constant nipping of the and by the removal of cross and useless branches little remains to be done in the winter. and the leaders should be left from two feet to twj and a-half feet. This growth affords protection from the sun. and in this climate it is very necessary to shield the trunk. laterals Give attention to the tree during the summer. 1114. they are allowed to go unpruned) because the cherry in this State is highly impatient of the knife.i obtained. Sunscald binds the bark to the cambium layer. as in illustrations. In the fourth year the leaders should be pruned very long. therefore. trees Fig. green. the sap-flow. secondary arms. and this interferes with of its pai'ts.89 All lateral growth should be iiinched back during tlie suinmer. because of the foliage obtained by pinching back. main arms. If the tree suffers from sunscald in any no possibility of preventing its gumming only in those which have a hue. there will be . healthy bark will gumming be avoided. (or if sufficient leaders have bee. It should now. closes the pores. and leaders from sunscald by giving the tree all the foliage possible. The same tree pruned.

90 .

91 The Almond* trees. with about 12 leaders. a well-shaped. long. Almoiifl prniiecl. leaving only two to form a fork. The almond is inclined to throw a mass of laterals as well as growth from the extremities of the leaders cut the previous season. the lateral of course being cut back slightly according to its strength and the length required. Duriag the first t^A^li Mg. by pruning hard to an inside bud or an upward lateral if the branches go too wide or lowUpright varieties should be encouraged to spread by pruning well spreading. and those laterals M'hicli are retained should be shortened back. as wide as possible and the lateral gi-owth should be thinned out. few years almond trees are pruned as for other deciduous open tree being obtamed. a bunch of top This bunch of leaders should be thinned out. to 2ft. For three years the pruning is fairly hard. Five year old 107. Weeping or spreading varieties should be encouraged to grow uiore upright. 6in. but in the fourth year the leaders are left about 18 inches long. while at the fifth pruning the leaders are left from 2ft. above an outside bud or to an outside lateral. pruning above the cluster of laterals to be found halfway up .

Fig. . Enw of Aliiuiiuls iiseil for a liveaku-iiul. Liuider 's Almond. ]0S.

owing to theii' length. open base and a rooniy top. in the same manner as obtains with the apple and all other If once these leaders are lost. would be inclined to remain Vjare of lateral s])urs. wood starves. and the lateral growth should be shortened in as otherwise it will become largely barren. This tree illustrates the form desired in an upright grower. Some I jDruners in this State practise far too for it open a system of pruning. where the nut A The wide opening is offers for the cultivation of the almond in Western Australia. Once leaders right round the full number has been obtained. leads to sunscald of the bark and checking of sap-flow. five years old these trees are grown for a breakwind and are planted 12 feet apart they carry more leaders than is usually permitted. The almond bears on new and old spurs thrown out on both the lateral growth. Short laterals can he left alone until thej' spur and branch they should then be pruned as required. and lime sliould be given to the almond. the leaders must be maintained intact. bearing only on the extremities. to carry the crop wide. Thanks to its deeprooting habit in suitable soil it will withstand drought conditions better than will most deciduous trees. simply because they are intended for shelter to the orchard. The varieties raised bjf Mr. This condemn. thus causing lateral spur growth to develop up these long leaders. Lauder. The centre should be roomy. with plentj? of space in the centre and betM'een each of the leaders. they show the form of tree rec^uired. and naixed varieties should be planted to permit cross pollination. and all the leaders needed have been obtained. they are very productive. getting a stocky tree. provided the cultivation is thorough. and. the grower's control over his tree deciduous trees. . and it should carry a double row of with a wide base there is room for 18 to 20 leaders. but not wide open. loamy soil. The tree comes into bearing at a very early age. Figure 109 shows portion of a young almt)nd raised by Mr. Tliis sHghtly checks the flow of sap. from planting. which should be shortened back. and it is wise to form a low. The peach bears only on the last season's wood. and care must alwaj^s be given to the proper feeding and cultivation. potash. a deej) rooter. which otherwise. The Peach and the Nectarine* No tree calls for more skilful treatment than does the peach. of the Upper is doing remarkablj^ well. Chapman. open framework. if cared for. The tree is five years old.93 these leaders as shown in Figure 107. However. the tree can be kept in good . so as to ensru'e a vigorous growth. The tree shown requires pruning and shaping. with a very strong. for all the top-growth goes to fruit-buds and the lower fruit-bearing . and spurs thrown out on the main limbs and leaders. Lauder are proving highly productive. they also make handsome avenues. and requires deep. By pruning hard and feeding well. orchard . owing to the need for always having a supply of fresh wood and spur or lateral growth. . Almonds make a good breakwind planted in this manner round an : . Figure 108 shows a row of almonds in flower. tree Ample phosphate. without branching. is also lost.

94 #1 .

95 •. Goldmine Nectarine pruned — wide forks.. 112. Fig. . 113. A Comet Peach pruned —wide foriis.|^ Fig.

but also because tree. and the figures are included for rig. not only because it gives so much room. and by keeping the tree roomy (for it must be remembered that the peach is a heavyfoliaged tree and will not stand crowding) the fruiting laterals all up the main and sub-arms can be kept healthy and productive. Figiu-e . and just coming into flower. The is grown on the upright narrow base system. the lower fruiting-wood soon becomes exhausted and starved. but too has Ijeen allowed to spread ninfh. ha-i in 114 shows a peach which has been well pruned this season. permitting of a greater nuinber of leaders and therefore of more fruit. I would urge the wide system. pruned. from base to top. By hard pruning. on the renovation of trees (Figure 151). as illustrated in the chapter. the benefit of those who prefer to follow that system. and l:)are. but it The base is correct. 114. by reason of the height of the tree. for 18 to 20 years. but the the p^st been alloAved to spread far too wide. barren limbs tliis . leailers should have been grown more upright. tree Figures 110 and 111 show an Elberta peach unpruned and pruned. with a constant renewal of gr wth but if light and air arc shut out bj' overcrowding of the top. in the jiast Tree correctly pruned this season. but it becomes necessary then to cut the tree hard back and start it afresh. Figures 112 and 113 show a Comet peach and a Goldmine nectarine grown on the wide base sj^stem.96 bearing. Anything that is gained through it admits of a lower a -d much stronger saving of labour in cultivation on the narrow-base system is lost again in picking the fruit and pruning. at the end of work. result.

07 .

98 fH s .2fPH Ph .

At the third pruning the lateral growth is shortened. Gin. an ideal shaped tree. shortened or cut close back to two wood buds to form wood for the followFigures 117 and 118 show a five-year old tree unpruned and pruned. can carry a fail' amount of fruit in its fourth season from . roomy. if well grown. 119. The lateral growth has been thinned. although only five years old. Remove the inside leader of the fork in the first pruning if necessary to open out the tree-base. low butted. to 2ft. wellspaced framework. . The tree is roomy. thinned. according to the vigour of the tree. . Showing the strength in this form of tree. for it now carries heavy planting. . but after this season the pruning will require to be hard to keep the tree vigorous. or removed. strong and carrying good fruiting wood from base to tip. and 18 inches the third year to be left at each pruning. In the fourth pruning the leaders are left longer. as may be required since the tree. ing season. Remove all excess of laterals and shorten in others in the second pruning to make some fruiting wood for the following season for a vigorous peach may be permitted to carry some fruit in its third season. Figures 115 and 116 show a four-year Elberta unpruned and pruned. Figu 'e 1 19 shows the great strength in this form of tree. being left. open. This forms a very sturdj?. The leaders have been left fairly long. 12 inches the second year.99 For the first three years prune hard nine inches the first year. from 2ft. open. Fig. or throw the leader into an outside lateral. and the leaders well spaced and carries nice fruiting wood throughout.

Fig. otherwise the leaders will be lost. It will be noticed that in Figure 122 the top is a mass of fruiting wood and the reader has only to pictui'e in his mind what this tree will be like when in foliage and how little chance has of maintaining its lower fruiting wood healthy and productive. causes the buds below to throw out fruiting laterals. Figiu'e 121 shows a six-year old tree in It will be noticed that the leaders have not been branched and no full bearing. Figure 1 2 1 will illustrate the difference in the two systems. renovating peach). and permit sunlight and air free entry and try to develop tlie lower fruiting In pruning the peach for fruit. wood again by severe shortening back. Figure 122 shows an eight.year old peach tree badly pruned. such as is often seen in the peach. . and the fruit can be picked without the aid of a The leaders must now be hard pruned every season to keep them growing ladder. and the vigour must be keiit up to furnish a constant renewal of bearing wood. by checking the sap flow slightly. A glance at strong.100 crops of trvxit which will tend to check its vigour somewhat. Showing the tree in foliage. Figure 120 shows it in foliage and gives some idea of how necessary it is to kee]) the leaders well ajiart. tree carried a is . The it only thing to do is to heavily thin out the top. In one the leaders in the other the leaders have been lost and the top of the tree are kept intact has all gone to fruiting wood. The tree nine feet high to where primed. and in this manner the buds are developed down below. We now have a double row of 1 aders all round a roomy centre and these leaders must be kept intact right through the tree's existence without any branching. all the lower j>ortion of the tree becoming barren (as shown in Figure 150. heavy crop both the pre^•ious and the following season. while the base is already barren and in two years' time the tree will only bear on the top. because these. 12(1. Although this tree looks roomy and open. The strength in this six-year old tree is shown by the man sitting in a third season's fork the tree is open. and the . forks ha\'e been permitted for the past two seasons and no branching must be permitted in future. but the small lateral growth immediately below the tips should not be removed. and carries nice fruiting wood from base up. and no bare wood results. regain the leaders. The points of the leaders must always be kept clear. roomy.

showing strength in limbs. 11^1. A badly pruned eight year old . Fig. Hix year old Peach prunerl. 122.101 Fig. tree.

but always bear in mind that fruiting wood will be required for next season. Then shorten back those which show an excess of blossom. short Pig. This would have the effect of strengthening the buds. I would advise nipping the lateral shoots during the summer. These should the strong shoots carrying two flower buds with a wood bud between. become exhausted or too long and useless. and these must be replaced. as the peach and nectarine only bear on last season's There is always a certain percentage of spurs die each year. leave the pruning until the pink of the blossom shows. or long bare It is a good plan to always leave fruit buds in excess of what is lin^bs result. Where the fruiting and weak wood is too thick it may be necessary near the base. The best fruit laterals are required. leaving others entirely alone and .102 woolly budded laterals or spurs may be left alone where not too Weak spurs should be shortened back to the two wood buds crowded. In the early peaches the habit of throwing their flower buds just This undoubtedly can only be as the sap rises is very prevalent in this State. 123. or pruning them immediately the fruit is harvested. and the amount of fruiting wood available. because not one half of the flowers set fruit. and others gi-owth. to remove some altogether. overcome by intense cultivation. be shortened back so as to only leave from four to eight of these cluster fruiting buds according to the carrying capacity of the tree. Tno iiniiiuned Peach leaders. for those buds which r_main up to that stage do not fall and there is no risk of cutting oft the fruit when pruning. or else.

103 60 " = 5 .

but the future of the Leaders has been seriously impaired. retaining the best placed and strongest shoot (> continue the leader. for a constant renewal of growth must be maintained. The bunch of terminal growth has been removed. during the summer months in Western Australia. The leaders will become weak and willowy. and the lateral growth barren. be irrigated in this manner.104 shortening others to wood buds to throw fruiting wood the foil wing seasons. . It will be seen that far more fruit has set than the limbs can possibly carry. wherever possible. Fig. Figure 124 illustrates a strong leader on a vigoroiLS young tree while Figure 12. Figure 126 illustrates the extremitj' of a leader from an older tree. The extremity of an older Peach leader. I .5 shows how this should be pruned. The extremities of the leaders must always be kept clear Peaches and nectarines should. 126. Figure 123 illustrates two peach leaders from young trees which were unpruned during the winter. for very little growth will be u^ade. while Figure 127 shows liow this should be prmied. The result of this will be that not only will the fruit be small and unmarketable. only bearing on the tip of fresh wood put out each season.

The same leader pruned. .105 The cultivation of these fruitw. 127. in as a rule ejitirelj^ neglected after the crop is harvested. and when the rain does come in the late autumn very serious damage results to the tree and subsequent crop. and owing to the faihue of soil moisture the development of the fruit spurs and the storing up of the plant foods mentioned in the early part of this book cannot take place. Fig. The peach sliould be planted in good loamy soil. especiallj' tiie early ones.

the tree shapely by removing any cross limbs. Son^e varieties sucker badly. The lateral growth lightly. The tree should be cut back to the required height in the nursery. and as the tree ages some thinning of the top growth becomes necessary but. way of pruning. If there are too many leaders. by cutting The for Olive. . but avoid .106 The The fig Fig. The tree will grow to a great height if the centre leader is left. then the leaders should be thinned out. whichever they may spring from. Therefore. for this results in a very dense growth. The olive requires some pruning. and these suckers should be carefully removed off flush with the main roots or lower part of the trunk. the young tree should be headed back to the required requires little in the Nature does not do this herseK. height when planting. it is best to renaove the growth flush from its parent stem in place of shortening only. may be thinned out. The olive bears These measures will keep the tree as low as possible for picking cutting too hard. and those which are retained should be shortened back if making too much wood. young growth thrown out from the younger wood. in thinning. so that the gathering of the fruit can be more easily and cheaply done. Only shape the tree when and cut back any leader which runs away from its fellows. and the remainder shortened in on the younger wood. or if the tree is too dense or too compact. Keep . economical purposes. it is very necessary that ample young wood be provided. If this has not been done. and grow the tree in the bush form. the flowers coming on short. It is best to remove the centre leader.

tree. . let the tree alone. . Figure Should any leader get away from its 128 shows a walnut shaped by Nature. All cross limbs should also be removed. when they should be thinned out.107 Walnuts and Chestnuts* These trees require little pruning. it may be shortened back of its becoming too crowded. rig. 128. otherwise. Walnut. except in case fellows. as Natui'e generally herself shapes the but for reasons of economy it is best to remove the centre leader. or of too manj' arms coming out from the main stem.

if all laterals are tipped. Tliis tree of the fruiting . more especially as the tree ages. Figure 129 shows a persimmon about se\-en years old unpruned. borne on the terminals. only the longer laterals should be cut back for. Fig. Persimmon. no fruit will result. and after it is once formed the leaders should be kept fairly hard pruned to induce new growth.108 The Persimmon* needs some pruning. It natiu-ally forms a shapelj^ tree. The fruit is borne on the short shoots thrown off the previous season's growth. as a rule. since the fruit is. However. The tree first requires shaping similarl}' as for other deciduous trees. 129. but care mast be taken not to cut off too much wood. and the lateral growth should be hept thinned out. and Figure 130 shows the same tree pruned. .

.109 rig. 130. The same tree pruned.

The commercial Billy varieties mostly grown in Australia are White. from well-ripened.31..110 The Gooseberry* tlie These deciduous shrubs are best suited to cooler districts with good soils and ample moisture. A young Gooseberry bush. ]. the rooted cuttings being about four feet apart in the rows. or by layering. Two and one year old wood. long. the cuttings are planted out in rows about 5 feet apart. When struck. strong wood. as illustrated in Figiu'e 131 (illustrations after Wright). The plants can be obtained from cuttings about ISin. Dean Crown Bob Pvifleman Whitesmith Roaring Lion . to ISiu. 133. Eed. Gooseberry cutting. the buds and prickles being removed from the lower end. Fig. ^^ Pig. else ^bfa^. 1.32. Fig.

two laterals left for future bearing wood. . should be shortened close back. . Bearing wood and laterals. about 12 inches is sufficient. Most of the laterals on this branch liave been cut close back as at " x " this prevents the bush from becoming too dense and crowded. The older wood becomes worn-out and exhausted therefore a constant supply of new growth is required to replace exhausted wood. Well-developed fruiting buds or spiu^s are shown all along the older wood.Ill The bushes should be systematically pruned. which are not requii'ed. The young one-year shoot is left where there is room. Figure 134 shows bearing wood in fruit. so that the older wood can be renaoved. Fig. This practice keeps the bush highly productive. leaving 12 inches if the growth is vigorous. especially in the centre of the bush. and two shortened back. In the one-year shoot the buds shown will develop into fruiting spurs for the following season. to obtain good-sized fruit and regular cropping. Figure 132 illustrates a young bush marked where it should be pruned.34. These four limbs will branch in the following season as marked by the dotted lines. The season after. The main stem should be raised well above the ground level before being allowed to branch as a rule. Figui-e 133 illustrates twoyear wood with a one-year shoot. — The fruit is borne on two-year and older wood. The lateral shoots. All suckers should be removed. these new shoots are cut to good stout buds. 1. .

should not be rubbed at the top. Figure tree Fig. if this is not protected. — On planting. the lowest of which should be 18 inches from the ground. ShoAving how the tree should be pruned when planted. at the most fovu'. down and wrap]ied around the main stem are most suitable for this purpose. and free from disease. off.-5. The stems of young citrus trees should alwaysbe protected from the sun and hot winds. the liealthy ti'ees are cut back. therefore they must be reshaped again at the first pruning. for by nipping or rubbing off shoots tlie growth can be directed into the rec^uired channels. Choose three or. Pig. prodxictive. but much can be done by going over the trees during tlie summer. and a shapelji. . because the leaves will afford protection to the unprotected main stem. The young tree will throw a mass of growth down the main stem. well-placed shoots for this purpose.3. The small growth up the main stem. leaving only those shoots required to form the future main arms of the tree. as well as and this growth sliould be either nipped back or rubbed off. and the strawsheaves from bottles split.112 TJte Oranijc 136 from the nursery and Figure sanre tree pruned. 135 the showing a and good The Citrus* Mandarin. starting at different places on the main stem. A young Orange from nursery. 1. The same attention to permitting the free entry of air and light must be observed with the citrus family as with the deciduous trees if they are to be kept healthy. but nip23ed back.tree grown without any waste of energy or wood-growth. tii'e 136.

otherwise. grow too far out to an upward Cut back any lateral branches that are inclined lateral. and this object should be kept in view all the and this — time. and and no more if not required for leaders (and they must be well placedjfor this purpose) should be removed flush and never allowed to make headway. but just before one of the several growths these trees make just before the spring growth for preference. Water shoots. If they are retained they must be headed back. 137. Fig. Keep the to tree well balanced. and remove any which come down too . the inside growth is more liable do not o\'erdo the thinning. to permit entry of light tree far the outside becomes too dense. grow all citrus in tlie bush form. Apart from this. for they rob the rest of the tree of sap and check the general growth of the tree. so tliat light and air can penetrate keep the outside growtli thinned out sufficiently freely throughout the trees . A three year old Orange. It is very desirable to Figure 139 shows a good specimen of young orange. pruning should not be done during the winter. air. . >.113 Very little pruning is required if the trees are properly attended to every year. . If dies. The centre of the tree should never tie allowed to become crowded |^keep the small growths in the centre well thinned out. a dense to sickness and disease than a tree properly thinned. a t%vo-storied or badly balanced tree results. if they are allo^ved to run unhecked.

which are just on the surface of the ground. prevent the growth from coming to the ground when carrying fruit. should be protected. Figure 143 shows a nice trees will bear well and keep very free from disease. No dead wood must . mandarin in heavy bearing. or tops. This growth is only removed sufficiently high The lower growth on Fig. the and irrigation. 146 show highly productive orange trees. 139. The annual wood growth for fruit must be kept up by keeping the trees thoroughly healthy and in a growing state by thorough cultivation. Umb of Valentia late orange. The bottom. citrus must not be trimmed up too high. which have been well pruned and cared for. to tree ages be permitted to remain in the tree either in the centre and cara and attention must be given right through the tree's life not to allow it to form a compact mass of foliage. or throwing it up by cutting to the upward laterals. growths touching the ground have also been removed. manuring. for it is very necessary that the trunk and main crown roots. because the tendency of the growth is to come downwards. was taken and the thinning does not show up as well as it otherwise would. owing to the heavy crops of weighty fruit the trees carry. but the centre has been thinned out and just sufficient of the dense outside growth removed to permit light and air free entry. Figure 142 shows a well-grown seven year old close to the ground. 145. If attention is given to allowing sufficient light and air. different ages. A good shaped young Orange tree. 139a show well-cared for orange trees at Figure 140 shows a young mandarin. 138. and Figure 141 shows the same tree pruned the wind was unfortunately blowing strongly when the photo. . As the it is necessary to keep removing the lower growth. Figures 144.114 Figures 138.

stocky tree or bush.115 far more attention than the orange. — The lemon requires to its rambhng liabit of Fig. and all other laterals suppressed by nipping back. pruning about December will check the strong rank growth. and the fruit is ruined by being thrashed about by the . to permit free circulation of air. Strong shoots must be cut flush away when not rec^uired. otherwise they become long and wild. and the leaders shortened back. Figure 147 shows a well-shaped young lemon. It should be grown into a good roomy. By pinching and cutting. growth. also because it does not so readily provide itself with fruiting wood.Leinon. tree. 139. with no central leader. Form the young tree. A good shaped young Orange and keep the outside growth from becoming too dense. All cross limbs must be removed. As the tree ages keep the small growth in the centre The. The aim of the pruner is to pre^'ent wild growth and encourage small fruitin growth. and promote the lighter fruiting well thinned out ar.d that retained nipped back. and treat it in every way as for the orange during the first few years. All pruning should as a rule be done just before the spring growth. but if tlie tree is very vigorous. owing growth. the leaders can be kept from rambling in early life. without altogether suppressing the natural habit of the tree.

Figure 14H shows a young lemon in Ijearing. the busli form is the most suitable class of tree to grow. 'J'lic 'l^lie lemcji] bears all the year round. and Hjjikinf^ tli<! fruit. . wind. Owing to the constant picking. in Fig. because it bears well right through the centre of the tree. and constant and thorough culti\'ation. and greatly lessens the expi-nse (if liar\esting. for the tree bears all the year round. l. liming. not only pruning but also by heavily manuring. A well shaped Orange tree. as well as on the outside. or liy tli(' liijilis on tlic tlioriis. about se\en years old. 15y keeping the main leaders within hiounds. open and roomy tree. and by continually nipping or cutting the lateral growtli. The lemon requires more light and air than the oi'ajige.'iOa. a good sup])lyof light fruiting wood is kept up. so no crowding must be permitted in any part of the tree.lUi <-(ji]iin. a well sliapod. lower gi-owtli iiniMt be i<opt trimmed up clear of tlio ground.^ down on top of oacli otlior. and r(^quiros^ constant attention.

11' y br .

—A seven year Mandarin. . 142.118 Fig.

119 bo a -ti .

.120 I'jg. 146. we]] A productive ard prnned tree.

121 w^'- ^^i' .

so . otherwise overcrowding results. or exhaustion. The fruit is borne on branching spurs. which start out from the terminal buds in the late autumn. choosing the best placed and strongest shoots for leaders and stubbing others back. The centre leader should be removed when the tree is planted and encourage a bu h habit of growth. A large proportion of the new growth will blossom and carry good fruit and with the large root system in proportion to the top. and not too crowded in any part. and the fruit ripening early in the spring. because they will throw fruiting wood for the following season. but prevent the tree from spreading too much by judicious pruning. that have become exhausted or run out and become unprofitable. Fresh growth starts out from the base buds of these branching spurs which die back after bearing. as thej' encourage fungoid diseases. Figure 150 shows an Figure 151 shows how this should unprofitable tree which pays to cut back. pruned and thinned. such as " Black Spot " of the loquat. As the tree ages it is necessary to thin out bjr removing limbs or branches when too crowded. The Peach. The trees can be done by degrees. bearing only on the extremities and top of the tree. and started off afresh. be done any lateral growth down the limbs should not be touched. Do not take them all out flush unless there are too many and crowded. The prunmg is best done just before the growth starts in the Autumn. Peach trees. does not call for the as deciduous trees require. The old decayed fruit-clusters remaining after bearing should be removed. but remember the peach bears on the new wood and much of this growth will produce good fruit this season. but if pruning two feet a break. for if too much top is left only weak growth results. and requires thinning. whether old or young. due to age in the old tree. the flowers opening early in the winter. a few each season. if Loquat. The main stem should be planted in the orchard. and removing of the side shoots.wind the in to main stem should be from two feet to three feet in height. The old . same attention from 18 inches used for This tree. can be given a fresh lease of life by heading right off as illustrated in Figure 149. This young growth is often too thick.so any stubs must be removed in the following Figure 152 shows a tree twelve months after cutting back. The tree should not be cut too far back because the old wood left will throw out new laterals from dormant buds all up the old limbs. Renovating Old Trees. The tree will not always burst at the sawcuts. so that growers will not be deprived of all the fruit if required to carry on with. — have thrown out good fruiting wood and will carry some nice prune tliese as required.122 The in height to first branch. As the fruit is produced in the damp weather of winter these diseases are liable to be transferred to the fruit. due to bad pruning and cultivation in the young tree. season's pruning. All the laterals down the old limbs should be carefully thinned out if necessary^ and sliortened. therefore prune for fruit. It will be noticed what strong health5' growth it has made and how well clothed the The tree should be carefully old limbs have become with new lateral growth. On the other hand the tree must be cut back severely enough to ensure its starting strongly again. being an evergreen. Keep the tree shapely. the laterals will also fruit.

!. An old unprofitable Peach. Heading off old Peaches for renovating.Fig. .„.50. 1. 149.^ Fig.

When renovating trees they should always be lieaviljr leaders should be The being loft. and twitching the wire tight with the aid of a stick. in which case shorten some back to ^ive fresh growth for the following season. drawing the split clo. will the tree not stimulated the growth be weak. and new ones placed on. using sacking as before. manured with for if highly nitrogenous is manure and green crops should be turned \mder. Kig.53a illustrates a tree 12 months after heading back in blossom. 151. Trees wliich have been split can also be secured ttirough the trunk. while Figure I. possible to obtaia without crowding all therefore retain pruned fairly long.should the tree till out. it ia . This tree will lie productive for many years to coine and will well repay the loss of one year caused Ijy cutting Ijack. A glance at this tree will show how profuse the fruiting wood is and Ikjw little time is lost before a heavy crop is again obtained. Figure 153 illustrates this tree correctly pruned. lieailed Old Peach hack. The main limbs should also be held firmly in place by placing a k)0]i of strong wire round the limb on either side of the tree. The wires should be watched and removed . if the bark is not too damaged. from eigliteen inches to two feet according to the growth the tree has made. . by placing a strong bolt . Figiire 154 shows a tree two years after heading back pruned and in full bearing again.se together but first wrap a piece of sacking round the trunk to prevent the wire when tight from damaging the bark. . otherwise the tree will be strangled.124 tree will carry all the fruit for the laterals to nourish it too closely the new wood on the old limbs possible. will heal up and grow together again. Trees wliich have been split in half can often be made good Vjy heading back and by twisting stout fencing wire round the trunks. This prevents the winds from moving the join below which. provided it is not too cro^wded.

1-3:^. . The same tree juiineil.]25 Pencil t'svelvp months after heafliiig'. Via.

154. 153a. Peach two years after heading back. .126 rig. Tree twelve months after heading back. u Fig.

Apricots. all the leaders having broken down. Figure 157 illustrates how this tree should be pruned. 155. as in Figure 158. should be pruned as illustrated in Figure 159. It is impossible to shape these trees jaroperly. Fig. Figure 161 shows the tree twelve months afterwards. badly gummed. and fruit bearing shows a Bartlett's Pear cut hard back on the weak leaders this tree had become a wreck. dead and cross limbs removed and the tree thinned out to allow free entry of light and air. Practically all broken or worn out trees can be renovated in this manner if proper attention is given to manuring and cultivation afterwards. but the trees must be cut hard back into the main arms for this purpose other- . Eenovating a tree split in half. Trees which have been neglected.127 If one side of the tree is completely broken off the other half should be headed hard back and the tree encouraged to grow over on the side lost so as to balance up the tree again as illustrated in Figure 155. —Apricots can be treated or broken down. . Figure 156 shows a badly gummed 12-year old apricot which was headed the previous winter. in the same manner as for peaches if run out. Unprofitable trees of poor varieties can be reworked to better sorts by heading back and either grafting on the old limbs or else budding on the new wood thrown out. The new growth has been thinned out and stout new leaders obtained on the remains of the old ones. Figure 160 owing to long pruning. but the long weak leaders have been brought back.

a nice well tree. Figiu-el 63 shows the scions inserted in the old arm. Figure 164 shows how the graft is tied. This strengthens them and the young growth is quickly shaped into . and removing all not required. Note how sawcuts heal over. tied and ready for cla5'ing. Figure 166 shows the grafts properly clayed. not only does the old bark callus over but the strip across the top grows to meet it. choosing well placed and strong shoots for budding. use the strap graft for these old limbs because it is not only a stronger and better graft but the old limb heals over quicker. If grafted. Note how hard back the old tree has been cut back. Figure 162 shows how to prepare the scions. the strip across the top must be kept close down on the top of the old arm. the short strip being inserted under the bark on one side.128 wise the new variety will start too high. the long strip is carried across the top of the old arnas and inserted under the bark on the ojiposite side the long strips have just . Apples and pears can be safely grafted but it is decidedly better to bud other varieties of trees on to the new growth thrown out by the old limbs. When the grafts start all the shoots from the old butt must be removed. and quicklj' tlie old .sufficient wood left in them to give strength to the bark. Figure 167 illustrates the tree 12 months after grafting. This method of grafting is a great improvement over the cleft graft and has been practised in Victoria for some years. Figure 165 shows all the scions in place. the shoots from the scions should be summer pruned and the young growth shaped about December or January.

129 '^ '-0 m -*^ T— i .

130 .

131 .

Sbowing how to prepare the scions.132 Fig. 162. .

164. .133 Fig. rig. Seiona inserted in old arm. 163.

134 Fig. . .V- Fig. place and tied. l''lie 160. yral'ts claved.. . All scions ill Ifio.

PTaftiiiff. The tree twelve mouths after By Authority : Fred. Governmeut Printer. Pertli.135 Via. . 167. Simxisoii. Wm.

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