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Experiment: To determine Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide This method used to

Definition determine metal are


The lid closed immediately reactive example:
to prevent white fume Mg ,Al , Zn,….
Empirical formula: The lid is lift up at interval (MgO) escape to \air
Chemical formula shows to allow the oxygen in the
simplest ratio of the number of air enter to complete of Procedure
atom for each element in a combustion.
Lid
1. Weigh an empty crucible + lid
compound
2. Add a strip of cleaned magnesium
Magnesium tape is ribbon
Molecular formula: cleaned with sandpaper Magnesium 3. Reweigh(crucible + lid+
to get rid of layer of Magnesium)
Chemical formula shows actual oxide
number of atom in a 4. Heat the crucible until all the
Reaction:
compound. 2Mg + O2 2MgO magnesium has changed to white
The heating, cooling and ashes
weighing process are done 5. Raise the crucible lid to let in
(Empirical formula)n several times until a oxygen and close rapidly (prevent
constant mass is obtain to Observation: white smoke from being released)
= Molar mass/RMM ensure All MAGNESIUM - Magnesium burns brightly
REACT COMPLETLY - White solid formed 6. Cooled the crucible
7. Reweigh
Experiment: To determine empirical formula Copper(II) Oxide
Mol
Preparation hydrogen gas Observation: Mol = mass / molar mass Formula
Thistle funnel used to fill
up hydrochloric acid  Copper burns brightly Mol = No. of particles / NA
solution  Black powder turns to brown Mol = Volume of gas / molar volume

Thistle Dry
H2 gas How to ensure all air Molar volume : S.T.P = 22.4 dm3
funnel is hydrogen gas
totally removed Room condition = 24 dm3
immersed - collect a gas into test tube
into solution - put a lighted wooden
splinter Step to determine Emp. formula
to prevent
- if no”pop” sound means
air enter into Function: air removed totally Mg O
Heat
an apparatus Anhydrou Mass/% of element
s calcium No. of mole
chloride The heating, cooling and weighing
process are done several times until a Simplest ratio
constant mass is obtain to ensure All Empirical formula
to dry COPPER(II) OXIDE has been REDUCED
hydrogen to COPPER COMPLETLY

This method used to determine


metal are less than Hydrogen
Sulphuric acid
K Na Al CAlZnC H Example:
Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 K Ca
Na Mg
Ca Mg Zn Fe
H Sn
Fe Pb
Sn Cu
Pb Hg
Cu Ag
Hg Au
Ag Au
Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) , Silver (Ag)

REACTIVITY INCREASE
REACTIVITY INCREASE