Research

Four principles are involved: Principle 1: No action taken by law enforcement agencies or their agents should change data held on a computer or storage media which may subsequently be relied upon in court. Principle 2: In exceptional circumstances, where a person finds it necessary to access original data held on a computer or on storage media, that person must be competent to do so and be able to give evidence explaining the relevance and the implications of their actions. Principle 3: An audit trail or other record of all processes Applied to computer based electronic evidence should be Created and preserved. An independent third party should be Able to examine those processes and achieve the same result Principle 4: The person in charge of the investigation (the case officer) has overall responsibility for ensuring that the law and these principles are adhered to.

Locard's publications make no mention of an "exchange principle . Like Hans Gross and Alphonse Bertillon before him.Locards Principle Edmond Locard (1877±1966) studied law at the Institute of Legal Medicine and worked subsequently as an assistant to the forensic pioneer AlexandreLacassagne prior to directing the forensic laboratory in Lyon. This is the cause and effect principle reversed. Locard observed that criminals could be associated with particular locations. Locard's work formed the basis for what is widely regarded as a cornerstone of the forensic sciences. and soil. there will be an exchange. Locard advocated the application of scientific methods and logic to criminal investigation and identification. when Locard was able to determine where soldiers and prisoners had died by examining the stains on their uniforms. or handwriting. for example hairs. The term "principle of exchange" first appears in Police and CrimeDetection. in 1940. . Locard's techniques proved useful to the French Secret Service during World War I (1914±1918).)." (It is impossible for a criminal to act. By recognizing. The detection of the exchanged materials is interpreted to mean that the two objects were in contact. victim. It was Locard's assertion that when any person comes into contact with an object or another person. especially considering the intensity of a crime. and was adapted from Locard's observations. genetic markers ( DNA). From this. the victim. France. items of evidence. fibers. These forensically established contacts are then considered in light of available and reliable witness. or offender. those materials left at or removed from the scene. and examining the nature and extent of this evidentiary exchange." although he did make the observation "Ilest impossible au malfaiteurd'agir avec l'intensitéque suppose l'actioncriminelle sans laisser des traces de son passage. without leaving traces of this presence. theories regarding the circumstances of the crime can be generated and falsified by logically applying the information of the established facts of the case. documenting. and a suspect's statements. footprints. which states that with contact between two items. the effect is observed and the cause is concluded. and victims. Locard's Exchange Principle. as well as fingerprints. a cross-transfer of physical evidence occurs. Crime reconstruction involves examining the available physical evidence.

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