You are on page 1of 7

                    October 28, 2008

MUSICACOUTICA
                    CEMC-EMSAN DAY-Asian Forum
Mikako Mizuno (水野みか子)
            Nagoya City University, Japan
    The China Millenium Monument, The Large-Screen Hall(中華世紀壇)
A9 Fuxing Lu, Haidan District, Beijing(海淀句)

  The Musical Concept for TEKKOHKAN[鉄鋼館] -- Report of Shibata notes

0. Introduction : What is TEKKHOKAN?


In 1970, the World Exhibition Expo’70 was held in Osaka, Japan. In that days Japan
enjoyed a very good financial situation thanks to the high rate of Japan’s economic
growth of 1960’s. The theme of the exhibition was Progress and Harmony in Human
Society and a lot of large monumental architecture appeared in the Expo area.
TEKKOHKAN was one of such gigantic pavilions sponsored by Japan Steel Industry.
Kunio MAEGAWA 前川国男, famous Japanese architect and the former professor of
Tokyo University, was the chief director of the design project; shape of the building, the
interior design for people, pattern of the stage shape etc. But the most original design
concerning TEKKHOKAN was the sound diffusion system. The idea was originated
from two contemporary composers, Toru TAKEMITSU 武満徹 and Minao SHIBATA
柴田南雄. Their idea included very dynamic space system, which was to move sound
from the east to the west, from the north to the south as if the sound should move as one
big plate. The famous statement by Toru TAKEMITSU is : big sound waves surging
from east to west. My main interest is how the spatial concept could be realized by
collaborative relationship between musicians and technicians.
Another interest is what kind of arts were presented in Thkkhokan. As known very
well, in Tekkhokan, pieces by Takemitsu, Xenakis , Yuji TAKAHASHI the other
composers were diffused through 1008 speakers controlled by six mixing console. The
space diffusion included a very unique system which used the control technique of
movie film pursued by Jyoji Esaki 江崎譲治.
  The following presentation is composed of three parts in order to explain how the
musicians’ dynamic special idea was realized by sound engineers and architects from
1969 to1970 in Japan.
1. Brief history of Japanese contemporary music in the latter half of 1960’s
2. Published reports about Expo’70
3. Shibata notes, as unofficial records of the interdisciplinary collaboration

1. Brief history of Japanese electronic music in the latter half of 1960’s


In the latter half of 1960’s, there were many festivals in Japan for contemporary
music. 現 代 の 音 楽 展 (Exibition of the Contemporary Music) held by Japanese
Society for Contemporary Music, which had started in 1962, integrated some big
concerts of orchestra since 1967. Two other international music festivals started
during this period. One is <NICHIDOKU 日 独 現 代 音 楽 祭 >, Japan-Germany
Festival of contemporary music. Another is <Cross Talk>, which was sponsored by
the American Culture Center.
<Orchestral Space> was held for two times(1966, 1968) and MIN-ON Festival for
Contemporary Music(since 1967 to 1995) was also a big-scale contemporary music
festival including some world premiers. By way of the planning and organizing of
these festivals, the composers like Minao SHIBATA, Yoshiro IRINO, Makoto
MOROI, Toshiro MAYUZUMI and of the younger generations led the new way of
Japanese contemporary music. The goal of these active festivals was the World
Exhibition EXPO’70.
Composer-musicologist, Minao SHIBATA 柴田南雄 is famous also for his work in
NHK electronic studio after Toshiro MAYUZUMI and Makoto MOROI. Shibata also
wrote an article for revue musicale in 1971 , the title of which was Music and
Technology in Japan. In the article, he presented the history of NHK electronic studio
from 1953 to 1969 and reported about the experimental workplace named Sogetsu Art
Center 草月アートセンター, and <Cross Talk /Intermedia>.
<Cross Talk /Intermedia> is the special concert of <Cross Talk> series. It was held in
February 1969, and intended to a preliminary events for Expo’70. The sound system of
<Cross Talk /Intermedia> included 10 channel diffusion. The festival included <ICON>
by Jyoji YUASA 湯 浅 譲 二 , <ASSEMBLAGE> for voice and tape by Yoritsune
MATSUDAIRA 松平頼則, <KUAIDAN> by Toru TAKEMITSU 武満徹. In the same
year of <Cross Talk /Intermedia> in January 1962, <Inter media Art Festival> was held
to present EVENT in John Cage’s sense, Live-electronic piece, concrete poem,
FilmEvent.

Here I shall show the names of Japanese electronic music of that days.
<Project Esemplastic>(1964), <Icon>(1966-67) by Jyoji YUASA 湯浅譲二,
<Improvisation for electronic sound>(1968) by Minao SHIBATA 柴田南雄,
<KYO-OU 響応>(1968) by Maki ISHII 石井真木.

<Improvisation for electronic sound>(1968) by SHIBATA includes graphic score.


<KYO-OU 響応>(1968) by ISHII features MULTI-PIANO which had been produced in
the NHK studio, kind of electric prepared-piano.
Kenjiro ESAKI 江 崎 健 次 郎 , who had graduated from Taihoku college made his
private studio and composed <Computer Music No.1 FOCOM270-30>(1970). In
Expo’70 Esaki composed music for the mechanics of Mebius chain, music for SEIKO
time system and music hall.

2. Published reports about Expo’70


In Expo’70, lots of composers worked for pavilions and events. Here is the list on the
screen.

FESTIVAL SQUARE : Akira MIYOSHI, Masaru SATO,


Toshiro MAYUZUMI,
Shin-ichi MATSUSHITA, Yoriaki MATSUSHITA,
Takehisa KOSUGI, Toshi ICHIYANAGI, Kenjiro ESAKI
MATSUSHITA pavilion : Teizo MATSUMURA,
TAKARA pavilion : Toshi ICHIYANAGI
Fuji pavilion : Toshiro MAYUZUMI
DENKI TSUSHIN pavilion : Kazuko OSAWA, Jyoji YUASA
SENNI pavilion : Jyoji YUASA
MITSUI Groupe pavilion : Keijiro SATO , Maki ISHII
MITSUBISHI IHI pavilion : Isao TOMITA
FURUKAWA pavilion : Kenjiro ESAKI
NIHON TABAKO : Ikuma DAN
WACOL RICKER : Toshi ICHIYANAGI
CHIHO JICHITAI pavilion:Michio MAMIYA,Teruyuki NODA,Masahiko SATO
MITSUBISHI MIRAI : Akira IFUKUBE
KUBOTA pavilion : Minoru MIKI
NIPPN pavilion : Kan ISHII, Minao SHIBATA, Akira MIYOSHI, Yoshiro IRINO
SUNTORY pavilion : Michio MAMIYA
TEKKHOKAN: as followings

TEKKHOKAN was officially reported that tapes are used for several time everyday.
These tapes include <Crossing>by Takemitsu, <Pi, Ni, Ma>by Xenakis, <Egen> by
Takahashi and <Years of Ear> by Akimichi TAKEDA, Takashi FUNAYAMA and
others.

<Years of Ears> composed by Toru TAKEMITSU 武満徹, Syuntaro TANIGAWA 谷


川俊太郎, Makoto OOKA 大岡信, Takashi FUNAYAMA 船山隆, Akimichi TAKEDA
武田明倫, Keiji USAMI 宇佐見圭司. This tape music was montage of the voices of
artists of mainly foreign countries, including Malek KOPELENT, Giacinto SCELSI, Jon
de Leeuw, Vinko GLOBOKAR, Ianis XENAKIS, John CAGE, Michael RANTA,
Marius CONSTANT, Luc FERRARI, etc.

More than once a month TEKKOHKAN included Japanese traditional music


We can hear EGEN by TAKAHASHI. In this piece the sound sculptures by Franscois
BASCHE were used.
The official resources taught us the17 sound sculptures installed in TEKKHOKAN by
Francois BASCHE.
] Screen] ]]] ]] 音響彫刻

Now I introduce the main public-opened resources concerning TEKKHOKAN.

a. The complete records of TEKKHOKAN 《鉄鋼館の記録 space theater》


  A big book including some comments by the CEO of the Japan Steel Industry and
Prof.Maegawa 前川 國男 and some photos of constructing process, the clothes of the
hostess, the sound sculptures by François BASHE, the completed interior design, the
architecture, some performing artists of dance or music in the pavilion, opening
ceremony and the closing ceremony etc. There was included an excellent chronological
table of the exhibition session.

b. The smaller book describing the plan of TEKKHOKAN, 《鉄鋼館》


This includes more artistic comments. The commentators include the music director
Toru TAKEMITSU 武満徹, the chief sound engineer Synsuke WAKABAYASI 若林駿
介, the chief acoustician Hisashi FUJITA 藤田尚, the lighting designer Keiji USAMI 宇
佐美圭司, the composers, Takemitsu, Yuji TAKAHASHI, Iannis XENAKIS, the sound
artist Fransçois BASCH, the fashion designer Hanae MORI 森英恵.
c. The technical proposal in 1966
  《音の方向性、遠近性、流動性を生かす新しい音楽会場》
    About the new Music Theater which enables direction, perspectives, mobility of
sound.
This is an architectural concept planning written by Soichiro OOHARA
d. Reports of art pieces written by musical critics and musicologists, including Tadashi
SUZUKI, music critic, Minao SHIBATA, composer and Kunio MAEGAWA architect.
ONGAKU GEIJYUTU, music magazine.

We have another not-opened, unpublished resources like the design sketches of the
architecture, the graph of the electric system design and conference reports before Expo.
On the screen we can see the architecture and sound system including 1008 speakers
and controlled by six men, with the aid of film controlling synchronizing system
designed by Jyoji ESAKI.

] Screen] ]]] ]]  設計図など

And the most radical unofficial resources for the purpose of our question are the
drafts notes of Shibata Our question is how the musicians’ dynamic special idea was
realized by sound engineers and architects.
SHIBATA’s notes include from the first stage of the planning when TAKEMITSU
had not been involved to the last plan of the performing or event in TEKKHOKAN, that
is, the concerts of Music Today and also the time capsule project for MATSUSHITA
pavilion.

3. Shibata notes, as unofficial records of the interdisciplinary collaboration


In the spring of 1969, plans for the world exhibition of Osaka were advertised in a
newspaper 朝 日 新 聞 . More than 2,500 ideas were sent to the exhibition preparatory
office. And 柴田 subscribed. His proposal was concerning how to control the sound as
background music.

Shibata had presented two points. One was that the music should be electric sound or
recorded sound. And secondary, the music should always changing by way of computer
control.

The judging committee included some CEO of big Japanese companies like Konosuke
MATSUSHITA 松下幸之助(Panasonic) and Dai IBUKA 井深大(Sony), some famous
architects like Kenzo TANNGE, acoustician like Soichiro OHARA 大原総一郎, and
some artists like Yusaku KAMEKURA ( 亀 倉 勇 策 ) , graphic designer, and Taro
OKAMOTO(岡本太郎)painter.
Off course Shibata’s idea was integrated to the Exhibition basic concept.

The special concerts of TEKKOHKAN were including usual acoustic instruments.


Traditional Japanese music and West European and American contemporary music.
From 21 to24 of August, 1970, MUSIC TODAY concerts were held in TEKKHOKAN.
MUSIC TODAY featured Cathy BERBERIAN, Lucas FOSS, Luis de PABLO, Peter
SCUTHORPE, Luciano BERIO, Nguyen Thien DAO, Henri POUSSEUR, Vinko
GLOBOKAR, Robert Aitken, Earl BROWM , Giacinto SCHELSI, Makoto MOROI and
others.
]]]]]]] Shibata Note copy

Comment 1 says that we should use mainly tape music.


Comment 2 -1 says that we should use the hall also for live instrumental performance,
but the ensemble people stand along the wall. It is like the picture on the left side down
part.
Comment 3 says asfollowings.
The audience should walk around inside the spherical shaped hall. Round, rectangle
and donut shaped chairs without backrest should be equipped. We want to do without
steps, only with slopes. Elevators are not preferable unless it disturbs the sound
environment.
Comment 4 and the right side down part indicate that speakers should be in 6 channel or
8 channel.
The fundamental concept for the concerts was officially presented by TAKEMITSU
but the idea of spatial sound design for acoustic music was, I think from this page of
SHIBATA notes, indicated by SHIBATA.