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**BALANCING TEST LAB OBJECTIVE:
**

The objective of this experiment is to perform single-plane and multi-plane balancing procedures on a rotating shaft system.

BACKGROUND:

Balancing of rotating equipment is a ver y impor tant aspect of the design and operation of any mechanical system that involves a rotating shaft. Normally, balancing is performed during the last stages of system assembly but on some mechanical systems, such as industrial fans or large powertrain/gearbox combinations, balancing may be required on-site after maintenance/repair/rebuild occurs. Rotating systems are rarely perfectly balanced; the degree of balance required depends upon the size and location of the unbalances and the speed of operation. Unbalance is generally caused by an unbalanced mass, located at some eccentricity, spinning about the center of rotation at a constant frequency. Therefore, the force vector representing each unbalance in the system is a force vector rotating at the speed of rotation with magnitude equal to m u e ω 2 . The total force unbalance is the sum of all of the unbalance forces. The total moment unbalance is the sum of all of the unbalance forces operating at different locations along the axis of rotation (moment arm). Static balancing refers to a procedure that adds or subtracts mass at some eccentricity to balance the vector forces. Dynamic balancing refers to a procedure that adds or subtracts mass at some eccentricity and location along the axis of rotation to balance the unbalance moments. Dynamic balancing provides a better possible balance whenever the rotating shaft is long and the number of unbalances occur at many locations along the axis of rotation. If the shaft of the rotating system is rigid (the ﬁrst natural frequency of the shaft in bending is above the operating speed), dynamic balancing can theoretically balance a system perfectly using only two arbitrar y planes of balance, regardless of the number of unbalance planes in the system. Once balanced at one speed of rotation, the system will be balanced at all speeds as long as the rotating shaft remains rigid. If the shaft of the rotating system is ﬂexible, the only theoretical way to balance the system perfectly is to ﬁnd every plane of unbalance and to balance each plane separately. This is often not practical. Frequently, two arbitrar y planes of balance will be used to balance this type of system. In this case, the system will be balanced for only the speed that was used for the balance calculation. The system can be balanced in a least squares

+ -1Revision: September 24, 2003 +

PROCEDURE: A rotating. The instrumentation for this procedure consists of 2 accelerometers. There are many procedures used to balance rotating systems. One of the discs on the shaft system will be purposely unbalanced and tests will be performed to achieve a system balance condition. The two discs on the shaft system will be purposely unbalanced and tests will be performed to achieve system balance. Schematic of Balance Rig • Case 1. 2003 + . The test procedures will utilize a "Trial Weight" method which will be presented in the lecture class. Two plane balancing. Balancing a rotating system using this least squares approach. variable speed. A MATLAB script will be provided that will perform the balancing calculations. and the Dynamic Signal Analyzer. Note the following: + -2- Revision: September 24. when the operation speed is near one of the natural frequencies of the rotaing shaft. Figure 1. The procedure used in this lab is often referred to as the Trial Weight Method of Balancing. shaft-disc system will be used as the test object. is ver y difﬁcult.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + sense using multiple planes of balance and multiple speeds but the system will never be perfectly balanced theoretically. If the remaining unbalance at the operational speeds is low enough. • Case 2. this may be acceptable. a photo-tach. Single-plane balancing.

Flat-Top Window. Should the single plane balancing procedure yield an improvement (lowered response)? Why or why not? + -3Revision: September 24. 2003 + . The frequency response function (FRF) between the measured accelerations(s) and this unknown force(s) is needed to compute the effect of unbalance on the response. Include plots of the following in your report (only include data in the frequency range that is relevant): • FRF(s) between accelerometer(s) and tachometer signal (Magnitude only). Since the tachometer signal involves harmonics. if possible). This measurement. The FRFs between the accelerometers and the tach signal (in the before and after conﬁgurations) can be used to demonstrate that the response has decreased for the balanced condition. The Dynamic Signal Analyzer should be set up using the following settings: AC coupled. FRF Measurement. The frequency domain characteristics of the tachometer signal. its position relative to the tachometer reference position is ﬁxed. • • • • • RESULTS: For each case. Note that 500 averages are not really taken. over a limited frequency range. The averaging is ’paused’ once the measurement has been averaged enough.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + • The forcing function is due to the unbalance in the rotor(s). Therefore. using a frequency range covering only the range of speed of the ﬁrst harmonic of the tachometer signal will be advisable but not required. While the force is unknown. over a limited frequency range. A suggested set-up might be a frequency range of 0 to 80 Hertz. Balanced Condition (After). the FRF between the measured acceleration(s) and the tachometer signal will be computed instead. DISCUSSION Discussion should include a summary of the procedures used with sample calculations and evaluation of actual and/or expected balance conditions. are smooth (nearly a constant) and will not adversely effect the resultant computations for unbalance force (magnitude and location). This unbalance force(s) act at the frequency of the rotation (ω ) with amplitude proportional to the frequency squared (ω 2 ). 500 Averages (90 Percent Overlap. present data that should demonstrate an improvement in the balance condition of the shaft-disc system. • • Unbalanced Condition (Before). • Coherence(s) between accelerometer(s) and tachometer signal for above cases. The unknown force(s) cannot be measured directly. will give the response with respect to the tachometer reference position.

In Matlab. from 0 to 360 degrees (or plus and minus 180 degrees). not "atan". this is "atan2". + -4- Revision: September 24. 2003 + .+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + CAUTION When calculating the angle in order to locate the unbalance. you generally have to ﬁnd the atan and then ﬁnd the correct quadrant by utilizing the sign of the numerator and denominator. On your calculator. note that you must use an inverse tangent function that takes into account the sign of the numerator and denominator in order to ﬁnd the angle in the correct quadrant.

Two Plane Balancing Rig Conﬁguration • Original condition: A1 (ω ) = H 1a (ω ) F a (ω ) • Unknown unbalance: F a (ω ) = m a r a ω 2 • Trial weight condition (Plane a): A1a (ω ) = H 1a (ω ) F 1a (ω ) where: F 1a (ω ) = F a (ω ) + ∆F a (ω ) + -5- Revision: September 24. Single Plane Balancing Concept Figure 3. 2003 + .+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Single Plane Balancing: Figure 2.

2003 + .+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + ∆F a (ω ) = ∆m r a ω 2 • Rearrange equations. to obtain: F a (ω ) A1 (ω ) = = R ej θ ∆F a (ω ) A1a (ω ) − A1 (ω ) • The unbalance F 1 is of magnitude R∆F located at θ degrees from trial weight location. Single Plane Unbalance Location + -6- Revision: September 24. Calculation procedure (at a particular ω value): A1 (ω ) = a1 + j b1 Then: A1 a1 + j b1 B e j θ1 Fa = = = = R ej θ ∆F a A1a − A1 (a2 − a1 ) + j (b2 − b1 ) C e j θ 2 where: B = a2 + b2 √1 1 C = )2 √(a2 − a1 )2 + (b2 − b1 R= B C θ 1 = tan−1 • A1a (ω ) = a2 + j b2 b1 a1 b2 − b1 a2 − a1 θ 2 = tan−1 θ = θ1 − θ2 Figure 4.

Two Plane Balancing Concept • Original condition: A1 (ω ) = H 1a (ω ) F a (ω ) + H 1b (ω ) F b (ω ) A2 (ω ) = H 2a (ω ) F a (ω ) + H 2b (ω ) F b (ω ) • Trial weight at plane A ( ∆F a ): A1a (ω ) = H 1a (ω ) (F a (ω ) + ∆F a (ω )) + H 1b (ω ) F b (ω ) A2a (ω ) = H 2a (ω ) (F a (ω ) + ∆F a (ω )) + H 2b (ω ) F b (ω ) • Trial weight at plane B ( ∆F b ): A1b (ω ) = H 1a (ω ) F a (ω ) + H 1b (ω ) (F b (ω ) + ∆F b (ω )) A2b (ω ) = H 2a (ω ) F a (ω ) + H 2b (ω ) (F b (ω ) + ∆F b (ω )) • Solve above equations for the unknown balance forces.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Two Plane Balancing: Figure 5. Fa A1 ( A2b − A2 ) − A2 ( A1b − A1 ) = ∆F a ( A2b − A2 ) ( A1a − A1 ) − ( A1b − A1 ) ( A2a − A2 ) Fb A2 ( A1a − A1 ) − A1 ( A2a − A2 ) = ∆F b ( A2b − A2 ) ( A1a − A1 ) − ( A1b − A1 ) ( A2a − A2 ) + -7- Revision: September 24. F a and F b . 2003 + . in terms of the trial weights.

2003 + .+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Appendix A: References + -8- Revision: September 24.

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+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + + -10- Revision: September 24. 2003 + .

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