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CALL

ZION
thestoiy1
first welsh
mormon
emigration
publications COMPANION
RELIGIOUS STUDIES CENTER MONOGRAPH SERIES

NIBLEY TIMELY TIMELESS


classic essays hugh W nibley
DEITY DEATH
selected symposium papers
edited introduction SpencerjJ palmer
spencer

GLORY GOD intelligence


four lectures role intellect judaism
jacob neusner

reflections MORMONISM
judaeo christian parallels
judano
edited introductory essay truman G madsen

literature BELIEF
sacred scripture religious experience
edited preface neal E lambert
WORDS JOSEPH SMITH
contemporary accounts nauvoo discourses
compiled edited andrew F ehat lyndon W cook

BOOK MORMON authorship


new light ancient origins
edited introduction noel B reynolds

MORMONS MUSLIMS
spiritual foundations modern manifestations
edited introduction spencerrjJ palmer
Spence
TEMPLE ANTIQUITY
ancient records modern perspectives
edited introductory essay truman G madsen
ISAIAH PROPHETS
inspired voices old testament
edited introduction monte nyman

scriptures MODERN WORLD


edited paul R cheesman C wilfred griggs

JOSEPH SMITH translation


restoration PLAIN PRECIOUS THINGS
edited monte nyman robert L millet

apocryphal WRITINGS LATTERDAY


LATTER DAY SAINTS
edited C wilfred griggs
preface noel B reynolds
publications RELIGIOUS STUDIES CENTER
specialized MONOGRAPH SERIES

supporting SAINTS
LIFE STORIES nineteenth CENTURY MORMONS
edited introduction donald Q cannon david J whittaker
CALL ZION
STORY FIRST WELSH MORMON emigration
written translated ronald D dennis
RELIGIOUS STUDIES CENTER
BRIGHAM YOUNG university

general director robert J matthews


associate general director donald Q cannon
assistant general director kent brown

directors

bible richard lloyd anderson


doctrine covenants larry E dahl
ancient studies C wilfred griggs
book mormon monte nyman
pearl great price H donl peterson

advisory committee

robert J matthews chairman


stan L albrecht
todd britsch

departmental advisers
monte nyman
keith W perkins
george horton jr
CALL N

1
fhe story
first welsh
mormon
en
emigration
igration
migration

ronald D dennis

volume two
religious studies center
specialized monograph series

religious studies center


brigham young university
provo utah
copyright 1987
religious studies center
brigham young university

rights reserved

library congress catalog card number 87 70665


88494628
ISBN 0 88494 628 2

first printing 1987

produced distributed
BOOKCRAFT
salt lake city utah

printed united states america


contents

illustrations ix

preface xi
xa
x1

gather zion 1

swansea liverpool 7

board buena vista 16

crossing hartley 31

buena vista constitution


new orleans st louis 36

cholera missouri river 42

new orleans council bluffs


hartley group 47

council bluffs off water 51

council bluffs salt lake city


1849 56

valley 65

council bluffs salt lake valley


1852 69

conclusion 78
viii contents

notes 78

appendix alphabetized list buena vista


hartley welsh passengers 82

appendix B categorized information


buena vista passengers 86

appendix C categorized information


hartley passengers 92

appendix D biographical sketches 106

appendix E translated documents


section own table contents 122

works cited 241


241
.241
illustrations

hartley 32
new orleans frederick piercy 37
st louis frederick piercy 40.40
40
council bluffs ferry frederick piercy 52
devils gate frederick piercy 75
great salt lake city 1853 frederick piercy 76
david D bowen h73 94.94
94
morgan david bowen h20 94.94
94
william clark h40 94.94
94
daniel daniels bv128 94.94
94
thomas daniels bv130 95
ann david h15 oy95
gy.95

hl4
h14
elizabeth david hla gy
95.95
95
emma david h17 gy
9595
.95
hannah david hig h16 gg
96.96
96
morgan david h12 96
rachel david h18 96
george davis h68 gg
96.96
96
thomas davis jr h65 97.97
97
thomas davis sr h62 9797
.97
mary evans bv171 97.97
97
phoebe evans bv51 97.97
97
margaret francis bv166 98.98
98
sarah giles bv132 98
morgan hughes bv111 98.98
98
bv154
bv1
sarah jeremy bvm 54 98.98
98
thomas jeremy BV bv153
15 3 gg
99.99
99
dan jones bilbvl
bv1 gg
99.99
99
f
x illustrations
d

bv15
mary jones bvm
bv15 99
william lewis bv66 99
thomas mathias bv133 100
edward morgan bv12 100
william morgan bv10 100
isaac nash bv49 I1 100
owen owens h48 101
caleb parry bv216 101
catherine parry bv217
BV 217 101 1

john parry bv67 101


david peters h33 102
lowry laura peters h34 102
sarah peters h38 102
john davis rees bv226 102
mary rees bv227 103
owen roberts h37 10
103
105
benjamin rowland bv19 I1 103
job rowland bv16 103
eliza thomas BV bv146
146 104
rees thomas bv99 104
samuel thomas bv145 1044
10
jane treharne bv116 iod
lod
104
mary treharne BV bv115
115 105
sage treharne bv118 105
sarah treharne bv117 105
william treharne bv119 105 1
preface

monday 26 february 1849 day great significance


history cormons
welsh mormons
Mor mons day 249 them
set sail buena vista waterloo dock liverpool
homeward zion actually seventy seven
welsh converts mormonism paid passage travel
buena vista these however wait until
week later leave britain left board hartley
ship contained 161 english scottish converts
well
although few welsh cormons mormons gone america
individual basis introduction missionary
effort wales 1840 those sailed buena vista
hartley constituted first collective emigration
among welsh converts
fondest wish these first fruits three
thousand brothers sisters faith remained
wales soon join them salt lake valley where
live peace harmony far animosity
persecution received nonbeliev-
ing compatriots desperately wanted sea voyage
land trek perfect every way success
offer encouragement others follow them
thus letters sent back wales church leaders
without exception enthusiastic optimistic almost
point being suspect captain dan jones author
letters concerning migration made even funeral
held sea sound attractive hardships minimized
conflicts brushed aside while primary focus placed
positive adventurous spiritual aspects
journey
joness letters together those thomas jeremy
william morgan offer extensive documentation
crossing buena vista hartley among best
xii
xit preface

crossing mormon emigrants great britain


these letters almost totally ignored mormon
historians writers penned them welsh
letters extensive writings rendered mute
welsh speaking historian rare breed country
what began me casual interest my own welsh
mormon ancestors eventually developed fascination
history cormons general overcoming
welsh mormons
language obstacle far greater task I1 originally
thought reward being able inject life
once meaningless pages amply justified effort
my objective book present detailed account
topresent
copresent
gomer inhabitants
these sons ofgomer hills cambria
time made decision seek rest zions
chambers until marched proudly salt lake valley
appendix contains alphabetized list 326 welsh
emigrants board buena vista hartley
appendixes B C combine passenger list information
emigrants information gleaned numerous
sources
appendix D series biographical sketches many
emigrants
appendix E contains english translations complete
texts thirty items originally written welsh twenty three
letters four poems three periodical articles dealing
directly 1849 crossing separate table contents
appendix E lists reference number under
entire text may found indicated following quotation
TD translated documents tda td7j
td7 example
mean item 7 appendix E full text
dan joness 28 april 1849 letter tojohn
danjoness john davis
cojohn quota-
tions welsh english documents
entire text provided indicated abbreviation
trans translations mine
1I like thank D L davies Cw cwmaman
maman wales
offering valuable suggestions 1I wish express apprecia-
tion linda hunter adams college humanities
publications center BYU help editorial skills
gather zion

first mormon missionaries assigned wales


henry royle frederick cook began proselyte
north wales october 1840 months earlier others
preaching english counties border wales
these missionaries well gone
welsh villages street meeting two
first missionary assigned heartland wales
william henshaw went directly cosmopolitan merthyr
tydfil burgeoning town recently become
industrial center wales knowledge welsh
language henshaw proclaim message english
hope understand 19 february 1843
baptized first converts william davis family during
following three years henshaw established several branches
glamorgan monmouth branches membership
totaling nearly five hundred members
december 1845 captain danjonesdan jones
vanjones called preside
cormons
welsh mormons
Mor mons went down merthyr tydfil
having spent previous year unproductive
north wales next decade feisty somewhat
flamboyant mariner having exchanged ships deck
preachers pulpit central figure welsh
mormondom
born north wales 18 181010 dan jones went sea
age seventeen following ten years spent
life away wales shortly marriedjane
married jane melling
1837 took america where became american
citizen operated steamboat mississippi river
while captain little steamer maid iowa
first heard cormons
mormons
Mor mons incredulous scur-
rilous stories then being printed warsaw illinois signal
elsewhere jones sought missionaries obtain
2 gather zion

firsthand information result conversion


january 1843 accepted baptism icy waters
mississippi yet met prophet joseph smith
prophetjoseph
did just few months later april transporting
group british immigrants st louis nauvoo
friendship resulted between prophet captain
continued right josephs martyrdom
tojosephs carthage jail
carthagejail jali
jall
illinois jones recipient josephs prophecy
welshman return native land
fulfill mission called
months earlier three narrow escapes grom death during
next thirty six hours jones proceeded make prepara-
tions journey back britain
jones wife jane traveling company
wilford woodruff hiram clark reached liverpool
january 184 18455 first assigned north wales jones labored
nearly 1845 baptized two three converts
amazed william henshawshenshawe
Hen shaws success south wales
doubt disappointed lack own reassign-
ment south wales however bring forth
encouraging results during 1846 nearly five
hundred welsh converts 1847 just under thousand
astounding 1700 during 1848 joness
year ofjoness
first mission
joness principal tools proselyting welsh
nation printing press numerous pamphlets support
mormonism together monthly periodical called
prophwyd
prophwydyy jubilijubeli prophet jubilee 8 8 page
2288
scriptural commentary welsh published between
1845 1848 energetic welshman
converting compatriots however represented
objectives getting them home zion
ultimate goal location zion shifted nauvoo
illinois rocky mountains duringjoness
during joness first mission
enthusiasm emigrating continued undiminished
perpetual emigrating fund assist many
british converts emigrate yet established
cost voyage reach welsh
gather zion 3

converts inasmuch them clung lowest rungs


economic ladder encouraged however rely
faith save what lord provide
ray hope shone through clouds british mormon
poverty joint stock company
thejoint established
inception 1845 jones ardent supporter
encouraged flock purchase shares
afford hope extinguished year later
reuben hedlock
bedlock absconded over400400 comp anys
companas
companys
funds 970 70 invested welsh saints
what extent fiasco caused investors abandon mormonism
difficult assess since millennial star printed very little
millennialstarprinted
jubili
prophwyd y jubeli totally silent
william henshaw william phillips vanjones
danjones
dan jones three
persons whose names seen often contributors con-
tinued firm faith loss fall 1846
company terminated church
fewer nine hundred welsh cormonsmormons
Mor mons conversions
increased religious periodicals did make
issue comp anys failure suggest
companas
companys repercussions
comparatively small
official organ welsh cormons
mormons
Mor mons prophwyd y
jubili appeared monthly between july 1846
jubeli december
1848 nearly every thirty issues
something emigrating articles landing
sam brannan california description california I 1

news saints wilderness ready


start homeward letter wilford woodruff while
crossing theplains
plains these fanned flames emigrating
fever three page article entitled twenty nine Welsh welshmer
welshmenmen
lose theirjobs
jobs cwmbychan cormons
mormons
Mor mons
added fuel
february 1848 prophwyd y jubili jubeli 29 3311 jones
announced official approval given welsh
begin making definite plans emigrating years time
encouraged pay off debts wealthy
asked generous assisting poor leave
babylon promised land
4 gather zion

jubili 92 9 55 jones printed


june 1848 prophwydyjubi1i
prophwyd y jubeli
thomas bullocks account trek council bluffs
utah future emigrants better idea what
lay store them october jones announced
himself granted permission go first
shipload welsh saints thus get pleasant
company heavenly teaching sons zion instead
defending truth against malicious tales false asser-
tions poison slime perverse obstinate
nation prophwydy jubili
prophwydyjubi1i
jubeli october 1848 153 trans
october issue appeared new song hail
california sung welsh sailed away
credit given composer song consequently onel ones
suppose editor dan jones written
pestilence harvesting countries
f
harvesting man like grass field
foul breeze blows
laying waste green earth j
california
yonder across distant seas me
y
sharp shining sword
bathed blood
yes blood warm blood men
worst battles ever fought

yonder
california t
rocky mountains I1 shall go
prophwydyjub&
jubili october 1848
prophwydy jubeli 158 appen-
dix E translated documents item 1 hereafter
translated documents indicated TD
two months later seren gomer star gomer
baptist periodical appeared lengthy parody hail
california entitled invitation california follow
ing two verses typical thescornful
scornful tone throughout
get corn without sowing harrowing f

everyone believe everyone believe


bread without baking
everyone believe
gather zion 5

houses grow us earth


lovely attractive palaces
oh alluring place
everyone believe everyone believe
place where pain sorrow come
everyone believe

fat oxen
heaven heaven
thousands fat pigs
heaven
waiting doors
knives throats
ready morning night
heaven heaven
isheaven
inheaven t
sparse table
heaven
seren gomer december 1848 373 74 tda
td4
parody signed small seer

song sung however welsh left


liverpool yet another entitled saints farewell
farewell now everyone
shall sail great ocean
complete longing gods zion
better go land
given us our father
lived captive far too long
freedom come us wake adversity
called babel
call our intention go
go spite cruel enemy
our god through great grace
bring us safely seemly zion
prophwydyjubiiijubili december 1848 186 t133
prophwyd y jubeli tda
td3
song signed J D pseudonym john
davis successor dan jones printing office

WJ
reverend H W ones publisher seren gomer
bjones
w jones
jones
former employer john davis enthusiastic
prospect many welsh men women many former
6 gather zion

baptists turning backs homeland period-


ical warned cormons
welsh mormons ominous prophecy
receivingenough
receiving enough money get ship ships voyage
california chief president danjones
vanjones
dan jones sail them
cuba place like sell them slaves every jack
them serve them right having little respect
book christ giving books mormon
seren gomer october 1848 305 trans article signed
anti humbug identified john davis H bjones w
WJ
W jones
jones
ones
proa
through prophwdyjubili
prophwd
Prop jubili call
hwd y jubeli made names
ages intended emigrate deposit
pound sterling per person paid later
31 december secure passage detailed instructions concern-
ing essentials food clothing trunks tools
printed prop bwy d y jubili
november 1848 prophwydyjubili jubeli 165
16569 69
tda
td2 itinerary described final counsel concern-
ing indebtedness given three hundred welsh saints
declared themselves candidates first emigrating party
opponents mormonism wales
ofmormonism incensed
these enticements claimed compatriots vic-
vic
tims grand wicked scheme anti mormon publications
articles lectures campaigns grew number intensity
year before dan jones assessed
emigration danjones
vanjones situa-
tion merthyr area 29 september 1847 letter orson
spencer president missionary effort great britain
exhausted poo rJoseph
ammunition poorjoseph
poor joseph
late beset poor captain jones imp arch
impostor wales truly amusing witness exertions
these nothingarians
Nothing arians ransacking vocabulary
thevocabulary billingsgate
itself titles crown me say proven
me even worse joe smith others say quite
bad soon scenes here very like con-
tinental rabbles
babbles missouri etc still raging worse hotter
daily you neednot
need surprised should you hear carthage
tragedies wales ere long town
whole towns works here-
abouts containing 60000 people actually drunken
infatuation rage against mormonism millennial star
15 october 1847 318 19
swansea liverpool 17

joness fellow emigrants wrote severe


opposition just prior departure merthyr tydfil
swansea en route liverpool
life our dear brother captainjones
captain jones danger
house attacked almost every night weeks beforehis
before leav-
ing merthyr godly life safe sleeping except
between guards among brethren scoundrels
inhuman paid kill him left
leave secretly day before udgorn sebon selon zions
trumpet march 1849 57 tda td5

swansea liverpool

plan emigrating called welsh saints meet


liverpool 15 february those lived north wales
go individuals small groups those south
wales meet swansea thirteenth
make thirty four hour voyage together steamer
gathering swansea caused great sensation among
residents even described considerable detail
local newspaper Cam ahan
cambrian
bHan tone amaze-
ment intermixed pity
emigration california latter day saints tuesday
swansea quite enlivened consequence arrival
wiggons loaded
several waggons luggage attended scores
bold peasantry carmarthenshire almost equal
number inhabitants merthyr surrounding districts
together families formidable party nearly
latter day saints came town purpose
proceeding liverpool troubador
Troub ador steamer where ship
troubadour
readiness transport them next week glittering regions
8 swansea liverpool

california goodly company under command pop-


ular saint known captain dan jones hardy traveller
brother weil known
weli
well john jones Ilan
knownjohnjones iian
uangollen
ilangollen
Uan gollen able disputant
subject baptism arrived town tuesday
evening seems enjoy respect confidence faith-
ful band entered town amidst gaze hundreds spec-
tators evening delivered valedictory address
trades hall numerous audience majority whom
led curiosity hear doctrines quite novel
town amongst group many substantial farmers
neighbourhoods brechfa
neighbour hoods brechka
ofbrechfa llanybydder carmarthenshire
although well do disposed posses-
sions get california new jerusalem deem
where fanaticism teaches them believe escape
general destruction conflagration shortly envelop
earth due them however state far
being smitten mania gold discovery
imparted modern el dorado notoriety late
seem animated devout feelings aspirations
seem flow source judging conver-
sation sincere belief end world hand
great captain salvation soon visit bobi yn
ngwlad y saint people
ngw1ad country saints
intention informed visit gold regions
agricultural districts where intend say helping
another reside peace harmony exemplify truth
brotherly love name practice amongst
number came here several aged men varing 70
90 years age whose hoary locks proclaimed
lengthened years render very improbable live
see america yet deluded poor simple saints
believe every amongst them however infirm old
may surely land california safely started
wales faith extraordinary wednesday morning
being addressed leader repaired board admi-
rable order extraordinary resignation departure
witnessed hundreds spectators whilst steamer gaily
passed down river saints commenced singing favourite
hymn entering piers however abruptly stopped sing-
ing lustily responded cheering
greeted inhabitants camj
cambrian
Camb iian 16 february 1849
swansea liverpool 9

departure swansea 9 oclock wednesday


morning 14 february 1849 arrival liverpool
following day 330 PM journey according
william phillips danjoness
dan joness successor shorter usual
four hours phillips accompanied emigrants during
two week period prior departure liverpool
see them off gain firsthand knowledge
share future emigrants march 1849 udgorn yelon selon
published brief account experiences
fashion standard letter writers
journey william phillips accentuated positive
aspects emigration downplayed anything con-
trary discouraging nature everyone healthy
content during entire voyage except little seasickness
troubled udgorn yelon march 1849 59 td6 tda
little seasickness described somewhat different terms
david D bowen experienced seaman
board troubador
Troubador
troubadour passengers few exceptions
very sick passage pitching rocking
steamer board except dan jones
myself do help sick everybody plenty
take care them delfs
selfs bowen 19 majority
emigrants first time aboard ship thus
sea legs slow develop record
having turned back short voyage swansea
liverpool however merely prelude fifty days
atlantic waves en route new orleans
mid nineteenth century liverpool bustling port city
much larger welsh seen wales
many neophytes passed through liverpool way
parts world group fast talking sharpers
sharpels
shar pers
cropped many careless emigrant find himself
relieved baggage currency these shrewd
dealers welsh however given fair warning
leader prophwydyjubili
printed instructions them prqpbwydyjubi1i
november 1848 167 td2 tda those board Troub troubadorador
troubadour
received additional help ships captain land-
ing place where shy sters waiting
shysters
10 swansea liverpool

william phillips reported later through listening


leaders warning take care possessions saints
kept everything safe cunning predators
place did them harm way udgorn semn sewn
selon
march 1849 59 td6 tda
brothers sisters faith encouraged assist
another every opportunity just pioneers crossing
plains america plant crops along way
benefit those followed saints liverpool assisted
welsh comrades despite centuries old suspicion
between england wales rented music
hall large six story building sufficient rooms
entire company take lodging rate
shilling sixpence per night per person welsh spent five
nights
harbor final preparations being made
vessel transport company new orleans
547 tons buena vista among smaller ships used
mormon emigration measured 141 x 29 x 145 145 feet
14.5
built just year before newburyport
massachusetts captain ebenezer linnell 2
five nights music hall welsh emigrants
instructed go board ship david D bowen
few families already ship doubt
conserve money supply bowen described spectacle
emigrants went place another
town passengers
singers where sic marching along
passingers
pas
streets liverpool body like regiment solders I1
thought biggest sight liverpool people ever
seen way where looking us 19
three unexpected developments took place once entire
group congregated board buena vista first depar-
ture delayed another six days unexplained reasons
second seventy seven those counted sailing
buena vista wait another week sail
hartley along 161 english scottish converts 7

third welsh speaking ministers liverpool went board


dissuade emigrants going
swansea liverpool 11

many stories very strange indeed


circulated wales cormons
mormons
Mor mons addition
prophecy sale emigrants slavery
cuba strong rumor widows south
wales board prepared clothes put departed
husbands california shoes put feet
selon march 1849 60 td6
sewn
phillips udgorn semn tda
reverend henry rees sectarian
preachers town made inquiry concerning
information received colleagues
south wales danjones
vanjones
dan jones william phillips spokesmen
group replied barefaced lie offered
following explanation ship
widows kept things theiriusbands
husbands
respect greet them california phillips
selm march 1849 60 td6
sewn
udgorn yemm
semm
seiw
seim tda
these reverends failed convert cormons
mormons
idea staying great britain lack
effort readily sense animosity welsh
cormons
mormons toward ministers these comments article
entitled greeting odthe
ofthe emigrating saints signed
twentyfive
twenty five departing brethren
many preachers different sects slandering us smear-
ing our characters through welsh publications condemning
our dear religion pulpits doing everything
disgrace us shatter our feelings even here
board ship foot
babylon trying frighten saints sea
voyage country everything good
trying persuade them everything except
udgorn selon march 1849 58 tda
should do udgom td5
sacrifices small many these emigrants
become cormons
mormons
Mor mons them disowned
families shunned friends persecuted former
ministers fellow parishioners uncommon
constantly graced epithets deceivers
weak headed
false prophets weakheaded unprincipled liars idlers
12 prom swansea
erom liverpool

dregs everything stinks nostrils everyone


davis 6 october 1848 3 trans label really
caused cormons breathe fire
mormons applied them
reverend W R davies baptist minister dowlais
Dowlais
called them latter day satanists little wonder then
emigrants stood ground board buena vista
gave prayers thanksgiving soon free
pernicious influences welsh reverends
even before ministers went board president william
phillips see everyone off decided put saints
test see convince
homesick ones turn back him answer generally
received however much love you cannot love
you much wish turn back you leave us
peace forward us want go udgorn sewn
semn
selon
march 1849 60 td6 tda
desire every missionary baptize entire
families church many times however wife
husband become believer situations
became particularly divisive call came emigrate
accusations launched men deserting wives
children going zion without them true
several men board leaving
families behind intention ever seeing them
again emigrants felt justified however placed
blame babylonians
bad them influenced our own
families yes our dear wives children frighten them
against coming us yes cause contention between husband
wife between parents dear children what worse
hav edone
havedone
done much answer udgom sewn
udgorn semn
selon
march 1849 57 tda td5
attraction proceed zion greater sense
duty stay behind babylon intractable wive
wives
children converts denounced families well
those caused families refuse accompany
husbands fathers
swansea liverpool 13

yet doubt these themselves babylonians raise


voices highest condemn man leaving disobedient
peevish cruel wife behind refuses every offer come
assure you men our midst
tried utmost get wives come them
children do laws men god assure
husband head family choice country
refuse follow him wife children
ones leaving him leaving them
udgorn selon march 1849 57 tda
udgom td5
stories spread wives board
emigrating against wishes husbands stories
summarily dismissed signers greeting
baseless lies
william phillips reported great enthusiasm won-
drous things took place board ship prior departure
1 I saw saints times taken sick sooner
hands laid them restored immediately
1I bear witness 1I never seen
power god 1I saw ship udgorn sewnsemn
selon
march 1849 60 td6 tda these manifestations divine
intervention came betsy david nineteen year old
daughter morgan elizabeth david fell top
deck bottom hold cut bruised unconscious
taken hospital regained consciousness
next day thought live through
blessings prayers elders experienced full
recovery lived another four decades chambers
nine children under age nonpaying
passengers those between ages fourteen cost
parents Y 3 each above age fourteen paid
xa
x33 12s 6dad reasonable price considering xa x55 uncommon
voyage price included needed provi-
sions fares having collected ship put
state readiness two things left complete
organize emigrants different sections set sail
249 persons board buena vista assigned
eight sections elder appointed
14 prom
erom
brom swansea liverpool

supervise each section see everyone acted properly


received justice impartially foster nurture love
unity especially see kept places clean
healthful jones 18 april 1849 180 5 td7 tda keep
ship clean two men assigned arise each morning
before others group wash dry deck
captain dan jones very much home back board ship
four years land president emigrating
company assisted triad william morgan
forty six year old engineer merthyr tydfil rice
williams forty five year old farmer rhymni
william davis forty three year old tailor rhymni
these constituted council organize
temporal spiritual matters
nine day wait fourth group
reassigned sail few days later buena vista
ready dragged sea two large steamers per-
formed task tears joy excitement anxiety rolled
down passengers cheeks tears sadness eyes
william phillips abel evans elieser edwards john davies
davidjeremy
david jeremy daniel evans brethren come
bid farewell emigrants tears disappointment
faces seventy seven paid
buena vista still another week waiting
liverpool dan jones described departure
monday 26th february two oclock after-
noon set sail port saints accompanied
harp sang saints farewell left dock
sweet voices re sounded throughout city attracting atten-
tion causing amazement thousands spectators
followed us along shore charmed 18 april 1849 6 td73

phillips others purchased oranges hurl


outstretched hands passengers ship being
dragged waterloo dock fresh fruit expensive
britain saints poor consequently apprecia-
tion greater ship gone reach
throwing oranges handkerchiefs then waved
swansea liverpool 15

final farewell winds february turned


summer breezes jones 18 april 1849 6 tda
td7
thomas jeremy became very nostalgic
thomasjeremy prospect
being separated perhaps permanently brethren
gospel
oh how lovely association 1I these
brethren numerous occasions wales sometimes day
too short us talk things pertaining kingdom
god frequently take night ex tention
sleep stand distance us while others
abundantly comfortable grasp time came
my mind 1I see them again 1I imagined hearing

something answer long before seeing them


zion I1 took courage 18 april 1849 21 tda
2 1 td8

opposition back wales means ceased


departure first group welsh saints fact
departure used reason further agitation date
27 february 1849 just day buena vista
left liverpool applied letter sent john
cojohn davis editor
tojohn
udgorn selon signed capt dan jones contained
rather startling declarations
my dear brother lord I1 am pleased able inform
you landed safely new orleans short
comfortable voyage evident care our behalf clear proof
world truthfulness our faith spite much
talk against numerous false religions world
perhaps letter come your hand rather miraculously
proclaim before public proclaim gath
ashkelon
Ash kelon providential care our heavenly father
us going here nauvoo banks
mississippi river state illinois council
bluffs state missouri angel showed you dream
directions inform everyone tell brethren
well comfortable convincing world
go forward our numbers thousands time reach
end our journey before long shall overthrow
kingdoms earth shall live thousand two hundred
sixty years happens 1I do time write
16 board buena vista

much you 1I much do 1I am yours affectionately


your father lord capt dan jones davis preface iii iv
trans
disregard perhaps placing council bluffs
missouri immigrants go first nauvoo en
route council bluffs three years saints exodus
nauvoo davis accept addition
noticed emblem odd fellows stationery
declared letter clumsy forgery printed fore-
word pamphlet containing joness andje
andjeremys
remys authen-
tic accounts buena vista crossing tda td7 td8tda
further caution already cautious welsh saints beware
continued efforts hamper progress mormonism

board buena vista

many welsh saints poor even


liquidating meager assets still did
sufficient money pay fare ea ad
e33 12s 6d each member
families amount equivalent 18
perhaps 100 todays standards although may
sound quite reasonable must bear mind
third laborers annual wages required transport
himself wife few children across atlantic once
reached new orleans pay another ten
shillings per person go steamer upstream st louis
yet another ia
i11 sterling each required steamer
st louis council bluffs immigrant
need purchase food family while mississippi
board buena vista 17

missouri rivers once arrived council bluffs


face expense buying wagon oxen plus pro-
visions thousand mile three month journey
great salt lake valley these considerations addition
prospect eight months income made
emigrating sobering challenge
perpetual emigrating fund established later
1849 used cormons
many welsh mormons
Mor mons
those board buena vista hartley
use means intended outset proceed
far council bluffs where work save
until buy themselves fitout
fl tout continue
westward just enough go full distance
made arrangements earn way going maid
servant family afford pay services
elizabeth lewis wealthy convert grom Kidwelly states
brief autobiographical sketch paid passage across
ocean forty persons provided expenses thirty
two persons council bluffs salt lake city tullidge
461 62 these maids servants appears
agreement eventual reimbursement

249 passengers buena vista 552 percent 130


male 48 percent 119 female table 1 shows
distribution age groups

TABLE 1

age distribution buena vista passengers

age total percentage

olo
010
00710
07 10
opio 59 237
23.7
237
1117
11 17 36 145
14.5
145
1830
1850
18 30 71 285
28.5
285
3150
31 50 62 249
24.9
249
51 21 84
8.4
84

249 1000
100.0
18 board buena vista

249 part complete units


partial familyunits
famil
familyyunits
shown table 2 i
TABLE 2
family units among buena vista passengers t
total percentage

part complete family unit 179 71 91


719
71.9
719
husband wife children
part incomplete family unit 37 148
14.8
148
father mother children
apparent family attachment 33 133
13.3
153
135

249 1006
100.6
lood
1000
100.0
nearly 87 percent emigrating part complete
incomplete family unit eleven thirty three
apparent family attachment listed servants maids
thus putting them under supervision family head
twenty two individuals board P

own
wide variety occupations listed under column
occupation trade profession family members usually
received ditto mark column under occupation
indicated family head 4 occasional widow
son
49son written space sarah davis
eliza williams two died board buena vista
new orleans clerk entered deceased
passengers varying numbers earned way life
performing following occupations
blacksmith lime burner puddler
butcher locksmith saddler
carpenter maid servant
clerk mason schoolmaster
collier milliner schoolteacher
dressmaker miner shoemaker
engineer moulder stone cutter t
farmer nailer tailor
joiner pattern maker wheelright
laborer plasterer whitesmith i
board buena vista 19

few these occupations required classroom


training literacy welsh including women
literate however thanks circulating schools
previous century these schools consisted brief
training reading skills various nonconformist ministers
traveled countryside intense desire
get people read bible 5 idea teach small
groups individuals turn instruct others
newfound skill little attention given writing
since major thrust do reading consequently
many welsh read quote scriptures
while same time being totally incapable writing
names formal schooling kind early
nineteenth century deemed luxury enjoyed
well do children working class nearly always
stayed within class occasionally young lad
apprenticed learn trade thus able rise notch
two above fathers level social mobility very
unusual idea becoming landowner staggered
imagination since prospect held converts
assume constituted least part
motivation joining church going rocky
mountains 6
initial enthusiasm adventure combined devo-
tion newly acquired beliefs perhaps kept
emigrants turning back liverpool few ever
sea before possessed clear con-
cept what involved walking terra firma
seven weeks might well second thoughts
although described idyllic terms letter writers cross-
ing atlantic fraught numerous inconveniences
hardships try patience even
stalwart welsh strangers hardship
long years experience hardships
encountered board ship variety never
before dealt
cramped conditions become way life
next fifty days
20 board buena vista

four six persons packed berths wooden slats


measuring six feet square two people might share berth six feet
long three feet wide berths arranged along both
sides ship double triple tiers passenger
sleep feet towards center aisle where provisions
voyage hand luggage items too fragile hold
stored tin utensils light items wouldhang hang
sides berths beams above hatches
closed during storms might wet below even less violent
weather particularly cargo consisted iron rails might
cause greater rolling berths sometimes made green
wood creak horrendously ship rolled storm
temporary berths known come tumbling down pratt 5
jim warner emigrant board another ship complained
room beds 2 must mind our heads
crawl our dogkennels
dog kennels you must go head-
first same you knock your head against top
batom hamock
botom best get lamp oil
place very dark cant see read small light
comes door single folks curtain goes
8 births go dress undress warnera
Warner7
warner7
under these conditions privacy unknown luxury
nowhere ship two people really themselves
doubt genuine concern caleb catherine parry
married day departure fortunately
buena vista passengers church country common
nearly attached family these circumstances
combined diminish somewhat shortage personal space
during fifty days togetherness
stench sanitation ever present challenges
especially outset seasickness rampant
william clayton board north america 1840
observed wind blew hard vessel rock many
sick night new scene sickness vomiting
groaning bad smells 1I never witnessed before added
closeness births berths almost suffocated
us want air clayton 173 even best modern
day imaginations strain conjuring scenes
board buena vista 21

seven weeks being without fresh foods means


refrigeration made preparation appetizing meals particularly
difficult law specified each passenger age
twelve months furnished following items
good navy bread 33 ibs
lbs
rice 10 lbs
ibs
oatmeal 10 lbs
ibs
wheat flour 10 lbs
ibs
peas beans 10 lbs
ibs
potatoes 35 lbs
ibs
vinegar spint
1pint
1pint
fresh water 60 gals
good salted pork 10 ibs
lbs
sufficient supply fuel
cooking
prophwydyjubiii
prophwyd y jubili
jubeli october 1848 151 trans

lest these quantities should prove inadequate during


dan jones recommended
voyage danjones
vanjones supplemented
age fourteen following provisions
10 pounds hard bread 3 pence pound
2 pounds rice 3 pence pound
4 pounds sugar 512 pence pound
3312
144 pound tea 2 shillings pound
2 pounds coffee 6 pence pound
4 pounds treacle 2 vz pence
212 pound
4 pounds raisins currants 4 vz pence pound
412
3 pounds butter 1 shilling pound
3 pounds cheese 8 pence pound
quantity buying prices liverpool these provisions
cost emigrants 13 shillings captain jones
gave further suggestion food those
prepare oat bread good butter own cheese preserves
pickles things may desire very
good them take things them home
prophwydyjubiii november 1848 166 td2
prophwydyjubili tda these
words wisdom old tar jones often called
himself spent many years sea variety
22 board buena vista j

additional commodities provide doubt


welcome relief steady diet rather unexciting
staples provided shipping line
these supplies kept back ship
storeroom dubbed company shop jones
three assistants william morgan rice williams
william davis assigned important task apportion-
ing allotments each family family groups families
then prepared cooked food using cooking
facilities shifts
aside normal problems germane being
restricted microcosm sailing vessel several weeks
much time passed rather uneventfully board
horizon 1856 john jaques described passenger
life following manner
sea sailing very pleasant times 1I sit hours
forecastle watch our noble vessel dashing
clashing through briny
waves lashing them innumerable variety fantastic
forms spray foam then possibly like
continually rocked admires treading plat-
form seems plaything everlasting earthquake I1
great taste these things 1I make myself little
exertion tolerably comfortable sea whenever advisable
me go I1 privilege choosing I1 like
where 1I enjoy myself naturally idea
waiting day day idle wind bad enough
reality much worse makes feel like getting push-
ing behind then wind comes bit vengeance
make lost time just people hurry
loitering way then willing ship dashes through
waters like mad thing rate dozen miles
hour tack right tack left sail-
ing heartily 200 300 miles captain takes observa-
tion finds 20 miles worse our trouble
perhaps same place becalmed
millennial star 30 august 1856 553 57

biggest challenges danjones


vanjones
dan jones deal
during crossing contention developed
board buena vista 23

between small group passengers eventually apostatized


bulk committed placed blame
uninvited passenger
devilish foe himself asserted right neptune
god sea journey us though company
sweet nevertheless hard work cast him overboard
cleverness infrequently hard times
turn himself angel light
occasionally hide pocket officer everyone may
left behind babylon let poor
sailor troublemaker worse guide ahithophel
swine sea babylonians
escapes times next time 1I cross sea
group saints zion two kinds stay home
jones 18 april 1849 13 td7 tda
day before leaving liverpool unwelcome meddler
already marred sunday meetings held board buena
vista possessing sisters until driven
senses causing scream utter inhuman
things frightening curses jones 18 april 1849 5 td7 tda
blessing sister calmed peace restored
hardly escaped almost immediate onset sea-
sickness evening first night sea saw go will-
ingly beds prayer services sleep
rather divide time between
vomiting agonizing though wind stormy
sea rough just normal rocking swaying
ship sufficient create image violent
tempest lot landlubbers
land lubbers jones few others
sea legs previous experience spent night
rendering what assistance comfort
sufferers althoughjones
although jones makes specific reference
thing letter assistance doubt meant
countless cleanups
clean ups around those whose debilitated
condition did allow them conduct regurgitations
guardrail deck task certainly envied
next morning memorable night
even least desire move bed much less
24 board buena vista

expend gargantuan effort required go deck


breathe healthful air captainjones
captain jones insisting
do assisted daniel daniels william jenkins jones
prepared gruel oat flour better stay
shrunken stomachs anything else hardly
anyone gave groan joness efforts
thomas jeremy reported thatjones
thomasjeremy jones jokingly threaten
get pulley down deck put ropes around
recalcitrants pull them top 18 april 1849 22
tda
td8 wanting sound negative jeremy declared
sickness actually benefit emigrants
cleansing stomachs
Jeremys infant daughter mary
jeremas
jeremys sick during
entire journey although predicted back wales
likely die sea
weaned however emigrants counseled refrain
weaning small children just before embarking fear
adjustment mothers milk ships food
little constitution abide
vomiting reduced mere agonizing
dan jones allowed little time himself during
accomplished much pondering writing
thus began compose letter eventually send
john davis new orleans 8 reflected scenes
recently left wales buena vista sailed southward
between coasts ireland wales four days previous
departure merthyr tydfil meet
emigrating saints swansea wife jane given birth
daughter claudia time claudia
child several others died previously including two
wales during first mission view situation jones
deemed wise entrust jane claudia care
fellow saints merthyr tydfil until return them
delivering safely salt lake valley jane did
applaud plan do little until
confinement two weeks buena vista left
liverpool however jane made way same place
booked passage emblem sailing vessel
board buena vista 25

take daughter new orleans


take steamer council bluffs rejoin
husband trek zion
far asjones
jones knew
apjones time see jane
seejane
claudia another two three years
prospect together threats life while back
merthyr tydfil caused him become bit nostalgic
reflective letter
fact just dream I1 escaped water
midst my welsh brothers my life skin
my teeth why why persecution slander
false accusations I1 suffered years khom press
pulpits why did my residence guarded weeks
why my life safe among guards why did 1I flee
secret before time why 1I able bid farewell
my dear wife my baby 18 april 1849 8 td7 tda
just time passengers getting
accustomed being constant state motion
surprised saddened unexpected passing
sarah davies liverpool although sixty years
age poor health outset desire accompany
husband daughter greater fear being
buried sea ship became house mourning prayer
meeting held evening 6 march plans made
funeral two oclock next afternoon burial
services held deck jones preached funeral
sermon endeavored answer question how
dead raised what body do come
jones described event account crossing
sermon coffin placed large plank ship
stopped saints sung hymn sailors raised
inward end plank coffin slipped down
end salty deep weight
stones placed coffin sink opened
swallow precious treasure keep safe until day
command shall given sea yield dead
sea closed jaws
morsel our little ship stood us able
26 board buena vista

behold majestic sight few minutes sails filled


breezes galloped across waves nothing
ever happened 18 april 1849 11 td7 tda
joness sermon became topic discussion almost
every meeting held during rest voyage much fear
many misconceptions existed among group
being buried sea addition speaking resur-
rection general jones endeavored sermons dispel
fears clarify mistaken ideas oft exercised gift
rhetoric depicted sea burial something preferred
customary ground burials
bu rials
think float surface prey fish
even worse rotting cold gravel
being food grave worms fish do those
buried sea purpose putting weights
body sink down quickly lower ocean
fish ever go lower live
float peaceful salt water keep decom-
posing rotting forever yes until day rising
sea boil kept better best
egyptians kept through embalming 18 april 1849 11 td7 tda
throughout letter jones availed himself every
opportunity reemphasize emigrants being
guided divine powers these opportunities arose
16 march eighteen days sea wind
strong against ship jones called special prayer
meeting might pray fair wind characteristic
fervent attitude displayed ever since
baptism mississippi river six years before jones
announced felt like going deck returning until
fair wind granted put foot
first rung ladder brethren asked him what
wanted replied like hear
mate deck shouting haul weather braces
order set sails across ship order meant
fair wind contentment jones announced
obvious contentmentjones
compatriots back wales before I1 moved my foot
board buena vista 27

I1 others heard my wish heard mate above


our heads shouting loudly haul weather braces
yea word word I1 said 18 april 1849 12 td7 tda
fair wind came grateful saints gave thanks gradually
passengers developed expertise travers-
ing rocking deck although frequently observed
legs longer
shorter times however strong winds made
impossible anyone lie stand place jones compared
ship door hinge continually swayed those
reclined those standing wrote
throwing them along deck boxes
crockery recklessly without warning wild horse
throws unskilled rider across hedge leaves him
without pity rider got ship
throw him somewhere else until crawled home
18 april 1849 10 tda
td7
often however wind fair weather
lovely almost like wales june jones
describes activities take place whenever sheer
survival focus
beautiful see children playing across deck
entertaining parents singing here others talking
reading walking arm arm while others prepare foods
many kinds almost obtained cookshop
musicians did best beautify atmosphere
harp pleasant sounds alone evening entertained us
sang farewell king day lowered red head
western sea 18 april 1849 12 td7 tda
activity engaged first time many
jones mentions bit apologetically first holding
revered old testament prophet precedent
wonder scenes less wondrous excited heels
david old point even took off garment
temple what hush shall reply what
use hiding fact did do order dance yes
yes hardly anyone our midst except
28 board buena vista

occasional dry sectarian did prefer imitate him rather


find fault least hard deny
here times did even cause storm 18 april 1849
12 13 tda
td7
7 april thirty nine days sea emigrants
sighted land little ship arrived bahamas
welsh passengers jubilant area
dangerous places world navigation
number small ships called wreckers sailed around con-
tinually waiting opportunity profit mis-
fortune ships wreckers well acquainted
dangers presented many islands offer
services handsome fee ships became
lost maze often much like todays dishonest
mechanic creates problems engine repair
wreckers send deceptive signals lead ships
difficulty go assistance buena vista
passed through area without assistance
cuba far south proximity brought
mind ridiculous loath esome prophecy
loathesome
appeared seren gomer dan jones sell
followers slavery deck scornfully discussed
absurdity prediction jones observed
correspondent immortalized foolishness poor
taste brought cuba notoriety anything else
now serves bring recollection emigrants
lies false accusations said published them
dear religion fellow nation until loosened
love knot knot even country birth
instead thinking turning back prompted them turn
faces toward east sunset freedom worship
god those rights deprived zealous
christians own country yes constant prayer
everyone throughout ship blow east wind blow us fiercely
western ocean 18 april 1849 17 td7 tda
something marred crossing councils
having excommunicate williarnjones
william jones wife marian
board buena vista 29

both nineteen young couple odds


passengers especially religious leaders
board quite early voyage did
manifest proper commitment teachings new
religion satisfy jones members council
william morgan rice williams william davis
quite possible two recalcitrants used church
emigration plan simply vehicle transport them
america things uncommon perhaps
intentions initially pure event stayed
saints until reached st louis 1 may fifteen
days excommunication causing much worry
saints through false accusations captain
disgracing religion etc jones 18 april 1849
tda upon landing st louis william
20 td7 marian
along several others left without uttering word tijones jones
tojones
william marianjones
marlan jones
marian deprived member-
ship church just two days prior arriving new
orleans infraction precipitated action
council occurred 5 april during thursday night saints
meeting occasion saints first put
gifts practice exactly what phrase meant
imply clear appears reference special
kind communication divine powers jones describes
collusion collision ensued
great commotion caused down ship
amongst Babylonians 9 clustered along officers
ship entrance our place listened amazement
wondered greatly what caused then perceived
achan1010
Achan our midst two three saints
transgressed them translating them
causing them believe evil things us officers
ship captain bitter toward us then
ever before I1 hard time calming him down

jones laments confusion caused traitors midst


our dismay interference obliged us cease practicing
gifts middle meeting before
30 board buena vista

received great comfort through them things


learned
you yourselves wales etc informed
party those failed designs me 1I

leave wales plotting revenge my dear fellow officers


left behind me succeed 18 april 1849
17 tda
td7
further event caused sorrow among
emigrants ofelita
passing ofeliza
eilza williams age seventy seven
ellza
eliza
just six days before buena vista landed new orleans
ill several days prior demise fifty
five years methodists rejoiced deathbed
honor dying mormon bore strong testimony
truthfulness mormonism sister williamss funeral
similar held five weeks earlier sarah davis
few days before reaching new orleans jones recorded
water apportioned washing plenty
board another month I1 cannot liken bust-
ling scene sisters around deck doing washing
better scenes 1I remember seeing hot waters
iron furnaces merthyr washday food
offered company store everyone
abundance did come get said
sacks vessels full room hold
many said never before variety
abundance food lives 1I maintain anyone
happy food should shut oven
while like lap dog gentle lady 18 april 1849
18 tda
td7
thomas jeremy wife sarah
thomasjeremy reported descendants
somewhat less enthusiastic attitude concerning
food water situation end atlantic crossing
seven weeks aboard buena vista ran
oatmeal bread water eat hardtack drink water
full slime called ropey water sarah jeremy 8
numerous emotions welled within breasts
sojourners neared new orleans relief prospect
ending fifty day voyage atlantic joy ii
crossing hartley 31

anticipation being land onceagain


once again frustration having
poor relations small group cabin pas-
sengers five men two women twenties
thirteen year old girl whom succeeded bemus
ing confusing elizabeth lewiss maids anger
toward small group disenchanter cormons
enchanted
disenchanted
dis mormons
fought against faithful gratitude toward captain
crew despite strained relationship them
having brought them safely journeys end
doubtless much nostalgia rife homesickness saints
contemplated virtually irreversible decision begin
new life new land new language
morning 16 april two steamers went toward
buena vista frantic race reach ship first
selected tow new orleans winner
given large rope then used lead
buena vista mouth mississippi then
new orleans docks
weary emigrants arrived destination next
day long sea voyage finished two rivers however
ascended plains traversed before
final destination reached

crossing hartley

time buena vista emigrants recuperat-


ing bout seasickness seventy seven welsh
saints back liverpool just set sail board
hartley these fully intended journey across
atlantic compatriots determined
number paying passengers exceeded number
32 crossing hartley

accommodations modest sized buena vista


fourth them reassigned ships having waited
liverpool eleven days already weekbeyond
week beyond what
originally anticipated those selected extend wait
yet another week disappointed displeased
even sleeping board buena vista
asked leave what criteria used determine ship
assignments clear

hartley
used permission peabody museum salem
crossing hartley 33

david D bowen recorded disgruntlement


our friends acquaintances left buna vesta
vanjones
danjones
dan jones left among strangers sail another
ship our ship teddy sail
reddy good many day
yet 19 bowen left Ll anelli south wales wife
two children company three families two
these went first group two remained behind
sail second
did reassignments result separations
friends costly delay strange city caused
welsh many them non english speaking thrown
english scots few irish none whom
understood welsh although non welsh
161
passengers converts mormonism david D bowen
said midst meanest people
ever seen 2 11 although did give illustra-
tions meanness
considered separate group seventy seven welsh
board hartley similar composition those
buena vista slightly fewer half male 335 777
45 percent slightly half female 42 77
5 55 percent age group distribution shown table 3

TABLE 3
age distribution hartley passengers

age total percentage

0 10 20 260
26.0
260
11 17 12 156
15.6
156
18 30 24 312
31.2
31 50 16 208
20.8
208
51 5 64
6.4
64

77 1000
100.0

combining two groups buena vista hartley


results following figures
34 crossing hartley

TABLE 4
age distribution buena vista hartley passengers

age total percentage

0 10 79 243
24.3
243
245
11 17 48 147
14.7
147
18 30 95 291
29.1
291
31 50 78 239
23.9
239
259
51 26 80
8.0
80

326 1000
100.0
like those buena vista hartley
passengers part complete partial family unit
TABLE 5
family units among hartley passengers

total percentage

part complete family unit 63 818


81.8
818
husband wife children
part incomplete family unit 9 117
11.7
117
father mother children
apparent family attachment 5 65
6.5
65

77 1000
100.0
combining figures buena vista hartley shows
TABLE 6
family units among buena vista hartley passengers

total percentage

part complete family unit 242 742


74.2
742
husband wife children
part incomplete family unit 46 141
14.1
141
father mother children
apparent family attachment 38 117
11.7
117

326 1000
100.0
crossing hartley 35

david D bowen experience seas


appointed cook hartley passengers
first few days many took interest sitting
table gradually business picked eventually got quite
brisk very disagreeable situation bowen
described 20 shilling supposed
receive every passenger promised him orson pratt
liverpool offered sufficient incentive keep him
kitchen either passengers informed
cooks salary simply chose ignore
ship arrived new orleans two passengers rewarded
bowen services cadwalader owens 75 cents
david peters 25 cents preparing food two
hundred people three times day seven weeks bowen
felt cheated stayed church group
however
william hulme president saints board
hartley reported voyage like
pleasure excursion 185 weather pleasant
sea wind gentle two rough
days experienced during crossing reached
bahamas thirty fifth day five days fewer
required buena vista point however
calms contrary winds delayed progress conse-
quently
quent ly hartley docked new orleans 28 april 1849
fifty four days leaving liverpool
blemish otherwise placid sea journey
passing elizabeth infant daughter ofjoseph joseph mary
stringer died croup just nine days before ship
arrived new orleans body placed tin coffin
made tea canisters makeshift coffin then placed
wooden burial services held new orleans
contrast strained relations between 249
buena vista saints captain hartley company
got famously stephen cammet captain things
pleasant leaders company drew
letter appreciation captain cammet kind
humane generous treatment watchful care
36 new orleans st louis buena vista group

demonstrated behalf during passage


hulme 186 four sailors greatly admired
cormons
mormons cast lot them
baptized immediately arriving new orleans these
john everett alfred percy george percy davis wilson
twenties
two births occurred board hartley son born
joseph
tojoseph hannah hale liverpool daughter
jane hartley eames nathaniel sarah eames 11

buena vista
constitution
new orleans st louis

buena vista dragged new orleans


first time nearly passengers behold
majestic mississippi whom something
homecoming dan jones
leader captain danjones
vanjones several
years earlier plied maid iowa river
time however instead transporting someone alses elses converts
upstream boat rely someone elses
alses
steamer perform task flock faithfuls
joness group docked new orleans
whenjoness dis-
covered caught saints board
ashland ship left liverpool 6 february 1849
nearly three weeks ahead buena vista since
two groups headed same direction jones hired
steamer both shared
37

1
C

9
ici
5
t
P

4
0
0

1
1
1

4.4
P
W
u
v
10
v
4
1
0

r
11

m
4
Z

0
u
z
38 new orleans st louis buena vista group

rate 225 225


2.25 ten shillings per person
captain constitution agreed transport combined
group nearly 450 passengers distance 1100 miles
mississippi st louis even agreed pull alongside
buena vista order take goods aboard boat
thus spared joness group expense having
belongings moved vessel
exact date departure new orleans clear
few sources even mention event
cholera city considered unwise linger
thus assume two three days com-
pany way once again separation
eleven days between arrival buena vista new
orleans arrival constitution st louis
brief voyage apparently uneventful dan jones
little say 30 april 1849 letter wrote
william phillips st louis young child ofrees rees
jane price died consumption board constitution
baby boy born samuel ann leigh just two
days before reaching st louis among english saints
joined welsh new orleans three died
deadly cholera jones emphasized how fortunate
lose few cholera very bad new orleans
many dying steamboats along rivers
especially immigrants ship went before us
forty two died cholera
journey nineteen etc saints jones wrote
surprise officers constitution quoted
them saying each morning none you dead
yet udgorn selon june 1849 122 td9 tda
although everyone feared cholera saints thought
faith combined lord
arrive safe destination make them essentially
immune jones pointed ones suffered
terribly cormons
mormons
Mor mons writer cambrian
back swansea marveled how confident latter
day saints reaching end journey completely
intact even old infirm obvious
new orleans st louis buena vista group 39

relief jones happily reported william phillips


stlouis
st louls
louis welsh saints come alive healthy
point udgorn semn selon june 1849 122 td9
sewn tda
jenkin williams twenty year old
lone exception wasjenkin
engineer aberdale
aberdare
Aber dare died within few hours
arriving dan jones
st louis however danjones
vanjones still optimistic
informed president phillips boys death
good faithful lad whole voyage except
went contrary counsels given
thet cholera
hid them long taking own way
treat through brandy few minutes before died
left remarkably good testimony him said
completely happy faced death udgom sewn
udgorn semn
selon
june 1849 122 td9 tda
even though mary rees stillborn son
same day jones wrote report saints wales
repeated earlier comment general condition
everyone healthy today heartened rejoicing
privilege desirous move forward udgom sewn
udgorn semn
selon
june 1849 122 tda
td9
st louis place purchase flour meat
groceries everything necessary trek california
initiated council bluffs place where
immigrants gathered clothes firearms stoves even
iron make wagons included buying spree jones
delighted hold public meetings time
wished st louis 1843 1844
worth life man say mormon
selon june 1849 123 td9
udgorn sewn
udgom semn tda
Highlan
highland mary
highlandmary
vmary
dMary steamer jones contracted
transport saints missouri river council bluffs
just barely returned earlier voyage council
bluffs 12 terms still quite reasonable although bit
expensive passage constitution
charge children aged three younger children between
four fourteen went half price passengers fifteen
older paid full fare sixteen shillings eight pence
each entitled hundred pounds luggage extra
u1
pa
p4
W

ll
11
v
pa
p4
1
0.0

50
new orleans st louis buena vista group 41

charge two shillings charge each additional hun-


dred pounds cost making journey point
turned what
whatjones
jones calculated
counsel emigrants prophwydy jubili
prophwydy jubeli five months
earlier
may day 1849 ashland saints
buena vista saints eager complete leg
sea journey council bluffs highlandmaq
highlandman
highland mary pulled
alongside constitution goods once again
transported vessel another expense
passengers preparations nearly complete depar-
ture st louis set following day
few passengers however desired seek company
point jones bitterly remarked letter william
phillips benj jones whole family except wife
became blemished unfaithfulness went away along
road destruction gallop today david giles
davidjones
david jones wife went them completely unknown
me I1 shall take greater care next time refrain bring-
ing faithful saints udgorn segon
me udgom sewn
semn
june 1849 123 td9 tda benjamin poness
joness son william
benjaminjoness
beniamin
daughter law marian excommuni-
cated while board buena vista just two weeks earlier
amin jones
benjamin
benj aminjones
beniamin addition wife jane yet another
son thomas daughter law eliza grandson john
traveling him presumably seven members
family including jane despite faithfulness parted com-
pany st louis traveling companions
joined three others dan jones did
although danjones
vanjones give
further information concerning them very possible
st louis destination along
advantage cheaper fares joining
simply taking advantageof
church wales traveling cormons
mormons
Mor mons
case certainly first use
moneysaving
money saving approach reaching america
cholera spread st louis claimed many
victims time second welshman die dread
disease benjamin francis forty six year old blacksmith
42 cholera missouri river

llanybydder death occurred morning 1 may


jones referred him dear faithful elder
observed difficult find faithful
life died happy wife children e

come along sewnjwe


us udgorn deion
seion june 1849 12 123 tda
1253 td9
benjamin margaret francis left wales four
children widow margaret francis arrived council bluffs
mid may child unspeakable sorrow

cholera rivet
missouri river

borbus
cholera morbus highly infectious bacterial disease
transmitted polluted food water symptoms
severe diarrhea vomiting dehydration collapse
virtually nothing known mid nineteenth century
prevention treatment individual once
contracted dread disease orson spencer
president company saints board zetland
arrived new orleans two weeks before buena
vista told experience cholera mississippi
confidently said officers steam boat least
fifty large company die our passage st louis
now within fifty miles st louis without apprehension
another death unless gentile doctor board kills them
favorite dose 20 grains calomel laudanum camphor brandy
dose given our deceased brother sister contrary
my wishes many others died immediately within
few hours several saints 1I rescued dose mor-
mor
tally seized now live millennial star 15 june 1849 184
cholera missouri river 43

numerous suggested treatments call mind modern


day quackery dealing arthritis cancer
felt fumes air carried disease
result great campaigns waged sulphur burned
purposes purification lime spread streets
kinds remedies proposed newspaper advertise-
ments proclaimed anti cholera medicines kinds bloodletting
blood letting
advocated doctor burned soles patients feet
another raised blisters sufferers abdomens lucky doctor
found success washing down medicines small doses
lots water clifford L ashton 65
listened doctor followed advice
drinking plenty water fewer lives
lost medicine prescribed little benefit rather
water saved victim dehydration
twentieth century physician commented
prime essential treatment case cholera
regarded medical emergency cannot too
strongly emphasized replacement fluids electrolytes
salts potassium urgent necessity
methods treatment should subordinated elsom 1411
brother benjamin clapp church member advising
saints drink water stricken
cholera unfortunate bit counsel chose
heed clapps advice nine year old thomasjeremy
thomas jeremy
crawled bunk drank water off
oatmeal ladies put stove cook
doing life spared sarah jeremy 8
vanjones
danjones
dan jones advice own dispensed
saints st louis wrote william phillips
members company reached point alive
healthy through being careful observe rules
cleanliness refrain drinking water river
without letting settle putting alum oat flour
through being faithful godly through refraining
eating fruits meats etc udgom sewn
udgorn semn
semu june 1849
122 tda
td9
44 cholera missouri river

regardless how well intended advice remedies


reality twenty three day period between
28 april 21 may forty four original 249 buena vista
passengers fell victim cholera epidemic
names recorded thomas jeremy pocket
sized journal attempt imagine
im agine terror
especially 6 7 may ink spelled names
three young daughters two them buried same
small coffin doubt near utter despair
just four days later wrote thomas my son hanah
my daughter sick 11 may 1849 trans these two
children however recovered
david mary phillips begun journey four
children part way missouri river left just
child burying three three day period
margaret francis widowed
30 april 8 may stood shallow hastily dug grave
third child buried many days samuel leigh
whose wife presented him new son just before
reaching st louis looked helpless nine days later both
taken him very few families left intact
cholera swept along path devastation claiming fifth
welsh cormons
mormons aboard Highlan
ill fated highland
highlandmaryvmary
mary
dMary
age factor selection process victims ranged
newborn infants ninety two year old oid evan jones
otherwise uncomplicated journey st louis
council bluffs lengthened several days allow time
nearly every day graves dug along shore
three days fifteen day passage did thomasjeremy
thomas jeremy
record new names journal 13 dan joness
13dan
pen fell totally silent next two months
noah jones passing wife esther expressed
grief verse
my dear friends environs wales
kindly hear my lament verse
lamenting still am I1 sorrow
loss my dear esther
whom I1 loved my own soul
cholera missouri river 45

while mine
god called my maiden
knows why
depart though against my
care came my family
while crossing ocean
mississippi full comfort
until went town st louis
got enemy came
spears filled poison
cut strongest among us
did ask permission anyone
rather did cut finest worst
five died sword
powers able withstand him
buried albeit sadly
then left town st louis
third day may
left city
glad take leave
steamboat named mary
council bluffs wished pull
next day fourth
two died heavy news
fifth seven buried
today seen seen
sixth day came meet me
I1 shall forever remember day
I1 leave my dear bride
put myself great tribulation
blinded strength blow
1I called two elders come me
came according my summons
1I anointed holy oil
according commandment apostle
prayed
dwells heavens
did delay hearing them
1I made whole under hands
long I1 live I1 shall remember my god
noah jones 1 2 trans
46 cholera missouri river

william appleby missouri river during


same time period welsh immigrants recorded
journal graphic portrayal scenes left wake
cholera
add horrid spectacle graves side side
beds pillows half burned pieces tents broken cups
bowls pillows mattresses etc lined banksof
bankson
banks
river near boat while blankets mattresses beds etc
sick died came floating down river while town
nothing seen scarcely carts hearses loaded
rough coffins chiefly physicians riding fro citizens con-
gre gated together
gregated locking houses fleeing
country fear consternation depicted every
countenance mingled groans sick dying
hotels churches houses added general
prevailing gloom appleby 1

fear becoming infected themselves saints


council bluffs wanted part new arrivals isaac nash
having recently buried brother grandmother along
missouri recorded journal
arrived st joseph captain boat
name scott declared take us further
authorities st joe made him take us away
arrived council bluffs sorry condition nobody come
near us put banks river our dead
suffering apostle george smith hearing our arrival
sad condition came down river
banks brother smith sent word people
take us give us shelter lord turn
scourge upon them long before teams wagons came
down taken care nash 6
dan jones may written john davis william
phillips cholera devastation very little
ever appeared print udgorn semnsewn
seion
deion brief comment
made letter written eight weeks arrival council
bluffs 13 july 1849 printed cholera imposed
heavy losses our small army along rivers especially
new orleans council bluffs hartley group 47

accursed waters missouri yet effect


small comparison people throughout
neighboring boats towns ijdgom
udgorn selon september 1849
180 td10 jones neared salt lake city three months
asjones
apjones
later expressed concern letter 12 october 1849
william phillips welsh cormons
mormons remain
wales hearing effects cholera addition
offering encouragement reluctant saints jones called
ultimate philosophy matters expressed byjob
byjoe
job
lord giveth lord taketh away blessed
name lord sebon april 185
udgorn sehon td13
18500 108 TD 13

new orleans
council bluffs
hartley group

waiting new orleans arrival hartley


lucius scoville assignment church
assist immigrants request
thomas D brown board sixty six boxes brown
asked scoville see through customs preferably without
having pay duty case possible brown
sent 400 scoville assisted hartley passengers through
customs succeeded getting assigned sixty six boxes
through duty free
william hulme president 238 hartley saints went
back board ship make final check items
may left behind found small box
48 new orleans council bluffs hartley group

containing writing desk fixtures put box under


arm left boat promptly arrested
smuggling put jail await trial four days hence
box taken customhouse where lucius scoville
transacting business scoville recognized
sixty six learned hulme put prison
bail posted 750 730
750 mameluke steamer scoville
arranged transport immigrants upriver st louis
loaded ready leave evening third may
7 0 clock hulme professor music back
england now behind bars different kind
two teenage daughters waiting him docks
scoville did thing do arranged
lawyer go next morning jail post hulmes
bail try clear him charges lawyer scoville
learned later did just promised mameluke however
departed schedule passenger short hulme able
rejoin others shortly thereafter
happening new orleans david D
bowen recorded journal tha tJohn
thatjohn
john hughes williams
president welsh saints board hartley got drunk
although bowen did mention repercussions
imprisonment leaders inebriety
must caused immigrating saints considerable
concern minds however soon fixed far
pressing matter cholera
new orleans st louis journey hartley saints
coincided almost exactly st louis council bluffs
journey buena vista compatriots toll exacted
cholera epidemic equally disastrous 12 may
nine day voyage mameluke steamer arrived
st louis lucius scoville wrote journal
buried 30 saints 4 deck hands between new orleans
st louis bjune june 1849 2 ten
8 8june dead among
welsh five children five adults four different
families
st louis another steamboat lightfoot
lightfoot con-
tracted take company missouri river council
new orleans council bluffs hartley group ao
491.1

bluffs according scoville 110 passengers boarded


14 may apparently nearly half original 238 remained
st louis lightfoot left st louis 100 AM
15 may stopped few miles upstream mouth
missouri river bury seven immigrants died
while st louis two days later atjefferson jefferson city twentyfive
twenty five
passengers taken board left
brothers farnum applebys
Apple bys company
monroe scoville 8 june 1849 4 st joseph
another fifteen persons boarded lightfoot these
brother jesse havens company
30 may lightfoot reached iowa point twenty
persons died cholera chief pilot
fireman among them river high current
strong steamer progress further
want pilot take group forty five remaining
miles upstream council bluffs boat lay idle several
days finally captain brooks whom appleby labeled base
swindler without refinement fit wood raft
captain steamboat appleby 1 decided go back
downstream seventy five miles savannah landing
put passengers freight ashore
appleby 1 hired another steamer st croix take
hapless immigrants rest way council bluffs
arrived 8 june frustrating sorrow
filled twenty five day journey even buena vista
group difficulties accomplished fifteen
days
lightfoot backtracked savannah landing
welshman determined
enough having buried wife four year old son just
few miles upriver st louis thomas davies decided
take remaining eight children remain northwestern
missouri nineteen year old thomas jr however went con-
trary fathers wishes stayed main body
saints
thirteen year old nathaniel eames stepped off
st croix council bluffs orphan nearly
50 new orleans council bluffs hartley group

month five day period just before lightfoot reached


st louis nathaniel lost father stepmother
five year old half brother two little half sisters
little girls named jane hartley eames having
born board hartley just two months before
end journey william owens family consisted
just three children complete family parents seven
children left liverpool three months earlier
seventy seven welsh passengers hartley least twenty
died between liverpool council bluffs may
among those remained st louis record
located
david D bowen unpaid cook hartley
passengers stayed st louis both wife
mary mother law elizabeth david extremely
ill took them hospital st louis where mother
inlaw
law admitted cholera patient mary bowen
refused admittance however illness something
cholera bowen then left mother law
charity hospital youngest daughter six year old
rachel whereupon took wife three miles further
city hospital left lot ofstrengers
strengers
shee never seen before went back mameluke
steamer brought them grom new orleans
wrote bowen 1 I nurse my little babe eight
months old night without mother very
miserable night
next day did bring better fortune
1I arrived charity hospital my astonish-
ment shee mother law dead aeried before 1I got
beried
I1 did see atall little girl rachel like
little stranger I1 then went hospital where my wife
1I found very weak & febie said
nothing take while shee water shee begged
me take miserable place I1 completed
compleyed
comple yed
desire I1 took I1 carry my back
way hospital boat through city
st louis bowen 12 may 1849 21
council bluffs 51

reached boat david mary found two


marys younger sisters sick cholera
next morning morgan david bowens father law
went country look place live found
small branch church located dry hill six
miles st louis kind brothers gospel
thomas green william stone accompanied him back
mameluke team wagon retrieved
morgan davids family david bowens transported
them belongings back dry hill night
nine guests three them extremely ill stayed home
brother green landlord garsaide
tarsaide
Garsaide gave orders
newcomers sent away fear bring
cholera coal diggings dry hill orders
ignored
next day bowen father law purchased
little cabin fifteen dollars short time healthy
except mary bowen whose condition worsened
passing each day 2233 may bowen recorded day
light morning shee very bad 4 0 clock shee
set box leaned head back wall shee
died instant without uttering word 23 may 1849
22 month later bowens infant daughter died
buried same grave mother

council bluffs
off water

rejoicing made difficult unfathomable sorrow


en shrouded welsh immigrants dragged
52

council bluffs ferry frederick


Frede fick piercy
rick
council bluffs 53

themselves literally city council bluffs many


times while still wales during crossing
reviewed great anticipation what do
reached council bluffs here where buena vista
249 reunite hartley 77 plus babies
ann leigh mary rees sarah eames letitia thomas
likely bring forth then here where welsh
speakers surrounded english speakers where
former need begin studying new language
earnest here where begin immediate
preparation make trek farther westward where
others search employment begin nest eggs
toward opportunity complete journey salt
lake valley here where constant swaying
rocking caused atlantic mississippi
missouri cease
many however absent anticipated reunion
nineteen abandoned belief mormonism
searching brighter horizons st louis northwestern
missouri sixty seven died various points along
way 1411
number hartley welsh remained
st louis care sick expectant mothers
two four mary rees letitia thomas
live see council bluffs just babies
survive little hannah maria thomas born 13 may 1849
just four days old parents carried ashore
council bluffs maternal grandfather dan davis
buried along shores missouri four days before
hannah marias birth
need preparations get underway employ-
ment found loomed large recuperation mourning
cruelly curtailed abrupt reality situation
insufficient housing chronic condition way
station westbound saints space provided where
really none jamming several persons already
overcrowded rooms cholera epidemic ensued
area fear replaced frontier hospitality
kindness
54 council bluffs

council bluffs becoming rather cosmopolitan


english Norwegia
norwegians ns now large band welsh inter-
preters kept busy provided way com-
municating
municating many need welsh learn english
diminished banding together forming
welsh speaking branch church first part
world 15 however communication even between persons
same language often hampered sometimes
frantic atmosphere excitement
those planned cross plains season needed
arrange wagons teams expected make
salt lake city before cold weather snow came
upon them great influx immigrants employ-
ment opportunities immediate vicinity plenti-
ful consequently wives families often left
council bluffs while men went far st louis get
work tempers short people agonized
recent loss loved ones worried what future
bring although situation become quite
irreversible point wished
never left comforts home family back
old country
isaac eliza nash together morgan margaret
hughes befriended father king council point
far river isaacs alizas passages
elizas
paid elizabeth lewis hhorn Ki dwelly
kidwelly south wales
exchange service isaac performed
helped persuade husband sign papers allowing
sale lewiss brother rather large inheritance money
then used assist number people emigrate nash
5 6 isaac understood sister lewis agreed pay
him wife way rocky mountains
sister lewis informed him upon reaching council bluffs
then own nash blacksmith trade obtained
work brother ovett council point shortly thereafter
captain jones requested nases nashs services ironing
wagons nash refused wishing honor contract
brother ovett argument ensued solved
council bluffs 55
55

intervention apostle george smith nash


iron wagons shoe horses do work
company jones allow nash use team wagon
filled provisions until reached salt lake city
addition elder smith purchased set blacksmith tools
st louis promised nash upon arriving end
journey
misunderstandings arose between elizabeth lewis
phoebe evans seventeen year old girl served sister lewis
maid exchange passage phoebe became exas-
perated demands made finally packed
belongings went live sister margaret hughes
buena vista passenger dan jones soon arrived
house declared phoebe fulfilled
part agreement sister lewis take
clothes auction them off restitution accord-
ing david D bowen following year married
phoebe evans clothes taken sold january 1850
24
eight weeks required preparations completed
those continue directly salt lake
valley during time approximately 200 welsh
living around council bluffs part
banded together offered mutual assistance
special branch church set accommodate
welsh saints follow william morgan
made coming council bluffs sound very attractive
letter dated 2 september 1849 president phillips back
wales
advantage welshmer
monoglot welshmen
Welsh men
follow people same language
same country likely many know them
associated each many times welcome them
new country englishmen here several
hundreds miles small handful welsh
midst brothers sisters enjoying our freedom like birds
say word against us them very friendly
udgorn selon november 1849 218 td11
udgom
56 council bluffs salt lake city 1849

dan jones arranged welsh remained


council bluffs lands adjoining then
purchased land claim 150 acres near welsh
holdings gave william morgan administer
gift welsh morgan reported element prosperity
among welsh saints company
penny landed here cattle sheep
now fact 1I know family country
cow two udgorn selonscion november 1849 219 TD 11
offered encouragement brothers sisters still
wales come join abundance

council bluffs
salt lake city 1849

13july large segment welsh trail


eden new canaan chief paradise
world phrases
covered
song hail
eighteen miles
california td1
thousand mile
tdl
idl
108 day trek headed nearby elk horn river
gathering place george smith company
370 persons smith company welsh
numbered eighty four just fifth
buena vista 69
hartley 12
emblem 2
native born american 1

ta
t4
84
emblem ship left liverpool two weeks
buena vista carried jane claudia jones
council bluffs salt lake city 1849 57

captain danjoness
dan joness wife infant daughter native
born american little hannah maria thomas lone
breath hope midst miasma cholera along missouri
eighty four buried family members prior
embarking overland journey families
remained intact twenty eight welsh saints likely
gone salt lake valley 1849
total forty male forty three
female seen according age groups pattern
unlike original 326 despite cholera
defections division
TABLE 7
age distribution welsh smith company
age total percentage

0 10 20 238
23.8
238
258
11 17 12 143
14.3
143
145
18 30 29 345
34.5
545
345
31 50 18 214
21.4
214
51 5 60
go
6.0
60

84 1000
100.0
cholera altered ratio complete incomplete family
units significantly percentage those apparent
family attachment bit higher
TABLE 8
family units among welsh smith company

total percentage

part complete family unit 39 464


46.4
464
husband wife children
part incomplete family unit 30 357
35.7
357
father mother children
apparent family attachment 15 179
17.9
179

84 1000
100.0
58 council bluffs salt lake city 184
1849

dan jones continued spiritual leader


welsh however purposes temporal organization
welsh divided three groups each
under leadership captain ten person
responsible ten wagons daniel daniels
thomas jeremy both buena vista two these
captains lysander gee american
addition gees family family
robert berrett traveled welsh albert bowen
ricy jones two welsh lads arrived
council bluffs time prior buena vista immigrants
group
following rules regulations used previously
camps israel adopted
1 each ten travel ahead alternately accord-
ing numbers
2 lost property brought captain
fifties quarters
3 dogs tied dark prevent
annoyance guard
4 man allowed leave camp
himself without consent captain
5 captains ten instruct men
attend family prayers sounding
horn
6 captain fifty see guards
placed around camp half past eight oclock each night
relieve captain herd whose duty
sound horn morning men boys
exempt guard duty take charge herd until
night guard again posted
7 sounding horn morning
signal camp arise attend duties
morning
8 camp ready start each morning
half past seven oclock
9 implicit obedience officers required
every man camp
council bluffs salt lake city 1849 59

10 each man owning horses mules required


take them corral sundown secure them
11 each teamster without fail herd driven
night see team hand
herd
12 every member camp quarters
nine oclock guard cry correct time
without making unnecessary noise appleby 1 2
statistics camp recorded william I1 appleby
clerk follows 2
ducks 23 ponies 3
turkeys 4 oxen 477
crows 1 cows 214
doves 2 loose
guns 131 cattle 35
pistols 27 sheep 105
wagons 118 pigs 12
souls 370 chickens 81
horses 20 cats 13
mules 1 dogs 20

driving team joked pull covered wagon


oxen yoked
something totally foreign many welsh johnjohnson
john johnson
davies pioneer crossed few years later described
difficulties welsh group new
challenge
breakfast got cattle together tried
yoke them 1I assure you quite task us
got them hitched wagon started now
comes circus good captain watching
abid telling us what
us arid do told us ta
t6 take whipand
whipland
whip use
say whoa duke gee brandy now fun
commenced then went them pretty lively cattle
went gee too much run off side yelling them
whoa bunting them stock whip then
go haw too much puffing sweating 160

respect how well welsh group managed


dan jones wrote william phillips 12 october 1849
60 council bluffs salt lake city 1849

welsh holding under difficulties journey


learning drive oxen better my expectations
winning praise camps saints
organization virtue skill especially
singing udgorn sehon
scion april 1850 108 td13
selon
sebon

singing something far natural


welsh driving team oxen became trademark
welsh gathered around camp fires night
william morgan accompanied them first few days
journey commented pride william phillips
john davis
sang first part verse saw english
Norwegia
norwegians ns everyone I1 think heads
wagons second part wagons empty
instant inhabitants running toward us
charmed asked me where learned
teacher I1 said hills wales
schoolhouse spirit god teacher response
well indeed wonderful never heard good
singing before 19 july 1850 6 td21

likely john parry directed singing reaching


valley asked brigham young organize choir
compatriots nucleus choir gained fame
years evolved what now known
mormon tabernacle choir
another talent welsh noted poetry
numbered among welsh george smith com-
pany william lewis poet won several prizes
verses old country muses inspired him
compose following poem during trek westward

verses

sectarians
sect arians insist sell us
shame like animals
across sea our leaders do
groups cry
council bluffs salt lake city 1849 61

captain enticed
say area
merthyr huge number waless children
might sold
yes shipful among host

oh blind men poor souls continue


course angry disposition
judgment plague come upon them
false tales wind

our moses mighty chief jones


our supreme heavenly teacher
full energy holy wisdom
lead us land praise
lewis 12 td22
first three hundred miles journey through
mud mire brought frequent rainstorms
rain storms
brainstorms
task neophyte teamsters offered daily discouragement
wheels inched forward great reluctance heavy
sand encountered next change much
rest positive side however two factors
far laramie grazing abundant loss cattle
minimal
company following tracks groups gold
diggers crossed previous year bones
hundreds cattle lay along path served
reminder animals should receive best treat-
ment traveling should paced according
capacity
gaining two months experience completing
two thirds journey these pioneers wished
impart new knowledge others travel
same path later point george smith ezra T
benson dan jones sent informative letter back
william morgan council bluffs request morgan
translate welsh send tojohn
john davis
cojohn
then publish udgorn sewn
udgom selon morgan complied
request davis however judged instructions
62 council bluffs salt lake city 1849

importance published them separate pamphlet


together william morgans letter containing additional
suggestions william lewiss verses included
twelve page pamphlet
reading through long list christian virtues
brothers smith benson jones recommended
forepart letter suspect love
harmony did always prevail among pioneers
following these initial observations presented many sug-
gestions
gest ions pragmatic nature oxen should between
five ten years old wagon wheels should six inches
larger normal keeping supplies dry while crossing
rivers wagon loads should exceed two thousand pounds
three yoke oxen spare parts wagons should
brought along animals should expected cover
sixty miles each week russian duck canvas
should purchased liverpool best covers
wagons provisions should obtained new orleans
st louis instead relying merchants council bluffs
disappointed others unfulfilled promises
service few good american teamsters gentle
animals should enlisted
item received special emphasis concerned
use strong drinks
our brothers come distant country where liquor scarce
hard anyone get except wealthy
seldom used poor come america
where liquor cheap being accustomed
drunk ening effect
drunkening very likely make too much use
own harm great loss reason counsel
everyone under your care abstain completely refrain
making use except necessary case illness
jones 21 september 1849 4 5 td12

must allow bit exaggeration joness part


rosy depiction
letter william morgan gave number recommen-
dations complemented those given brothers smith
council bluffs salt lake city 1849 63

benson jones morgan directed himself specifically


farmers gave them american prices items
ploug
iron ploughths iron harrows files
ploughs sharpening
saws scythe handles hay spikes wheel rim iron milk
pitchers pottery billhooks axes tongs fire shovels bellows
knives forks spoons ended reiterating counsel
given previously dan jones individuals
vanjones
danjones
either break engagements get married before leaving
wales
company three hundred miles east
destination met group teamsters
wagons sixty yoke oxen sent
brigham young salt lake city assistance
gratefully welcomed travel weary saints gave them
new life complete leg seemingly
interminable journey
major setback came during first week october
approached summit south pass
wind river chain mountains north seven
thousand foot elevation snow wind suddenly
became severe temperature dropped forcing
travelers make hasty encampment without being able
form wagons customary corral george smith
william appleby described ordeal 18 october
1849 letter orson hyde

turned our cattle loose drove them willows


near do best share fate
storm wind snow experienced think never
superseded pottawatamie
pottawatomie thirty six hours continued
howl around us unceasingly blowing nearly hurricane drifting
snow every direction freezing fast whatever
touched being unable keep fires except few stoves
wagons content without them do
best many mother infant obliged
bed under frail covering sheltered them
pitiless blast keep them perishing nothing
perhaps piece dry bread few crackers subsist upon
while winds spent fury upon our camp canvass covering
64 council bluffs salt lake city 1849

mass ice snow drifting around us places


depth three four feet millennial star 15 april 18
1850
50
126

first thoughts storm abated verified


human life lost animals bended
wended
our way down stream among willows indeed
sorrowful sight behold our perished cattle
another cold stiff lying snow banks food wolves
ravens cat amounts magpies etc inhabit these moun-
tainous regions countless numbers live prey
millennial star 15 april 1850 126 found
upwards sixty head cattle george smiths camp
well two camps immediately ahead perished
others died within few days effects
storm while still others time recovering not-
withstanding loss pioneers rejoiced
worse
during entire journey george smith reported
solitary death occurred man woman child
millennial star 15 april 1850 127 birth however
did occur little robert dan parry born 15 october
thirty miles east fort bridger widow ann parry
anns husband died missouri river
marriage william clarke widowed while
mississippi eliza thomas servant girl thejeremy jeremy
family married 14 september isaac clarke
president company appleby journal 14 september
1849
upon arriving little mountain shortly storm
welsh gathered meeting extraordinary
proposal presented according isaac nash dan jones
told welshmer
welshmen
Welshmen needed stick together
nation inasmuch discriminated against
wagons animals onions potatoes sent brigham young
jones explained come primarily brother smith
americans sent
company entirely welsh perceived unfair
valley 65

treatment jones proposed go across jordan river


settle independent nation elizabeth lewis
queen 16 willing declare
independence become subject new queen
asked raise hands hands went except those
isaac nash edward ned williams asked why
raised hand nash replied
enough welsh going try americans
while jones threatened nash cut off
book nation never restored nash
went reported entire incident george smith
accompanied nash immediately back meeting
jones still speaking arrived brother smith
invited address welsh upheld joness
just upheldjoness
unique proposal made very conciliatory speech
94
rebels said wagons animals potatoes
onions intended them much anyone
else need them become
independent nation nash 8 apparently smiths appeal
unity successful record further
attempts set independent welsh nation across
jordan river feelings however between betweenjones
jones nash
considerably strained incident

valley

26 october 1849 108 days trail


welsh arrived land promise eight months
clasped since stretched arms
oranges thrown brethren waterloo dock
fourth original 326 now main body
66 valley

church achieved goal faithful


welsh cormons
mormons
Mor mons
first night valley camped northeast
old emigration road where visited
brigham young familiar face dan jones
excited presence beckoned
them now addressed them language
required interpretation president young gave
them warm welcome requested mechanics stay
city farmers go plot land near
jordan river four miles west city
seven declared themselves mechanics john parry
caleb catherine parry william eliza clark isaac
nashjohn
eliza nash
Nas john
hJohn caleb stonemasons william
tinsmith isaac blacksmith these remained
campground while others traveled few remaining
miles receive parcels land farm own land
long dream welsh whom
tenant farmers laborers wales stayed
wales unlikely ever become
independent landowners attraction actually owning
land strong cause daniel leigh william lewis
daniel daniels point declare themselves farmers
whereas occupations wales joiner mason
stonecutter
separation mechanics farmers
isaac nash wife left without wagon sleep
nash described first night valley dark
night began rain without fire bedding
food ten oclock man came us wanted
know why staying here rain told him our
situation suggested use little shanty
far off contained fireplace made fire
cooked food gave us began feel comfortable
9 hospitable man elijah gifford extending
assistance isaac eliza nash carrying
instructions brigham young given residents
valley succor newcomers
valley 67

beginning winter short time away


housing became pressing concern newly arrived immigrants
thomasjeremy
thomas jeremy family lived wagon first
month then rented room city four months
before able complete construction home
south temple ath west built
6th willows plastered
inside home called willow basket
each welsh families received city lot ofone cofone
fourth acres addition land farming
four five miles west city many welsh built
homes same vicinity area soon called
new wales land mapped blocks
each measured ten acres welsh occupied
greater part three these blocks coming land
hills vales these sons ofgomer gomer doubt elated
live farm flat lands salt lake valley
letter written following april thomas jeremy
joyfully announced plenty room thousands
compatriots come settle new wales
statistics concerning fruitfulness land offered great
encouragement saints wales halliday planted
bushel wheat called touse wheat got
183 bushels another planted bushel potatoes
got 330 bushels said you get barley
obtained california 100 bushels planting
perhaps account too good welsh believe
yet make less true sewn
udgorn semn
selon
october 1850 283 td19 according tojeremy jeremy wages
valley considerably higher wales laborers
paid 150 1.50 per day carpenters received 200
150 200 masons earned
2.00
250
2.50
250 tailor earn goo
600
6.00
600 1000
10.00 making
someone coat jeremy reported welsh brothers
here earn 3 4 per day digging job
americans used digging you see how easy
live here udgorn selon october 1850 283 td19
elizabeth lewis benefactress third
newly arrived welsh offered encouragement fellow
saints old country
68 valley

though salt lake valley perfect heaven nor


everyone perfect yet 1I am sorry having come here
evils prophesied me back
place inhabitants fulfilled I1 believe
my duty my good lord cause send my witness
back sake those experience
1I take heart come here 10 april
1850 6 td16
sister lewis compared herself queen sheba
told half good things place
inhabitants wrote joy felt being
able hear various church leaders mingle peace
harmony saints valley
1I seen drunken person place anyone
quar relling
quarrelling another I1 heard someone threaten-
ing take another court except too ashamed
first place do I
17 1 yet hear
oath swearing street murder theft 1I know

place nor 1I seen immorality


here begging poor here men came here
same time I1 did freeholders difficult me
get anyone work my small farm 10 april 1850 7 td16

custom welsh re baptized


reaching valley order them renew covenants
seal faithfulness lord god israel jones
220 november 1849 2 TD td14 14 permission obtained
president young establish welsh branch church
hold worship services welsh language thomas
jeremy appointed president unique branch
daniel daniels rice williams counselors welsh
branch first several foreign language branches
established salt lake city accommodate various ethnic
groups settled
1850 census shows welsh two groups
plus few scattered several places greater
part them chose settle new wales sixty four
eighty four crossed george smith
council bluffs salt lake valley 1852 69

company together until fall 1850


time fifteen went settle manti dan jane
claudia jones elizabeth lewis
claudiajones time married
vanjones
danjones
dan jones six children rees thomas mary evans
married then sarah davis owen owens
little david davis orphaned mother margaret died
missouri
isaac nash caleb parry wives
parts salt lake city many others married
settled families spouses mary davis
marriage james switzler among first marry
non welshman marriages undermined preserva-
tion welsh language culture although many
children welsh pioneers learned welsh language
customs grew things became less less
common each succeeding generation

council bluffs
salt lake valley 1852

life 113 welsh converts council bluffs


several others remained st louis offered numerous
difficulties challenges gone ahead
george smith company compatriots simply
resources exhausted time com-
pleted atlantic crossing ascension two rivers
few may wherewithal continue
valley same year requested stay behind
preside buena vista hartley emigrants
70 council bluffs salt lake valley 1852

organized body welsh saints council bluffs


future immigrants same language warm
welcome addition instruction guidance how
complete journey valley housing
provided employment information given
assistance getting fitouts
fi touts available
william morgan selected preside welsh
branch church council bluffs morgan wrote several
letters brethren wales give them benefit
experience encourage saints old
country begin preparations immediately emigration
sent them copies frontier guardian newspaper
published cormons
mormons council bluffs return
morgan receive ample supply udgorn sewn semn
selon
periodical prophwydyjubili
succeeded prqphwydyjubi1i con-
tained news cormons
mormons wales
morgan liberal dispenser counsel advice
how make sea voyage enjoyable
letter dated 23 25 december 1849 wrote
president phillips advise everyone
emigrating take care boxes strong made
dry wood suffered losses boxes
dry clothes bouldy potatoes
become mouldy
ocean very desirable herrings oat flour
bacon dried beef pepper mustard salt pickles onions
oranges udgorn sewn semn
selon february 1850 1830 32 td13
52 td15
recommended bring brandy
beneficial warm stomach weather cold
sea rough
many gold diggers headed california expected
pass through council bluffs spring 18501830
saints made considerable profit selling provisions
them morgan saw reason why next company welsh
should take advantage opportunity well
promised send further information what items
emigrants should purchase britain selling america 18
morgan reported performing two marriages among
welsh end 1849 mary jones tojohn
maryjones john williams
cojohn
council bluffs salt lake valley 1852 71

alice richards edward evans alexander owens died


yellow fever william phillips inform owenss
oweiss wife
twynrodyn suburb merthyr tydfil cholera accord-
ing morgan longer problem st louis
reached council bluffs 19
able obtain jobs council bluffs area
others forced travel way back st louis
find work october 1849 john hughes williams rees price
morgan hughes noahjones
noah jones william lewis20all ali returned
lewis20 ail
st louis hopes getting employment coal
diggings gravois place vicinity st louis
met david D bowen morgan david
stopped off st louis back april illnesses
wives children
bowen widower time informed rees price
phoebe evans council bluffs seventeen year old oid
welsh girl whom bowen should consider marrying follow-
ing spring bowen took prices advice traveled
bluffs where courted then wed young phoebe evans
return st louis resulted very cool reception
part morgan hughes Pho phoebea
phoebes
ebes brother law
bowen obtained permission marriage
morgan davids daughters sisters law bowen bitter
toward phoebe possibly least two them
just old just eligible
during next two years bowen worked saved
towards making overland journey salt lake valley
times earned much twentyfivetwenty five dollars per week
times amount far less two occasions
periods several weeks totally incapacitated illness
income others fellow welsh saints
faced similar circumstances
june 1852 remaining buena vista
hartley immigrants fitted ready begin
journey rocky mountains disease misfortune
defection reduced numbers winter
1850 much illness among saints
council bluffs william treharne among fatalities 21
72 council bluffs salt lake valley 1852

noah jones poet died brights disease fall


1851
18 51 dying wish orphaned fourteen year old
daughter mary allowed cross plains welsh
saints following year 1852
18 52 explosion steamer
saluda killed william rowland two children
during three years william morgan
fellow welsh converts remained council bluffs
joined welsh cormons
mormons various parts wales
those afford continue immediately valley
did however stayed council bluffs until 1852
bulk remaining welsh saints traversed
plains together
nine wagons cormons
mormons traveled
gravois council bluffs join others
crossing among these david D bowen made
enough money january byjanuary 1852 purchase two yoke oxen
wagon shares thomas vargo pur-
pose going salt lake valley small band met
together st louis 6 april 18 1852
52 began journey
across state missouri council bluffs
stayed together far lexington where bowen vargo
struck own shared wagon
st joseph misunderstanding occurred between two
decided part company each received yoke oxen
cow half wagon bowen sold share wagon
vargo put wife child steamer st louis
proceeded finish remainder journey
council bluffs foot three animals once reached
council bluffs mid may made agreement
older gentleman name daniel shearer bowen agreed
haul him luggage salt lake city exchange
wagon shearer owned then bowen worked
unloading steamboats hauling wood until main body
prepared depart month later
2211 june welsh gathered near winter quarters
where visited apostle ezra T benson
needed interpreter translate bensons instructions
how organized crossing william morgan
council bluffs salt lake valley 1852 73

appointed captain fifty welsh few english


french made fifty wagons counselors
william davis rees jones williams daviss soninlaw son law
three days later crossed missouri camped
winter quarters another three days
morning 28 june company finally got
under way bowen lamented 1 I deal trouble
my cattle broken very whiled wild
young day started grom winter quarters very hot
1I leboured hard cattle sweat much 1I

headache bad 1I blind day


228 june 18 1852
52 afternoon william davis showed
lack experience driving team running wagon
another breaking axletree delay until
following day while repairs made
morgan reported five buffaloes killed during
crossing described taste similar welsh beef
custom ride ahead camp determine
trail places suitable stopping
occasion morgan found himself midst
several hundred sioux greeted appeared
chief how do mormon good morgan then
taken indian camp mile half away where
invited sit down smoke pipe peace
chiefs morgan compared unique custom hand-
ing around shilling jug taverns wales each
take drink udgorn semn sewn 27 august 1853 1855 145 td30
1833
1835
whole journey 1852 welsh pioneers
considerably pleasant those
crossed 1849 outset william morgan reported
cheerily letter dated 22 june 1852 saints
good health each canvas tent white
snow much milk our camp thrown casually
bath water used three four merthyr colliers
bathwater
use close
need selon 7 august 1852 259 60 td28
udgorn sewn
semu
semn
20 september 1852 near end journey morgan
wrote weather unusually moderate
74 council bluffs salt lake valley 1852

sewn
udgorn semn
selon 8 january 1853
1833
1855
1835 32 td29
experienced rain storms
rainstorms
brainstorms snow even went
through mountain pass buried 1849 pioneers
welshmer
snow four welshmen
Welsh men however died before reached
valley these nine year old son
widow martha howells morgan describes happening
administered him through ordinances church
jesus christ according scriptures next night
strolling around camp fell sick again day two
bro taylor myself administered him again died
spite everything everyone udgom sewn 8 january 1853
semn
udgorn sehon
sebon
32 td29
company reached fort laramie crossed
south side platte river unusually high water
river made crossing difficult many things lost
consequence few days later arrived deer creek
where stayed several days here david D bowen
difficulty brother shearer
here I1 quarrell old sherar consequence wagon
promise me hauling him luggage salt lake
city said did calculate give me wagon
get men settle between us promise again
give me wagon I1 going leave him wagon
I1 listen fair promises haul him along again
29 september 1852 30
number cattle died devils gate short time later
company divided parries david D
several parties
bowens ten traveled alone rest way valley
23 september reached mouth emigration
canyon where visited bishop lorenzo D young
brigham young brother main message according
mind number first principle
d

bowen
valley two days later went down salt lake city
arriving early afternoon bowens wagon partner
once again decided part wagon
bishop joseph D noble asked arbitrate matter
decided bowen shearer should each half
council bluffs salt lake valley 1852 75

devils gate frederick piercy

shearer unwilling sell half buy bowens half


finally bowen sold half man san pete
exchange twenty dollars lumber
main body welsh eighty miles
salt lake valley reunion
beloved cap
captain
tain jones jones together thomas jeremy
daniel daniels called brigham young
return wales another mission three years
elapsed since 1849 group left council bluffs
emotions strong welcomed jones
1852 group welcomedjones
midst morgan described reunion letter dated
20 september 1852 shaking hands embracing weep-
ing kissing went bank river where
vanjones
danjones
dan jones left horse having traveled twenty
thirty miles during night ahead company order
meet us decided spend day friendship
converse each things pertaining
76

u5
u4 .4

P
14
u
u
170
110
113

1
m

va
v1
00

ju
11

i
u
05
council bluffs salt lake valley 77

kingdom our god oh brethren how sweet words


poured sewn
lips udgorn semn
selon 8 january 1853 33
td29
later thomas jeremy
day thomasjeremy daniel daniels arrived
welsh gathering drank deeply old friendships
joined camaraderie jones gave morgan letter
present bishop edward hunter just soon
arrived company valley morgan
moved letter quoted segment own
letter dated 2 55 june 1853 phillips davis back wales
esteemed bishop hunter many my compatriots com-
ing across 13th company I1 do know condition
perhaps money provisions scarce
reach valley I1 shall grateful you furnishing them
needs through hand brother morgans sic I1 shall
pay you manti san pete valley deion 2277 august
udgorn seion
udgom
1853 147 td30
few days later several welsh brethren arrived
camp these traveled thirty miles
salt lake city load water melons mushmelons
watermelons mush melons
potatoes pickle cucumbers grapes etc these delicacies
came welcome treat those spent three
months trail two days later just before camp
reached little mountain found multitude
brethren morgan udgorn deion seion 27 august 1853 144
td30 awaiting them wagons fruit vegetables
valley among group john parry caleb parry
daniel leigh owen roberts cadwalader owens
delighted having ranks swelled newcomers
these 1849 pioneers extended sincere loving welcome
compatriots
morgan pleased how crossing gone
although journey long I1 considered nothing
enjoyment every step way udgorn selon 27 august
1853 146 td30 gave equally positive comments concern-
ing everything everyone valley predicted
salt lake temple completed three years hence 22
conclusion

several thousand welsh saints journeyed salt


lake valley during next decade usually came
clusters rather companies 560 sons
gomer board samuel curling 1856 constituting
notable exception many them settled same
geographical areas malad city southern idaho
spanish fork city fifty five miles south salt lake city
initially welsh communities first second genera-
cambrians
tion Cam brians conscientious preservation
language observance periodic welsh celebrations
turn century many joneses davisel
manyjoneses davises
Davi ses
williamsen
williarnses
williamses
Willi amses spoke great pride welsh
ancestry do however english

notes
1 california name applied western america
including region now known utah
2 welsh mormon folklore faith promoting apocryphal
story sinking buena vista boat leaky
english said let them go down
cormons board butjones
damned mormons jones being seaworthy wise repaired
ship prayers each day safety cam
camee across
ocean unloaded everything upon docks much water soaked
spoiled ship sank harbor heart throbs 24
3 poness
led wonder atjoness
joness estimate number onlookers
emphatic use hyperbole unusual joness writings
4 see appendixes further information passengers
5 welsh protestants opposition
catholic church anglican church well consequently
notes 79

referred themselves nonconformists those refused


conform religious policies king henry VIII
6writers often attribute college education dan jones
captain danjones
vanjones
distinction utterly impossible him given
circumstances laboring class background gone sea age
seventeen somehow acquired high degree polish speaking
writing university trained nineteenth century wales
however taken place gentleman never
soiled hands things anchors riggings
biggings
7 warners spelling maintained
8 jones intended
letter published udgorn sewn
vdgom semn
selon
zions trumpet length however nearly 10000 words
davis combined thomasjeremys
thomas jeremas
jeremys
Je remys smaller letter 1800 words
foreword own published twenty four page pamphlet
entitled nanes
hanes ymfudiady saint i gall
hanesymfudiady Gali
california
fornia
nornia account
saints emigration california
9 wales term babylonians used cormons refer
mormons
welsh citizens used here refers eight non mormon cabin
passengers
10 reference achan old testament
disobedience causes much consternation among israelites follow-
ing seige jericho see joshua 7

william hulme mentions


11 first baby letter see
david peterss records information second
12see ashton 66 detailed explanation concerning two
steamers
13jeremy used welsh early journals however knowing
descendants probably speak welsh kept later journals
english second language
14 these figures considerably higher accurate records
period kept yet surface
15 many lowry peters h34 lived another fifty
years go graves speakers welsh
16elizabeth lewis called welsh queen many years
afterwards thought actually welsh queen few knew
however how title arisen
80 notes

17 numerous court cases held salt lake city prior elizabeth


lewiss letter someone heard threatening take
another court dan jones 222 april 18 5 0 jones
1850
awarded 25917
23917
239.17 edward williams debt due
captain jones according hosea stout joness lawyer
assistance helping him williams wales stout 2367 how
jones four years missionary wales able proffer assistance
williams how williams collier before emigrating obtained
wherewithal just six months salt lake valley pay settle-
ment tijones
tojones
jones certainly legitimate answerable questions
fact thatjones
jones married wealthy elizabeth lewis two weeks arriv-
ing valley may provide clarification first question
elizabeth said ofjones
jones letter john davis capt jones
evil man prophesied him
received nor tried get my money 1I heard
anyone company loser penny
him 10 april 1850 8 td16

18 letter containing information ever appeared


udgorn sewn
udgom semn
selon
19 while welsh saints being decimated cholera along
mississippi missouri rivers mid 1849 same disease
reached epidemic proportions merthyr tydfil area victims
reverend W R davies person coined epithet
latter day satanists
20 three men name william lewis among
emigrants stayed council bluffs instead continuing
directly utah number 70 buena vista passenger list
2211 daughter jane sick several days
heard fathers death administered brother abel evans
whereupon arose immediately rode six miles horseback attend
fathers funeral see ashton 79
22 actual completion salt lake temple until nearly
four decades later
appendixes
appendix
alphabetized list
buena vista hartley welsh passengers

numbers keyed appendixes B C those H indicate


hartley passengers others buena vista passengers

BOWEN anne h21 DAVIS margt


maegt 209
david h73 mary 94
mary hig mary jane h64
morgan h20 mary oubery
aubery 224
CHILDS david 215 morgan h12
CLARK francis h41 phoebe h63
william h40 radial
rachal 233
DANIELS dan 128 rachel h18
david 131 sarah 90
mary 129 sarah 93
thomas 130 sarah 223
DAVIS
DA VIS ann 92 sophia h72
anne h15 stephen h71
catherine h42 thomas 85
dan 89 thomas h62
dan 91 thomas h65
david 86 william 6
david 183 wm 83
david 210 wm 232
dinna 95 EAMES elenor h56
edmund h70 john h55
eliza 40 nathaniel hyz
eliza 88 nathaniel h54
eliza h13 sarah h53
eliza h14 EDWARDS edward 237
eliza h66 edward 239
eliza lee 84 eliza 238
elizabeth 5 jno 240
emma h17 mary 241
george h68 peter h36
griffith 211 EVANS chas h61
hannah hig david 172
henry 87 david 201
hugh 222 edward 206
jane h67 evan 208
margaret h69 even 199
margret 52 janet 200
buena vista hartley welsh passengers list 83

EVANS margt
maegt 203 JONES david 220
mary 207 eliza igo
190
morgan 205 emma 221
rachel 204 ester 197
william 202 esther 14
EVENS
HVBNS chariot 50 even jos 196
edw 179 evens 120
mary
maty 171 henry 64
pheabe 51 hugh h58
EYNON charlotte h32 jacob 3
elizabeth h29 jane 65
james h28 jane 102
louesa h30 jane 107
martha h31 jane 188
FRANCIS ann 167 jane h59
benin 165 jno iol
lol
101
benin 170 jno loy
105
dan 168 jno 139
margret 166 jno 162
margret 169 jno 182
GILES edwd 63 jno igl
191
maria 62 jno 198
sarah 132 jno h75
ths
ohs 61 letetia h76
HUGHES margt
maegt 112 lewis 4
morgan ill
lii
lil
iii
111 margt
maegt 125
HUGHS eliza 225 marian 193
JAMES eliza 195 mary 2
jno 194 mary 15
JEREMY ester 160 mary log
106
hannah 157 mary i 122
jno 155 mary 181
margret 159 noah 13
mary
maty 161 owen h57
sarah 154 rees 138
sarah 158 rees 180
thms
ehms 153 robert h74
thms
ehms 156 robert h77
JINKINS mary 57 sarah log
109
wm 56 thomas 184
JNO thomas 231 thomas 189
JONES ann 104 williams 192
ann h35 wm 103
105
benj 187 LEIGH ann 32
ceteria 110 ann 36
charlotte 123 ann 77
dan I1 anna 82
dan 121 daniel 31
david 108 daniel 34
f
84 appendix

LEIGH henry 79 OWENS cadwallader hyo


jno 33 elenor h44
jno 81 jane h51
mary 35 margaret h45
samuel 76 owin cadwallader h48
sophia 80 richard h46
arn
wrn 78 william h43
LEWIS ann 72 wm
win h47
ann 163 PARRY ann 213
215
calvan 46 caleb 216
david loo
100 cathrine 217
eliza
eilza
ellza 42 edward 212
eilza
ellza
eliza 45 edwd 214
jno 44 jno 67
lewis 48 mary 68
mary 71 PETERS david h33
sarah 47 lowry h34
thomas 43 lowry h39
arn
wrn 66 sarah h38
win 70 PHILLIP benin 151
win 73 david 147
MATHIOS ada 155
135 david 150
jonah 137
157 elizabeth 152
margret 134 mary 148
sila 136 sarah 149
thomas 133
153 PRICE daniel 25
MORGAN barbara
darbara 245 evan 23
cecilia 243 harriett 24
edward 12 jane 21
eilza
eliza 244 mary 22
jane 164 rees 20
mary 246 ruth 26
morgan 242 REES david 230
250
sarah 247 eben 54
thomas 48 jane 229
wm 10 jno 226
wm 11 mary 227
NASH eilza
eliza 53 william 228
isack 49 alike
RICHARDS allice 8
mary 75 ann 9
thomas 74 david 7
ORMOND dorothy h24 david 127
eliza
eilza h26 david hlo
hio
ellinor h27 eliza 28
jno h22 emma 30
jno h23 jno 27
letetia h25 mary ha
h9
OWENS alear
alexr 186 thomas ha
h8
aiice
allce
alice h49 thomas hll
hii
hil
buena vista hartley welsh passengers list 85

RICHARDS william 29 TREHARN jane 116


ROBERTS owin h37 mary 115
ROWLAND ann 177 sage 118
benjaman 19 sarah 117
david 178 wm
WRI 113
115
job 16 wm ilg
119
mary 17 WILLIAMS ann 218
mary
maty 175 edwd 58
rachal 174 eleanor hgo
rachal 176 eliza 38
thomas 18 jinkins 185
wm 173 jno 234
254
STEPHENS rees 249 john ha
h1
THOMAS ann 141 john ha
h5
ann 144 john hughes ha
h3
benj
beni 96 margaret ha
h6
benin
denin 140 mary 60
daniel 98 mary 235
255
daniel 142 mary 236
ebenr
abenr 69 mary ann ha
h2
elisa 146 mary ann ha
h4
letitia
leditia 97 naomis ha
h7
margt
maegt 219 rice 37
morgan 41 samuel 39
rees 99 sofiah
safiah 59
samuel 145 wm 55
sarah 143 wm 124
TREHARN ann 114 wm 126

listed david giles appendix B


bluffs
wao
wae left gao
gae
9 29 1 8
8 x
missouri
those

7
council

9 wheelwright
explained
6 x x x X
letter
5 x
whitesmith
stonecutter

tinsman
widow

4
tailor

E column
ngo
mgo

3
northwestern

1849
louis
boa y 31 32 33 34 35 36
c y ia
fol
mol
i2 appendix
these
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1 x
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see
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numbers

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known instead
keyed ann
mac
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left
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NAMES

6 7 8 nailer
peddler
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except
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appendix
vista
D G
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list
bloo
CS 20 21 22
19i
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g ti 3 9 24 36

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appendix
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passenger

7
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mason
milliner
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george
list
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above
3
1949 october

luhs
amo

irl
appendix same

1 2
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oce
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june
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nam nad gme
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indicates

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818 1849

7 8 9 10 11 12
1 sketch
sketch march
june
anae
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mgo

given
davis

columns betweenjune list


plains
ditto jones sjones
biographical biographical
between between
list
hegl
hegg jones bjones

maryjones jacobjones lewisjones

in occupation

amm
blacksmith
carpenter
danjones
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elizabeth

3 deceased
caa
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NAMES
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smshfqaqsfqsqrtart
benjn rachal rachal
Mary benan mary david mary david
Mary
Ester ann
maa
man jane ben
zoa
moa raa
ann
man cna
ama
dan klc
bla ann
maa
kaa men
mew
edw mou
meu
Ree
c2
ca
Jn
m
NAMES

G 0o u
o o
1
00 CT
M N
o o o o o 0 rt si r d 1
00 G 0oo00 1
I
N
z lgb
159
i 0160 0161 162
0 lep vo
163
lma 164 165 zeq 0leg 168
166 167
0mem 0 169 170
r 0 0
r
zil
zal
171 r
172 rzim
zam
173 r
174 r
175 r
mre
mrm
176 177
i 178r- r179
zib
zab 180 oo
00
amz
181 oo
00
182
amb
W
N
16 32 vo
16 5 4ta 5 t1 1
0
16
t4
ta
1t
x
evans

x x x
omeo
name
oneo

X X x x x x x x x x
east
basw

zno
zao

x x x x 172
zar

T
lar
X X x x x x x x x
X x x remos

jerremos

jer
aoa
gol

6o crtcri3
0 cei
35
1 43 0q 43fiy 40 18oo0011III 37
m 40 r ro
M l 53
ml 0 I
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00 oo
28 00
18
1 15
1
r
147l 47
11 ll
r
17 15 13
I
ri 11
il
I l 1 1 l 1 7
r oo
00
18
rl
rl

listed

llllllll si11 &a io


aa
153

10 edwards edwards morgan morgan morgan

ex 11111111
llllllljlijl
morgan
jno
aco
ano davis williams williams morgan

iiiiipiaswmwssuafqacrt
ilii
edwards edwards morgan stephens
morgan
rees

alii
williams ludgel
cudgel
edwards
davis
rees
ngos
thomasjno
thomasino

jane
anad
david ag
9gts
Thomas

baa
bam
rachal

jno
anc
lac
Q
pi mary mary 3 edward
&
t3at3 N
eliza
edward

jao
jno
ano
0 mary
morgan
0
cecilia
N
eliza
c3js 9 0
barbara
E mary
CT
sarah
thomas

rees
Q 1
listed

oo
00
rsi
229
arsi
N
230
N
m tn
ram
231
bam
N
m ki
Ki
i
mam raw
rri
rpm
232 ari
233 rma
rci
234
aci
N
i
raj
uri
235
0o r
cri 237
236
N
fei
cei
odcs
cdcs
m 239
fri 838
238
bam nii
N
N N N N N
g 241
bae
240 ty
raz
mal
N N nan1
0 i

fg
r bam
nii
N
242 243
bab
N M f
mam raa bao
244
maw rae
245 ram
N N N N
246 bal maa
odg
edg
odd
247 248 249
N N
118
wlm

litia
solitia
dolitia

r
27
N
00 15
18
1
14y 14
T GS
19 25
t
60 r
17
T
v
35
listed

97
x X X

X x x errors aue
lee
mug

x x x x x x x
samuel

following

X x x x x x x
childs
wao

x x x x X x x x listed

aneo
x x x x X x x x
made
76 annam
david

clerk

52
V CM
23
cs f30janft
fojinftioo
aioo
48 25
r N 3 41 25 N 0 O t23 tr
r 26
r 22 r r 25
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c 18
i i
C 60 24 76 32
00 69
o r r rq
N 00 OO
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aq 28
ci
00 0 0 0 8 wao
wae
ann
maa
mac

listed

gamt
listed
215

ilji&sijisl
davis

aplgi
Q

J
known 68

PQS
hog
parry

apogi
giss
davis parry rees
mogo orland
poorland
goorland
thomas
ano
ane
lee
jones jones
annem

wwisss
davis
parry giles
williams
davis parry davis davis
oubery
aubery
hughs g Po

hajjiajctf6a
evans evans
parry rees

f
rees
mogo

g& aaaaga
emmajones

i
davidjones

amaqossqusqasss
daniel wm

1I a& g rt
sources

ga g & J &
6 adma 3
fca
otga sa
rtga
sagaft & aca
cathrine
griffith
fl
saft
edward william

mary evan margt


maegt annae
david
raa
G
ann
maa GB edwd
B
david caleb
G
ann
bat
mat
margt David
maegt meem
mema
Emma
hugh
adua
0 sarah
ia 0 mary eliza
weana
jno
wco
ca
c3
mary

listed
listed

r cna
oo
00
0N 0N 0N N
bel
207
807 208
808 beg ble
209 bae
210
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bla
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211
1
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212
mab
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213
1 214
bmw
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215l 216
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217
oo
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CT
219
i
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N N
221
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ti
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222
ro r
N 284
223
883
683 N
224 rN
865 N
225 286
226
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N
887
867
227
oo
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228 &31
173

N N N N N N N N N M N N N N M N NI
0
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60 61
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66
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67
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68 69 70
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r- 0 rt r i
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32
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column

3u

iiii x X x
K x X x x x X x X

nu
e
number

x
u
whe

cg
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exception

12
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TII
T
9go6
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nis
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inf
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55
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0
x x

o
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wales
C 0 g 0 ta
t3 g
ormond eynon

saaiiiiiyilii 0 o
davis
N
bowen 0 ormond ormond
eynon
Eynon
davis davis ormond eynon

lilillipiiili
bowen

1list
bowen esaeynon
ormond ormond

qaaxas
esa
omm
oom

uC 0
elizabeth

c ulca hannah morgan


dorothy
letetia ellinor
martha

ffiss
eema
mema
emma rachel
wace james
mary anne eliza
vista
faiss ano jao
jno
jao jno
ano lo
10

itt
i
d
T t
3
.3
list
meol
0o r-
16 17 oo
i l 19
rrll 18
rr cri
M 23 oso
ono
nti t 0o r- oo os
r N 24N 25N 26
rrl 2N0 21N 22 il N 29
N 27 28 N 30
m 31
cd
i i

r 0
u buena
makun 1 l

C tyo
byo mal
ami M
U
appendix
Q rr oo
00 c 0rn1 m
N na f 55r 26 57
54 r 58
00 59
Os
f
passenger

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 52 53
ooi
p i
T
passengers
oj
w
Q
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lmo

gow g 0
w C

na
n1
1
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16
M l

16
f
16 16
i 32
m vt r 4

aj
1j
used hartley
x

f1
hartley

iks
ims
gmal

rt r
identical
whe

observed
x x

X
x
X

x
21
x x
x X

X
1 x X

y
list order

0
i eci
N 23
21 N 0 1 l 1 tjo
tto
m 24N 33i 34 lal
30 inf
zal lj0
crim36
ecim 35 10 0ii 60 45 460f 18 0
00 16
r iiii

li
walo

1
VI

1
W

1
i
ii
g

iii
williams williams

oor
ool numerical

23 ra
r3 23 tat3 ra
r3

11 933
williams

williams richards richards

g33 1
g3q
j2rajqqq llj
richards davis

used williams
c M
hughes
williams richards

davis davis
davis
ann rca
ann
mca

lls
oag
omo

ga
format

0 HI
represents
alj
dif
dlf
john alls
assjssqswm mary joma
john
aoma
williams

mary aoma
john
margaret
naomis thomas

mary david
thomas morgan

eliza
melna eliza anne
mace
maco

m
li dl
l i
ps
ame
amo
1 2 f3rif C
9 100
4 5 6O 7 008 OS
i
0

OO
11 r12 13
r 14 15 x
0
120
160
N 121 N
122
eci
N 124
123 N
y M r
amr na 167
n1
132 leg
0 184
oo oo
00 185
0 00
oo
00 186 f
oo 188
00 187 00 189
1

00 190
G 191
G
1
00 CT
0 T t M na
n1
192
CT c cr
r
193 194 rag
tat1
N
2171 224
abw r
1

N
225 agg
N
226
1

N
887
227 own

M rl rs rs N
vo 0
16 16 97 09 9 7 br
d
apa
mpa
avi
Q
D
x x x x x x x x x
x x x 73

ns

X x x x 0
el
X x x x x x x x x x x x mcg
ani
ncm

x x x nath
zath

5 2fl 300 oo
00 G 27 oo
si 19
28 i
00 oo
00 1
1
c t l 15 12Nl
1

sl 19 17
N 28 48t 43t 21 r
rl tl 1
0 lto
9 7 4 alto
G 26
inf 0
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t- 1 i uto
ubo
mal
mam
VO
oo
00
28 1 l OO
N 22
r
00 8 52

rowan

davis

lix1sxplisittt
williams
davis davis mary
davis
davis
ammas
davis
davis
ammes
davis

ttjjjgltlth
eames davis moruz
bowen
Jones Jones Jones
jones jones

j
eames evans davis
amplo
davis
eJones robertjones letetiajones robertjones 19
gg
owenjones hughjones

janejones
janelones maryjane

i-
margaret edmund
thomas thomas stephen oJones
jnojones
eleanor george

03
phoebe sophia annem

cq
elenor Robert Letetia Robert

.03
Owen Hugh david
john

auls m 0 wops
Jan
slsw 03
muls elsw ca
chas eliza
jane
aq Jn richard

55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77
sted

1n y 85 99 oo c 0 li
00 0
t1 w
r0 77
76 r ta N 83
G 80 81 OS 00 na
n1 1
0 r 00 G
1

i r 79
78 00 00 84
r 00 00 82
oo 00 00 0 zem
leq log
108 lob 110 ill 112 azg
ala
113 lma
114 zaj
115 ame
116
amm 117 118 119 00
18

9
OS rl
33
m 9
G 9G 9G rs
erro

ti
ing
zam
mcmt0
ta

x zow
low
zok

x x x x x X X x x x x x
1fol
foh

wao
wae

x X x x x x x x x ade

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x k
x x x x x x x ozog
cler

wao
wae

18 38 33 23 12 21 8 36 32 21 50 49 19 16 13 12 6 24 6 60 44 13

i known

tiislllilllll
owens

fi
eynon davis
5
owens 0 e
eames eames

sgape
cadwallader
owens
clark owens

yslsiyuocpra
agape
clark owens
peters peters
edwards roberts
peters owens

ls alxl
peters owens eames
owens owens
sources

Jones
g

thi
dqlajldalalcs rhi tl sl
cadwallader

1
charlotte

david rhes
lowry
annjones

rca
raa
Ann
peter owin sarah lowry
william
1
francis
catherine
william
elenor
margaret
richard

brn
owin alice
nathaniel

sarah
nathaniel

jane
amno

rn 34 35
N 33
32 v
m rt i m 36
od C
c i 37i 38
aq
fq
ri
39i 40 41 0
ir 46d 47
ro 44 45
r I 42NI 43 r 48
06 0 CT
49
ty 50 51 ri
r52
0 i c
53 54 f
ci ti i i i i
94

david D bowen morgan david bowen


173
175
11173 h20

dark
william clark daniel daniels
1440 bv128
95

thomas daniels ann david


bv130 h15

elizabeth david emma david


h14 h17
96

hannah david morgan david


hig
h16 h12

rachel david george davis


hgr
h68
97

thomas davis jr thomas davis sr


h65 h62

mary evans phoebe evans


bv171 bv5
bv511
bvm
98

margaret francis sarah giles


bv166 bv132

morgan hughes sarah jeremy


bv111 bv154
99

thomas jeremy dan jones


bv153 bv1
bvm

mary jones william lewis


bv15 bv66
loo
100

thomas mathias edward morgan


bv133 bv12

william morgan isaac nash


bv10 bv49
loi
lol
101

owen owens caleb parry


1448 bv216

catherine parry john parry


bv217 bv67
102

david peters lowry laura peters


I1

h33 h34

sarah peters john davis rees


h38 bv226
103
105

mary rees owen roberts


bv227 137
157
11137

benjamin rowland job rowland


bv19 bv16
104

eliza thomas rees thomas


bv146 bv99

samuel thomas charne


jane Tr
treharne
bv145 bv116
bv1
bvm 16
105

mary treharne sage treharne


bv115 bv1
bv118
bvm 18

sarah treharne william treharne


bv117
BV 117 BV ilg
bv119
119
appendix D
biographical sketches

bowen david D h73 Ll anelli cook board


hartley wife child died st louis married
phoebe evans bv51 left sizeable journal contains
many interesting details crossing life st louis
trek across plains died 1904 nephi utah
clark william h40 cardiganshire
Cardigan shire widowed while
mississippi river married eliza thomas bv146
14 september 1849 while plains died 1890 malad
idaho eliza died nine years later malad
damew128
daniels danler
daniel
danlea BV 12 8 Car marthen crossed plains
wife mary two sons 1849 returned wales
dan jones
vanjones
danjones thomasjeremy
thomas jeremy 1852 serve mission
succeeded danjones
vanjones
dan jones mission president 1856 became editor
udgom yelon
udgorn selon two years died 1893 malad idaho
david morgan h12 Ll anelli left wales wife six
daughters soninlaw
son law david D bowen h73 morgans wife
eliza married daughter mary died st louis
eighteen years baptist before converting mormonism died
1888 spanish fork utah daughter elizabeth married
william thomas died 1890 ann married william warner
died 1900 hannah married morgan hughes BV ill
ili
bv111
111
11
died 1925 emma married alfred rees died 1915 rachel
married george chambers died 1920
davis danier
danler
daniel
daniebv89
bv89 Carmarthen died 9 may 1849
carmarthen
missouri leaving wife sarah responsibility son
four daughters traveling davisel
davises married
daughter letitia husband benjamin thomas
year old son daniel letitia gave birth baby girl hannah maria
baby survive born during crossing
13 may 1849 just before buena vista emigrants arrived
council bluffs sarah davis died 1864 box elder county utah
biographical sketches 107

davis eliza bv40 traveling maid someone else


buena vista group apparently things
liking arriving council bluffs just seven days later
thomas jeremy made entry journal betsy davis went
back 24 may 1849

davis hugh bv222


BV 222 liverpool schoolmaster
group wife sarah first person original
326 die mary aubery davis
oubery daughter appears 1850
federal census utah james switzler consequently
among first cormons
welsh mormons cross cultural
marriage
davis margaret bv209 young mother three year
old david baby griffith died 2 may 1849 missouri
river just day st louis griffith died six days later
david isaac eliza nash crossed plains
few weeks being orphaned appears 1850
census dan jones family manti
davis sarah bv223 died buena vista just eight days
departing liverpool first person original 326 people
die health according dan jones very poor even
embarked husband hugh BV bv222
222 daughter
mary BV
bv224
224 jones preached funeral sermon described
occasion considerable detail account crossing
davis sarah thomas bv90 carmarthenshire left two married
children wales husband daniel died 9 may 1849
missouri river left four daughters son sarah
died 1864 perry utah
davis thomas h62 montgomeryshire
Montgomery shire became dis enchanted
mormonism difficulties encountered reaching
council bluffs death wife four year old son
stephen thomas eight nine remaining children settled
northwestern missouri instead continuing nineteen
year old son thomas elected remain main body
went grave faithful mormon thomas sr died 1891
kansas thomas jr died 1903 idaho
108 appendix D

daw william BV
dam
datis
davis 232 rhymni
bv232 family first
william henshaw many converts south wales
baptized 19 february 1843 william wife rachel settled
Kanar raville utah
kanarraville died 1865 rachel died 1882
kanarraville
Kanar raville
eames
fames nathaniel h52 ffestiniog traveling
second wife sarah two children them
nathaniel eamess
eimess thirteen year old son first wife
children left behind wales rejoin them later utah
baby jane hartley eames born nathaniel sarah while
board hartley entire family except nathaniel jr
died within week each before reaching council bluffs
young nathaniel crossed plains 1849 david peters
family appears 1850 census older brother david
time reached valley
eames sarah h53 second wife nathaniel eames
h52 mother two children during crossing
hartley sarah gave birth another child given
name jane hartley eames family sarahs stepson
nathaniel escaped death missouri river
edwards peter h36 ffestiniog nephew david peters
accompanied peters family way utah 1849
evans mary BV
bv171
7 1 journeyed
171 liverpool council bluffs
servant amin francis BV
benjamin
benj
beniamin bv165
16 5 family four
six members francis family succumbed cholera along
missouri mary services longer needed traveled
benjamin thomas bv96 family council bluffs salt
lake city married rees thomas bv99 utah trek
across plains died 1907 thomas 1893 both avon
montana
evans phoebe bvm bv51 merthyr tydfil
bv51 servant girl
elizabeth lewis council bluffs phoebe left sister lewis
what felt unjust demands made went live
sister margaret hughes result clothes con-
fiscated
fisca ted auctioned off 1850 married david D bowen
h73 left widower cholera epidemic
biographical sketches 109

eynon james h28 pembrokeshire


Pembroke shire wife elizabeth
parents seven daughters earliest
converts pembrokeshire
Pembroke shire south wales elizabeth died cholera
missouri river louisa three daughters
accompanied parents hartley became polygamous
second wife israel dark
oark
clark utah manifesto denounc-
ing polygamy appeared 1890 louisa went live son
hyrum
francis benjamin BV bv165
165 llanybydder 30 april 1849
died cholera second victim among buena vista
emigrants eight days later widow margaret
daughter left cholera taken away daughter
two sons surviving daughter annantl married thomas howells
anti
four years later eventually thirteen children margaret died
salt lake city 1886

francis margaret evans bv166


BV 166 cardiganshire
Cardigan shire while
missouri river lost husband daughter two sons
victims cholera margarets child survive daughter
ann married thomas howells four years later thirteen
children margaret survived even daughter margaret died
salt lake city 1886 twelve years anns passing 1874
Monmouth
giles thomas bv61 monmouthshire shire lay baptist
minister before joining mormon church 1845 several months
before thomas maria left wales son thomas
left blind accident coal mine later pulled hand-
cart across plains gained fame utah blind
harpist thomas sr died 1850 council bluffs maria died
1866 ogden utah daughter sarah married lorin farr
185
18511 second wife six bore him nine children
sarah died 1892 ogden
henshaw
haw william cornwall although
hens kaw
heno welshman nor
passenger buena vista hartley instru-
mental conversion many first welsh mormon
emigrants first mormon missionary proselyte
merthyr tydfil where experienced considerable success during
three year period 1843 1846 dan jones
time danjones
vanjones
110 appendix D

took henshaw
Henshaws place december 1845 five hundred converts
brought LDS faith under henshaw leadership
1851 henshaw sailed america olympus wife
four children died st louis 1870

hughes margaret evans bvm BV


bv1
bv112
112
12 wife morgan
hughes BV bv111
111 sister phoebe bv51 later married
david D bowen h73 passenger buena vista
reaching utah 1852 margaret divorced husband
later married bishop william pace
hughes morgan bvm BV
bv1ili
iii
bv111
111
11 marthen
carmarthen
Car remained council
bluffs wife margaret order save money continue
way utah morgan margaret divorced
reaching utah morgan later married hannah david hig h16
bore him thirteen children morgan died 1890 spanish fork
hannah lived almost ninety
jeremy sarah evans bv154 54
BV 154 carmarthenshire left wales
husband thomas two sons five daughters missouri
river three daughters died cholera two day period
sarah gave birth three daughters son reaching
utah two occasions left full responsibility
rearing family while husband returned wales
missionary died 1878
jeremy thomas bv153 BV 153 llanybydder baptized
Car marthen 3 march 1846 earliest converts
area became dan joness intimate friends
wife sarah lost three little girls cholera two nights
while missouri river thomas returned wales two
occasions do missionary work died salt lake city
1891 sarah died 1878 among many descendants
marvin jeremy ashton member council twelve
apostles church jesus christ latter day saints
wendell jeremy ashton former publisher deseret news
john thomas bvm
BV
bv2
bv231
231
31 according dan jones letter march
1851 td24 8 few welsh succumbed
4
yellow fever spent time mining gold california
biographical sketches lil
lii
ill
111

1854 back wales where wrote very apologetic


letter dan jones maligning him letter appeared
udgom sebon
udgorn selon 29 july 1854 45
29july 4511 didjoness
did joness letter forgiveness
29 july 1854 451 52
jones benjamin BV 187 di
bv187 whole family except
wife became blemished unfaithfulness went away along
road destruction gallop today dan jones letter
30 april 1849 tda
td9 123 benjamins son william
daughter law marian excommunicated two days before
buena vista reached new orleans evidence
benjamins wife jane stayed main body saints
although dan joness comment appears
opposed rest family apostasy
jones dan avi bvi flintshire
bvl Flint shire mariner steamboat
captain many years before joining church 1843 curious
inaccurate word saints entered occupation
column buena vista passenger list nine nineteen
years between conversion mormonism death provo
utah 1862 missionary among compatriots dans
wife jane daughter claudia traveled emblem left
liverpool two weeks buena vista however caught
him council bluffs dan married elizabeth lewis bv42
shortly arrived utah returning
second mission wales 18 57
1857 married mary matilda latrielle
jane died provo 1861 dan survived six young children
two each wife died chronic lung illness
age fifty daughter claudia married hyrurnjames
hyrum james dennis
1866 died 1903 provo

jones davibv220
davidbv220 wife emma did continue
emigrants past st louis appears dan joness letter
30 april 1849 tda
td9 123 left benjaminjones
benjamin
beniamin jones
family david giles bv215
BV 215

jones evan BV bv120


120
20 age ninety two oldest
emigrants ministers liverpool tried dissuade him
crossing sea predicted survive voyage
I1 am determined through power god prove them
112 appendix D

false prophets dan jones danjones


reply according danjones
vanjones vanjones
dan jones
said him lost hair except few strands white
snow now abundant new crop just like
hair child feels younger younger
letter 18 april 1849 15 td7 tda evan jones did complete
crossing atlantic ascension mississippi
missouri however died just four days reaching
council bluffs
melling denbighshire
jones jane meiling
moiling Denbigh shire although wife
captain danjones
vanjones
dan jones did sail him buena vista
appears plan remain wales until
husbands return completing task leading group
emigrants salt lake city reason behind arrangement
birth daughter claudia 8 february 1849 less
week time group meet swansea
en route liverpool those days new mothers expected
remain confined apparently jane did
several weeks apparentlyjane agree
procedure nor plan wait wales
return husband 12 march 1849 just two weeks
following departure buena vista baby
daughter sailed board emblem liverpool caught
dan jones council bluffs crossed plains
him george smith company dan jane ten
children two whom grew maturity jane died age
forty two provo 1861
jones noah bv13 merthyr tydfil penned lament
emigrant quoted text death wife esther
board highland mary cared twelve year old
daughter mary st louis until death 1851 brights
disease according wish friends took mary across
plains them married james dunster 1854 bore
him ten children died salt lake city 1886
jones owen h57 ffestiniog lost sight eye
child working slate quarry
wales even though totally blind jones worked
twenty five years
twentyfive mail carrier brigham city utah having
memorized layout city died 1894
biographical sketches 113

jones thomas bv184


BV 184 member family
accept mormonism just twenty years old still home
parents having heard scurrilous stories cormons
mormons
Mor mons
forbade him attend further meetings according
descendants thomas climbed bedroom window
ran away utah york jones 6 thomas married sage treharne
yorkjones
bv1
bv118
bvm 18 1852 left widow ten years later six small
children sage married samuel leigh bv76 1868 died
1897

leigh danier
danler
daniel
danielbv31
bv3 1 Ll anelli
bvm brother samuel leigh
bv76 daniels son daniel died cholera missouri
daniel sr crossed plains 1849 family settled
malad where died 1866 daughter mary married
nephi campbell died 1932

leigh samuel bv76 brother


Ll anelli daniel leigh
bv31 lost wife
bv31
bvm baby cholera missouri river
baby just week old having born board
constitution two days before group arrived st louis
28 april 1849 year later samuel married mary treharne
bv1
bv115
bvm 15 council bluffs 1868 married sage tr eharnejones
treharne jones
BV
bv1
bv118
bvm 118
18 time widow six small children
1876 returned wales missionary died cedar
city 1894 mary died 1881 sage died 1897

lewis elizabeth bv42 Ki dwelly married david lewis


left wales six children 1849 part davids
sizeable inheritance sold broth james
brotherjames
brother erjames just few weeks
before departure buena vista david remained
wales tidy unfinished business much money
used assist number emigrants get council
bluffs eventually utah elizabeth crossed plains
spring wagon married captain dan jones two weeks
4 4

arriving marriage brigham youngs approval done


without knowledge elizabeths husband still
wales lived manti several years eventually settled
salt lake city where died 1895
114 appendix D

lewis william bv66 fishguard


Fish guard widower
emigrated having left behind seventeen year old daughter
eleven year old son later sent money children join
him utah william wrote poetry under pen name gwilym
ddu
addu won prizes verses wales even
while crossing tda
td2
plains wrote poem see td211 shortly
arriving salt lake city married charity arms whom
two children william died 1875 salt lake city
mathias thomas bv133
BV 133 carmarthenshire wife
margaret stayed council bluffs two three children
thirteen year old daughter ada bv135
BV 135 went daniel
daniels family utah 1849 possibly help widowed mother
two small children daniels family ada died
childbirth 1861 sister zillah BV
bv136
136 1857 became
john D rees bv226
plural wife tojohn
cojohn bore him nine children
died 1923 age 84 thomas mathias died brigham city
1887 margaret died 1871 brigham city
morgan jane BV bv164
164 cardiff traveling maid
thomasjeremy dan jones wrote
thomas jeremy family danjones
vanjones during cross-
ing jane morgans cardiff suffered painful sores
legs off nine years considered com-
pletely incurable doctors worsening become
discouraged church ordinances faith
weakened 18 april 1849 15 td7 tda jane did continue
utah thejeremys apparently crossed 1852
william morgan company married john D rees bv226
few weeks arriving salt lake city died following
year cancer
morgan morgan bv242
BV242 merthyr tydfil stayed family
council bluffs eleven year old sarah died missouri
family eventually settled malad where morgan died 1878
wife cecilia died 1887 mt pleasant utah
morgan william bv10 glamorganshire
Glamorgan shire widower before
emigration selected preside welsh branch
church council bluffs led welsh fifty
wagons crossed plains 1852 letters
biographical sketches 115

wrote council bluffs appendix Eson william


died missouri son edward accompanied him
utah 1853 married martha williams howells widow
william howells first missionary france morgan died
1889 willard utah
nash isaac bv49 Ki dwelly exchange financial assistance
journeying utah assisted elizabeth lewis prior emigra-
tion convincing husband sign papers sale
property Ki dwelly south wales isaac recorded
kidwelly journal
numerous details concerning sea land travels
buena vista group grandmother brother died cholera
missouri wife eliza came close dying saved
own life drinking water while others asleep isaac
eliza divorced reaching utah isaac married two
wives spent three months prison 1885 polygamy
died 1907 franklin idaho
Ormon
ormond jojn
ormondjohn
john h22 pembrokeshire
dJohn Pembroke shire joined church 1845
first do pembrokeshire
Pembroke shire wife elizabeth did
share enthusiasm mormonism refused accompany
him wished emigrate three unmarried children
stayed mother wales five went father
rowjohn
how john convinced
america howjohn wife part little three
year old ellinor four clear elizabeth declared
herself widow four years later remarried john eventually
married three wives died 1883 kanosh utah
children sailed him hartley ellinor
letitia both died cholera 8 may 1849 dorothy died 1851
council bluffs john married jane jones 18 1852
52 died 1913
logan elizabeth married george tall 1856 died 1932
owens william h43 ffestiniog left liverpool eight
members family three survived reach council bluffs
parents four children died between 5 may
18 may mississippi missouri rivers cadwallader married
elizabcth jones 1851
ellzabeth
elizabeth
elizabethjones died 1898 iona lona idaho margaret
married robert wardrop 1851 died 1913 william married
jane parson 1857 died 1913 willard utah
116 appendix D

anu
ann
amu jones BV
parry annjones 213 flintshire
bv213 Flintshire first stages
pregnancy while crossing buena vista faced dual
challenge seasickness morning sickness husband
edward died missouri river ann left widow
five year old son five months later during crossing george
smith company salt lake city thirty miles
east fort bridger ann gave birth son robert dan 1851
ann became plural wife david peters h33 bore him
five children died age forty brigham city utah 1863

pany
purry caleb bv216
parry BV216 newmarket catherine vaughn evans
bv217 married 26 february 1849 same day
buena vista set sail calebs parents board eight years
reaching utah caleb became polygamist 1870
called serve mission great britain died year later
birmingham victim small pox catherine died 1893
marriott utah
parry
parey edwarf
edward wiil
pany edwardbv212 newmarket distant relative caleb
widow ann bore him posthumous
died missouri
child five months later way salt lake city later
married david peters h33 died brigham city utah
1863

pany john bv67 newmarket


parry preacher baptists
even own church john parrys association fashioned
alexander campbells views before converting mormonism
1846 parrys likelihood distinguished
welsh join church time caused great
excitement among welsh cormons
mormons count parrys
brothers gospel johns wife mary died cholera same
day highland mary landed council bluffs john
accompanied son caleb daughter law catherine utah
1849 john asked brigham young form choir
singing compatriots nucleus choir evolved what
known today mormon tabernacle choir 1854 john
married harriet parry bore him five children
born john seventy three john parry died 1868
salt lake city
biographical sketches 117

peters david h33 ffestiniog owned woolen mill


ffestiniog north wales before
ffestinlog joined cormons
mormons
Mor mons
forty members ffestiniog branch twenty seven emigrated
1849 three board hartley eleven died cholera
mostly members william owens
williamowens nathaniel eames
families david sold factory order emigrate money
paid him family plus five others married
ann jones parry bv213 1851 plural wife died 1898
brigham city wife lowry laura died following year
same place

phillips david bv147


BV 147 wife mary lost three little
children three days cholera missouri crossed
plains utah 1849 daughter sarah
price rees bv20 dowlais
Dow lais scribe trustee
rev W R daviess baptist congregation dowlais before
conversion mormonism year prior emigrating
davies then claimed price even literate much less
scribe material september 1848 prqphwydyjubi1i
prophwydyjubilkvbv 131 33y
price published long letter explained reasons
leaving baptists joining much maligned cormons
mormons
Mor mons
prices wife jane five children died
missouri

rees john D bv226


2 6 merthyr tydfil
BV 226 wife mary
stillborn child changing steamers constitution
highland mary
hary john returned wales
kary missionary
1868 eventually four wives mary morgan accompanied
him buena vista jane morgan BV bv164
164 whom married
salt lake city 1852 zillah mathias BV 136 whom
bv136
married 1857 cecelia howe whom married 1869
father twenty seven children died 1880 malad
idaho mary died 1907 brigham city utah jane died
1853 zillah died 1923 cecelia 1932

roberts owen h37 ffestiniog closely associated


david peters family accompanied them 1849 crossing
plains married sarah treharne bv117
BV 117
118 appendix D

rowland job bv16 Monmouth


BV 16 monmouthshire
shire baptist
thirteen years before becoming mormon prompted inves-
tigate mormonism seriously hearing minister rev W R
dowlais
davies ofdowlais
Dow lais comment wished kill dan jones
same way others killed joseph smith job married mary parry
1854 mother bv17 died council bluffs 1851
brother thomas bv18 married isabell nelson eleven children
died 1886 logan utah brother benjamin married
elizabeth williams eleven children died 1910
salt lake city job five children died 1879 logan
rowland william bv173 hirwaun
BV 173 Hirwaun widowed five months
before emigrating married nineteen year old rachel evans
bv174
BV 174 cifes niece just two months before leaving
first wifes
buena vista rowlands misfortune being
board steamer saluda april 1852 engines exploded
quite number cormons mormons killed including william two
children rachel david first wife two born
him rachel america william sarah rachel
although left permanently crippled later married james E harris
gave birth eight children died 1918 cedar
city stepdaughter mary badly burned accident
thomasjames
married thomas james 1857 isaac riddle 1861 died
1920 stepdaughter anne later adopted couple
way california
ann jones BV
thomas annjones bv14
bv141
1411 carmarthenshire lost husband
benjamin BV bv140
140 while missouri river five year
old son daniel while council bluffs two remaining
children crossed plains george smith company
1849 upon reaching salt lake valley ann married
husbands brother samuel thomas bv145 bore him four
children died 1869 age fifty salt lake city
thomas benjamin bv96 carmarthenshire wife
letitia parents buena vista child born
missouri river survive hannah maria thomas born
letitias
13 may 1849 Leti tias father daniel davis bv&9 died four
days before benjamin died 1887 malad idaho letitia 1858
biographical sketches 119

thomas benjamin BV bv140


140 carmarthenshire died cholera
missouri brother samuel bv145 assumed respon-
sibility benjamins family later married widow ann

thomas elizajane
eliza jane BV
bv146 Glamorgan
146 glamorganshire
shire twenty
single left wales board buena vista
council bluffs became acquainted william dark
oark
clark h40
crossed hartley whose wife frances died
while mississippi river may 1849 eliza william
married 14 september 1849 during trek salt lake city
george smith company eventually nine children
william died 1890 malad idaho eliza died 1899
malad

thomas hannah maria daughter benjamin bv96


letitia thomas bv97 born 13 may 1849
buena vista child born missouri river survive
married william D williams 1870 settled malad idaho
where reared nine children hannah maria died 1900

thomas letitia davis bv97 carmarthenshire


six months pregnant left wales husband
benjamin thomas year old son daniel traveled
company letitias
Leti tias parents brother four sisters
letitias
Leti tias father daniel davis bv89 died 9 may 1849 just four
days later while missouri river letitia gave birth
daughter hannah maria letitia died 18 1858
58 family traveled
down help settle st george southern utah buried
side road

thomas rees bv99 married mary evans bv171


trek across plains thomas died 1893 wife died 1907
both avon montana
thomas samuelbv145
samuel BV
bv145
145 carmarthenshire traveling
brother benjamins family bv140
BV 140 several months
brothers death samuel married benjamins widow ann
samuel died salt lake city 1893 ann died 1869
salt lake
120 appendix D

treharne jane bvm


BV
bv1ilg
bv11616 carmarthenshire met edward ashton
116
while crossing plains 1852 family tradition
meeting took place while each holding corner canvas
protection woman rain storn ashton 89
labor during rainstorn
rainstorm
jane edward married year half later
6 february 1854 eventually seven children elder marvin
J ashton member council twelve postles
wendell J ashton former publisher deseret news
among descendants jane died 1897 edward died
1904
treharne
Tre uary
hame mary carmarthenshire married
bv115
alary BV 115 widowed
samuel leigh bv76 council bluffs 1850 became
mother four stepchildren crossed plains 1852
settled cedar city utah mary died 1881 samuel died
1894
treharne sage BV US
18 carmarthenshire met thomas jones
bv184 while living council bluffs agreed
marry soon reached salt lake city thomas crossed
plains year before sage sage reached salt lake
valley october 1852 married planned t

settled cedar city where six children sage


widowed 1862 death thomas six years later
became plural wife samuel leigh husband sister mary
samuel died 1894 sage died 1897 age sixty five

tte aarne
janne
barne sarah bv117
treharne
trebarne
trehame
Tre hame
kame BV 117 carmarthenshire married owen
1437 information
roberts 1457 lacking further details
lives sarah died 1898

BV
treharne william bvm
bv1
bv11313 carmarthenshire left wales
113
wife four daughters son oldest son john
bring wife two children across following year williams
wife ann died cholera missouri following year
john treharne wife two children died cholera before
reached council bluffs william died shortly thereafter
council bluffs daughters young son william left
find way get utah william jr married ann hughes
1864 died 1907
biographical sketches 121

edward WS
williams edwardbv58
evward whose way across salt
lake valley paid elizabeth lewis apparently money
intended loan 23 april 1850 edward required
23917
pay 23917
25917
239.17 dan jones assistance helping him
wales stout 367 danjones dan jones
vanjones elizabeth lewis married
time thus money go jones williams
cast vote against dan joness proposal create
separate welsh kingdom side jordan river
letter dated 20 march 1853 written san bernardino
udgorn selon 9 july 1853 31 34 williams testified
udgom
parents wales dan jones man god
williams eliza bv38 traveled two sons rice bv37
samuel bv39 died board buena vista just six
days before immigrants reached new orleans
faithful methodist fifty five years before receiving baptism
LDS faith gave thanks deathbed
dying mormon
williams rice bv37 brother samuel bv39 although
both forties accompanied mother eliza
bv38 eliza died board buena vista rice samuel
journeyed salt lake city 1849 rice married before
1850 census
appendix E
translated documents

contents

TD page
1 dan
vanjones
danjones
jones henffych california hail california 125
prophwyd y jubili
jubeli prophet jubilee october
1848 p 158
2 dan jones cynghorion i ymfudwyr i california 127
counsels emigrants california prophwydy
ubili november 1848 pp
abili ap 165 69
3 J D bohnjohn
uohn davis ffarwel y saint saints 135
prophwydy jubili
farewell prqphwydyjubi1i
jubeli december 1848 p 186
4 gwahoddiad i Gali
california
fornia invitation california 136
seren gomer star gomer baptist periodical
december 1848 appp 373 74 signed drywbach
dryw
draw bach
small seer
5 thomas jeremy twenty four others cyfarchiad 139
olaf y saint ymfudol i california greeting
emigrating saints california udgorn selon zions
trumpet march 1849 pp ap 55 58
6 william phillips ymfudiad y saint i Gali california
fornia 143
emigration saints california udgorn selm seiw
seim
selon
march 1849 pp ap 59 61
7 dan
vanjones
danjones john davis 18 april 1849 new orleans
jones tojohn
cojohn 159
ranes
hones gall
hanes ymfudiady saint i Gali
hoves california
fornia
mornia account
saints emigration california merthyr tydfil
J davis 1849 pp ap 5 21
8 thomas jeremy john davis 18 april 1849 new 168
orleans hanes ymfudiad
mfudiady
Y gall
y saint i Galifornia merthyr
california
tydfiljJ davis 1849 pp
tydfil ap 21 24
contents 123

9 dan jones william phillips 30 april 1849 st louis


danjones
vanjones 172
udgom sewn
udgorn semn
deion june 1849 pp
seion ap 122 23
10 dan jones william phillips 13 july 1849 omaha 175
udgorn selon september 1849 ppap 179 82
11 william morgan william phillips 2 september 1849 178
pottowatamie county iowa udgom
udgorn selon november
ap 218 19
1849 pp
12 george smith ezra T benson dan jones 180
william morgan william davis 21 september
1849 camp israel cyfarwyddiadau irymfudwyr
tua dinas y llyn haen
halen directions emigrants
salt lake city merthyr tydfil J davis 1849
ap 2 6
pp
13 dan jones william phillips 12 october 1849 184
bank green river udgorn seion
deion april 1850
ap 105
pp 10

14 dan jones
danjones
vanjones william phillips 20 november 1849 salt 189
lake city try
tii ilythyr
tri
trl llythyr oddiwrth capt D jones ac
un oddiwrth lewis 0o gydweli 0 dainas
ddinas y llyn
halen three letters capt D jones
lewis Kidwelly salt lake city
merthyr tydfil J davis 1850 pp ap 1 3
15 william morgan william phillips 25 december 1849 192
council bluffs udgorn selon february 1850
ap 51 54
pp
16 elizabeth lewis tojohn
john davis 10 april 1850 salt lake
cojohn 195
city di
trl llythyr
tri
tzi bDJ
ilythyr oddiwrth capt Ddjones
jones
jones ap 6 8
ones pp
17 dan jones tojohn
danjones
vanjones john davis
cojohn april 1850 salt lake city
12 197
tii llythyr
ttl
tri
trl
tzi ilythyr oddiwrth capt D jones pp ap 5 6
18 danjones
vanjones
dan jones william phillips 12 april 1850 salt lake 198
city di
trl ilythyr
tri bDJ
llythyr oddiwrth capt Ddjones
jones
ones ap
jones pp 4 5
19 thomas jeremy john davis 14 april 1850 salt 199
lake city udgorn selon october 1850 pp
ap 281 85
124 appendix E

20 william morgan william phillips 26 may 1850 204


sewn
council bluffs udgorn semn ap 186 88
selon july 1850 pp
21 ddu william lewis englynion
gwilym addu Englyn ion verses 206
cyfarwycldiadau irymfudwyrtuadinasy
cyfanvyddiadau prymfudwyr dinas y llyn halen
tua dibas
rua
p 12
22 william morgan william phillips john davis 211
19 july 1850 ganesville
ville iowa
kanesville
Kanes cyfarwyddiadau pr
ir
ymfudwyr tua dinas y llyn halen pp ap 2 6 10
23 dan jones william phillips john davis 212
10 september 1850 salt lake city udgorn selon
scion
11 january 18
1851 ap 17 19
5 1 pp

24 dan jones william phillips march


match 1851
1851 manti 214
llythyr oddiwrth capt D jones wm vm phillips yn
sewn
cynnwys newyddion 0 semn letter capt D
jones wm phillips containing news zion
merthyr tydfil john davis 1851 8 pages total
25 elizabeth lewis john davis 1851
1851 manti udgorn 223
sewn
selon 23 august 1851 pp
semn ap 272 74
26 thomas jeremy john davis 2211 january 18 5 2 salt 225
1852
sewn
lake city udgorn semn
selon 8 may 1852 ppap 142 45
27 dan jones william phillips 1 may 1852 manti 229
private collection xerox copy possession author
fourth letter published
sewn
udgorn semn
selon 4 september 1852 pp ap 287 90
28 william morgan william phillips john davis 233
222 june 18 5 2 pottowatamie udgorn segon
1852 scion 7 august
ap 259 60
1852 pp
29 william morgan william phillips john davis 234
20 september 1852 bear river 80 miles salt lake
city udgorn selon
scion 8 january 1853 pp ap 32 33
30 william morgan william phillips john davis 236
2 55 june 18 5 3 salt lake city udgorn sewn
1853
1855 semn
selon 227 august
1853 pp ap 143 47
hail california
tdl
td1
idl

pestilence harvesting countries


harvesting man like grass field
foul breeze blows
laying waste green earth
california
yonder across distant seas me

sharp shining sword


bathed blood
yes blood warm blood men
worst battles ever fought
california
yonder rocky mountains I1 shall go

seed sower descends


straight under soils field
sower waits
reap without ever reaping
california
country me eden world

crops abundant
fruits sweet
end winter edens curse
beginning lords blessed summer
california
chief paradise world

tithing brought together


great temple founded
splendidly sanctified
lord hour comes
california
thou shalt new canaan world
126 appendix E
i

t
you brethren stayed behind
hasten come us
remember shall await you
longing look
california
sing until you come

let dear sailing vessel come


let brethren come aboard
farewell thee world curse
thou breeze blow away
california
california henceforth
counsels emigrants california
td2
tda

response frequent varied questions


asked respect preparations expense
emigrating inquirers satisfied following obser-
vat ions let them ask again
vations first place respect
preparation food voyage say state govern-
ment requires every shipowner carry board ship various
provisions mentioned already our previous observations
matter issue prophwyd every-
thing proportionate respect nourishment pound
bread apportioned each emigrant age
each day voyage addition 10 pounds bacon each
voyage these supplies included price
crossing sum ship xa ac
x33 12s 6c
everyone fourteen years age further observe
above preparation perhaps may sufficient everyone
anything else emigrants may wish purchase
discretion respect provisions abundance
following list consider sufficient each addition
provisions ship each determine home
additional cost bear food
whether better those things home
bring them buy them following prices liverpool

provisions
shillings pence
10 pounds
founds hard bread 2 6
mor everyone 14 3 pence pound
aund
ound
ri ce 3 pence poun
pounds 0 f rice
2 poun pound 0 6
4 pounds sugar 12 pence
3 vi pound 1 2
vi pound
14 tea 2 shillings pound 0 6
2 pounds coffee 6 pence pound 1 0
4 pounds treacle 2 v2 12 pence pound 0 10
4 pounds raisins currants 1 6
4 122 pence pound
3 pounds butter 1 shilling pound 3 0
3 pounds cheese 8 pence pound 2 0
13 0
128 appendix E

take note addition price


crossing seen above prices much lower
things sold shops reason advantage
allowed emigrants purchasing large quantities
together custom house without tax them
intended use them sea those prepare oat
bread good butter own cheese preserves pickles
things may desire very good them take
things them home state government sees
provisions prepared ship good tasty
head each family weighed each week
needs time being him family
use how choose themselves those
children under age fourteen probably need pro-
vide additional items above them since provisions
ship sufficient cost less much
each provide own provisions way
liverpool then until ship begins voyage

necessary clothes

do counsel saints buy very much clothing material


here them two three years order
warm comfortable earn dif-
ference prices interest receive money
spend them while side goods
lie decay useless comparison while warn
against extremes side urge everyone side
prepare much durable warm useful clothing
especially let abundant preparations made underclothing
dark wool clothes especially children women clear
water washing clothes cannot obtained ocean let
prepared equal proportion heavy light clothing
summer winter clothing prepared climate
country generally women daughters
dress homespun material welsh wool gowns
worn carmarthenshire etc considered
valuable arriving end journey men
trans td2
trims documents tda counsels emigrants 129

get suit
sult two clothes besides normally
here sufficient them get under way especially
outer clothes underclothing you
better main points creed saints
cleanliness comfort satisfaction though shall experience
various climates during journey first part
too warm wear winter clothes country rest
clothing those warm weather counsel
everyone get deal chests following sizes new ones
purchased 3 feet 3 inches long 18 20 inches wide
deep put clothes dry neat them
need open them long time especially
sea breeze water sea greatly damage clothing
besides chests above sizes convenient
move belongings back forth filled
spare clothes put way ship
space passengers let do according
counsel before leaving town otherwise encounter
inconvenience way clothes confusion
mixed throughout chests dress children warmly
healthily lest start crying colds dis comforts
those feather beds may take them along ie many
wish use voyage notice must provide
own beds bedding ship every place
take care bring enough blankets bedding
comfortable theship ship provides nothing bed boards
place put beds

necessary dishes tools etc

emigrants well advised take them


service family arriving home good proportion
following things hand plates
knives forks spoons crockery china wish
things women deem desirable comfort
consider comfort much yes even our own
hope see them end journey having built homes
living them having planted vineyards enjoying
130 appendix E

falness
fulness tasty produce frighten them
oppress them result counsel them think
themselves dishes etc choose
prepare feasts arriving home carry them across
sea moderation cost ie own service
government officials where land side think
intend sell things put tax
them perhaps make them expensive
purchased st louis things personal use
rarely tax them since need
dishes normal use voyage best put them
safekeeping among spare clothes keep them break-
ing do counsel anyone take heavy tools nor fact
scarcely household furniture except what mentioned
do counsel various craftsmen take very many
normal tools them probably get new ones
better cheaper st louis tin dishes use
voyage obtained liverpool best get under way

way taken
distance estimated cost
already speaking captain steam-
boat troubadour taking first company emigrants
swansea liverpool kind gentleman promised make
every provision benefit comfort travelers
carry them much cheaper usual shall advertise time
later greater detail perhaps whole company cannot
prepared before end ofjanuary
january beginning february
reaching liverpool someone else board ship
prepared pres 0 pratt let us know
three four days before sailing time
wisdom value part mormon creed
seen ie everyone mind own business lest sharpers
sharpels
sharpers
wolves snatch them belongings while smiling
face sincerely hope welsh flock know
voice shepherd too well mistake howl wolf
liverpool normal time voyage new orleans
td2
trans documents tda counsels emigrants 131

six seven weeks part journey


leaving borders kingdom temperate breezes
lovely often too few them
new orleans large steamboats available during season
year come close ship take whole procession
belongings once five six days
10 shillings each great mississippi river eleven
hundred miles great city st louis another steam-
boat obtained take them belongings
missouri river council bluffs eight hundred nine
hundred miles week pound each
need provide own food along part journey
besides prices mentioned short along way
ship end journey take care provi-
sions own cost yet uncommon unity love
saints very advantageous them buy everything required
large quantities everything necessary buy
especially conveyance along rivers come much less
expensive each
reaching council bluffs you outside western
confines babylon among settlements containing thousands
saints emigrating salt lake city make desert blossom
rose prepare themselves rest
journey welsh procession rest council bluffs
while preparing wagons food buying animals pull them
forward perhaps take several weeks time before
whole procession ready get under way again besides being
likely several thousands
saints besides welsh traveling together through
rocky mountains council bluffs shops every
kind necessary skills being carried saints where
wagons every needed tool purchased those neighbor-
hoods milk cows cost 2 pounds each yoke oxen
5 6 pounds further east here obtained
cheaper saints buying many those areas
cannot count cost council bluffs forward our satis-
faction well back best estimate
make follows eight persons go together
132 appendix E

buy wagon yoke oxen four cows carry


them clothes food comfortably think
expense 133 10 shillings 4 each
zc4
wagon animals belong them then those
family four five six children need get
wagon themselves families two three children
two families get together buy wagon between them
share cost distance council bluffs salt lake
city considered thousand miles enough
game journey sustenance these few counsels deem
sufficient time above things wish
see way open before them send us names
ages each babies soon possible
mindful these days time gathering day
winnowing call children ofzion
zion come
babylon lest made recipients plagues
doubt each neglects duty emigrate sadden
spirit god god opens way provides circum-
stances know land began
wither like wife lot old until became dry trees
waiting gathered fire
latest news california very comforting apostle
W woodruff tells us through recent letter nine hundred
wagons loaded saints left council bluffs toward salt lake
city during june hosts others preparing follow
them every crop produced valley beyond expecta-
tions saints enjoy generally better health
place medicinal waters
springs proven priceless blessing sick
far what blessing see sick
children god wales leaping joy banks these
springs
spirit gathering taken strong hold saints
wales throughout world happy learn
how thoroughly words isaiah fulfilled
day shall deaf hear words
book clearly further meek shall increase
joy lord poor among men shall rejoice
td2
trans documents tda counsels emigrants 133

holy israel isa 2918 19 what greater rejoicing


poor meek men wales desire life get way
emigrating country where abundance
them race them generations
earth well preparation already awaiting them zion
go enjoy comfort poor saints
state sufficient faith believe matter how great
poverty started them good work
finish through preparing way bringing means
hands according faithfulness easiest way
arrive home through fulfilling role
present time do sufficient faith believe
god allow poverty faithful saints
deprive him blessed deliverance notrejoice
rejoice
lord time spite extent former
poverty expect yet see nation meek welshmen welshmer
Welsh men
strengthen strong host brave men stock gomer
dwelling happily peacefully centers western con-
tinent obedient citizens heavenly laws expect see
poor beautiful carriages along high roads
earth enjoying fill abundance before long shall
lend listening ear hear mountains hills echoing
sweet songs rejoicing children zion sometime
soon hope see kings queens encouraging great
wondrous work fulfilled blessed does
might work continues praise
name through generations while work foremost
people world like grass stubble clay

another thing merits attention


saints

like saints remember especially those


intend go toward zion place where justice
dwells consequently children zion should workers
justice far even while captivity babylon
laws zion do allow children work injustice
babylonians far know do
134 appendix E

allow indebted anyone world justly


emigrate without either paying them satisfying them getting
forgiveness way working justice toward them
saints warned before remind pure
minds again strive free themselves
tiresome captivity time happy invitation comes
call them home our desire benefit freedom
saints well glory ofzion
zion prompts us
call attention saints frequently important matter
true wages low time bad yet
never time bad principle justice shown
through doing done then penny
old debt incurred while babylonians paid
pennys worth
show dennys righteousness
much possible then faith claim
blessing just god every just effort work justice
doubtless succeed

notice first emigrants


according custom transport emigrants sea
pres pratt expects each send pound money
passage advance before hire ship secure
each passage ship turn come time
announced time through paying rest price
passage according mentioned above con-
sequently ourselves expect save expense loss cost
do someone them bring aforementioned
pound them NEXT conference held
merthyr take place SUNDAY YEAR
then pres pratt able here occasion
promised get them together cannot come
here transported him then
better advantage hire ship cheaply through getting
time choose ship takes whatever might
time crossing cheaper everyone notice
place secured ship anyone except those
follow arrangement
saints farewell
tda
td3

farewell now everyone


shall sail great ocean
complete longing gods zion
better go land
given us our father
lived captive far too long
freedom
Fre edoin come us wake adversity
called babel
call our intention go
go spite cruel enemy
our god through great grace
bring us safely seemly zion
farewell british land
our home long time
better home before us now
hardship agony violence
perpetually here
paradise beyond great open sea
willing come zion
place complete deliverance
plagues troubles
come worry mankind
safe place live
storms cover earth
let us bid farewell
saints short while
until see them home
our farewell long
them deny truth
family heaven
let us go singing across sea
without fear our hearts
god kindness shall watch vessel
rides wave
may saints throughout island
care
invitation california
td4
tda

oh come california
welshmer
dear welshmen welshmer
Welsh men dear welshmen
Welsh men
stand here longer
welshmer
dear welshmen
Welsh men
heavens us
shall land without rent taxes
prepare come without delay
welshmer
dear welshmen welshmer
Welsh men dear welshmen
Welsh men
do tarry here except
welshmer
dear welshmen
Welsh men

get corn without sowing harrowing


everyone believe everyone believe
bread without baking
everyone believe
houses grow us earth
lovely attractive palaces
oh alluring place
everyone believe everyone believe
place where pain sorrow come
everyone believe

geese thousands
come quickly come quickly
running through streets
come quickly
those being roasted
ready lunch
go
come quickly come quickly
feast prepared him
come quickly

fat oxen
heaven heaven
thousands fat pigs
heaven
yd4
trans documents yde
td4 invitation california 137
157

waiting doors
knives throats
ready morning night
heaven heaven
sparse table
heaven

soon vehicles run


listen listen
themselves without horses
listen
shall servants
serve us maids
problems
listen listen
trouble family zion
listen

clothes come clouds


become saints become saints
like hail showers
become saints
cow milks herself
milk soon turns cheese
butter comes without effort
become saints become saints
tis sin you doze
become saints

give love things earth


venture forth venture forth
extremely attractive
venture forth
joseph smith calling
very famous man
strength name
venture forth venture forth
although die
venture forth
138 appendix E

you wealthy farmers


hasten come hasten come
provide work splendid auctioneers
hasten come
oh sell your possessions
before heavy judgments come
consume you plagues
hasten come hasten come
gain refuge your souls
hasten come

man glantren
Glan tren get under way
great prophet great prophet
zeal feet crown head
great prophet
sold things
already journey
may fair wind call him begin
great prophet great prophet
until reaches land saints
great prophet

near Bogey mans hole


bogeymans small seer
greeting emigrating saints
california
td5
tda

dear brothers sisters sadness nostalgia


hand great joy love hopes send
greeting you staying behind babylon feel
deeply indebted gratefully recognize great care protec-
tion our heavenly father us until now 240 us
besides children board ship buena vista 65 welsh
saints besides children board ship hartley organized
our whole circumstances comfortably expected
intend sail great ocean tomorrow unusually good
weather our voyage here however many dangers
surrounded us however much prophesied adversity
us however many babylonians tried discourage us
mislead us plunder us thank our god today victory
giving us leader guide us safely through without
anyone getting hurt plundered anything much did
enemies truth prophesy our dear president capt jones
plunder us our money leave
us midst strangers do number
bad things us justice character justice religion
professes glory god owns him our duty
testify you our dear bro jones continues
blessing us present circumstance ever
before never repay him enough continual care
us beneficial directions us through him got new
comfortable ships transport us cheaply price our
transportation 133 12s ac 6c each each person 14 years age
ea
e33 each those under age year
old ships here now sailing same
port charging eae55 each without necessary pro-
visions while hand our ships contain provi-
sions need us through wisdom fatherly
care us know instead
140 dir E
appendir
str
appendix
Appen mtr

cheating saints money many falsely accused him


paid much own money comfort assist others
until now refused receive least pay rather
paid penny same price ourselves transpor-
tation every regard short loving watchful behavior
without exception bound affections around
him love until everyone likes hear voice
our midst biggest worry others
big enough ship transport everyone
same place him
dear saints us encouraged praying
gracious lord quickly open way you come us
zion doubt little wales like boiling pot false
tales us much prophesied wrecking
our ship etc pray us shall go safely under
protection our god do believe them you
defend our character our departure babylon our
righteousness you know our dear president proclaimed
warned beforehand allow anyone come
away debt world saints
happy say none us guilty conscience
given cause disgrace religion
jesus christ hand completely contrary
babylonians boast paying us just debts exert-
ing themselves utmost plunder us everything
grab unless repent testify against them
judgment bad them
influenced our own families yes our dear wives children
frighten them against coming us yes cause conten-
tion between husband wife between parents dear children
what worse done much answer
yet doubt these themselves babylonians I1 raise
voices highest condemn man leaving disobedient
peevish cruel wife behind refuses every offer come
assure you men our midst
tried utmost get wives come them
children do laws man god assure
husband head family choke
choice country
td5
trans documents tda
7d5 greeting emigrating saints 141

refuse follow him wife children ones


leaving him leaving them
many stories spread before left women going
against wishes husbands baseless lie
none kind know our midst anyone
wronged man our midst wronged man any-
thing without reconciling wrong rage our fellow nation
great toward us before our departure wales
i
en J oy our civil rights
enjoy hardly place abun-
dantly true life our dear brother capt jones
danger house attacked almost every night weeks
before leaving merthyr godly life safe
sleeping except between guards among brethren
scoundrels inhuman paid kill him
left leave secretly day before what end
you know cause given anyone
rather rage devil against him
instrument hand god zion repayment
bro jones desires get interest prayers saints
them kind dear wife child whom
leaves your midst until returns child
four days old left them practiced every
self denial gospel christ saints doubt
reward family great zion
many preachers different sects slandering us
smearing our characters through welsh publications con-
demning our dear religion pulpits doing everything
disgrace us shatter our feelings even here
board ship practically foot
babylon trying frighten saints sea
voyage country everything good try-
ing persuade them everything except should
do great efforts put envy between us capt jones

happy report our dear sister recuperated quickly


became sufficiently strong able leave ship full
saints sailed middle month intends
join husband council bluffs before long
142 appendix E

target arrows now failed


influence much each glad get back
shore shame own false beliefs occasionally
honest them confessed surprise neither
nor our religion bad thought yesterday
received irrefutable testimony capt jones others
even ministers rev H rees well until
went back shore hurriedly mutely hope
beneficial bring them darkness light
praise trust due our dear pres pratt
goodness us here worthy your trust things
now dear saints farewell you hasten come
us

your brothers gospel jesus christ

thos jeremy llanybydder william morgan merthyr


benjamin francis ditto edward edwards ditto
david phillips brechfa
brechka benjamin jones aberdar
taberdar
daniel daniels ditto edward edwards ditto
rice williams swyddffynnon william davies rymni
william treharn pontyets
Pont yets john williams ditto
david james ditto rees price dowlais
morgan hughes ditto job rowland ditto
samuel leigh Ll anelli john hughes penycae
john richards ditto william lewis blaenafon
william rowland hirwaun john parry birkenhead
rees jones ditto william jenkins caerdyf
thomas giles merthyr

liverpool feb 25 1849


emigration saints california
td6
tda

editor I1 wish give story saints


emigrated country lately since I1 accompanied them
liverpool consequently am enabled describe voyage
point
emigration begun swansea where saints
south wales met 13th february 9 oclock
next morning leave steamboat troubadour
go liverpool preaching meeting held previous
night large convenient chapel saints
swansea overfilled responsible listeners while
bro thomas pugh others preached emigration
caused great commotion town thousands gathered
see saints depart emigrants
leave town through permission captain sang
saints farewell very beautifully attracting unusual atten-
tion observers great respect shown occasion
crowd general many handkerchiefs being waved
nearby windows while singing continued ship sailed
away arrived liverpool 330 following thursday
voyage especially successful shorter
usual four hours everyone healthy content during
entire voyage except little seasickness troubled upon
landing liverpool captain ship showed great care
saints landing place where sharpels
shar pers
sharpers
town waiting hosts gathered usual place
await steamboat steal emigrants
addition kindness liverpool saints rented large
six story house order care welsh brothers while
town sufficiently large whole company take
lodging 1I am pleased say through listening
leaders warning take care possessions saints
kept everything safe cunning predators
place did them harm way spent five days
144 appendix E

before mentioned house during time ac


6c
each charged lodging following tuesday everyone
moved american ship intended sail next
day through obstacles waited until 26th
meantime saints stayed ship 1I stayed
midst 1I saw saints times taken sick
sooner hands laid them restored
immediately 1I bear witness I1 never seen
power god I1 saw ship while I1
midst 1I led my curiosity put many saints
test especially weakest ones 1I name gwilym
ddu satisfy
addu pontypridd
friends ofpontypridd order see 1I
get them homesick go back answer
1I received generally however much love you cannot
love you much wish turn back you leave us
peace forward us want go
saturday before sailing rev henry rees
sectarian preachers town came saints board
ship asked me capt jones emigrants welsh
answered yes then asked second time true
here widows south prepared
clothes put departed husbands california shoes
put feet received letters respected
ministers south wales telling us word
true said rather barefaced lie those persons knew
lie wrote you nevertheless
ship widows kept things husbands
respect greet them california
very glad indeed said welsh wise
surprised hear welsh foolish now
witnesses contrary then showed our principles
those reverends telling them did believe anything
except bible said very well
wish success you arrive end your journey
may god bless you left bidding farewell
us probably very disappointed saints
sunday 5 th
225th conference held ship
begun 200 secretary singing praying
td6 emigration
trans documents tda
7d6 saints 145

carried forward under presidency capt jones


several brethren spoke occasion unusual
measure spirit god enjoyed saints
embodied branch then divided eight
groups president each group three others
appointed preside whole company council
organized arrange matters saints everyone
justice then conference ended
customary manner
time drew near sail toward home
take place next day 11 1100
00 occasion harpis
harpists
ts
singers place captains cabin sing saints
farewell time crowds congregated listen
music eyewitnesses departure califor-
nia many left tasks present great courtesy
shown occasion reached mouth
river 1 oclock

went singing ocean


without single fear breast
until soon escaped our sight wish ours
them reach better country another ship left morn-
ing next day full welsh irish scottish saints
gracious god may bless them us my continual prayer
amen
W phillips
letter capt D jones
editor yelon
udgorn selon
uclgorn
td7
tda

new orleans april 18 1849


dear brother davis
according my frequent promise dear saints whom 1I
left behind wales I1 shall give account our voyage across
ocean point doubt many tales
us spread throughout wales prophecies
our drowning etc therefore I1 beseech you announce your
udgorn these false now still alive
even though side sea you I1 hope
do believe letter coming spirit world
furthermore captain turned ship cuba sold
saints slavery yet prophesied seren gomer
others do facts like these prove
false prophets really
account our voyage since I1 am writing
many intend follow us sooner later whose happiness
desirous allow me itemize educational things
may benefit our experience according
account concerning us you heard liverpool I1 report
before sailing first sunday boarding ship
established ourselves emigrating floating branch
depths yet another sense established branch
various officers chosen fill different responsibilities
appertaining held meeting saints distributed sacra-
ment received open evidence our worship accepted
heaven through presence holy spirit lovely
influence received open evidence enemy
job
days ofjob come possessing sister
until driven senses causing scream
utter inhuman things frightening curses disturbance
did keep very long through laying hands
elders prayer faith our father saw fit seal
tram
trum td7
trans documents tda capt D jones editor 147

promise son them believe land sea


my name shall cast devils oh how
valuable blessing time
ship divided eight sections according
number families elders assigned supervise each
section see everyone acted properly received justice
impartially foster nurture love unity especially
see kept places clean healthful end
arranged two each morning arise before others around
them wash deck clean dry these eight presidents
together another triad william morgans merthyr
rice williams william davis rhymni counselors con-
stituted council organize temporal spiritual matters
manner prepared ourselves through agreement without
exception
monday 26th february two oclock
afternoon set sail port saints accompanied
harp sang saints farewell left dock
sweet voices re sounded throughout city attracting atten-
tion causing amazement thousands spectators
followed us along shore charmed followed here
our dear faithful brethren william phillips merthyr
abel evans eliaser edwards faithful elders
together david jeremy
davidjeremy Brech fa these brethren having
brechfa
brechka
shown every kindness assistance like dear
kinsmen loved ones graveside vied each
showing yet additional love buying oranges throwing them
us ship long reach fall
oranges our reach sea proved too far
shake hands each separa-
tion them agitate fountains tears spite
ourselves time almost unawares see behind
us handkerchiefs like flags waving breeze
language shouting aching heart farewell farewell
sail across vast sea dear zion while heard back
echoes our warm hearts coming breeze
water farewell farewell land britain etc thought
foreign men nature well become calm
148 appendix E

observe scene winds february turned


summer breezes our behalf indescribable feelings
dragged two large steamers sight city before
nightfall our ship rocking just like hut surging waves
sea steamers turned back escorting us
30 miles inwardly scene changed us now
go light fires boil water make tea etc while others made
miserable seasickness staggered beds
eight oclock came ship under full sail wind
west everything order much possible meeting
held family prayer everyone went lie down
hardly anyone sleep even though wind
stormy sea rough still sufficiently rough
make almost everyone sick I1 shall forget night
long time though hardly anyone sleep yet slept
less myself few elders back
forth comforting assisting sick much through-
out almost entire night sunlight beautiful next
day sick improved yet hardly walk
themselves across deck without someone guiding them
service kept me quite busy less pleasant every
guidance behalf morning 1I tried hard before
succeeding getting sick bed breathe
healthful air since seasickness causes debilitating feeling
almost angry me my insistence I1
wouldnt refused even though 1I obliged carry many
person deck I1 well paid my trouble through
patience once realized topside healthful air
improve them gradually without exception easy
see difference between those succumbed desires
stay beds others showed courage
coming healthful air deck whose healing together
testimonies these others convinced others follow
example I1 cannot encourage too much those yet
come do come deck similar circumstances
long before those resisted strongly come
topside me thanking me almost forc-
ing them come day I1 got enough men come
td7
trans documents db
2
d7 capt D jones editor 149

company shop called storeroom back


ship where supplies kept three members
first presidency myself became makeshift shopkeepers weigh
following different foods each family wished
each prepare how wished
fourteen years age following amounts distributed
half everyone between fourteen ten pounds
hard bread white good four pounds sugar three pounds
cheese three pounds butter four pounds raisins two
pounds rice two pounds coffee four pounds molasses
fourth pound tea food extremely high quality
gift pres pratt something else gave
emigrants matter how sad womens faces
sight gift caused them go cheerfully shop
although stepped each others feet sometimes fell
each shaking ship yet I1 declare
laughingly called help raise lowest tried
again respecting persons rather
best feet kept head everyone agreed
leg too short too long almost
every step
afternoon since cross wind ship stayed
along coast ireland until steep mountains jagged
rocks threatened mangle us came closer rejoiced
sailors turned side ship wind
point toward borders our own beloved country
several large ships our sight sailing west
absolutely incredible how our ship sped them
see them longer middle
night winds increased very close lights
Holy head peninsula almost everyone except
holyhead myself
brother daniel daniel sick
february 28 went deck break day
first thing attracted my attention barasey island
bardsey far
us beyond huge mountains caernarvonshire
lifted snowy peaks vying each height
desire see crack dawn whether children
raised breasts still alive whether
150 appendix E

drowned what heard ocean lovely voices


emigrant sons echoing before forests glens
land eager search like nostalgic mother
midst daughters dear snowdon above snowdonia
snowdonian
rocks ofsnowdonia
Snow donia
donla
stretched neck raised head highest
heavens gazing us forgot desire take
off snowy night cap greet us yet none these
sons except myself strength echo back motherly
farewell before lowered comely head behind daughters
eastern ocean
my vessel did wait my affection embrace long
object dear land my fathers
greyhound like desire speed along way across seething
white caps though frolicking splendid fearless tops
furious waves green ocean spite
commotion blue sky spite ferocity even
comfort my fellow travelers nor how much I1 wanted nor
farewell shores my country mainly
filled my thoughts rather 1I pondered seriously condition
inhabitants 1I see myself now small handful sheaf
fluttering inhabitants wales looking afar
country called garden christianity coun-
try bibles erected lofty tops numerous
houses worship sky monument zealous
enthusiasm yes behold even fact just
dream 1I escaped water midst my
welsh brothers my life skin my teeth why
why persecution slander false accusa-
tions I1 suffered years press pulpits why did
my residence guarded weeks why my life safe
among guards why did I1 flee secret before
time why I1 able bid farewell my dear wife my
baby doubtless transgression world once
twice yes even three times 1I challenged man prove me
guilty transgression oh must admitted cannot
hidden religious persecution what caused must
strength my religion nothing else prove
able excite old passion every false
t97
td7
trans documents tda capt D jones editor 151

religion persecute persecution does originate god


neither does religion persecutes come him
oh yes ytis tis fact sun dawns cheerfully my head
exile borders my country winds try beat me back
exile belief my beloved vessel my castle fights
defend me against danger exile cast brothers whose
benefit seeks opens sails wind carry me
kinsman safely home zion like victorious soldier
home thoughts unawares drew my affection my eyes
toward west ponder zion glories until once
again like flowing stream came my memory dear
children thousands left behind wales my gentle
fellow nation multitudes love true faith
chance
once again 1I turned my face east my spirit prayer
god initiated good work blessed gospel
success wales make servants mighty men beloved
like sons great thunder sound trump loudly
until inhabitants hill vale awakened sleep
false religion embrace gospel spirit like
purifying fire refine those obeyed time
blue cover sky high whitecaps
white caps waves
between them almost hid under covers little green garden
country raised me I1 vowed I1
angry evil I1 received nor am I1 exiled
forever rather 1I shall yet come across depths home
my loved ones try way take them worthy
zion my embrace time
0 my country my love binds itself around your beautiful vales
your rocky shores magnetic stones 1I want benefit
your peoples may gospel heaven raise white banners
every brow hill within your land wave your breezes
yet within your land something surpasses
everything 1I noted something far above beloved
fair though far away now closer anything else my
heart 0 my mind stop come return back why do I1 break
strings my heart why do 1I call come back well
then just instant raise your wings wind feast
152 appendix E

company angels heaven now surround bed lulling


sleep cheeks red smile happy sees me
reaches pure arms embraces tightly dear lord
arms just image 0 little rosebud
hardly old new moon why did I1 leave
thee even until morning my beloved following me across
land sea many countries happily sharing troubles
comforts my breast many times having caused me
forget world things tightly having kept
keys my heart ten years everything everyone
ever even until morning my mind shot break
dawn your bedchamber 1I loved you oh my
mind stay here longer yes wait you awake
first parting sorrow enough why cause second wound
take courage my spirit must christs religion
long nor separation without everlasting reward
you angels pure I1 charge you care my wife baby I1 go
courageously watch until I1 return precious
my soul content my sake snowdon
jump sea before I1 shall ever ever forget thy arms
my father I1 commend everything 1I look yet
greeting ere 1I leave my spirit bows above place where lies
now takes strength adventure hush what matter
where am I1 what high sea yes call hasten
sick
well well 1I wandered far I1 shall return my account
hardly anyone able prepare food today daniel
daniel williamjenkins
william jenkins 1I agreed attracting device
helping several onto deck made comfortable place
row women sit air I1 set making gruel
oat flour them strengthened them greatly
pot pot apportioned them circle condi-
ttion stay eat hard describe good
did them I1 counsel everyone take sufficient quantity

noted udgom lately


udgorn jones improved quickly
able leave dear husband likely seen
council bluffs now JD
yd7
tram documents yde
trans td7 capt D jones editor 153

good oat flour oat bread them shall see


taste better them anything else awhile
evening ireland sight wind increased
necessary lower top sails lowest position pull
sails ship turned stern south
awhile then back side throughout night
whether side totally impossible
remain still allow anyone else lie pr stand place
rather like door hinge continually swayed those
lying down those standing throwing them along
deck boxes crockery recklessly without
warning wild horse throws unskilled rider across hedge
leaves him without pity rider got
ship throw him somewhere else until crawled home
use begging stop grumbling
groaning together voices children
same effect increase drunkenness many
agreed me before morning better let
own way let rock until tired
hardly ceased yet
march 1 good part day running race
steeple st davids pembrokeshire
Pembroke shire before night
got ahead thanks help wind
time many especially men taken courage spite
falling much like baby until learned
walk along sides prayer meeting held eve-
ning soon wind turned our favor some-
thing greatly encouraged sick oat bread tasted
good today
march 2 sight land blue sky
green water around us except occasional ship sailing own
way majority improving considerably
march 3 beautiful weather little children playing
along ship parents laughing upon seeing occasional
pile them top each deck yet daring
venture interfere until today escorted birds
our country longer rather having entrusted our care
multitudes sea birds returned
154 appendix E

march 4 sunday two oclock splendid lovely


meeting saints everyone perfectly content except
occasional them refused every counsel come
deck now gotten fevers beds
caused us great concern trouble along sincere prayers
before restored health I1 warn others refrain
doing same thing many beneficial interesting admoni-
tions given meeting sacrament several
testified goodness god etc sick improving night
saints divided two prayer meetings half each end
ship wind supported us pleasantly
march 5 beautiful weather throughout day constant stroll-
ing deck musicians singing eleven musical instru-
ments everyone except few sick fairly comfortable
march 6 rather unexpectedly us our dear sister wife
brother hugh davies liverpool died sixty years age
health very poor came board
hardly expected get across sea yet wish come
family captain officers ship very kind
view circumstances everyone throughout ship felt
our dwelling today house mourning prayer meeting
held evening everyones health improved death
effect causing others until now refused
rise beds result improvement
march 7 climate beautiful wind fair ship
sailing seven miles per hour preparations made
commit body our sister watery grave I1 preached
funeral sermon two oclock text how dead raised
what body do come paul 1I answered
question briefly answer question con-
tinued along several sundays completely
answered yet sermon coffin placed large
plank ship stopped saints sung hymn
sailors raised inward end plank coffin
slipped down end salty deep
weight stones placed coffin sink
opened swallow precious treasure keep safe until
day command shall given sea yield
yd7
td7
trans documents yde capt D jones editor 155

dead very mistaken ideas


greatly afraid think being buried sea think
float surface prey fish even
worse rotting cold gravel being food
grave worms fish do those buried
sea purpose putting weights body
sink down quickly lower ocean fish ever go
lower live float peaceful salt
water keep decomposing rotting forever yes
until day rising sea boil
kept better best egyptians kept through
embalming understanding does away conflict
thought being buried sea rather makes
preferable 1I think what apostle mind
said sea gave dead alive 1I
think body buried pre-
served manner never made alive body
sown shall whether sown sea
land incorruptible body shall united
spirit possessed body before thelea
theseasea closed
jaws morsel our little ship stood us
able behold majestic sight few minutes sails
filled breezes galloped across waves nothing
ever happened wind continued our favor every-
thing comfortable sick improved everyone
eating allowance throughout week prayer counsel
meeting held each night
march 11 sunday wind light against us sea
calm each having scrubbed himself before meeting
began two oclock continued until five oclock
two hours trying answer previous question
how dead raised postponed until next
meeting everyone appeared happy rejoicing
teaching before end meeting wind turned strongly
our favor according our prayers continued
part our favor throughout week sometimes blew us
ten miles hour felt wind climate now
gradually getting warmer since sailed still southwest
156 appendix E

several began complain woolen clothing too heavy


bear longer better everyone
additional light clothing hardly rain except
few showers raining time rather pouring
water down clouds times saw several different
kinds fish very big others smaller jumping
water helped lazy ones come deck helped
them every breath took
march 16 wind against us greatly afternoon
prayer meeting called seven pray fair wind
meeting 1I said near me I1 felt desire
go deck return until our father give us fair
wind 1I going having put my foot lowest rung
ladder those around me chatting thing
another asked what I1 wanted I1 answered 1I

like hear mate deck shouting haul


weather braces before 1I moved my foot 1I
others heard my wish heard mate above our head
shouting loudly haul raur
raul
haulm weather braces yea word word
1I said behold fair wind blowing strongly our favor
within few days driven us thousand miles
homeward toward zion great our thanks our god

march 17 sunday beautiful weather everyone comfor-


table afternoon excellent meeting saints
how dead raised meeting eve-
ning fair wind weather beautiful throughout week
injure
almost like wales injune
june occasional squall cloud
breaking supply us water washing beautiful see
children playing across deck entertaining parents
singing here others talking reading walking
arm arm while others prepare foods many kinds almost
obtained cookshop musicians did best
beautify atmosphere harp pleasant sounds
alone evening entertained us sang farewell king

order pull ropes set sails across ship means


without exception fair wind
trans documents
trims td7 capt
tda D jones editor 157

day lowered red head western sea light


scene place lovely phebus awakes sleep
envied him wonder scenes less wondrous
excited heels david old point even took
off garment temple what hush shall reply
what use hiding fact did do order
dance yes yes hardly anyone our midst
except occasional dry sectarian did prefer imitate
him rather find fault least hard deny
here times did even cause storm
company store open without books money
distribute sufficiency either white beans rice wheat flour oat
flour bacon anything else plenty everyone
complained cold through getting wet rain
march 25 sunday light gusts wind times again
scene around us like calm sea glass
elements our ship children well observing
holy sabbath resting quietly sun gazed too intently
until relief retreat anywhere
presence meeting saints afternoon lecture
how dead raised sermon english deck
evening nearly sailors spoke well teaching
wind rose strongly our favor night hardly scene
particular week worthy note except occasional cross
breeze changed almost consistently middle
end our prayer meeting held each night occa-
sional appearance offish fish entertain us ship here
distance gladden lonely scene devilish foe
himself asserted right neptune god sea
journey us though company sweet nevertheless
hard work cast him overboard cleverness
infrequently hard times turn himself
angel light occasionally hide pocket
officer everyone may left behind babylon let
poor sailor troublemaker
worse guide ahithophel swine sea
babylonians escapes times next time
I1 cross sea group saints zion two
158 appendix F

kinds stay home great benefit felt drinking bathing


sea water morning let everyone children do
often possible let everyone take care refrain
suspending anything keep air going through
ship let everyone take care neither nor
children become constipated take laxative neglect
suffered until almost incurable refrain
eating lot heavy food idleness does allow
digest above valuable thing bring sea do
forget bring generous supply patience great
deal wear commodity let care taken may
fail even valuable much gold little grain true
faith sea buy fair wind everything essen-
tial spite everything happened I1 heard
anyone repent having undertaken journey just
desirous reaching zion great pleasure
hear almost everyone again praising goodness
god our behalf fair weather beautiful breezes
excellent food general success better
expected before getting underway truly small
pleasure see cooks fire making puddings
pancakes fries piling inviting
drink tea each evening
arose happily did those earlier dance manner
frequently many pleasant days came went ocean
blame them
april 1 sunday sabbath again nature agreed us
pause gaze excellence creation our god
two ships did same distance very lovely meeting
saints lecture two hours how dead raised
several took off woolen clothing like myself
caught cold take care against although summer clothing
lovely now better check yourself say my sufferings
climate clouds suddenly rend under weight
watery burden especially do wear wet clothing noon
today our time here four hours later london time
twelve oclock noon here four oclock after-
noon london proves 60 degrees west
td7
trans documents db
2 d7 capt D jones editor 59

london 30 degrees 9 minutes west run yet


before reaching new orleans 1I observed sun today again
through sextant I1 determined our latitude 23 degrees
54 minutes north within 14 miles tropics where
middle summer sun above our heads since
south now lovely breezes temper weather
did feel uncomfortable heat our distance new orleans
today 2000 miles our distance land expect
see our journey hole wall
islands bahamas between goo 900 1000 miles our
southerly distance liverpool 1806 miles
april 2 storms rain rough winds
several directions threatened swallow our little shell
depth cauldren
salty cauldron
caul dron spite through pro-
tection our god skill our captain sailors our
ship climbed upwards wave wave swallow fly
through slight breeze sea shook our little vessel
passengers does whirlwind crow nest
oak tree without being able disturb even small chicks
therein upon perceiving however awful fierce waves
did deter us resisted
sea desisted
des isted effort smiled pleasantly
sun earlier worn sackcloth stern ugly
gaze now took off clothing cloak time laughed
battle promising fairly lowered head amidst red
sky fine night sleeping everyone
offered thanks made perhaps next statement
incredible ignorant absolutely true none-
th eless
theless saw almost every day fish flying some-
times saw scores them together flew times good
mile then wet wings top
wave off go second time chased
fish jump several feet water them
good thing defenseless creator case
provided them wings protection these fish do
fly very high higher wind strong
peaceful times these areas I1 saw them fly against
sails ship fall deck inasmuch
rise water caught them big
160 appendix E

common mackerel wings feathers rather kind


bright very thin skin water close serve
same purpose wings length six ten inches
cannot fly unless keep wings wet seen
warm weather
now williams originally ynysybont
sick fever several days gradually improving
jane morgans cardiff suffered painful sores
legs off nine years considered completely
incurable doctors worsening become
discouraged church ordinances faith
weakened ever since reached warm weather arranged
each section day turn spread beds
bedding deck sun something very
healthful let everyone do often possible our
captain graciously given us kind liquid sprinkle along
our sleeping places purifies air wonderfully use
frequently several elderly people ship
improving come deck every lovely day
old gentleman close 100 years old cheerfully
happier ever many sec
tarians
carians wales even liverpool rev H rees
reverends tried dissuade him coming prophesying
arrive across sea many things 1I am

determined through power god prove them


false prophets lost hair except few strands
white snow now abundant new crop just like
hair child feels younger younger
fair lovely wind saturday ath 1I
7th
through night looking land until four oclock morn-
ing I1 hardly slept before loud shout exciting
effect everyone else land ahead awakened me
great joy caused emigrants nothing
else mentioned noticed time except land sunrise
sailing nicely along south along coast abaco island
bahamas quite deserted island populated
mostly fishermen people cut firewood carry
parts sell earthquakes chase everyone away here
trans documents td7 capt
tda D jones editor 161

time time cause much damage very pleasant


sight nine oclock morning turned ship west
round southern edge island within three miles less
land southern tip lighthouse rock
dwelling nearby lighthouse keeper lives
three ships sailing along us past lighthouse keep-
ing south toward cuba midday island dis-
appeared sight behind us appeared several
islands rocks south us less ten miles away
understanding those come way since
come close aforementioned lighthouse I1 should com-
mented name hole wall thus those see
remember through eyes someone looked
before them 1I call attention meaning
words origin you see large hole through high
rocks rocky mound where lighthouse located looks
like bridge large arch man made work either
nature struggle elements what made
earlier another remarkable bridge reaching top
rock round rock now itself
300 yards sea
area considered dangerous place navigate
whole world several hundred miles surrounded
islands sandbanks
sand banks rocks above surface others
below see small ships fishing small ships
called wreckers ships know seas sail
around continually depending livelihood misfortune
ships whenever ships lost way these lead them
back right way save many lives do
work good accused using false
signals mislead ships path order get thousands
dollars guiding them back danger many ships must
lose way support numerous wreckers surrounding us
now need assistance I1 hope
continue case
sunset bottom sea further twenty
fathoms down navigated slowly carefully through
night our leader brought us safely see light sunday
162 appendix E

again easter sunday although hardly anyone many


new clothes wear day saw many new wondrous
things around us saw lighthouse another island several
frenchmen lived shore having built houses
rather simple mud huts along shore sail now
south along side grand bahama bank
lovely wind southeast ship
traveling six miles per hour through water water run-
ning us three four miles per hour southern current
less mile wide gulf stream north
runs totally contrary here bottom sea green water
ranging five twenty fathoms water cold few
yards away south however color water black
much warmer runs directly opposite saw rocky
shores remains shipwrecks several wreckers sail along
us everyone contentedly observing land especially
delighted leave quickly behind us pull toward end
our voyage island cuba south far us
ridiculous loathsome prophecy seren gomer
saints sold slaves here subject scorn
between almost every two people along deck correspondent
immortalized foolishness poor taste brought
cuba notoriety anything else now serves bring
recollection emigrants lies false accusations
said published them dear religion
fellow nation until loosened love knot knot
even country birth instead thinking
turning back prompted them turn faces toward
east sunset freedom worship god those
rights deprived zealous christians
own country yes constant prayer everyone throughout
ship blow east wind blow us fiercely western ocean
oh beautiful contemplate scene hope what filn biln
fills
filis
everyones breast ship sails along propelled lovely

erroneous asserted rev H W jones publisher


seren above false prophet writing under name
anti humbug seren gomer october 1848 J D
trans documents 2td7
db d7 capr
capt
copt
coar
coat D jones editor 163

breeze seas give many thanks savior zion


however lodestone derive comfort
shall continue put forth our own thoughts lest
letter too long udgorn deion
udgom seion I1 shall concentrate
account each think himself perhaps
what 1I should done beginning
I1 forgot mention meeting saints thurs-
day night did several times before time
first put gifts practice great com-
motion caused down ship amongst babylonians
clustered along officers ship entrance
our place listened amazement wondered greatly what
caused then perceived achan our
midst two three saints transgressed
them translating them causing them believe
evil things us officers ship captain
bitter toward us then ever before 1I

hard time calming him down our dismay interference


obliged us cease practicing gifts middle meet-
ing before received great comfort through them
learned things you yourself wales etc
informed party those failed
designs me I1 leave wales plotting revenge
my dear fellow officers left behind me
succeed 0 lord heaven watch them learned
many babylonians praying our failure saints
our success
afternoon wind fair excellent meeting
saints retired back ship where neither
babylonians nor traitors our midst prevent
us enjoying gifts spirit gave us great
comfort daniel daniel benjamin francis ordained
elders many counsels given concerning health cloth-
ing necessity each care condition
stomach latter counsel cause nearly everyone come
asking medicine inasmuch oil depleted
necessary forestall diarrhea let everyone take care
matter
164 appendix E

april 9 our god brought us safely through dangers


night smiled us continuing wind our favor
800 steamboat came us way havana new
york saw three british warships afternoon saw
borders florida american continent land low
sandy few trees here judging smoke
rising columns clouds place another
kind inhabitants living here sailed along
coast until nightfall saw two lighthouses
cluster small rocky islands named fortugas
tugas
fortunas
tortugas
Tor tugas rounding these break next day
changed our course northwest here left gulf
stream behind us scarcely 500 miles reach new orleans
N EE trade winds carried us steadily quickly
almost fortnight fair here still water
apportioned washing plenty board
another month 1I cannot liken bustling scene
sisters around deck doing washing better
scenes 1I remember seeing hot waters iron
furnaces merthyr washday lowest deck washed
under beds chloride lime order purify air
willi
willisms
williamssms
ams ill busy preparing chests etc
ready leave ship before long food
offered company store everyone abun-
dance did come get said sacks
vessels full room hold
many said never before variety
abundance foods lives I1 maintain anyone
happy food should shut oven while
like lap dog gentle lady
tuesday afternoon wind light sea calm weather
uncomfortably warm saw ships appeared
coming new orleans williams ynysybont near
tregaron
treganon
Tre garon worsening fast signs live long
told sons me little choice whether died
now whether granted live longer my greatest
desire said reach zion 1I fear my dying
sea discourage others old age venturing across
yd7
trans documents yde
td7 capt D jones editor 165

ocean me 1I am content die rather obstacle


cause god hand said 1 I wish go
rest now bosom ofjesus
jesus pleasing sight
said greatest honor ever received
able become member true church son god
fear breast concerning life
religion now proved strength ever before
asked sorry left methodists
whom respected member 555 years replied
preferred now whole world
able live hear preaching gospel saints
solemnly counseled sons continue faithful until death
obtain better resurrection
depended through feebleness ordinances church
complaint heard lips continued lucid
through night quarter past four next morning
spirit departed peace leaving smile lips received
every care assistance kindness everyone especially
faithful sons revered did own souls
did weary serving almost day night comfort-
ing attending reached far 80 years
age
thursday april 12 every funeral preparation possible having
made sister williamss funeral sermon preached after-
wards committed watery bed presence
hundreds emigrants looked simply orderly sober-
ing sight while choir sang our oscillating dwelling
made way forward away mournful scene alone
huge sea proceeded slowly black darkness
garment mourning sun despite great strength
courage already trimmed cloudy cloak mourning
distant west perceived mothers israel
fallen way zion look sadness night
passed shark cruel fish long forked teeth
faithful dog grave master stayed marker
resting place departed though among fish
severe ocean until resurrection peace remains
praise name next morning break dawn
166 appendix E

welcome pleasant east wind zealously took pity our condition


blew away garment mourning our sorrow stirred
sullenness like phoenix ashes appearance
changed head foot short like david old
son died our ship full sail like stallion battle hastened
untamed waves strove cheer mourners
hope seeing port tomorrow spite before
morning came turned treacherously against us
winds blew us toward eastern world sun time
despite mourning sympathy night before became
tormentor hot cage issued forth strong punishment
scorching rays
friday several ships seen seen greatest
wonder ever seen lives spite seeing
burial yesterday somberest scenes today saw strange
majestic marriage between waters beneath
firmament waters above firmament intermingling
through powerful mighty water spouts elements
boasting tried resounding together eliminate else our
firmament mix everything together water world
endeavor roar frightfully stir acre briny
foam caul
cauldren
cauldron
dron depths caul dron
cauldren
cauldron fish
spite themselves seen flying helterskelter
helter skelter
element sky self activated womb enormous
heedless vat gives birth powerful whirlwind wall
element blows opponent like chaff across surface
waters despite thickness clouds part
pieces woven long thick spinning neck quickly downward
neck goes lowest part frolics join now
union occurs combine beautiful marriage between
great salty liquid element above embrace
surprise yes mixing kissing until sea perspires
effort truly element turned marriage
previously now through sweetening salty
elements imitate miracle lawgiver moment
thought water prevail swallow everything
turmoil time just our earth flooded mercy
heaven smiles rainbow covenant sign noah
trans documents tda
td7 capt D jones editor 167

given phenomenon revived faith onlookers then


god released wind hand help feeble whirlwind
below join terrible attack before them sweep
wondrous water spouts fragments back places
although try time time lift heads watery
grave unable rise higher top waves
elements around us today stirred
emotions sojourners bidding prince
air boiling those treacherous army
become tailors work make mask darkness
enshroud heads magicians tis painful say
succeeded doing caps fit comfortably I1 fear
worn very destruction
mighty king babylon land armies I1 understand
now navies wave flags seas may
kingdom shattered speedily may subjects land
sea turn traitor him majesty swallowed
whale way depths ocean lock
mouth myself keeping key
saturday 14th wind contrary
lath
l4th land birds flying
ship tired children catch them tame them
diligently looking land
sunday 15th wind rather contrary blowing hard many
half sick between homesickness seasickness passed
council excommunicate william son B jones
aberdar
taberdar wife others family much better
cause much worry saints through false accusations
captain disgracing our dear religion etc every hope
abenr thomas
ebenr repent much trouble resulted through
too much association people ship back forth
them spite our best efforts succeeded musing
confusing maid kind pay
cost babylon I1 shall take care next time generous
people deceived lasses come make love
instead serve prayer meeting held 200 600
sea thrashed violently through night
monday 16th 800 morning I1 went fore
ship saw column smoke distance rising
168 appendix E

air soon perceived steamboat new orleans


coming meet us another steamboat side came
running toward us fast within two hours
two our sides gave large rope two
pulled us mouth mississippi noon great
everyones joy gratitude arriving here
100 miles yet city arrived tuesday 17th healthy
soon shall leave here go river st louis
now hastily 1I shall say farewell time since matters
calling me dear saints faithful heavenly calling
you received hasten prepare follow us listen
voice your presidents lord bless you
constant prayer heartfelt wish
your brother gospel christ
D jones

letter thomas jeremy


editor udgorn yelon
td8
tda

new orleans april 18 1849


dear brother davis
kind give me loan your trumpet blow
first time distant country what I1 especially wish
make known story our voyage liverpool here
monday 26th february two oclock afternoon
began our journey left waterloo dock
sang farewell saints time me
very strange feelings yes strange too difficult
task me describe them paper ink I1 remember
cheerful faces my faithful brethren william phillips merthyr
abel evans eleaser edwards john davies david my brother
yd8
td8 thomas jeremy
trans documents yde editor 169

daniel evans pelin


Felin fach ystrad
felinfach
felinfacti estrad cardigan came wales
escort us far oh how lovely association
1I these brethren numerous occasions wales
sometimes day too short us talk things per-
taining kingdom god frequently take
night ex tention sleep stand distance
us while others abundantly comfortable grasp
time came my mind 1I see them again

I1 imagined hearing something answer long


before seeing them zion I1 took courage
going port I1 saw my dear brethren follow-
ing us along bank river far 1I think
I1 imagine 1I hear voices carried along gentle
breeze saying oh father watch them while ourselves
echoed back
god israel keep them
midst ho st
host enemies
like sons thunder field
until conquer black enemy

gone sea 30 miles steam-


boats escorted us turned back leaving us alone
huge ocean wind rather contrary us first day
weather very lovely
tuesday came sight ireland land seemed barren
mountains very high nevertheless dwellings seen
very frequently foot mountains following
wednesday thursday us rather bad spirits
seasickness although made without sick day
these days our revered president capt D jones very
attentive sick showed love us greatly walking back
forth along our large ship administering sick
bro daniel daniel Brech
brechfa
brechka fa together william jenkins
cardiff few faithfuls painstakingly made gruel
us tasty food during time
better stay our stomachs anything else 1I did
request salt butter soup then nor 1I able eat bread
same my dear wife children mary
170 appendix E

our youngest daughter sick during entire journey


although predicted before left wales
surely die sea yet weaned
thanks god keeping us alive sick few
days 1I see now sickness beneficial us through
cleansing our stomachs 1I advise everyone comes yet zion
bring oat flour oat bread them find
best food sick best way those yet
come us zion stay healthy try stay often
deck advantageous counsel them our sad
experience bro jones very diligent get deck
tried linger beds tried hide him
went past 1I far doing myself jokingly
times threaten pull pulley down deck put
rope around us pull us top even did want
go everyone went deck own without bro joness
having carry threat
love us what compelled bro jones continually do
everything our behalf 1I saw worth our midst
time started our journey place doubt
my mind bro jones do best yet do every-
thing our behalf until reach valley mountains
I1 believe chief effort make us happy
able enjoy temporal spiritual blessings
dear brother you publish your melodious trumpet
false prophets prophesied press
pulpits bro jones sell us slaves take our money etc
very obvious me saints perceive spirit
leads them imagine things him
return acccount our journey hardly anyone
us continued sick first few days I1 do intend give
account our journey day day letter I1 first
thought since bro jones gave detailed account our
journey letter let suffice me testify
given account properly I1 daybook I1 put down
wondrous things saw each day together what kind
weather times saw rather large fish swarming
follow our ship jumping little higher water
td8
trans documents tda thomas
thomasjeremy
jeremy editor 171

length between four five feet larger


called sea sowsbows saw dolphin lifted
deck alive sailors considered
beautiful fish sea size
common salmon leifi
teifi
teifl saw flying fish dozens
them flying above water place another
19th march saw fish twelve feet long
called shark others young whale
left many ships islands behind each day our vessel
hastened toward sunset lovely weather fair wind
frequently each day fact much pleasant us
I1 thought middle march like
middle june while part ship musicians
playing edifying books being read somewhere else others
chatting our dear compatriots success
gospel midst how many relatives
obedient truth my prayer my relatives
though
thoughout
everyone throughout wales especially those heard my preaching
counties Carmarthen
carmarthen cardigan grasp
true light may seed sowed grow luxuriantly I1 do
I1 bowed
doubt good soil different places
give fruit may my brethren still care weak
shoots nothing destroy them may sow
seed fertile soil give much fruit
held prayer meetings almost every night instead family
prayer our father poured spirit greatly us
heavens answered our prayers even caused wind obey
our request every sunday held meetings saints remem-
brance our blessed lord times these meetings received
knowledge through spirit you wales yes great
things revealed us oh how sweet teaching
bro jones shared us resurrection dead
how dead raised what body do
come mystery many think
I1 see my letter getting long I1 must close despite how
enjoyable me give account our lovely journey
before closing 1I wish inform my dear brothers sisters
intend follow us yet zion take care obey leaders
172 appendix E

every counsel receive them time time


way great joy holy spirit
hand forget counsel disregard holy priesthood
better stay behind until come enough
spirit god humble meek gentle tractable
dear brothers sisters hasten come us remember-
ing keep above counsel your minds remember
saying jesus christ blessed meek shall
inherit earth
now dear bro davis having lengthy I1 close telling
you arrived here health my wife joins me
remembering you kindly wishing you every goodness
your dear brother christ
thomas jeremy

letter capt jones pres william phillips


tda
td9

st louis april 30 1849


my dear brother phillips
following detailed account our sea voyage I1 sent
bro J davis new orleans I1 shall add hurriedly
arrived here saturday 28th
new orleans caught emigrants ship
ashland
asbrand
asb1and started liverpool 200 saints several
weeks before us 1I hired steamboat 1I took them

welsh saints me price carrying us 1100 miles


river 225
us 225
2.25 10 shillings addition
take 100 pounds freight steamboat came alongside
our ship take our goods aboard spared much expense
loss cholera very bad new orleans many dying
steamboats along rivers especially immigrants
trans documents yd9
yde
td9 capt jones pres wm phillips 173

ship went before us forty two died


cholera journey nineteen etc
saints through being careful observe rules cleanliness
refrain drinking water river without letting
settle putting alum oat flour through being faithful
godly through refraining eating fruits meats etc short
through striving life every sense through bless-
ing god ordinances thanks him welsh saints
come alive healthy point except dear
brother name jenkin williams aberdale
aberdare
Aberdare
good faithful lad whole voyage except went con-
trary counsels given hid cholera
long taking own way treat through brandy
sad result died here within few hours
arriving buried due respect few minutes before
died left remarkably good testimony him said
completely happy faced death
ofrR price ofdowlais
young child cofr dowlais died consumption
these welshmer
welshmen
Welshmen died until now
english saints two women child died deadly cholera
officers boat surprised how few deaths
our midst asked surprise each morning
none you dead yet baby born wife samuel lee
Ll anelli wife john rees cardiff stillborn
mothers improving greatly
yesterday 1I hired steamboat here carry us council bluffs
16 shillings per person 100 pounds free 2 shillings
each additional 100 pounds freight among saints
here completely filled cabins everywhere else
boat come alongside us take us our goods
thus liverpool council bluffs did cost
welsh penny moving goods
everyone healthy today heartened rejoicing
privilege desirous move forward better news west
still here between 3000 4000 saints mormonism
winning popularity now fast treacherous tricks
malicious false accusers being revealed fact too
obvious concealed longer powerful
174
17 pendic E
appendix
Ap

intelligent diligent courteous people good citizens say


publications now saints everyone courts
favor good disregarded long enough here
purchased iron make wagons council bluffs flour
meat groceries everything necessary journey california
settle every opportunity hold public
meetings every day every night every boat I1 here
before worth life man say mormon
may ist hired steamboat moved yesterday
carry us council bluffs goo 900 miles river missouri
ids ac8c each half price children between four fourteen
younger charge loo pounds
100 luggage
without paying pay 2 shillings per hundred rest
shall start here tomorrow purchased our food here get
us valley our stoves iron make wagons clothes arms
goods etc etc point our journey expensive
I1 noted prophwyd far I1 tell costs
hardly different what 1I noted deadly cholera
killing hosts here now dear faithful elder died morn-
ing namely benjamin francis leaving great sorrow behind him
difficult find faithful life
died happy wife children come along us
benj jones whole family except wife became blem-
ished unfaithfulness went away along road destruc-
tion gallop today david giles david jones wife
went them completely unknown me I1 shall take greater
care next time refrain bringing faithful saints
me
I1 heard my dear wife sea following me
may gracious lord keep my constant prayer
dear brother faithful fearless through persecution
lead properly dear flock I1 left under your care you
officers remember my counsels you nurture spirit light
love saints feed them truth may god
israel bless you abundantly amen remember me everyone
once my brother family your own family etc
your brother gospel
D jones
letter capt jones president william phillips
td10

country indians omaha july 13 1849


dear brother phillips
hastily almost before dog opens mouth camp
I1 take early morning opportunity send you few lines
time portray sight around me nor preamble
mosquitoes biting sun almost 1I am awaiting

call get under way fifty wagons far west beyond


furthest borders every civilized country midst
red skinned people forest
wm morgans william davies rhymni followed
us far my request tell you our course
detail time my duties do permit me do now
time 1I say you do direct you letter
1I opportunity speak them much 1I cannot

write now council bluffs 1I established part welsh


company came here welsh branch church
wm morgans president prime objective
ready center point receive welcome direct
our dear nation may come us give
details advantages country welsh
stayed part 1I shall say allow those saints
wish you think best qualified come here soon
those cannot go far valley
mountains come beautiful country earn enough soon
help them rest journey
us welsh twenty four covered wagons loaded
going forward now come eighteen miles
our journey successfully you shall receive names wm
morgans
news zion good you shall receive newspaper
published here william morgans
dear saints wales 1I say faithful calling
you called darkness light
176 appendix E

jubilee hurry us build zion come come accord-


ing directions your presidents babylon
midst pestilence disease wars battles transitory
world freedom children zion safe place
redeemed possible come here cost
1I noted prophwyd between 6 7 pounds apiece
those fourteen older possible soon earn
assistance proceed cannot earned wales long
time
everyone company here very content very eager
see relatives etc following them soon my dear wife
baby arrived here safely few days ago time go along
us cholera imposed heavy losses our small army along
rivers especially accursed waters missouri yet
effect small comparison people through-
out neighboring boats towns wm
win morgans go
detail prey 1I hope greater proportion
saints clutches you shall great com-
fort reading interesting letter 1I received lately

parley P pratt valley I1 shall send bro davis


publish
those wish write friends going
california should address letter like care
capt jones great salt lake city put letter envelope
address orson pratt 15 wilton street liverpool
forward cost except postage
give my warm regards bro john davis abel evans
put your shoulders unitedly under ark con-
ference presidents officers dear brethren feelings
nostalgia beating my breast your company your voices
council congregations my hope behold
your happy faces before long your hosts you worthy
zion may god our father hasten blessed day my sincere
prayer continually
give my warm regards dear saints your benefit your
success your temporal eternal joy heartfelt wish
your humble servant gospel christ
D jones
trans documents yd10
td10 capt jones vm phillips
wm 177

NB 1I hoping greatly hear whether my dear brother


wm
win howells ventured forth mission again may
god israel bless him success my health improving
gradually although my voice still continues hoarse hard
still much say DJ

letter capt D jones tojJ davis


following excerpt private letter capt jones
sent us
do your best sell my books I1 left send rest
money faithful brother lead next com-
pany come here doubtless very useful then
support my family 1I devote my time serve saints
perhaps look welsh indians I1 desire interest
prayers dear saints success I1
able benefit my nation regard-
less country I1 am
farewell now dear brother may lord god israel bless
you clothe you spirit your calling you
enlighten your compatriots sound your trumpet
huge rocks wales echo calling inhabitants hasten
zion
your brother etc
djones
bjones
DJ
D jones
ones
letter william morgan council bluffs
president W phillips
tdll11
ddll
TD

pottowatamie county iowa 2 sept 1849


deaf brother phillips
dear
good five months since 1I saw you liverpool
I1 think neither you nor I1 ever forget day took
look each time close 8000 miles
between me country my birth present time
spite my mind fly across great deep like light-
ning frequently gaze faces my dear brothers sisters
stayed back I1 am confident before long I1 shall
see many them following desirable country I1 may
speak them face face rejoice together lord
same country under same roof earlier days I1
dare present give vent my feelings I1 must
work links dear saints general welsh
here divided two groups group gone ahead
toward plains salt lake twenty two wagons under
presidency bro jones group staying here
purpose putting welsh settlement place
advantage monoglot welsh follow
people same language same country
likely many know them associated
each many times welcome them new country
english here several hundreds miles
small handful welsh midst brothers
sisters enjoying our freedom like birds say
word against us them very friendly I1 live house
where apostle george smith lived william rowland
Hirwaun
hirwaun house apostle ezra T benson counting adults
children number 113 welsh
branch merthyr branch I1 baptized
1I hope stay 113 until come wales
1I room accommodate saints
trans documents td11
7d11 wm morgan vm phillips
wm 179

ate covering land yet perhaps come worlds


above welsh saints here love each
married 1I shall name them now you yet hear
welsh almost our land adjoining brotherjones
Brothe
brother jones
rjones
purchased land claim 150 acres near our
lands entrusted my care gift welsh
intend build meetinghouse soon 1I

think long hard part our work


our wheat harvest past under cover I1 wish you
remember me saints general welsh saints here
greet you delighted see shipload coming
across next spring get much xa
x77 each
come here cannot go further
three years two perhaps enough oxen cattle go ahead
1I am sure company penny
landed here cattle sheep now fact 1I know
family country cow two I1 am
hurry I1 end wishing gracious lord bless you
your family saints under your care
yours
william morgan

PS bro jones wishes you send abel evans next


company you spare him you shall hear me again soon
I1 glad receive answer letter
information my sister anne bro jones improving
health sisterjones
sister jones
Siste rjones child quite well seven pounds
1I said enough come think those
spend 11414 yes 128 28 choose taking many steps
streets liverpool overspend
money 1I hope blame me saying xa
x77
enough you shall yet hear greater detail concerning prices
things journey prices provisions
necessary you expect within month earlier perhaps
george smith ezra T benson
dan jones
td12

camp israel
hills sweet valleys
near independence rock
649 miles winter quarters
september 21 1849
brothers W morgan W davies presidents
welsh saints pottowatamie iowa GA
dear brethren
our sincere wish always give counsel assistance
suggestions may benefit ease our brethren
although distant you consider suitable thing
offer your observation things learned
through experience benefit you you adopt them
you everyone else may immigrate across
deserted interminable plains great salt lake valley
wish you understand taking upon ourselves
leadership taking upon us your presidency belongs
others think reached end our
journey too late winter presidency
valley give information you winter bro hyde
ask us put attention those under direct
presidency first place wish impress your minds
great importance your situation respect offices
you hold you set good example saints
give unity pious secrecy your counsels your daily
transactions patient long suffering meek temperate virtuous
just loving every thing worthy emulation choice
your animals immigration counsel you insist
those used yoke easy handle older
ten younger five years old sure your wagons
built good materials strong light wheels
six inches higher usually good crossing
trans
irons documents td12 letter smith benson jones 181

rivers keeping water your supplies wheels should


34 inches
1154 width 2000 lbs ibs wagon
three yoke good oxen pull convenient load
410 lbsibs light strong wagon two yoke good
oxen loads go across damp places without sinking
getting stuck spot heavier ones usually do
never should you put 2000 lbsibs strong wagon
three yoke good animals sure animals
besides those yoke you ready assistance
those yoke happens injured die take care
lest your animals get whipped excess mistreatment
believe gold seekers lost animals
whip mistreatments
mis treatments
load journey alkali poisoning bones animals
scattered along way trail astonishing
think loss looks them let freedom
those fond flogging dumb creatures hoops
wheels come loose dryness something else
instead breaking wheel usual then joining
shorter make wooden hoop corresponding length
width set tightly between hoop wheel nail
secure serves same purpose does require
lot time make
manner your journey counsel
adopted pres young fewer fifty wagons each band
fewer twelve good horses purpose rounding
animals looking place camp
useful animals get control run goring each
short without horses you cannot follow animals
overtake them bring them back etc keep animals
order advise you tie them each night until
grazing gets scarce each prefer look morsel
rest threaten horn shift himself careful
watchful things put eight ten faithful watchmen
around your camp your animals every night do permit
anyones fine tale your safety need
guard them you safe here harm come you etc
keep you organizing faithful watchmen mentioned
182 appendix E

let each group iron bolts biggest ones together


next size them pertaining wagons case
break blacksmiths shop far away linch pins etc
linchpins
take care choice men officials im migrations
meek patient long suffering slow excited bad
tempers slow determined understanding do hurry
travel you go forward sixty miles each week content driv-
ing animals hard hot weather causes black disease spread
causes them die soon allow your animals go slowly
grazing good good condition
strong you go sparse place through plan
enabled go across deserted fruitless plains
necessary travel several days through day without food
water careful your animals do drink waters
poisoned alkali part earth full
highest crossing platte independence rock short
sensible cautious things especially respect your
animals crossing them large extent your
temporal salvation depends another thing consider great
importance desire impress your mind
use made strong liquor our brothers come
distant country where liquor scarce hard anyone get
except wealthy liquor seldom used poor
come america where liquor cheap
being accustomed drunk ening effect
drunkening very likely
make too much use own harm great loss
reason counsel everyone under your care abstain
completely refrain making use except
necessary case illness you cannot get wagons
suggested insist similar them you tell
welsh buy good russian duck liverpool cover
wagons material keep rain
getting your beds your supplies wet your journey insist
your wagons made like boxes sides bottom
water get through sides bottom purchase
those things necessary new orleans st louis
stoves crocks irons tea kettles etc
needed your journey spring gave order
trans documents yd12
td12 letter smith benson jones 183

merchants ganesville
Kanes
kanesville
ville buy those things needed
immigration promised do failed fulfill
promise why urge you buy places
you able those things you need lest others disappointed
insist few good americans know how drive
gentle animals drivers every group
expert guide lead every group immigrants do depend
cows use yoke purpose helping
oxen take along many you very
useful valley every group should axletrees
axle trees hickory
wood lest them break oak wood spokes let
everyone weigh load refrain taking anything
do without buy good grass ropes tie your animals
ten feet rope each ox herd animals stampeded
before frightening dreadful behold them terror
running earth trembling chains rattling yokes snapping
wagons falling apart watchmen trampled perhaps killed
others wounded effects go along herd
animals stampede tell our friends wales come
plains great salt lake soon those
cannot prepare come plains let them stay pottowatamie
county iowa where meet friends many
brethren welsh company us going forward
well capt danjones
dan jones
vanjones midst happy con-
tent make camp resound evening song
enjoying health good spirit undeniably
blessed say may lord continue bless them
offer foregoing suggestions your benefit
everyone else immigrates great salt lake city may lord
bless you give you wisdom prudent faithful stewards
shepherds inheritance god you
placed preside our prayer
letter djones
bjones
capt D jones president W phillips
td13

bank green river october 12 1849


dear brother phillips
between what seems like showers frequency
importance tasks 1I snatch opportunity midnight greet
you yes extremes distant wilderness even
though our local distance increases continually yet nor any-
thing else befalls me lengthy strange journey
alienate my thoughts my feelings love my prayers
you my dear brothers priesthood kind
saints children my begetting injesus jesus christ nor cause me
forget vineyard my lord garden my planting my
flock wales
my conscience peaceful ever since I1 left you respect
every teaching I1 preached every discipline I1 ordained
every organization 1I established before leaving you

daily 1I pray god owns vineyard watch


things 1I entrusted saints seriously care various
presidents I1 taught proclaimed duties them
did ignorantly led error great
privilege awesome responsibility grave consideration
you your counselors selected watchmen everyone
0 remember my counsels follow my example I1 followed
sound doctrine our lordjesus lord jesus christ
dord dJesus
Lor example
saints humility tenderness patience love fruits
godliness you close chief earthly fold
1I am you enjoy looking back your work joyfully
think giving accounting 0 how lovely me now
think my efforts day night while even though
my body every day 1I felt torture pain caused me
1I do feel fearful cause leaving you
first 1I thought 1I feel reason I1 know
god you still spirit guiding you according
your request him frequently receive here short
trans documents 7d13
td13 capt D jones TV phillips 185

exceedingly sweet message speed mind


means mail coach world knows nothing our
father our petition tells us you
perhaps you thinking end our journey
now main causes kept us longer
went before us rain storms
many rainstorms
brainstorms
first 300 miles our journey difficult travel
wheels covered wagons often sink very deep
mire came highland grazing
still very scarce animals strange
you consider 6000 7000 covered wagons each
pulled three six yoke oxen besides several thousand cattle
sheep mules horses passed along road during
summer toward paradise saints country gold
these consume much grass you add these
thousands buffaloes antelope elk etc own poor graz-
ing wilderness desolate parched land together
considerations caused us slow down content
travel ten twelve miles each day proved
our satisfaction before way complete
our journey hardly day do come across
skeletons oxen those went before us roadside
monument foolishness traveling too fast begin-
ning journey long
us saints thanks god
preserved us whereas others leave animals covered
wagons thousands dollars worth provisions along
road enabled through blessing god wend
our way steadily comfortably along although slowly while
find graves others often alongside road rejoice
give thanks you died our camp
since left council bluffs nor hardly sickness
journey now three months
8632 miles
8652
traveled 86312 ascended height
7000 feet above sea level almost unawares
surrounded nearly every side snowy tops rocky
mountains perpetually dwell white clouds 0 majestic
sights beyond description
186 appendix E

between us salt lake valley still 164 miles


yet 1I am confident journey finished within fifteen
days blessing our god 0 hail blessed day
welsh here me living befits saints acknowl-
edging god ways praising him morning night
keeping them until now captivity persecuting
babylon until sweet voices resound unison massive
rocks around us almost believe melodi-
ous voices charm wolves play outside our camp dusk
far rendered them harmless us our flock sheep
since week ago nature put white wedding
gown receive new inhabitants fissures these
everlasting mountains spread white carpet before door
everyone night spread snowy white blanket lightly
taken care close cover wagon
before night snow piled between wagons
did see our neighbors until evening did
die snow time according prophecies our
enemies sun shone pleasantly second morning earth
soon changed garment soon between 200 300 wagons
seen majestic row climbing steep slopes while
singing songs ofzion
zion made camp evening
under crimson smile sun western world saints
valley sent eighty yoke oxen 300 miles
meet us great help us brotherly
love worthy emulating anticipate each day
news valley brings joy our hearts may
thousands race gomer soon come us freedom
country
saints formed state california name
state deseret search book mormon meaning
word sent petition american govern-
ment dispensation effect granted now
fulfill many prophecy your officials
yourselves etc 1 I shall restore your judges before your
councils beginning time state officials
inspired without arrangement impossible
kingdom god fully established laws
trans documents yd13
td13 capt D jones TV phillips 187

administered earth everything works good saints


end whole earth know before much longer
welsh holding under difficulties journey
learning drive oxen better my expectations
winning praise camps saints
organization virtue skill especially
singing
1I need enlarge further here advice concerning things
preparations journey those shall come us
apostles G smith E T benson myself
written those things great detail bro william morgans
president welsh settlement council bluffs
asked him send published udgorn selon
udgom
how far brother davis sound trumpet now my heart
longs hear voice I1 havent seen since I1 saw you send
me least fifty every number you able through hand
bro pratt 1I hope bro davis receiving regularly
newspaper 0 hyde publishes council bluffs according
agreement I1 made abovementioned
above mentioned direc-
tions reach you publish them udgorn
udgom
saints follow us free information
purchase may study them carefully benefit
I1 know I1 shall get see you dear saints
1I know true wish my heart see
you here me zion 1I long continually
your friendship your church meetings marvelous con-
feren ces
ferences
saints worried cholera morbus
borbus
snatched away many our dear brothers sisters our
journey st louis council bluffs lest counteract
cause god wales keep dear relatives friends
following them 1I say job old easy conscience
lord giveth lord taketh away blessed name
lord spite how painful my feelings under
circumstances death cruelly tear my dear ones my
bosom 1I fear persecutors saints wales
necessary task nearer home set anything foolish
against religion christ death saints
188 appendix E

respect emigration wales here 1I say again


I1 wrote before come oh come rapidly
open gates proclaim bondsmen babylon free come
zion yet orderly way through flight while yet
spite everyone get hold 7 8 pounds
pocket get underway counsel him come council bluffs
where meet loving welsh brothers sisters
arms wide open receive him direct him cannot come
along way without stopping saying 1I do intend
you harm vineyard god driving away too many
workers once do organized way may ship-
ful come once select seven brave faithful elders
council midst heart mind
keep them clutches devil
without doubt tried worse thousand times wales
day judgment prove work
worry fatigue 1I went through keep them
wolves until now
respect wealthy pay cost poor
come let them prepare hearts forgive them everything
spite everything repay them unkindness yet
let them weary well doing reward greater
god elders arms full guide them
here profess every faithfulness before beginning yet strive
0 how valuable spirit god
journey naturing unity
nuturing love warding off conflict with-
out even angel lead company across 1I suppose
pray daily
my health yet good I1 wish far nor good
weeks possible under weight
heavy burden man get better 1I request interest
prayers my kind brothers dear saints strength
each day serve them continually
remember me my wife saints here your dear
wife your family your counselors heart
remember me lovingly council saints merthyr
dowlais aberdar Hir
Dow lais taberdar hirwaun Monmouth
waun monmouthshire shire etc what am I1
doing starting name names like children my bowels 1I love
trans documents td14 capt jones V phillips
W 189

without exception may gracious god bless them keep


them eternal life
remember me faithful presidents conferences
branches let them remember my counsels them
conference always 1I proclaimed

remember me lovingly saints 1I say


them now far them earnestly pleading them
god plead them through me them sake
own souls behave according godliness things
very glorious name took themselves
scorned bid them listen advice priesthood
pray god live lovingly honestly chastely righteously
thus shall abundant entrance eternal
resting place god
now dear saints farewell you while although 1I
things declare I1 am able now here may
gracious lord bless you spirit abundantly keep
you midst persecution strengthen you trials
save you kingdom sincere prayer
your brother etc
D jones

letter capt jones W phillips


td14

salt lake city november 20 1849


dear brother phillips
chance I1 opportunity sending letter these
remote parts season cold across rocky mountains
american soldiers I1 heard now going states
ready start before I1 finish letter arrived here
healthy happy 26th month very
190 appendix E

pleased everything here whole temporally spiritu-


ally much better told wisdom
solomon beyond comprehension queen ofsheba
sheba
nearly 1I time say place you shall
complete account next spring welsh content
joining together enclose 600 700 acres land
banks west jordan river
westjordan four miles city
country called new wales fruitful beautiful land
under sun western world does cost any-
thing cheap everyone much everyone
cultivate
surprising what great work done year
splendid valley yesterday 1I pleasure baptizing close
forty welsh here order them renew covenants
seal faithfulness lord god israel great
joy rejoicing midst through day our
worry thousands our dear fellow
nation here yes honest heart us established
welsh branch church god hold worship meetings
language born thomas jeremy
president daniel daniels rice williams counselors
I1 put welsh comfortable situations get plenty
work gold money supplies etc wages workers
6s ac
6c per day craftsmen los
ios 12s per day
welsh craftsmen here people running
them gold hands pay them valley health-
ful I1 havent heard old age sickness disease since 1I
here 1I heard our dear president brigham young say publicly
remember anyone buried here I1
havent heard mention thing since 1I here
I1 am building house city inheritance
prepared me before 1I arrived 1I received lot acre
quarter each welsh city chose build
lewis got paradise like lot near temple
house almost finished already addition farm
place I1 mentioned together
company rejoicing greatly come place
others building houses city welsh
trans documents td14 capt jones pjillips
W phillips 191

happy countenances
countenancer short great haste
understand me 1I say well everyone here
abundance food good shops seen wales
me although world 1I am getting

ease expense saints I1 shall say welsh


except myself getting rest here ease serve themselves
make themselves happy whereas 1I here
week before I1 counseled prepare go 800 1000
miles further southwest mission god
my own expense across tops snowy mountains through
tribes savage indians along road white man never
before set foot tomorrow morning hour get underway
I1 know I1 shall return my mission search
branch gomer
race ofgomer called madocians
Madoc ians
story well known 1I go intent bringing them
fold good shepherd oh saints pray my success
my life protected among bloodthirsty savages you
shall hear I1 return
1I welsh received hearty welcome valley
presidents came miles meet us welcome us great
joy everything well
my fatigue vexing my health still I1 am hardly better
1I started wales yet god strengthen me
miraculously day day oh dear saints pray me now my
work still increasing oh I1 opportunity tell you
hopes shortly before us fulfilled you
1I cannot patient while yet my wife family well
together saints send regards you dear
saints farewell now dear brother great haste
your brother
D jones
letter council bluffs pres W phillips
td15

council bluffs december 25 1849


dear brother phillips
I
1 think beneficial give few my thoughts
respect necessary things distant journey many
my brothers sisters facing before long first thing
good supply patience grumbling does
good trouble free successful
journey let everyone resolve keep counsels president
do do likely lose spirit god
midst evil enter then easy get
him even though many our company fell victim
cholera I1 know two them did find fault
presidents way doing things thus voluntary
obedience heart content those
whom bro jones selected oversee matters
older church etc I1 repeat take care beware
spirit remember counsel lord jesus christ iiee
listen voice your shepherd done journey
successful
now 1I shall mention things kinds garden
seed good bring counsel craftsmen
bring tools them writing paper great ser-
vice quire two those bring tin dishes
treating milk crockery glasses iron steel spades
coal ore mining here worth much shovels
expensive ie 4 shillings 5 shillings each you get
shovels liverpool 10 shillings half dozen 1I
grateful brethren bring half dozen shovels
liverpool me much trouble them do
half dozen pitchforks I1 glad get them
shilling each price here worth bringing sorts iron-
ware here except axes those better here britain
price common iron here twopence halfpenny per pound
trans documents yd15
td15 letter council bluffs 193

small iron threepence higher calico twice price earthen-


ware vessels same glasses expensive here
advise everyone emigrating take care
boxes strong made dry wood suffered
losses boxes dry clothes
bouldy potatoes
become mouldy ocean very desirable
herrings oat flour bacon dried beef pepper mustard salt
pickles onions oranges oranges my opinion
much use apples better ones baked put
cakes brandy beneficial warm stomach cold
sea rough seasickness good take
things fortnight before starting order cleanse
stomach free bile possible small
children better sailors adults stand feet while
parents leg too short too long walk
without difficulty 1I written you before 1I hope you
received my letter answer before
reaches end journey I1 sent two copies
frontier guardian john davis I1 glad get copy
udgorn scion
yelon possible trumpet sound across
sea many welsh saints glad hear voice
reach america 1I like know terms perhaps
put together plan communication every
month frequently I1 shall grateful bro davis
opinion matter 1I should like letter telling
welsh intend set sail president etc
I1 write letter st louis new orleans meet them
doubt between now time set I1 give direc-
tion things buy sell here rather
good price expected gold diggers come here
spring hoards come chance make
money quite easily make 400 each few
months buying things gold miners welsh do
same thing easily obstacles journey 1I
chance myself first day I1 set foot land bluffs earn
49 selling them now you see good 1I do
saints sending letter meet them 1I dont come

person
194 appendix E

welsh branch happy 1I performed four


monachlog
marriages john williams ofmonachlog
Monach log
109 mary jones
maryjones
neighborhood mynydd dare edward evans hirwaun
aberdale
aberdare
ofmynydd Aber Hirwaun
alice daughter david richards blacksmith alexander
owens twynyrodyn died yellow fever please inform
wife let fear sea lovely sail fair weather
liverpool sounding roughest part our tabernacle
finished time you bring emigrants here
square now I1 heard once bro jones
departure valley 500 miles bluffs
time wife child whole company healthy
going along successfully I1 expect mail pouch yet
valley near future heard cholera your
midst cholera st louis now
devastating illness bluffs far
remember me officials saints may
gracious lord bless you bring you safe beautiful zion
wish my heart
I1 am your brother new covenant
william morgan

PS let known wm jenkins cardiff staying


bluffs heard through gifts brethren
suffering fire destroyer your
midst 1I received letters morgan morgans E thomas
morgan hughes john ormond son two daughters
here
letter lewis tojJ davis
td16

salt lake valley april 10 1850


beloved brother christ
1I date my letter blessed place 1I longed

much see 1I broke through many obstacles

reach though perfect heaven nor everyone


perfect yet I1 am sorry having come here evils
prophesied me back place
inhabitants fulfilled 1I believe my duty
my good lord cause send my witness back
sake those experience I1
take heart come here
do expect me give you detailed account place
full wonders you shall
others I1 shall say like queen ofsheba sheba earlier I1
told half good things place inhabitants
city being built miraculous speed country
around being worked incredibly well convenient wor-
ship house already finished meet several thousands
dear saints each sunday every country hear
voices best people earth our dear president brigham
young counselors apostles others teaching us
law heaven pleasure great sweetness me show-
ing great power wisdom love god plan salva-
tion people love heavenly teaching
taught here anything everyone else follow-
ing suit peace prosperity love reign god praised
salvation 1I seen drunken person
quar relling
place anyone quarrelling another I1 heard
someone threatening take another court except
too ashamed first place do 1I yet
hear oath swearing street murder theft
I1 know place nor I1 seen immorality
highest officials here surprisingly humble meek
196 appendix E

godly like father children behavior


what 1I seen 1I fear greatly sickness pestilence poverty
oppression causing much suffering my dear brothers
sisters gospel wales causes me desire pray
great deal able see them thousands blessed
place may best welsh soon come here what time
well then here begging poor here
men came here same time 1I did freeholders
difficult me get anyone work my small farm
busy time sowing now here wages workers here
two three dollars per day work buys what cannot
gold welsh came here doing well very
respected everyone farm each banks
jordan place called new wales capt jones
just returned searching welsh indians 1I write
haste mail leave I1 write you I1
hope my relatives way here
my dear husband father my sister started
tell them come soon 1I glad see them here
together my brothers my relatives you chance
remember me them lovingly my heartfelt wish them
obey gospel speedily you choose send my testimony
them 1I hope blessing god them tell
them everyone mentions capt jones
evil man prophesied him rather until now
behavior direct opposite found him kind
benevolent entire behavior like father toward
children great our duty thank him god sent
him good leader us received nor tried
get my money 1I heard anyone
company loser penny him
prayer us god bless him health
lost serving us recompense him world come
dear brother exhort saints me continue faithful
church I1 am certain religion ofjesus
jesus christ
remember me lovingly you saints
your sister new covenant
elizabeth lewis
letter capt jones tojf
toffJ davis
td17

salt lake city april 12 1850


dear brother davis
1I many things write you now I1 hardly
know what start epistle tell you many my
thoughts besides briefly I1 shall say you
dear saints oh brethren faithful diligent
heavenly calling you called since you know
your labor vain lord make good use your time
vineyard god before you called here
difficult days ahead everything fine here welsh
healthy happy here
1I returned here south february traveling
1000 miles being within less 100 miles abode
Madocians I1
madocians told afterwards indians
midst I1 gone further our horses our
supplies depleted rainy weather flooding coun-
try nearly lost our lives traveling across snowy mountains
hundreds miles through snow between three eight feet
deep sleeping night nothing blanket
cover us left behind days half dozen our horses
mules die prey wolves several days
without food before arriving utah settlement returning
you shall account our discoveries epistle
time tell everything world intend
fulfill purpose adventure yet perhaps year
least shall give until I1 get hold madocians
Madoc ians
get main road opened saints come wales across
railway panama california channel colorado
river overland settlements saints
near port steamboats land
here every valley before long good intentions god toward
gomer
old race ofgomer becoming manifest strangely rapidly
our dear president us dear saints remember keep
198 appendix E

counsels 1I given you respect priesthood


pray me yourselves
1I am your brother new covenant
D jones

NB trumpet sound send here every chance


you get goodness sake do your best me my books
send money 1I above journey my own cost
1I shall go likewise again before long

letter capt jones W phillips


td18

great salt lake city april 12 1850


dear brother phillips
few lines 1Iwrite you now you shall see letter
brother davis much myself yet I1 hope yes
I1 pray daily god keep you evil surrounds
you give you influence saints good shepherd
flock you may keep them unity love growth
continual success I1 hope I1 say hosts those
persecuted me worst man before
country benore
obeyed gospel my lord come know me better love
you cause me love hateful them yes
embrace them I1 see them here I1 fear govern-
ment hardly gives you protection do become
dis heartened king kings watching you pre-
serve you you humble pious before him do forget
pray him serve him you cannot fulfill your important
office without assistance oh 1I happy see
your face here us get tell each our troubles
our hopes probably shall do first doubtless
poverty pestilences deaths every kind together
trans documents yd19
td19 letterfrom
letter
letaer
leater tbomasjeremy
thomas jeremy 199

hatred world causing much worry you saints


rejoice salvation here every evil death
very seldom does king terrors visit place yet
here without our trials temptations extreme
though different I1 am sad say even among
welsh giving themselves false influences especially
called yellow fever desire go here
country gold get rich 1I imagine many beloved
welsh way here weeks may gracious
god keep them evils surround them especially
cholera borbus
morbus missouri river oh william
strangest time I1 ever saw my life see power god
power devil
my wife little claudia well saints
send greeting you your dear family
saints farewell now
your brother
D jones

NB american soldiers did take letter until now


weather 1I send now 1I hope

letters 1I sent reached you promptly 1I heartfelt longing


your conferences your association I1 must content now

letter great salt lake city thomas jeremy


td19

great salt lake city april 14 1850


dear brother davis
you kind lend space your melodious
trumpet letter those wanted me write
them answer through too much work
200 appendix E

me write I1 like personally I1 hope my


old faithful brothers sisters around llanybydder brechfa
brechka
places do best spread udgorn through
country those wish get read our account
goodness my heavenly father toward me my
family arrived here neighborhood valley
healthy 29th october meantime our revered
president brigham young two counselors him
come visit us welsh great comfort
received listening welcome valley us
excellent counsels pertaining settlement counseled
us go west side city stop three miles
city our animals get better grazing camped
bank thejordanjordan river runs directly utah lake
salt lake width river 100 feet proportion
depth five feet river abundance
large fish hosts wild geese ducks descend
small lakes along banks excellent
place those derive pleasure shooting game
reason fearing anyone free agency everyone kill
number desire family lived our wagons
months time here before getting house very comfor-
table way good top our wagons
stove them preparation food etc then
lived four months room obtained
city now our own house our city lot
call privilege city size lots acre quarter
everyone owns without money without value
pay measuring recording 150
1.50
150 welsh
chose get city lots west side city beautiful
plain biggest part three blocks possession
gomer
race ofgomer blocks generally 10 acres makes eight
lots each block I1 believe obtained fertile
land city although extremely good my reason
thinking good flatter lower
places city our land rich black soil im sure
how deep goes I1 do know places six feet
1I observed seeing marks left dug down
trans documents td19 letterfrom
lefter
leffer thomasjeremy
letter arom thomas jeremy 201

get water conveniently houses appearance


soil depth black rich biggest part welsh
intend build lots year plenty room
thousands welsh come yet nearby us hardly costs anything
keep animals size richness valley
horses oxen cattle kept outside through winter
keep cattle houses give hay them
convenient milk saints here get
much land work wish without paying anything anyone
except measure record few welsh came
here chosen our own land planting ie land farming
rather building west side thejordan jordan river
five miles place where I1 live unusually abundant crops
raised here wheat barley indian corn oats potatoes
squashes watermelons
water melons cabbage every kind garden vegetable
big you wish
1I shall give bit history fruitfulness large valley
halliday planted bushel wheat called touse wheat
got 183 bushels another planted bushel
potatoes got 330 bushels said you get barley
obtained california 100 bushels planting
perhaps account too good welsh believe
yet make less true what good do me
send false testimonies those come here know
themselves 1I think reason tillage gives good
yield you need sow very lightly I1 heard say
here half bushel wheat enough sow acre same
amount barley fertility earth tillage
spreads unusually well here growing goodness love
our heavenly father blesses us temporally well
spiritually acknowledged here holy prophets foresaw
valley spoke see isaiah 32 15th verse end
chapter two verses chapter others
easily understood see frequently hailstones
descending trees nothing coming down
us low city good sow near streams here
much rain here summer
countries necessary water land here times I1
202 appendix E

myself am very thankful my heavenly father my land


bank jordan river 1I drive feet
oxen whenever 1I want perhaps above verses
believed literally everyone wales very likely
inspire them think something else
abandoned old custom oh how lovely surrounded
here high mountains whose tops seen times above
clouds covered snow year round look
them testifying enemy come
here do harm saints you heard excellent
springs here especially medicinal nice
bathe hot spring another here hot
you hardly keep your finger longer while you
counting 10 15 sufficient water turn
large mill
excellent prices here men work
stonemason here earns 250 250
2.50 per day carpenter 200 2.00 per day
200
6 10 paid tailor making coat laborers 150 150
1.50
per day remember need work hard here
wales welsh brothers here earn 3 4 per
day digging job americans used digging
you see how easy live here price wheat here
now 4 per bushel indian corn 2 yoke oxen here costs
70 100 cow costs 30 good horse 150
200 dollar here 4s ac 2c
2c your money 1I am send-
ing my dear brother david my dear sisters time
bro jones sent back along way david
get come here year faithful brother abel evans
bro howell williams others 1I hope come
great joy here see them I1 hope my dear father
comes journey here I1 wish greatly hear how my sister
sarah journey here together
cefncrwth family meldrim
Meid rim 1I hope now members
church jesus christ zion before
long
my dear brothers sisters lovely place where
holds keys kingdom god earth
twelve apostles heard here preaching excellently
trans documents td19
7d19 letterfrom
letter thomasjeremy
thomas jeremy 203

mysteries kingdom god much need


exhort saints come here keep holy ghost
within them show them necessity salvation I1
know 1I shall come wales none welsh
conference sent mission place sent
england various islands sea conference held
ath
6th ath
7th month tabernacle very
very big nonetheless too small hold went
welsh exhorted our revered president brigham young
sing song joseph hyrum english here love
very much hear welsh sing oh how lovely escape
wearisome captivity midst best people
earth where justice holiness abide where worship god
disturb us frighten us 1000 miles
everyone except lamanites
Lama nites here moun-
tains seed joseph sold egypt
before I1 finish I1 wish say little those
obeyed gospel jesus christ remember
listen servants god preachers
saints teach you way salva-
tion except them reason listen them obey
teaching you saved I1 reasoned you
length I1 give you better counsel
1I hope davies clynglase llanwrda sees letter
Clyn glase parish ofllanwrda
1I sincerely hope dear family church
now
1I do time write mail leaves here tomorrow
morning
dear saints farewell small moment until see each
home my family joins me remembering
saints wales especially llanbydder brechfa
brechka
Cardiganshire I1 hope
cardiganshire dear saints whom I1 love much
continue faithful may gracious god called them
darkness light bless them spirit love unity peace
save them end heavenly kingdom
constant prayer
your dear brother jesus christ
thomas jeremy
204 appendix E

NB 1I very much like several letters my brothers


my friends wales let them send them thomas jeremy
thomasjeremy
great salt lake city california north america I1 sincerely hope
you dear bro davis correct every mistake you see
my writing

letter william morgan


td20

council bluffs may 26 1850


dear brother phillips
bro abel evans brought company saints here 23rd
month testimony your licenses
received regular members Cam brias camp
welsh branch cambrias
cambrian
dear brother things taking place among
young people things natural according custom
old country good them turn
thing making promises marriage my opinion
best refrain wiser get married before
getting underway those wish do bro abel evans
myself failed see earlier opened
eyes before coming bluffs married lovely girl near
Car marthen mary
carmarthen maryjones
jones wern branch usually families live
better here widowers then those wish get
married let them get married those wish refrain let
them refrain let boys girls widowed men
women leave old country without making promises get
married thus danger breaking promises
come free free country leave those remain
behind free opinion bro jones 1I recall

ie covenant until emigration 1I performed marriages


eight country expect six eight again soon
trans documents td20 letter trom william morgan
letterfrom 205

our town like boiling pot these days full merthyr


market saturday cannot drive wagon without stop-
ping along streets gold people leave
gold behind you might think flour goo 600
6.00
600
hundred pounds indian corn lyo iyo
1.50 bushel
150
sold 33001
300.1
500100 1 told dr bennett doctor company
4000 acres wheat illinois cut
likely trampled animals cormons
mormons preached
gospel yes prophetjoseph
prophet joseph first proclaim
did believe witness rather shouted away
him just like master cormons
mormons discovered
gold california strange how truthful witness how
accepted people general grain
truth testimony cormons
mormons merthyr respect
gospel spirit world running toy
root evil result cannot receive spirit
christ truth love glory god heavens
earth good well good luck them gold
let whoever wishes become merchants however shall build
zion city our god valley mountains
time comes raise head king come
glory envelop time false men
afraid
I1 received ten packages udgorn yelon
udgom selon english
brothers came here first shipload addressed
capt dan jones way him before you
receive letter them came our
territory judged entitled tithe kept
two each package you see pithed
tithed heavily
old country according law tithing paid
six months frontier guardian come across
regularly comes off press I1 seen letter
you nor 1I received udgorn monthly you said
udgom
1I do know whether frontier guardian 1I sent

received being sent merthyr dowlais


Dow lais 1I received
letter elizabeth thomas county glamorgan I1
sent april valley let heartened
disheartener
disheartened
dis
sent letters valley relatives bro jones answers
206 appendix E

forthcoming soon possible 1I expect hear


valley capt jones welsh saints between now
end ofjune
june bro prythero abersychan family
staying my house present time taken
land another part country going soon
remember me saints together officials
may blessing god you
yours eternal covenant
william morgan

letter ganesville
william morgan kanesville
Kanes ville iowa
W phillips andj
anda davis
td2
td21
tda 1

ganesville
ville iowa july 19 1850
kanesville
Kanes
dear brother phillips davis
1I received following letter mail came
valley month july 1850 request
bro jones me translate send udgorn
here editors service without mistakes
1I am confident editor correct sweetness english
writing wrought famous authors translators
reach

letter morgan received george smith ezra T benson


dan pones
jones dated 21 september 1849 then presented
vanjones
danjones
fones english
translation morgans welsh translation original english
td7
translated document 7 tda appendix toward end
letter reference made welsh company happy
content make camp resound evening song morgan
adds own comments footnote follows
trans documents td21 morgan phillips davis 207

I1 am eye ear witness 1I think do apostles


spirit music descended them eve-
ning before departure territory honuhous
six oclock friday afternoon bro jones ordered me
call camp together purpose reading rules
journey short time each post 1I honor
beginning first meeting 1850 years least land
purpose organizing welsh journey bro jones
followed word given sing close
meeting sang first part verse
saints shall come etc saw english Norwegia
norwegians ns
everyone I1 think heads wagons
second part wagons empty instant
inhabitants running toward us charmed I1
heard good singing wales nothing like strength
sweetness song I1 heard my brothers sisters
travelers land honuhous asked me where
learned teacher 1I said hills
wales schoolhouse spirit god teacher
response well indeed wonderful never heard
good singing before wm morgan

brothers smith benson jones written


journey preparations I1 shall give prices
several things 1I suppose might useful small
holders farmers price iron plough 25 cents
per pound shilling halfpenny money old
country understand plought here
iron ploughs piece
point iron same kind casting sold
ironmongers
ironmongery whole thing weighs 30 pounds
iron harrow teeth 8s 4c ac files sharpening saws
7 2 c each
712 large saw whip saw ls 6126 c scythe handle
4s ac
2c scythe larger size 6s ac 6c spike hay 2s lc
wheel rim iron 2 yie 12 c per pound four iron wagon wheels cost
vie
bie
four rims call them old country xa ls
l4s
x11 14s
before blacksmith puts hammer them my opinion
better everyone buy milk pitcher tin kind
wales pitchers keeping milk making cream cost ac 8c
208 appendix E

each here size between 12 13 inches diameter


widest spot top 834 8 inches bottom
334
534
3 inches deep pottery close three times expensive here
worst cup saucer sale wales
cost ac5c here dishes proportionately higher bed ropes
512c each half inch ropes
52c vie per pound ropes
old country better ropes country general
hemp goes black here before getting use 1I saw much

st louis half rotten 1I saw steamboat full


catch fire until burned water level I1 dont think
big loss public 1I seen sickles
here very useful 1I suppose

well farmers come here them


brought sickles old country them
sell them leave them behind did those came first
wales closed billhooks useful country axes
country better cheap tongs fire shovels bellows
blowing fire morning very useful here
knives forks brass candlesticks soup spoons teaspoons
best women go buy parasols women
seen walking very often without them here truly veil
something quite good women riot seen very often without
them even welsh blue cotton sold
ac
4c merthyr costs ac 8c here 1I counsel those go bring
mol eskins
moleskins everyday wear longer materials
here 1I shall make end now end previous letter I1
gave my thoughts few things 1I considered beneficial

emigrants come across sea far I1


remember concerning 1I wrote 1I changed my
mind directions 1I gave 1I do think
I1 blush presence emigrants make use
them least my conscience clear everything originated
intent benefit my welsh speaking brothers
sisters others
I1 received three numbers udgom
udgorn together note
bro phillips letter you capt jones I1 sent
ahead fourth month received letters
brethren valley daniel leigh
td21morgan
trans documents td21 morgan phillips davis 209

Ll anelli D peters capt jones agreement


fruitfulness country D leigh valley
mountains best under sun raise crops
bushel wheat planted ground gives marvelous yield
166 bushels bushel potatoes gives 133 bushels
what fruitfulness land adds comparison
teachings received apostles
worth anything 1I ever seen evan rees edward
williams digging coal lewis living town
elizabeth thomas waunfro near cardiff married william
oark perhaps bro W thomas
dark
clark glad hear
increasing family far away him
things old country 1I

glad see here honest heart wishing do


god continually owed me old
country just I1 do expect anything
I1 may consider owed me 1I wish bro phillips
try collect my notes 1I shall thankful him
those pay
bro capt jones sent little piece own hand
sent print account conference valley
you want guardian comes hand
substance letter bro jones 1I being
tested happens dear william you
tried your best friends until you end your journey
keepp
kee great your honor spite everything
ended saying 1 I know where 1I shall you come
valley nor do I1 ask know anything com-
manded me welsh well remember me jane
saints dDJ
Dbjones
jones
jones
ones
I1 hurry I1 wrote time
time I1 hurry perhaps make use
1I sent way 1I considered although really
my official duty upon arriving side sea
I1 do consider strength I1 write
brother sister writes
place yet perhaps those forgotten
bro jones wrote indian territory listen
210 appendix E

counsel well then my opinion better


engaged married free themselves before starting
wales comes before those coming
same time engaged well them
do same get married before starting perhaps better
marrying undo engagement sea free
country come free between freedom sea
freedom land covenants broken even those
traveling together well then better under
promise my opinion every meaning much time
needed get married here see each first
time ever nine oclock morning wish
become husband wife according law land
church before twelve oclock same morning
your letter many saints coming
across next autumn bro pratt before let
them come whenever wish 1I nothing do
emigration therefore I1 shall keep my mouth shut subject
time year I1 shall thankful you sending
letter here month two before come mentioning
number each skill sum total men women chil-
dren day month leaving liverpool
come here perhaps benefit them my paper
full 1I am tired time do complaining
time I1 shall close now wishing gracious god give
you connected you under your care wisdom
you wise serpents harmless doves these
latter days broadening kingdom god earth amen
I1 am your brother new covenant
wm morgan

PS welsh saints greet you


verses
td22

composed journey ddu


gwilym addu
formerly pont y ty pridd
bridd glamorganshire
Glamorgan shire

sectarians
sect arians insist sell us
shame like animals
across sea our leaders do
groups cry

captain enticed
say area
merthyr huge number waless children
might sold
yes shipful among host

oh blind men poor souls continue


course angry disposition
judgment plague come upon them
false tales wind

our moses mighty chief jones


our supreme heavenly teacher
full energy holy wisdom
lead us land praise

taken page 12 cyfanvyddiadau ir ymfudwyr


prymfuduyr tua dinas y llyn
haen direction
halen
haren emigrants salt lake city twelve page
pamphlet published 1850
18 50 john davis merthyr tydfil gwilym
ddu
addu poetic pseudonym used william lewis member
first group welsh immigrants enter salt lake valley 1849
composed above verses during crossing plains
george smith company year
capt D jones
letter
elders W phillips andj
andaJ davis
id23
td23

salt lake city september 10 1850


dear brothers W phillips andj
anda davis
until now life me 1I chance greet
you spite my desire since 1I wrote before now short words
my song I1 am leave again here further away
settle valley san pete according
counsel ofprespre