ISAAC

2003

Vedic Mathematics
BY

Abhijeet Shetty
and

Sameer Agrawal

Vedic Mathematics

www.ieee-tsec.org

and we subtract crosswise ( 98-1 OR 99-2 = 97) to get the other part. do you really need to learn Vedic Maths? But first . Note that the digits of the partial answer will be equal to the no. of digits in the operands ( i.e. He claims to have culled these formulae from the Atharvaveda. hence the corresponding digit in the answer is 2 ! Similarly.“All from nine but last from ten!” MULTIPLICATION Applying the same sutra in the context of multiplication gives us a nifty trick that can be applied to multiplications of numbers close to a power of ten: e.867384629643856253976 ___________________________ 132615370356143746024 directly gives How? Simple.org .g 1000000000000000000000 . gives us the answer. It sounds cryptic but is applied as follows: e. however. fast procedures for arithmetical computations like multiplication. hence we directly write 4 as the last digit of the answer. (-2) implies that 98 is 2 less than 100. Remember .2) x 99 (-1) ____________ 97 02 straightaway gives us the answer Here. However.e. So. the second last digit 7 is 2 less than nine. division.ieee-tsec. this in no way lessens the beauty and grace of the system. let’s have a look at basic subtraction: SUBTRACTION The problem that most of us face during subtraction is the cumbersome “borrowing over” of digits. To elucidate. 2x1 = 02 because the operands are double digit numbers). This is done through contextual interpretation of the sutras for a particular set of problems.g 98 (. Further. and I want to learn Vedic Maths to score maximum marks”. cubing etc. the present “Vedic” mathematics system – as taught in schools and demonstrated in seminars – is in reality the work of a single man who states that he simply rediscovered the sixteen sutras which were otherwise lost to modernity. is a refrain one hears a lot nowadays.ISAAC 2003 “ I am taking the CAT/GRE . what is Vedic Maths ? The present system of Vedic Maths is based on sixteen basic sutras formulated by Swami Bharati Krisna Tirthaji Maharaj in his book ‘Vedic Mathematics’. The system gives simple. Therefore. writing down the difference of all the remaining digits from nine. A few more examples: 999999998 (-2) x 999999996 (-4) ______________________________ 999999994 000000008 (same digits as the operands!) 105 (+5) www. to remedy that we use the sutra – ‘nikhilam navtascharamam dasatah’ ( quite a mouthful !) – which states “all from nine but last from ten”. nowhere in the Atharvaveda are these sutras explicitly stated or propounded as mathematical proofs. wherein the basic mathematical operations are solved more through intuition rather than mechanical rigmarole. lucid and most importantly. Note that the last digit 6 is 4 less than ten. the numbers in brackets represent the difference between the operand and the nearest power of ten i. squaring. We then simply multiply the differentials ( 2x1 = 02) to get a part of the answer.

as we have just seen. the right hand partial answer will contain 1 less than the no.e.e “vertically and cross-wise”. Do it mentally!) The chart shows the progression of the calculation: This method can be extended to multiplication of more number of digits: 123 x 456 ______________________________________________ (4x1) : (5x1 + 4x2) : (6x1 + 5x2 + 4x3) : (6x2 + 5x3) : (6x3) = = = 4 : 13 : 28 : 27 : 18 4 : 13 : 28 : 28 : 8 4 : 13 : 30 : 8 : 8 . However.(5 carried over to 24+45) = 20 : 74 : 4 = 27 4 4 (i. Remember . . therefore we use a more generalized sutra – urdhva tiryagbhyam i.org . again.ieee-tsec. the nikhilam sutra is applicable only in special cases. and then 5x4 vertically. only write down 8 and mentally add the carry from this to the sum of three www. . This sutra can be applied to any kind of multiplication: 49 x 56 ________________ 20 : 24+45 : 54 . since the numbers are greater than 100.the calculations are happening step-wise in your mind and not as lengthily as shown here. 6x9 vertically. 5x4=20 : 6x4=24 + 5x9=45 : 6x9=54) (We start from the right-exactly the same as in regular multiplication. then 6x4 and 5x9 cross-wise and added. only write down 8 and then mentally add the carry of 1 to the sum of two multiplication pairs (6x2+5x3+1).initially you start with one multiplication pair (6x3=18). and 104+5 OR 105+4 = 109) 2003 (in this case. of digits in the operands).and move towards the left i. 5 7 0 8 8 ( 1 carried over) (2 (3 “ “ “ ) “ ) ( Move right to left!) = … Final answer While this looks tedious it really isn’t because you’ll be doing the calculations mentally .ISAAC x 104 (+4) _______________ 109 20 (5x4 = 20 .e. therefore.

since it lends itself naturally to mental calculations. and the cross-wise multiplications are all multiplied by two. So.org . this can in fact be done mentally as follows: 5342 gives us 25 : 2x15 : 2x20 + 9 : 2x12 : 16 (one carried over .ieee-tsec. again using the cross multiplication property of the urdhva sutra: 38759 ÷ 74 will be solved as 4 | 38 7 5 : 9 0 7 | 3 3 : 6 8 _|________________ | 5 2 3 . Move toward the left! ) = 28 5 1 5 6 … Final answer GENERAL DIVISION We shall now look at a fast but slightly complicated method for Division. SQUARING The squaring of numbers is a simple extension of this sutra: 5342 gives us 534 x534 __________________________________ (5x5) : 2x(5x3) : 2x(5x4) + 3x3 : 2x(4x3) : (4x4) You’ll notice here that the vertical multiplications are squares of the digits. of digits in the multiplicands and then decrease again ( see the above chart). You must have already noticed that the biggest advantage of using this method is the abolishment of physical multiplication. of multiplication pairs start decreasing and the multiplication ends at the last pair(4x1+1). Only remember the fact that the number of multiplication pairs will increase to equal the no.ISAAC The step-wise chart for this would be: 2003 multiplication pairs(6x1 + 5x2 + 4x3 + 2). of digits . 7 7 … Final ans www. from this point the no. The urdhava sutra can be used for multiplication of numbers with any no.

Now. For a generalized case let the second last digit be D Now place 1 at the rightmost of your answer as shown: 1 (For division by numbers ending in nine . 2.( Partial dividend now 39) and so on to get the final answer. therefore the quotient (38/7)=5 is written as the first digit of answer and the remainder 3 is appended as the base to the next digit of dividend(giving a composite partial dividend 37).ISAAC The steps in the solving process are: 1. The partition(represented by vertical dotted lines) gives the position of the decimal. 2003 Firstly.e ( 37 – 4*5)/7 = 17/7 gives the new quotient digit 2 and the remainder 3 is appended to 5. of quotient digits. [57 – (3x3 + 1x2)]/7 = 6 . NOTE : You’ll notice that in the above problem. 2. The division method seems a little complicated at first. 2. with the right partition having as many digits as the “flag” – in this case 1 digit is partitioned. the “flag” consist of two digits (32) and the dividend is partitioned by same no. Here. Division by two-digit PRIME numbers ending in 9: e. Divisors greater than two digits can be handled just as easily : 997895÷732 is solved as 32 | 9 9 7 8 : 9 5 | 2 5 4 : 3 4 _|__________________ | 1 3 6 3 . Next do (Partial dividend – flag*quotient digits)/base.remainder 4. 3. and the remainder 2 is appended to the base of next dividend digit to give partial dividend 29. The resulting calculations would be: a.e 7 is used for actual division.ieee-tsec.e 95 is partitioned off). RECURRING DECIMALS There are certain special cases of division that lend themselves to blindingly fast mental calculations and which do not even require the use of the division method shown above.org . 2 4 7 1.g 1. i. 1÷19 is solved in just one line as follows: The second last digit in this case is 1. The first quotient digit is (9/7) = 1. www. The steps are repeated to get the final answer. 4. but with practice can be internalized easily. 1 is always the rightmost digit) Now MULTIPLY this digit by (D+1) and write the product to the LEFT of the digit as shown: 2 1 3. [29 – (1x3 + 0x2)]/7 = 3 . 4. the dividend is partitioned into two. 5. Note that the double-digit flag is cross-multiplied with an equal no. (69-4*3)/7 = 57/7.remainder 3. of digits from the right(i. Next. We then do (Partial dividend – flag*previous quotient)/Divisor base to get the next answer.e we could have written 8 as the first decimal digit. the rightmost digit/s of the divisor – in this case 4 – is placed as the “flag” and the “base” i.( Partial dividend now 57) b.( Partial dividend now 48) c. so that one day you’ll divide with the same ease and precision as your trusted FX-991W. [48 – (6x3 + 3x2)]/7 = 3 . So why didn’t we ? Because the partial dividend thus formed would have been too small for the next subtraction step. 3. i.remainder 5. since only the “base” 7 is used for division.

4x2+1 = 9. ( NOTE that 8x2 = 16 . DUPLEX (used in Square Rooting) Duplex (Dwandwa Yoga) of a number. we straightaway start writing the complements of the PREVIOUS digits from NINE.org . To illustrate.Therefore we’ve multiplied 1 by 2 and written the product to the LEFT of the present digit) Apply this process continually (i. and we continually multiply by D+1 = 3 till we get product as 29-1 = 28. for other divisors. second last digit is D = 2 . for this specialized case . The next product is found by multiplying 6 by 2 and adding the carry to it i.e as soon as we got 18 as our product we stopped.e (Denominator-Numerator)=(19-1)=18 of the given fraction.) 5. This is done as follows: 0 5 2 6 3 1 5 7 8 9 4 7 3 6 8 4 2 1 ( i. 0 3 4 4 8 2 7 5 8 6 2 0 6 8 | 9 6 5 5 1 7 2 4 1 3 7 9 3 1 (Here. lets take another example: _ _ 1/29 = 0. However . to put down our final answer as follows: _ _ 1/19 = 0.) 7. 0 5 2 6 3 1 5 7 8 | 9 4 7 3 6 8 4 2 1 To illustrate further . the generalized division method is better in its scope of coverage and applicability.We put 1 as the rightmost digit (as always).ieee-tsec. so on 6.ISAAC 4. 7x2 = 14. We stop with this process when we get the product as 9x2 = 18 i. There ! That was all there was to it . and started putting down the complements of the previous digits from 9: 9-1 = 8 9-2 = 7 9-4 = 5 9-8 = 1 …………. Thus. The next digit that we get is 3x2 +1 = 7. having ‘n’ digits can be defined as follows: D = d1dn + d2dn-1 + d3dn-2 + … + dnd1 Let us calculate the Duplex of 25: D = (2)(5) + (5)(2) = 20 Similarly. here we write down 6 as the digit and carry over 1 by prefixing it to 6.e 6x2 + 1 = 13 . ……. D of 5 = (5)(5) = 25 D of 165 = (1)(5) + (6)(6) + (5)(1) = 46 D of 1206 = (1)(6) + (2)(0) + (0)(2) + (6)(1) = 12 www. Similarly. When we reach this point in our calculations. the above method is very fast and accurate. From then on we take the complements from nine for the previous digits. Now.e multiplying each digit by (D+1)=2 and writing the product to the Left of the present digit) until you get the product of a multiplication = (Denominator –Numerator) of the given fraction. 18 9 14 7 13 16 8 4 2 1 2003 (In this case D+1 is 2..

___ |26 |. 2003 The most readily available data for the answer is the number of digits before the decimal place in the answer. To do this. ignoring the first digit. calculate the Duplex (Remember last section…) of the number formed by digits of the answer. Mark it as a column as shown. ___ 10 | 2 6 | . ___ 26 . www. ___ 10 | 2 6 | . as done for the conventional method. 1 0 0 0 0 0 ----------------------------------| | ----------------------------------| 5 | 1 The next step is to check the validity of the entered quotient. 0 0 0 0 ----------------------------------| | ----------------------------------| 5 | Now. reduce the last quotient and adjust the remainder accordingly. (N+1)/2 if N is even Where N is the number of digits in the given number. 2. 5.org . Divide it by the divisor and place the quotient and remainder as shown. The first step is to arrange the number in 2-digit groups. which can be found as: a. ___ 10 | 2 6 | . 0 0 0 0 Now look at the leftmost group. 0 0 0 0 ---------------------------------| | ----------------------------------| 5 | 3.ieee-tsec.ISAAC SQUARE ROOTS The method for square roots requires rigorous practice with the Duplex method explained above. 6. Place the ‘i’ as shown. 1 0 0 0 0 ----------------------------------| | ----------------------------------| 5 | Thus we get the next dividend. divide the first group by ‘i2’ and write the remainder as shown. N/2 if N is odd. If not. Repeat this till the condition is satisfied. This Duplex should be less than the obtained dividend. This ‘2i’ is our divisor. b. Place ‘2i’ as shown. 1 0 0 0 0 0 ----------------------------------- 4. Calculate a greatest possible ‘i’ such that i2 < = (this group). Let us learn the method along with the example of 26: 1. ___ 10 | 2 6 | .

Write the quotient in the answer and the remainder will form the next dividend. so make the adjustment: ___ 10 | 2 6 | . Remember the calculation of number of digits in the answer in beginning of the section? That calculation tells us the number of digits before the decimal point in the answer. therefore. Really simple. . check the validity of the quotient. was a small demonstration of what Vedic Maths can do for you. and don’t place too much emphasis on intensive number-crunching abilities. lacks a generalized.ieee-tsec. or in shorthand. it will not provide you with a major advantage in exams like GRE or CAT. Again. because all the small calculations shown here can be done mentally. The last step is to insert the decimal point. Hence the process reduces to 5 lines. but it is actually very simple. 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 9 0 1 8 0 9 0 2 2 0 3 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------| | 100 100 19 28 99 72 40 48 -------------------------------------------------------------------------| 5 | . . systematic approach toward problem solving. The complete calculation is left to you.ISAAC | | ----------------------------------| 5 | 1 Here. subtract the Duplex (calculate again if necessary) from the dividend. there are a lot of methods that are applicable only in certain specialized circumstances and it. These exams test you on your fundamentals. The process might look really tedious. Since it is essentially the work of one man. . thereby nullifying the Vedic Maths advantage. It’s that simple !!! ___ 10 | 2 6 | . and while it does provide a refreshingly new outlook toward mathematics. D of 1 = 1 > dividend (=0). hence the answer. 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 ----------------------------------| | ----------------------------------| 5 | 0 D=0 7. .org . while it most certainly speeds up your calculations (provided you practice enough). of digits before decimal = 2 / 2 = 1. Divide the gross dividend by the divisor. you already know the answer – Vedic Maths is not a panacea to all problems. therefore. . then. 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 ----------------------------------| | 100 ß Gross Dividend ----------------------------------| 5 | 0 9 D = (0)(9) + (9)(0) = 0 Repeat the above step as many number of times as required. as compared to the large calculations of the conventional method. The answer looks like this after a few more steps: ___ 10 | 2 6 | . do you really need to learn Vedic Maths? Well. and make the adjustments as required. www. really accurate. 9. Here N = 2. however. ___ 10 | 2 6 | . no. CONCLUDING REMARKS That. too. 2003 Next. 8. really fast. So. 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 9 0 1 8 0 9 0 2 2 0 3 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------------| | 100 100 19 28 99 72 40 48 ß Gross dividend -------------------------------------------------------------------------| 5 | 0 9 9 0 1 9 5 1 . there are quite a few things that it cant do. 0 9 9 0 1 9 5 1 . to get the gross dividend. . This generates a sequence of digits in the answer.

do buy the book and get to know more about this wonderful system.org . regimented approach toward school math. www. It is guaranteed to make you curse our rigid. and lament the fact that you didn’t have this book when you most needed it – in school.ISAAC 2003 However.ieee-tsec.

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