l

Tabl¢ of Cont¢nts
1able of ConLenLs............................................................................................................................. l
1 Þroblem lormulaLlon.............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 lnLroducLlon .................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Cb[ecLlve......................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 8lack 8ox ......................................................................................................................... 1
2 Þroblem Analvsls and LlLeraLure 8evlew................................................................................ 2
2.1 Þroblem Analvsls............................................................................................................. 2
2.1.1 lnLroducLlon ............................................................................................................ 2
2.1.2 lnpuL........................................................................................................................ 2
2.1.3 CuLpuL..................................................................................................................... 3
2.1.4 SoluLlon varlables ................................................................................................... 3
2.1.3 CrlLerla..................................................................................................................... 4
2.1.6 usaae....................................................................................................................... 4
2.1.7 ÞroducLlon volume................................................................................................. 4
2.2 LlLeraLure 8evlew............................................................................................................ 3
2.2.1 lnLroducLlon ............................................................................................................ 3
2.2.2 8ockeL SLove ........................................................................................................... 3
2.2.3 LnvlronmenLal lmpacL of 8lomass.......................................................................... 3
2.2.4 ComponenLs of a 8ockeL SLove............................................................................... 7
2.2.3 8lomass luel ......................................................................................................... 11
2.2.6 MaLerlals ............................................................................................................... 14
2.3 ueslan SLvles ................................................................................................................. 16
3 Search for AlLernaLlve SoluLlons ........................................................................................... 19
3.1 lnLroducLlon .................................................................................................................. 19
3.2 8ralnsLormlna................................................................................................................ 19
3.3 AlLernaLlve SoluLlons..................................................................................................... 19
3.3.1 Slmple Llbow Shaped ueslan................................................................................ 19
3.3.2 8ockeL Shape 8ockeL SLove................................................................................... 20
3.3.3 Coffee 8ockeL SLove.............................................................................................. 21
3.3.4 Lorena 8ockeL SLove ............................................................................................. 22
3.3.3 8ackvard 8arbecue SeLup..................................................................................... 24

ll

3.3.6 Cven-SLvle SLove................................................................................................... 23
3.3.7 Pouse ueslan SLove .............................................................................................. 26
3.3.8 8ecvcle 8ockeL ...................................................................................................... 27
3.3.9 Crane SLvle SLove .................................................................................................. 28
3.3.10 ComforL SLove....................................................................................................... 29
3.3.11 MulLlple Cooklna Surfaces .................................................................................... 29
3.3.12 SafeLv SLove .......................................................................................................... 30
4 ueclslon Þhase ...................................................................................................................... 32
4.1 lnLroducLlon .................................................................................................................. 32
4.2 CrlLerla ueflnlLlon.......................................................................................................... 32
4.3 SoluLlons........................................................................................................................ 33
4.4 ueclslon Þrocess ........................................................................................................... 33
4.3 llnal ueclslon !usLlflcaLlon............................................................................................ 36
3 SpeclflcaLlon of SoluLlon ....................................................................................................... 37
3.1 lnLroducLlon .................................................................................................................. 37
3.2 SoluLlon uescrlpLlon...................................................................................................... 37
3.3 CosLs.............................................................................................................................. 42
3.3.1 ueslan CosL (hours) ............................................................................................... 42
3.3.2 lmplemenLaLlon CosL ............................................................................................ 43
3.3.3 MalnLenance CosL ................................................................................................. 43
3.4 lmplemenLaLlon lnsLrucLlons ........................................................................................ 44
3.3 ÞroLoLvpe 8esulLs.......................................................................................................... 44
6 Appendlx A: 8eferences........................................................................................................ 43
7 Appendlx 8: 8ockeL SLove lnsLrucLlons................................................................................. 48
8 Appendlx C: lrequenLlv Asked CuesLlons............................................................................. 49
9 Appendlx u: LducaLlonal Slan............................................................................................... 30
10 Appendlx L: 8ralnsLormlna noLes......................................................................................... 31

1

1 Probl¢m Formulation
1.1 Introduction

1he WaLerÞod ls a susLalnable eco-barae developed bv a aroup of enalneers and arLlsLs from
around Lhe world. 1he cllenL conLracLed Lhe servlces of Lhe enalneerlna sLudenLs aL PumboldL
SLaLe unlverslLv ln ArcaLa, CA ln order Lo address manv of Lhe lssues assoclaLed wlLh llvlna self-
sufflclenLlv. 1he problem addressed ln Lhls documenL ls LhaL Lhe cllenL wlll be llvlna on Lhe
barae for slx monLhs, whlle Lravellna Lhrouah Lhe flve borouahs of new ?ork, and requesLed a
rockeL sLove Lo provlde a rellable cooklna meLhod. lL ls up Lo Lhe aroup Lo develop a deslan LhaL
ls opLlmal for Lhe cllenL.
1.2 Ubj¢ctiv¢

1he ob[ecLlve ls Lo bulld an efflclenL cooklna sLove for Lhe WaLerÞod, uslna mlnlmal maLerlals
LhaL wlll opLlmlze blomass Lo boll waLer.
1.3 Black Box

llaure 1-1 ls known as a 8lack 8ox and ls used Lo represenL Lhe affecL LhaL Lhe flnal soluLlon wlll
have on Lhe WaLerÞod.











I|gure 1-1: 8|ack 8ox d|agram show|ng how the f|na| so|ut|on w||| affect the WaterÞod.

No re||ab|e
means of
cook|ng on
WaterÞod
ke||ab|e means
of cook|ng on
WaterÞod
8lack 8ox

2

2 Probl¢m Analysis and Lit¢ratur¢ R¢vi¢w
2.1 Probl¢m Analysis
2.1.1 Introduction
1he purpose of Lhe Þroblem Analvsls ls Lo deLermlne Lhe varlables, consLralnLs, and resLrlcLlons
assoclaLed wlLh Lhe deslan pro[ecL, whlch was deLalled ln SecLlon Cne. lncluded ln Lhls secLlon
are Lhe lnpuL, ouLpuL, and soluLlon varlables declared for Lhe ob[ecLlve and Lhelr respecLlve
resLrlcLlons and consLralnLs. 1he crlLerla requlremenLs are ouLllned alona wlLh Lhelr speclfled
consLralnLs, whlch wlll serve as Lhe basls for deLermlnlna Lhe flnal deslan cholce. llnallv, Lhe
usaae and producLlon volume for Lhe rockeL sLove are alven, whlch compleLes Lhe Þroblem
Analvsls.
2.1.2 Input

Input: 1he WaLerÞod crewmembers wlLh no means Lo cook, and vlslLors who wanL Lo learn
more abouL susLalnable llvlna.

Input Var|ab|es: Constra|nts:
• vlslLors knowledae of susLalnable llvlna • vlslLors musL have aeneral knowledae
abouL susLalnable llvlna
• vlslLors LducaLlon Level • 1he vlslLors knowledae of
Lhermodvnamlcs
• Puman labor • AL leasL one crew member musL be
operaLlna Lhe rockeL sLove aL a Llme
• Level of hunaer
• Lnerav used Lo cook
• Crew members musL have an appeLlLe
• luel source avallable Lo use







3

2.1.3 Uutput

Cutput: A rellable sLove LhaL wlll be used Lo cook meals for Lhe crewmembers.

Var|ab|es: Constra|nts:
• vlslLors knowledae of susLalnable llvlna • vlslLors know more abouL susLalnable
wavs of cooklna
• vlslLors LducaLlon Level • vlslLor wlll have an expanded
knowledae of Lhermodvnamlcs
• Puman labor
• Level of hunaer
• Lnerav used Lo cook
• lood wlll be prepared for meals
• Crew members wlll noL be hunarv
• 1he fuel source wlll be Lurned lnLo heaL
Lo cook wlLh

2.1.4 Solution Variabl¢s

5o|ut|on Var|ab|es: kestr|ct|ons:
• Slze • MusL flL on paLlo
• MaLerlals • MaLerlal musL be non-llammable
• Lnerav Source • luel source should be blomass
• 8ulldlna SLvle • MusL be able Lo compleLe wlLh baslc
underaraduaLe enalneerlna knowledae
• CapaclLv
• Slze
• no more Lhan 11 people per meal
• MusL be shlppable

4

2.1.5 Crit¢ria

Cr|ter|a: Constra|nts:
• uurablllLv • MusL be able Lo be on boaL for 6
monLhs
• CosL • Less Lhan $300
• SafeLv • Safe for all users
• ShlppablllLv • MusL aeL Lo new ?ork
• Lase of SeLup and use • CllenL musL be able Lo seLup 8ockeL
SLove easllv
• AesLheLlcs • vlsuallv lnLeresLlna
• LducaLlonal value • MusL be easv Lo Leach Lo publlc
• luncLlonallLv • MusL be able Lo cook food
• Level of efflclencv • MusL use less enerav Lhan a Lvplcal
cooklna devlce.
2.1.ó Usag¢
1he rockeL sLove wlll cook larae meals and serve as a supplemenL Lo Lhe solar cooker. 1hls
sLove wlll be used evervdav Lo cook meals, such as soup, pasLa, eaas, and coffee. lL wlll also
serve as a model Lo educaLe Lhe publlc abouL Lhermodvnamlc prlnclples and susLalnable
cooklna.
2.1.7 Production Volum¢
1he maxlmum producLlon volume wlll be Lwo rockeL sLoves, wlLh one smaller more porLable
sLove and one blaaer one. 1he smaller sLove wlll be consLrucLed for personal meals and
espresso. 1he laraer sLove, whlch musL feed aL leasL 11 people, wlll be used for Lhe maln meals.
Powever, dlfferenL lnserLs could be used ln Lhe laraer sLove, whlch would ellmlnaLe Lhe need
for a smaller sLove.

3

2.2 Lit¢ratur¢ R¢vi¢w
2.2.1 Introduction
1he LlLeraLure 8evlew ls an essenLlal parL of Lhe deslan process. 1he Loplcs examlned ln Lhe
LlLeraLure 8evlew secLlon lnclude Lhe healLh effecLs of cooklna wlLh blomass, Lhe componenLs
and deslans of rockeL sLoves, blomass, and Lhe maLerlals used Lo bulld rockeL sLoves. 8v
researchlna Lhese Loplcs, Lhe problem aL hand wlll be beLLer undersLood.
2.2.2 Rock¢t Stov¢
8ockeL sLoves are deslaned Lo be an alLernaLlve Lo convenLlonal open flre cooklna meLhods,
such as Lhe Lhree sLone meLhod. 1hese sLoves provlde a more efflclenL, envlronmenLallv
frlendlv, and safe means of cooklna. 1he deslan ls slmple, veL verv effecLlve and has been used
for vears. 1hese sLoves are belna lmplemenLed ln manv underdeveloped counLrles because of
Lhese advanLaaes. MosL underdeveloped counLrles conLlnue Lo relv on blomass as a fuel source
because modern dav fuel sources are noL easllv accessed ln Lhese counLrles. 8lslna populaLlons,
llmlLed resources and caplLal hlnder Lhese counLrles from movlna Lowards peLroleum and
elecLrlclLv as sources of enerav. 8ockeL sLoves are lnexpenslve Lo bulld, requlre verv llLLle fuel Lo
cook, and are easv Lo malnLaln. (lnLernaLlonal 8evlew of SLove Þroarams 1994)
2.2.2.1 History of Rock¢t Stov¢s

1he use of blomass as a fuel source ls an aae old pracLlce. 1he use of blomass sLoves, slmllar Lo
rockeL sLoves, have been used for abouL Lhe pasL 60 Lo 70 vears (!un[l 1akano 2009). AlLhouah
slmllar sLoves have been used ln Lhe pasL rockeL sLoves have onlv recenLlv been lnLroduced.
Cne leadlna aroup ln Lhe deslan and lmplemenLaLlon of rockeL sLoves ls Lhe Aprovecho
8esearch CenLer (Aprovecho 2008).
2.2.3 Environm¢ntal Impact of Biomass

ln manv developlna counLrles people requlre blomass as a fuel source, for LradlLlonal open flre
and Lhree sLone cooklna meLhods. 1he dependence on blomass ln Lhese counLrles ls causlna
resources Lo become scarcer. 1he open flre meLhod, whlch could be descrlbed as a campflre,
requlres a larae amounL of fuel. 1he collecLlon of Lhe fuel can be Llme consumlna and mav lead
Lo deforesLaLlon. 1he Lhree sLone meLhod, whlch requlres Lhree sLones of equal helahL Lo
supporL a poL over a flre, can requlre larae amounLs of blomass Lo heaL a small amounL of food.
A man bv Lhe name of !un[l 1akano, who makes and uses rockeL sLoves, found LhaL one hundred
pleces of newspaper ls enouah Lo cook slx cups of rlce, and Lwo dlshes of Chlnese-sLvle ramen
bv uslna a rockeL sLove. 8ockeL sLoves requlre less fuel Lo cook an equlvalenL amounL of food
Lhan oLher meLhods. 1hls wlll save people Llme when collecLlna fuel and wlll help ellmlnaLe
deforesLaLlon. (lnLernaLlonal 8evlew of SLove Þroarams 1994)


6

2.2.3.1 Air Quality of Biomass

When blomass such as wood ls burned, Lhe smoke emlLs parLlculaLe maLLer LhaL ls harmful Lo
Lhe envlronmenL and humans. When blomass ls burned, carbon dloxlde ls released lnLo Lhe alr.
When planLs used for blomass are belna arown, Lhe planLs absorb nearlv Lhe same amounL of
carbon dloxlde LhaL ls emlLLed from Lhe burnlna of blomass (Lnerav lnformaLlon AdmlnlsLraLlon
2007).
2.2.3.2 H¢altb Impact of Particulat¢ Matt¢r

ln rural areas of Lhe world, Lhe use of open flres Lo cook ls verv common. Cne problem wlLh Lhls
meLhod ls LhaL Lhe flre emlLs harsh polluLanLs lnLo Lhe alr. ln manv realons, cooklna ls
performed lndoors bv women. Women and Lhe chlldren are affecLed bv harmful parLlculaLes
such as carbon monoxlde, nlLroaen oxldes, formaldehvde, and manv more (lnLernaLlonal
8evlew of SLove Þroarams). WlLh rockeL sLoves Lhe amounL of alr polluLanLs emlLLed ls areaLlv
decreased. 8ockeL sLoves use a chlmnev Lo rld smoke from Lhe burnlna blomass. SLudles have
shown LhaL exLended exposure Lo blomass smoke ls a slanlflcanL cause of healLh problems, such
as resplraLorv and hearL problems (LÞA 2008).
2.2.3.3 Saf¢ty

AnoLher beneflL LhaL rockeL sLoves have for Lhe user ls LhaL Lhev are much safer Lo cook wlLh as
opposed Lo open flre cooklna meLhods. Cpen flre plLs can be a danaer Lo chlldren who mav noL
be cauLlous Lhus rlsklna burns. 8ockeL sLoves are deslaned wlLh an lnsulaLed shell Lo mlnlmlze
Lhe LemperaLure on Lhe ouLslde of Lhe surface. 1hls aspecL of rockeL sLoves creaLes a safer
cooklna meLhod for Lhe cooks and oLhers. (lnLernaLlonal 8evlew of SLove Þroarams 1994)

















7

2.2.4 Compon¢nts of a Rock¢t Stov¢

A LradlLlonal rockeL sLove, shown ln llaure 2-1, ls composed of a combusLlon chamber, fuel
shelf, fuel maaazlne, and poL sklrL. CLher lmporLanL componenLs are Lhe lnsulaLlon and
chlmnev.


I|gure 2-1: D|agram of Convent|ona| kocket 5tove (MI1 2005)
2.2.4.1 Combustion Cbamb¢r

1he combusLlon chamber seen ln llaure 2-1 ls Lhe realon of Lhe sLove where Lhe fuel ls burned.
1he chamber conslsLs of Lhe fuel maaazlne and chlmnev [olned aL a rlahL anale Lo one anoLher.
1hls parL of Lhe sLove ls known as Lhe rockeL elbow, and ls where prlmarv combusLlon occurs.
lnsulaLlve ceramlc ls commonlv used Lo bulld Lhe combusLlon chamber. 1he slze of Lhe
combusLlon chamber depends on Lhe Lvpe of fuel Lo be used, buL mosL lmporLanLlv on Lhe slze
of Lhe cooklna vessel. 1he chlmnev should be bullL ln such a wav LhaL Lhe maxlmum amounL of
heaL from Lhe combusLlon chamber enLers Lhe cooklna vessel, raLher Lhan escaplna lnLo Lhe
ouLslde envlronmenL. (8ockeL SLove ueslan Culde 2003)
2.2.4.2 Fu¢l Magazin¢

1he fuel maaazlne seen ln llaure 2-1 ls Lhe locaLlon where Lhe fuel ls lnserLed lnLo Lhe sLove.
1he maaazlne ls elLher a square or clrcular plpe LhaL ls connecLed Lo Lhe chlmnev. 1he slze of
Lhe fuel maaazlne ls dependenL upon Lhe slze of Lhe sLove and Lvpe of fuel Lo be used. 1he kev
Lo Lhe rockeL sLove ls Lo have onlv Lhe Llps of Lhe fuel source ln conLacL wlLh Lhe flame, whlch
luel Shelf

luel
Maaazlne
CombusLlon
Chamber
lnsulaLlon
Surroundlna
Chamber
Alr llow
ConLrol
ÞoL SklrL
Chlmnev

8

reduces fuel consumpLlon. A smaller openlna provldes enhanced fuel efflclencv, buL needs Lo
be Lended Lo more ofLen, due Lo Lhe llmlLed amounL of fuel LhaL can be used aL one Llme.
AlLernaLlvelv, a laraer openlna allows for more fuel Lo be lnserLed aL anv one Llme, whlch
ellmlnaLes Lhe consLanL need for refuellna, buL reduces Lhe fuel efflclencv. ldeallv, Lhe
relaLlonshlp beLween Lhe fuel maaazlne dlameLer and Lhe chlmnev helahL should be 1:1.3. 1he
raLlo descrlbes LhaL lf Lhe feed maaazlne was 30 cm ln dlameLer Lhen Lhe rockeL chlmnev should
be 43 cm Lall. 1hls ls Lhe ldeal raLlo, buL manv sLoves do noL reach Lhls raLlo due Lo Lhe pracLlcal
use of Lhe sLove. (8ockeL SLove ueslan Culde 2003)
2.2.4.3 Fu¢l Sb¢lf

1he fuel shelf seen ln llaure 2-1 ls a flaL surface LhaL ls flLLed lnslde of Lhe fuel maaazlne. 1he
shelf supplles a place for Lhe fuel Lo resL, buL mosL lmporLanLlv allows for Lhe flow of alr
Lhrouah Lhe combusLlon chamber. lf Lhe fuel maaazlne ls clrcular, Lhen Lhe fuel shelf wlll be
supporLed bv Lhe sldes of Lhe Lube. Powever, lf a square fuel maaazlne ls used, Lhe fuel shelf
mav requlre ºfeeL" Lo supporL lLself. (ueslan Þrlnclples for Wood 8urnlna SLoves 2006)

1he ldeal placemenL of Lhe shelf ls Lo be placed ln Lhe mlddle of Lhe fuel maaazlne. 1he aap
beLween Lhe shelf and Lhe fuel maaazlne should be no less Lhan 23mm, Lo ensure Lhere ls
enouah alr flow (8ockeL SLove ueslan Culde 2003). Alr needs Lo pass under Lhe burnlna fuel, up
Lhrouah Lhe charcoal, and lnLo Lhe flre. 1he alr ls heaLed up as lL flows under Lhe fuel shelf.
1hls ls opLlmal, because lL helps Lo ensure compleLe combusLlon. Alr LhaL passes above Lhe
sLlcks ls noL as helpful because lL ls colder and cools Lhe flre, and so an alr flow conLrol door ls
used. (ueslan Þrlnclples lor Wood 8urnlna SLoves 2006)
2.2.4.3.1 Air Flow Control

1he alr flow conLrol door seen ln llaure 2-1 ls a square plece of meLal LhaL ls used Lo conLrol Lhe
drafL Lhrouah Lhe sLove, whlch auaranLees LhaL Lhe flre burns hoL and clean. A flre wlLh excess
alr wlll be a cold flre, whlch lncreases Lhe amounL of smoke emlLLed. A drafL LhaL ls Loo larae
resulLs ln cold alr enLerlna Lhe combusLlon chamber, whlch reduces Lhe efflclencv of heaL
Lransfer. Converselv, a sLove LhaL does noL have enouah alr flow wlll resulL ln excess smoke and
charcoal. 1he maln beneflL Lo Lhe alr flow conLrol door ls LhaL a laraer fuel maaazlne can be
used, resulLlna ln more fuel LhaL can be lnserLed, buL decreases Lhe alr flow and Lhe raLe aL
whlch Lhe fuel ls consumed. (ueslan Þrlnclples for Wood 8urnlna SLoves 2006)

2.2.4.4 Cbimn¢y

1he chlmnev ls Lhe verLlcal secLlon of Lhe combusLlon chamber. 1he ldeal dlmenslon for Lhe
chlmnev ls Lhree Llmes Laller Lhan lLs dlameLer (ueslan Þrlnclples for Wood 8urnlna SLoves
2006). A shorLer chlmnev helahL resulLs ln lncreased heaL Lransfer because Lhe cooklna vessel ls
closer Lo Lhe flame, buL produces more smoke. AlLernaLlvelv, a Laller chlmnev wlll produce
cleaner emlsslons, buL Lhe heaL Lransfer ls reduced due Lo Lhe dlsLance from Lhe flame. An

9

lncrease ln drafL can also resulL from a chlmnev LhaL ls Loo Lall, whlch decreases Lhe heaL
Lransfer efflclencv of Lhe sLove. 1hls ls lmporLanL because a sLove LhaL has lnefflclenL heaL
Lransfer wlll requlre more fuel consumpLlon. (ueslan Þrlnclples for Wood 8urnlna SLoves 2006)
 H¢at Excbang¢r]Pot Skirt

I|gure 2-2 Þ|cture of kecommended neat I|ow (MI1 2005)

1he poL sklrL ls a Lube LhaL surrounds Lhe cooklna vessel creaLlna a narrow space beLween Lhe
chlmnev and Lhe poL sklrL. 1he sklrL around Lhe poL should be as hlah as posslble ln order Lo
maxlmlze heaL Lransfer, whlch ls usuallv up Lo Lhe handle of Lhe poL. lf Lhe aap ls Loo larae,
Lhen Lhe hoL flue aases wlll escape wlLhouL passlna anv heaL Lo Lhe cooklna vessel. A properlv
slzed aap allows Lhe hoL flue aases Lo run up Lhe sldes of Lhe cooklna vessel, whlch resulLs ln
beLLer efflclencv. Powever, a aap LhaL ls Loo small wlll decrease Lhe drafL, and lncrease
emlsslons. 1he slze of Lhe aap ls dependenL upon Lhe Lvpe of cooklna vessel belna used, and
Lhe slze of Lhe rockeL sLove.

A second sklrL can be puL around Lhe orlalnal sklrL and fllled wlLh lnsulaLlon. 1hls wlll lncrease
Lhe efflclencv of Lhe poL sklrL, resulLlna ln more efflclenL heaL Lransfer Lo Lhe cooklna vessel.
1he ldeal aap accordlna Lo ÞeLer ScoLL (2003) can be calculaLed (ln cm) uslna Lhe formula:


=
2.3 » ulameLer CombusLlon Chamber
ulameLer of ÞoL

2.2.4.ó Insulation

lnsulaLlon surrounds Lhe combusLlon chamber and chlmnev and keeps Lhe flre burnlna hoL
(abouL 1100¨ l or 600¨ C), whlch areaLlv lncreases Lhe heaL Lransfer process (Þeak Cll Survlval
2006). lnsulaLlon acLs as a barrler Lo prevenL Lhe heaL from escaplna lnLo Lhe sLove bodv, and
Cap beLween poL and sklrL

10

lncreases Lhe efflclencv of Lhe sLove bv lncreaslna Lhe combusLlon LemperaLure. lnsulaLlon
works bv Lrapplna alr ln small pockeLs, whlch prohlblLs Lhe Lransfer of heaL due Lo conducLlon.
1he alr pockeLs should be as small as posslble, because alr pockeLs LhaL are Loo larae wlll allow
convecLlve currenLs Lo form Lhus leadlna Lo heaL loss. (SLove ueslan Culde 2003)

1hermal mass ls Lhe ablllLv of a maLerlal Lo reLaln heaL. Plah mass maLerlals llke dlrL, clav, and
sand should be avolded because Lhev absorb heaL qulcklv, whlch decreases Lhe amounL of heaL
Lransferred Lo Lhe cooklna vessel. 8aLher, lnsulaLlon should have llahL mass and be full of small
alr pockeLs. Some examples of naLural lnsulaLlons are: pumlce rock, vermlcullLe, and wood ash.
1hese are used Lo lnsulaLe Lhe heaL flow paLh, whlch reduces Lhe amounL of fuel needed.
(SLove ueslan Culde 2003)

AnoLher lmporLanL aspecL of lnsulaLlon ls LhaL ls helps Lo ensure Lhe safeLv of Lhe person uslna
Lhe sLove. A sLove LhaL aeLs Loo hoL could cause burns and be unsafe. 1he lnsulaLlon llmlLs heaL
from reachlna Lhe bodv of Lhe sLove, whlch ln Lurn, keeps lL from becomlna a safeLv hazard.
2.2.4.ó.1 V¢rmiculit¢

vermlcullLe ls a llahLwelahL, flreproof maLerlal produced from naLural mlneral deposlLs LhaL ls
commonlv used as lnsulaLlon. vermlcullLe can be made lnLo sLrona, lnsulaLlve ceramlc wlLh
llLLle efforL. 1he flaL, plaLe-llke sLrucLure of vermlcullLe parLlcles makes Lhem boLh sLrona and
reslsLanL Lo heaL. (8ockeL SLove ueslan Culde 2003)

8ecenL sLudles have dlscovered LhaL vermlcullLe conLalns asbesLos, whlch ls especlallv harmful
when alrborne (WeaLherlzaLlon 1ralnlna CenLer 2003). lor LhaL reason, lL ls lmperaLlve LhaL
vermlcullLe be securelv placed ln Lhe sLove, ln a fashlon LhaL lL wlll noL escape lnLo Lhe ouLslde
envlronmenL. lf Lhe lnsulaLlon ls noL properlv sealed off from Lhe resL of Lhe sLove, Lhen Lhe
vermlcullLe could posslblv enLer Lhe combusLlon chamber, and consequenLlv enLer Lhe
surroundlna alr maklna lL unsafe for Lhe users of Lhe sLove.
2.2.4.ó.2 Pumic¢ Rock

Þumlce 8ock ls ofLen chosen as an lnsulaLor ln rockeL sLoves due Lo lLs avallablllLv ln manv parLs
of Lhe word. Þumlce ls a aood lnsulaLor because lL has a low mass, and naLurallv has manv alr
pockeLs. Þumlce can have a dual role ln Lhe facL LhaL lL can help make up Lhe combusLlon
chamber and acL as an lnsulaLor. Powever, Lhe efflclencv of such a sLove ls noL opLlmal, and
usuallv requlres some Lvpe of addlLlonal lnsulaLlon. (8ockeL SLove ueslan Culde 2003)
2.2.4.ó.3 Wood Asb

Wood ash ls anoLher llahL mass lnsulaLor LhaL ls commonlv used ln rockeL sLoves when oLher
lnsulaLors are noL avallable. Wood ash ls usuallv mlxed wlLh waLer Lo form a sludae LhaL can
Lhen be poured lnLo Lhe bodv of Lhe sLove. Wood ash ls made up of manv Llnv parLlcles, whlch

11

as lL drles, forms alr pockeLs. When no oLher Lvpe of lnsulaLlon ls avallable, wood ash can
provlde a sLove wlLh a aood-quallLv lnexpenslve lnsulaLlon. (8ockeL SLove ueslan Culde 2003)
2.2.5 Biomass Fu¢l

8lomass has been Lhe prlmarv source of fuel for humans for Lhousands of vears. 8lomass fuel,
as deflned bv £ovltoomeotol 5cleoce. A Clobol cooceto. olotb eJltloo, ºls oraanlc maLerlal
produced bv planLs, anlmals, or mlcrooraanlsms LhaL can be burned dlrecLlv as a heaL source or
converLed lnLo a aaseous or llquld fuel." (2007). 8lomass fuel conLalns enerav from Lhe sun, and
when burned, Lhe blomass fuel releases LhaL enerav ln Lhe form of heaL. 8lomass fuel ls
consldered a renewable resource because lL can be resLored wlLhln Lhe llfespan of a human
(Lnerav lnformaLlon AdmlnlsLraLlon 2007). Lxamples of blomass fuel are: wood, duna, coffee
arlnds, oranae peels, coal, and munlclpal solld wasLe. 1he 8ockeL sLove can use anv Lvpe of
blomass as a cooklna fuel.
2.2.5.1 Wood

Wood ls Lhe mosL common form of fuel for Lhe rockeL sLove. 1he wood can come ln slzes
ranalna from Lwlas scavenaed off Lhe around Lo cords purchased from a sLore. ldeallv for
cooklna, a wood LhaL ls slow burnlna, buL produces Lhe requlred heaL needed ls deslred. 1hls ls
because Lhe wood does noL have Lo be replaced as ofLen whlle cooklna, Lhls beneflLs Lhe
envlronmenL bv uslna less wood whlch means LhaL fewer Lrees need Lo be cuL down. Powever,
lf Lhe onlv wood ln Lhe aeoaraphlcal realon ls one LhaL burns fasL, lL ls a beLLer ldea Lo use LhaL
wood because chances are LhaL lL wlll be less expenslve and beLLer for Lhe envlronmenL (new
Mexlco SLaLe unlverslLv 2003). ln addlLlon Lo aaLherlna Lhe wood, a person needs Lo be able Lo
sLore Lhe wood ln an approprlaLe envlronmenL so Lhe wood wlll be readv Lo use. An
approprlaLe envlronmenL for sLorlna wood would be ln a place where lL ls dlfflculL for molsLure
Lo aeL Lo lL. 1hls ls ldeal because ln order for wood Lo be effecLlve lL needs Lo be drv. (1he
Wood PeaL CraanlzaLlon 2009)

1he advanLaae of uslna wood ls LhaL lL ls an envlronmenLallv frlendlv fuel when used properlv.
Wood ls a renewable resource and can be replenlshed wlLhln Lhe llfespan of a human. 1he
enerav LhaL wood alves off when burned ls slanlflcanLlv more efflclenL when compared Lo oLher
sources of blomass fuel (1he Wood PeaL CraanlzaLlon 2009).

1he dlsadvanLaaes of uslna wood as a fuel source are realonal. lor example, lf a person
conslderlna uslna wood as a fuel source llves ln an area where Lhere are llmlLed amounLs of
wood or no wood aL all, LhaL makes lL dlfflculL Lo use wood as a fuel Lo cook Lhelr food. ln
addlLlon Lo Lhe avallablllLv of wood, when wood ls burned lL releases carbon dloxlde and oLher
forms of aases. (Cunnlnaham 2007)



12

2.2.5.2 Dung

uuna refers Lo solld fecal wasLe from anlmals and ls consldered a blomass fuel. When an
anlmal eaLs planLs, arasses, or oLher anlmals, LhaL anlmal Lakes on Lhe enerav from lLs food
source. Anlmal duna conLalns poLenLlal enerav. 1haL ls, lf Lhe duna ls drled properlv, duna ls
able Lo be llL and used as an enerav source Lo cook food. uuna ls a prlmarv fuel for areas LhaL
do noL have access Lo wood fuel or cannoL afford lL. CurrenLlv duna ls noL as efflclenL as wood
fuel, however, research ls belna conducLed bv Aprovecho 8esearch CenLer Lo chanae Lhls
(2006).

1he advanLaae Lo uslna duna as a fuel source ls LhaL ln areas where Lhere ls an abundance of
wlldllfe, Lhere ls also an abundance of duna. lor areas LhaL do noL have manv oLher fuel
sources around, or for poverLv sLrlcken areas, duna ls a areaL fuel source because lL ls cheap.
When used for cooklna, duna ls efflclenL ln sLoves LhaL are deslaned speclflcallv for cooklna wlLh
duna.

1he dlsadvanLaae Lo uslna duna ls LhaL Lhere are noL a varleLv of wavs Lo cook wlLh lL efflclenLlv.
1he common wavs Lo cook wlLh duna lose a loL of heaL, so Lhe cook needs Lo use more duna Lo
keep Lhe heaL aolna Lo cook Lhe food. 1he more duna Lhe cook needs, Lhe more duna LhaL wlll
be collecLed ln Lhe area, and over Llme Lhere could be a poLenLlal shorLaae of duna. When llL,
duna produces a loL of smoke and ls noL efflclenL ln a sLandard open flre sLove. lf a person does
noL have access Lo a sLove LhaL ls deslaned speclflcallv for cooklna wlLh duna LhaL person ls
uslna duna lnefflclenLlv (WlLL 2006).
2.2.5.3 Sp¢nt Coff¢¢ Crounds

SpenL coffee arounds are whaL ls lefL over afLer a person makes a poL of coffee. 1he coffee
arlnds have Lhe poLenLlal Lo be Lurned lnLo a blo-fuel (kondamudl, MohapaLar, Mlsra 2008).
1he oll-Lo-mass raLlo of coffee beans ls abouL Lwelve percenL, whlch ls noL as hlah when
compared Lo oLher blo-dlesel fuels such as sov and casLor beans whlch have an oll-Lo-mass raLlo
of elahLeen percenL and forLv-elahL percenL respecLlvelv (Cfflce of Lnerav lndependence and
Wlsconsln ueparLmenL of AarlculLure, 1rade and Consumer ÞroLecLlon 2007).

1he advanLaaes of uslna coffee arlnds as a fuel source ls LhaL ln a clLv such as new ?ork, coffee
arlnds are almosL evervwhere. 1here are manv dlners, cafes, and coffee shops ln new ?ork
ClLv, whlch sell coffee. When Lhese places make coffee, Lhev are also produclna a wasLe LhaL
Lhev Lvplcallv Lhrow awav. uslna coffee arlnds as a fuel source wlll reduce Lhe amounL of wasLe
produced bv Lhe places menLloned above and provlde a blomass fuel Lo run Lhe 8ockeL SLove.

1he dlsadvanLaae of uslna coffee arlnds ls LhaL noL much research has been done on Lhem ln
Lerms of a blomass fuel. 1hev can be Lurned lnLo a blo-fuel, buL ln Lerms of burnlna lL as a
blomass Lo produce heaL Lo cook wlLh, noL much research has been done and lL could noL be
LhaL rellable.


13

2.2.5.4 Urang¢ P¢¢ls

Cranaes absorb enerav from Lhe sun. 1hls characLerlsLlc places oranae peels ln Lhe blomass
fuel caLeaorv. As oranae peels roL, Lhev emlL hvdroaen aas. 8esearch ls belna conducLed Lo
lnvesLlaaLe wheLher Lhe hvdroaen aas from Lhe roLLlna peel could be converLed lnLo meLhanol
whlch could be used ln a fuel cell (Lcofrlend 2006).

1he advanLaae of uslna oranae peels as fuel for Lhe rockeL sLove ls LhaL lL would reduce wasLe
and lL would be burnlna a blomass fuel. 1here would noL be anv consumpLlon of fossll fuels and
Lhls would help our envlronmenLal sLaLe.

1he dlsadvanLaae of uslna oranae peels as fuel for a rockeL sLove ls LhaL noL much research has
been done on Lhe combusLlon of oranae peels. ln addlLlon Lo Lhe amounL of research LhaL has
been done on Lhe fuel source, Lhe avallablllLv of Lhe oranaes varv from place Lo place whlch
could make oranae peels dlfflculL Lo use.
2.2.5.5 Coal

Coal ls one of modern dav socleLv's convenLlonal enerav sources. Coal was formed mllllons of
vears aao from fosslllzed planL maLerlal. Coal ls a carbon rlch fuel and ls consldered a
nonrenewable resource because lL Lakes so lona Lo form (Cunnlnaham 2007). Coal ls rellable
and people know how lL can be used as an enerav source.

1he advanLaae of uslna coal as a fuel source ls LhaL lL ls wldelv used and avallable. 1here ls a
larae amounL of research LhaL has been conducLed wlLh Lhe fuel and a larae amounL of
lnformaLlon on Lhe fuel.

1he dlsadvanLaae of uslna coal ls LhaL when coal ls burned lL produces manv Loxlc aases LhaL are
boLh harmful for Lhe envlronmenL and for Lhe people ln Lhe area LhaL Lhe coal ls belna burned.
Coal ls noL consldered a renewable enerav source because lL cannoL be replenlshed ln Lhe
llfespan of a human (Cunnlnaham 2007).
2.2.5.ó Municipal Solid Wast¢

Munlclpal solld wasLe, whlch ls mosL commonlv known as aarbaae, conslsLs of Lrash LhaL ls
Lhrown awav bv resldenLlal, commerclal, and lndusLrlal areas (uavls 2009). As a fuel source,
munlclpal solld wasLe ls a new ldea (Wood 2008). 8esearch ls belna conducLed Lo comblne
munlclpal solld wasLe wlLh blomass Lo creaLe eLhanol and oLher forms of blo-fuels (Wood
2008).

1he advanLaae of uslna munlclpal solld wasLe as a fuel source ls LhaL lL could poLenLlallv cuL
back Lhe amounL of wasLe LhaL people send Lo Lhe landflll bv burnlna lL Lo produce enerav.

14

1he dlsadvanLaae of uslna munlclpal solld wasLe ls LhaL lL could poLenLlallv conLaln Loxlc or
hazardous maLerlals whlch when burned wlll end up ln Lhe aLmosphere causlna harm Lo Lhe
envlronmenL and Lhe people near Lhe burnlna slLe.
2.2.ó Mat¢rials

8ockeL sLoves are made ouL of manv dlfferenL maLerlals. 1he maLerlals chosen are usuallv
dependenL upon Lhe aeoaraphlc area. 1able 2-1 descrlbes Lhe heaL loss of commonlv used
maLerlals of rockeL sLoves. 1he ldeal maLerlals have low heaL loss and Lhermal conducLlvlLv,
and a hlah speclflc heaL capaclLv. 1hls equaLes Lo more of Lhe enerav reachlna Lhe cooklna
vessel, raLher Lhan escaplna lnLo Lhe bodv of Lhe sLove, or lnLo Lhe envlronmenL.

1ab|e 2-1 neat Loss of Var|ous Mater|a| (MI1 2005)
MaLerlal uenslLv
(ka/m^3)
Speclflc PeaL
(!/ka-C)
1hermal
ConducLlvlLv
(W/m-C)
LsLlmaLed heaL
loss
(M!)
Crdlnarv
8rlck
1600 840 0.7 3.7
CuaLamalan
8aldosa
439 812 0.219 3.1
83° pearllLe
13° clav
1400 l flrlna
439 921 0.128 1.4
30/30
SawdusL/clav
729 701 0.081 1.2
83°vermlcullLe
13° clav
339 698 0.12 1.4
Þumlce 8rlck 770 833
(esLlmaLed)

0.038 0.37

2.2.ó.1 Stainl¢ss St¢¢l

SLalnless sLeel holds heaL exLremelv well. lL ls lmpermeable and does noL allow smoke or Loxlc
fumes Lo escape lnLo Lhe envlronmenL whlch could cause harm Lo Lhe users of Lhe sLove. WlLh
a damp cloLh, Lhe sLalnless sLeel can be cleaned, resulLlna ln easv malnLenance of Lhe sLove.
Powever, sLeel wlll acqulre heaL damaae over Llme and can become Loo hoL Lo Louch durlna
use. lor Lhese reasons, Lhe safeLv of Lhe users musL be Laken lnLo conslderaLlon durlna Lhe
consLrucLlon process. When consLrucLlna, Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of an addlLlonal sklrL, or ouLer
shell could be used Lo proLecL Lhe user from recelvlna poLenLlallv serlous burns. (Aprovecho
8esearch CenLer 2003)

13

2.2.ó.2 Clay]Sawdust Bricks

Clav/SawdusL brlcks are verv reslllenL Lo heaL damaae. 1he brlcks can be morLared LoaeLher
wlLh sand, resulLlna ln Lhls maLerlal belna verv heavv, whlch would ensure LhaL Lhe chamber
was durable and sLurdv. Powever, uslna Lhe clav brlcks would creaLe a slanlflcanLlv heavler less
porLable sLove. An advanLaae Lo Lhe brlcks ls LhaL Lhev have hlah Lhermal mass, and
consequenLlv keep Lhe heaL lnslde Lhe chamber. Lven afLer Lhe flre or combusLlon has
slmmered down, Lhe heaL sLlll resldes lnslde Lhe chamber of Lhe brlcks. 1he consLrucLlon of Lhls
sLove would make Lhe assemblv of Lhe brlcks harder Lo place, Lherefore lL ls lmperaLlve LhaL
Lhere are no cracks or holes ln Lhe morLar, or else Lhe sLove wlll noL work properlv due Lo Lhe
convenLlon currenL LhaL could form. (ScoLL 2003)


I|gure 2-3 Combust|on Chamber made of 8r|cks (8ryden 2006)
2.2.ó.3 Plastic Buck¢t
ÞlasLlc buckeLs are an lnexpenslve, and acL as houslna surroundlna Lhe chamber for Lhe rockeL
sLove. A slmple 30cm x 30cm buckeL wlLh a whole ln Lhe boLLom can be fllled wlLh clav, meLal
or sLone Lo creaLe a sufflclenL chamber for Lhe rockeL sLove. 1he buckeL onlv works lf Lhere ls a
hefLv lnsulaLor prohlblLlna Lhe buckeL from melLlna. ÞlasLlc ls handv lf oLher maLerlals are noL
as easv Lo acqulre. 1hls maLerlal would enable Lemporarv use of Lhe producL, buL would be
hard Lo malnLaln, and would be unsLable over a lona perlod of Llme. (Aprovecho 2003)
2.2.ó.4 C¢ramic Til¢s
Ceramlc Llles are used for bla rockeL sLoves and work well as lnsulaLlon for combusLlon
chambers. Ceramlc Llle absorbs slanlflcanL amounLs of heaL and wlll hold Lhe heaL for a lona
perlod of Llme. lor LhaL reason, ceramlc Llles are verv efflclenL ln Lhe sense LhaL lL warms
qulcklv, and holds lLs warmLh for a perlod of Llme. Ceramlc Llle would also make an approprlaLe
shelf for Lhe blomass Lo be burned on. (ScoLL 2004)
2.2.ó.5 Cast Iron
CasL lron can reLaln exLenslve amounLs of heaL. uslna casL lron for Lhe combusLlon chamber
and or Lhe ouLer houslna of Lhe sLove would be exLremelv durable. 1hls maLerlal ls malnlv used
lf Lhere ls no oLher maLerlal avallable. uslna casL lron would ensure LhaL lL ls an lnsLallaLlon
sLove as opposed Lo a porLable one. (Aprovecho 2003)

16

2.2.ó.ó Uil]Wat¢r Drum]Barr¢l
An oll drum would creaLe a larae chamber for a rockeL sLove. An oll drum would be verv
danaerous lf noL cleaned properlv prlor Lo use, due Lhe flammable properLles of oll. 1he waLer
barrel would be slanlflcanLlv safer Lhan Lhe oll drum and ls llke Lhe oLher meLals, Lherefore lL ls
lmporLanL Lo be aware of Lhe facL LhaL Lhe exLerlor of Lhls chamber wlll be radlaLlna an
excesslve amounL of heaL. 1he waLer or oll drum would reLaln Lhe heaL and provlde a bla
enouah base Lo cook larae poLs of food. (Aprovecho 2003)
2.3 D¢sign Styl¢s
2.3.1.1 Existing Institutional Stov¢

1he LxlsLlna lnsLlLuLlonal SLove shown ls llaure 2-4 ls a svsLem composed of mulLlple sLoves,
whlch ls meanL Lo cook larae amounLs of food. 1hese are common LhrouahouL CenLral Afrlca,
used ln vlllaaes and schools. 8ullL from meLal drums, Lhe sLoves can hold more Lhan 400 llLers
per poL. 1he mulLlple sLoves hook up Lo a cenLral chlmnev LhaL fllLers Lhe smoke ouL of Lhe
bulldlna. 1hls could be poLenLlallv danaerous because a flue flre could sLarL lf noL cleaned
rouLlnelv. A larae amounL of malnLenance and cleanlna ls also requlred due Lo Lhe number of
sLoves belna used. (vlnevard 2003)


I|gure 2-4: Þ|cture of Lx|st|ng Inst|tut|ona| 5tove |n Centra| Afr|ca (V|neyard 2005)
2.3.1.2 Rock¢t 100-300L

1he 8ockeL 100-300L shown ln llaure 2-3 ls consLrucLed Lo hold excesslve amounLs of food and
waLer. 1hls svsLem used ln uaanda can hold up Lo 300 llLers and ls consLrucLed wlLh brlcks and
clav. 1he 8ockeL 100-300L has a chlmnev LhaL exLends Lhrouah a roof. 1he chlmnev channels
Lhe exhausL from Lhe sLove awav from Lhe food and Lhe users, whlch helps Lo ellmlnaLe Lhe
adverse healLh effecLs from parLlculaLe maLLer. 1hls sLvle ls consldered efflclenL, safe, easv Lo

17

use and easv Lo make. Powever, Lhls sLvle ls more expenslve due Lo Lhe abundance of maLerlals
requlred. lor LhaL reason, Lhe porLable 8ockeL 100-300L shown ln llaure 2-6 was developed.
1he porLable model ls smaller, and requlres less maLerlal. Powever, Lhe dlsadvanLaae ls LhaL
Lhe exhausL ls dlrecLlv emlLLed lnLo Lhe envlronmenL, whlch puLs Lhe user aL rlsk. (Mlchel 2003)


I|gure 2-5: 1rad|t|ona| kocket 100-300L (V|neyard 2005) I|gure 2-6: Þortab|e kocket 100-300L (V|neyard 2005)
2.3.1.3 MangiMangi

1he ManalManal shown ln llaure 2-4 ls a relaLlvelv new rockeL sLove LhaL ls belna used ln
Mozamblque. lL ls slmllar Lo a LradlLlonal rockeL sLove ln Lhe sense LhaL Lhe combusLlon
chamber ls made from brlcks, and ls exLremelv sLurdv. 1he ManalManal sLove ls convenlenL
and easv Lo puL LoaeLher. uslna clav/sawdusL brlck from Lhe naLural around, and waLer Lo
sllahLlv molsLen Lhe morLar, Lhe ManalManal sLove uses mosLlv naLural maLerlals Lo bulld Lhe
chamber. A poL sklrL ls connecLed Lo Lhe chamber, whlch ls made ouL of an accesslble and
lnexpenslve meLal, whlch holds Lhe poL. 1he ManalManal ls belna lmplanLed for use ln schools
and vlllaaes LhrouahouL Mozamblque. (Aprovecho 2004)


I|gure 2-7: Þ|cture of Mang|Mang| 5tove |n Mozamb|que (V|neyard 2005)

18

2.3.1.4 Lor¢na

1he Lorena SLove shown ln llaure 2-8 ls a rockeL sLove LhaL has Lwo cooklna surfaces. 1he sLove
ls mosL commonlv composed of clav, buL also conslsLs of pumlce, sawdusL, Llle/wood ash,
vermlcullLe. 1he Lorena SLove ls common ln Mexlco, SouLhern Afrlca, CenLral Amerlca, and
oLher aeoaraphlc areas wlLh an abundance of clav. 1hls chamber ls usuallv made of clav, whlch
ls casL around a Llle. 1he chamber dlffers from LradlLlonal rockeL sLoves, because lL connecLs Lo
Lwo cooklna surfaces. A dlsadvanLaae ls LhaL Lhe poL closesL Lo Lhe combusLlon wlll recelve Lhe
heaL flrsL, and Lhe poL ln Lhe back wlll noL be as efflclenL. AnoLher drawback Lo Lhls sLvle ls LhaL
Lhe exhausL ls less conLrolled. lor Lhls reason, Lhere ls noL a speclflc place for Lhe chlmnev Lo be
bullL, and release Lhe fumes. 1herefore, Lhls sLvle would work beLLer ouLdoors, raLher Lhan
lndoors. (Mlchel 2003)


I|gure 2-8: Þ|cture of a 1rad|t|ona| Lorena 5tove (V|neyard 2005)
2.3.1.5 Nkokonono Hous¢bold

1he nkokonono Pousehold rockeL sLove seen ln llaure 2-9 looks more llke a backvard barbeque
Lhan a rockeL sLove. 1hls sLvle common ls SouLh Afrlca ls exLremelv porLable. lL ls made from
pre-exlsLlna sLoves. 1hese sLoves are a llLLle more expenslve because Lhe Lops are deslaned Lo
have mulLlple slzes of poLs on Lop. 1he deslan ls perfecL for ouLdoors, because Lhere ls no place
for a flue, or chlmnev. 1hls sLvle ls deslaned for all slzes of poLs, and can move around wlLh
ease, and ls efflclenL. (Aprovecho 2004)


I|gure 2-9: Þ|cture of Nkokonono 5tove |n 5outh Afr|ca (V|neyard 2005)

19

3 S¢arcb for Alt¢rnativ¢ Solutions
3.1 Introduction
1he search for alLernaLlve soluLlons secLlon lncludes lnformaLlon LhaL wlll help Lhe aroup
deLermlne a soluLlon Lo Lhe ob[ecLlve sLaLed ln secLlon one. 1he flrsL parL of Lhe secLlon deLalls
Lhe bralnsLormlna sesslon LhaL Lhe aroup parLlclpaLed ln. lrom Lhe bralnsLormlna sesslon, Lhe
Leam was able Lo formulaLe Lwelve alLernaLlve soluLlons. Lach of Lhe Lwelve soluLlons are
shown and explalned ln deLall below.
3.2 Brainstorming
When our aroup aoL LoaeLher Lo bralnsLorm alLernaLlve soluLlons for Lhe rockeL sLove, we
declded Lo bralnsLorm ouLdoors Lo alve our mlnds an envlronmenL oLher Lhan Lhe class Lo Lhlnk
ln. 1he flrsL approach we Look Lo Lhe bralnsLormlna acLlvlLv was Lo have wlld ldeas. uurlna Lhe
wlld ldeas parL of Lhe bralnsLormlna anvLhlna was posslble and Lhere was no crlLlclsm from anv
aroup members. As shown ln Appendlx 8, bralnsLormlna wlLh wlld ldeas beneflLed Lhe aroup
because we laLer used Lhe hlLchhlklna meLhod Lo come up wlLh Lhe alLernaLlve soluLlons llsLed
below.
3.3 Alt¢rnativ¢Solutions
1he alLernaLlve soluLlons secLlon conLalns Lhe deLalls of Lhe Lwelve soluLlons developed durlna
Lhe bralnsLormlna secLlon. Lach soluLlon aLLempLs Lo besL saLlsfv Lhe crlLerla sLaLed ln SecLlon
ll.
3.3.1 Simpl¢ Elbow Sbap¢d D¢sign

1he Slmple Llbow Shaped ueslan ls Lhe maln deslan for Lhe rockeL sLove as seen ln llaure 3-1.
1hls deslan ls Lhe foundaLlon for Lhe alLernaLlve deslan LhaL wlll be chosen. All rockeL sLoves
sLarL off wlLh Lhe baslc deslan of havlna a combusLlon chamber wlLh Lhe cooklna surface aL Lhe
Lop of an elbow shape. AL Lhe boLLom of Lhe elbow shape ls where Lhe combusLlon occurs.

1he advanLaae of Lhls slmple deslan ls LhaL lL wlll be easv and cheap Lo bulld. keeplna Lhe sLove
verv baslc mav brlna Lhe besL of resulLs because Lhls baslc deslan ls alreadv belna puL Lo use
around Lhe world.


20


I|gure 3-1: 5|mp|e L|bow 5haped Des|gn (Coo|edge)
3.3.2 Rock¢t Sbap¢ Rock¢t Stov¢

1he 8ockeL Shape 8ockeL SLove ln llaure 3-2 lnvolves Lhe same baslc prlnclples as LhaL of Lhe
LradlLlonal rockeL sLove, buL ls ln a shape of a rockeL. 1here are Lhree flns on Lhe boLLom of Lhe
sLove, whlch permlLs Lhe sLove Lo sLand uprlahL. Powever, onlv Lwo flns are shown ln Lhe
flaure, as Lhe Lhlrd ls blocked bv whaL would be Lhe nozzle and combusLlon chamber of a
LradlLlonal rockeL. 1he nozzle aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe sLove ls noL [usL aesLheLlc, buL also acLs as
addlLlonal supporL for Lhe sLove. 1he Lwo wlnas on Lhe sldes of Lhe sLove, do noL serve anv
speclflc purpose, oLher Lhan Lo enhance Lhe arLlsLlc naLure of Lhe sLove.

1he combusLlon chamber ls Lhe same as LhaL of a LradlLlonal sLove, such LhaL lL ls fabrlcaLed ouL
of some sorL of lnsulaLed maLerlal, composed of ceramlc and clav. 1he fuel maaazlne and shelf
pro[ecL horlzonLallv ouL of Lhe sLove, ln an efforL Lo Lrv Lo preserve Lhe rockeL shape. 1he
combusLlon chamber exLends verLlcal unLll lL reaches Lhe boLLom of Lhe cooklna vessel. 1he
heaL ls Lhen dlsplaced lnLo Lhe bodv of Lhe sLove, whlch acLs as a sklrL Lo Lhe vessel, and helps Lo
ensure LhaL Lhe maxlmum heaL Lransfer ls reached. 1he Lop of Lhe sLove conslsLs of a
removable lld LhaL ls polnLed Lo resemble a rockeL. 1he lld ls equlpped wlLh a LhermomeLer on
Lhe ouLslde, whlch allows Lhe user of Lhe sLove Lo be able Lo see whaL Lhe lnLernal LemperaLure
of Lhe sLove ls, enhanclna Lhe user frlendllness of Lhe sLove. 1he lld also blocks Lhe wlnd, and
prevenLs anv debrls from adverselv affecLlna Lhe sLove.

21


I|gure 3-2: D|agram of kocket 5hape kocket 5tove (Þarmer 2009)
3.3.3 Coff¢¢ Rock¢t Stov¢

1he Coffee 8ockeL SLove ln llaure 3-3 resembles Lhe LradlLlonal elbow shaped rockeL sLove. 1he
maln componenLs of Lhe sLove: fuel maaazlne, fuel shelf, combusLlon chamber, chlmnev, and
poL sklrL are all ldenLlcal Lo Lhe cusLomarv rockeL sLove. 1he ldea behlnd Lhe Coffee 8ockeL
SLove ls Lo add alLeraLlons, whlch wlll lncrease Lhe susLalnablllLv of Lhe sLove.

lor example, Lhe fuel of Lhe coffee rockeL sLove, raLher Lhan belna a convenLlonal wood-
burnlna sLove, would uLlllze spenL coffee as a fuel source. 1he coffee rockeL sLove could be
used Lo boll waLer Lo make coffee, and Lhen Lhe spenL coffee arounds could be Lurned lnLo
coffee loas. 1hese coffee loas would provlde Lhe fuel for Lhe sLove. 1he recvcllna aspecL
enhances Lhe susLalnablllLv of Lhe sLove.



22


I|gure 3-3: D|agram of Coffee kocket 5tove (Þarmer 2009)

AnoLher alLeraLlon Lo Lhe LradlLlonal rockeL sLove LhaL Lhe Coffee 8ockeL SLove emplovs ls a
door on Lhe rear of Lhe sLove LhaL allows Lhe ash Lo be collecLed easllv. 1hls ash could Lhen be
used as a ferLlllzer ln a aarden, whlch also lncreases Lhe susLalnablllLv of Lhe sLove.
3.3.4 Lor¢na Rock¢t Stov¢
A Lorena 8ockeL sLove ls a sLove LhaL ls used ln CenLral Amerlca LhaL ls composed of a mlxLure
of mud and sand. An example of a Lorena 8ockeL SLove ls shown ln llaure 3-4. 1he Lorena
SLove ls an exLenslon of Lhe LradlLlonal rockeL sLove, buL dlffers ln Lhe facL LhaL lL ls deslaned Lo
hold Lwo cooklna vessels, raLher Lhan [usL one. 1he Lorena SLove emplovs Lhe same baslc
concepLs as LhaL of Lhe convenLlonal rockeL sLove, buL wlLh some modlflcaLlons.


23


I|gure 3-4 Mode| of Lorena 5tove (Approped|a 2009)
lor example, Lhe Lorena sLove uses Lhe same baslc elbow shaped combusLlon chamber, buL lL ls
sldewavs, raLher Lhan uprlahL as shown ln llaure 3-3. 1he fuel maaazlne ls aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe
sLove and Lhe combusLlon chamber Lhen exLends alona Lhe mld secLlon of Lhe sLove from rlahL
Lo lefL Lowards Lhe chlmnev. A kev dlfference beLween Lhe LradlLlonal and Lorena 8ockeL
SLoves are LhaL Lhe cooklna surfaces are made of meLal and sealed off from Lhe resL of Lhe
sLove, raLher Lhan belna open. As Lhe heaL flows Lhrouah Lhe combusLlon chamber, lL ls
Lransferred Lo Lhe meLal surfaces whlch heaL Lhe surfaces used for cooklna. AL Lhe end of Lhe
combusLlon chamber Lhere ls an openlna for Lhe chlmnev. 1hls ls lmporLanL because a sLove of
Lhls slze musL have a conslsLenL and sLeadv alr flow.


I|gure 3-5 Interna| 5|de V|ew of Lorena 5tove (Approped|a 2009)
CCCkING
5UkIACL
CnIMNL¥
IULL
MAGA2INL
IULL
MAGA2INL
PLA1 lLCW
CnIMNL¥

24



3.3.5 Backyard Barb¢cu¢ S¢tup
1he 8ackvard 8arbecue SeLup shown ln llaure 3-6 resembles a sLandard backvard barbecue.
1he onlv dlfferences are LhaL Lhe sLove ls fueled dlfferenLlv, has beLLer lnsulaLlon, and ls
accompanled bv user-frlendlv accessorles. lor example, wheels (8) are locaLed aL Lhe boLLom
of Lhe rockeL sLove, whlch allow for easler moblllLv. 1o enhance Lhe user frlendllness of Lhe
sLove, Lables (l) wlLh a cup holder (C) locaLed on Lhe slde of Lhe sLove. 1he Lables allow Lhe chef
Lo keep necesslLles llke splces, seasonlnas, and food conLalners close bv. 1he rlahL Lable also
lncludes hooks (!), so Lhe chef can hana Lhe cooklna Lools from Lhe Lable wlLhouL aeLLlna Lhem
dlrLv. Slmllar Lo a LradlLlonal barbeque, Lhe sLove ls supplled wlLh a hood (l) LhaL closes over
Lhe food whlle Lhe chef ls cooklna Lo prevenL heaL loss. 1hls ls beneflclal because lL wlll reduce
Lhe amounL of fuel needed. 1he fuels source loaded on a araLe aL Lhe boLLom of Lhe sLove.



I|gure 3-6: 8ackyard 8arbecue 5etup
1he stove comes supp||ed w|th hooks to ho|d cook|ng too|s, a s|de she|f to ho|d sp|ces or season|ngs, whee|s for
easy mob|||ty, and a hood to cover the food. 1he combust|on chamber |s ana|ogous to a trad|t|ona| rocket stove,
and uses b|omass as a fue| source.

23


1he 8ackvard 8arbecue SeLup ls made ouL of a llahLwelahL meLal whlch conducLs heaL easllv.
1he efflclencv of Lhe meLal Lo conducL heaL qulcklv alves Lhe rockeL sLove Lhe ablllLv Lo use less
fuel Lhan convenLlonal Lvpes of cooklna.
3.3.ó Uv¢n-Styl¢ Stov¢
1he Cven-SLvle SLove shown ln llaure 3-7 ls a cross beLween a rockeL sLove and a LradlLlonal
oven used ln norLh Amerlca. 1he fuel ls placed on a fuel araLe (A), whlch llfLs Lhe fuel source off
Lhe around, and also allows Lhe proper alr flow. 1he combusLlon (C) occurs lnslde Lhe bodv of
Lhe sLove and connecLs Lo an lnsulaLed oven box (u). 1he heaL Lravels lnLo Lhe oven box, whlch
holds a poL lnslde LhaL ls used Lo cook Lhe food.


I|gure 3-7: Cven-5ty|e 5tove
1he ldea behlnd Lhe Cven-SLvle SLove ls LhaL lL should acL llke a rockeL sLove, buL once Lhe food
aeLs up Lo Lhe rlahL LemperaLure Lo be cooked Lhorouahlv, Lhe fuel ls removed and Lhe
lnsulaLed oven box cooks Lhe food. 1he advanLaae of Lhls sLove ls LhaL lL would requlre less fuel
Lhan a LradlLlonal rockeL sLove.

26

3.3.7 Hous¢ D¢sign Stov¢
1he Pouse ueslan SLove shown ln llaure 3-8 ls a comblnaLlon of a Lvplcal norLh Amerlcan sLove
and a rockeL sLove. 1he Pouse ueslan SLove has Lwo burners (8 and C), and an lnsulaLed box (A)
LhaL acLs as an oven. 1here ls a fuel araLe (l) on Lhe boLLom of Lhe sLove LhaL llfLs Lhe fuel
source off Lhe around. 1he craLe lmproves Lhe safeLv of Lhe sLove bv prevenLlna ob[ecLs on Lhe
around and near Lhe sLove from caLchlna flre and also ensures Lhe proper alr flow. 1he burner
labeled parL 8 ls a laraer burner and would be used for cooklna laraer quanLlLles of food. ÞarL C
ls a smaller burner meanL for cooklna slde dlshes or lndlvldual meals.


I|gure 3-8: nouse Des|gn 5tove

1he ldea behlnd Lhe Pouse ueslan SLove ls LhaL evervLhlna ls packed lnLo one unlL. lnsLead of
havlna a rockeL sLove LhaL ls meanL Lo cook one larae poL and one small poL, Lhe Pouse ueslan
SLove wlll have boLh. Aaaln lL wlll work llke a Lvplcal rockeL sLove ln Lerms of heaLlna, buL Lhere
wlll be a dlvlder LhaL can be pulled up Lo separaLe Lhe dlfferenL componenLs of Lhe sLove. lor

27

example, lf a person wanLed Lo cook a small personal meal for Lhemselves and noLhlna else,
Lhere wlll be a lever LhaL wlll puL Lhe dlvlder lnLo place allowlna Lhe heaL Lo flow onlv Lowards
Lhe small burner. 1he same process would be applled when uslna Lhe larae burner and Lhe
oven.
3.3.8 R¢cycl¢ Rock¢t

1he 8ecvcle 8ockeL ls a unlL LhaL would, hopefullv, recvcle and reuse Lhe wasLe from Lhe sLove.
1hls svsLem ls equlpped wlLh a composLer, whlch wlll Lurn old food scraps lnLo blo-fuel. 1he
blo- fuel, once properlv cured, can be puL lnLo Lhe fuel chamber and burned for fuel. A svsLem
llke Lhls would Lake Llme for Lhe food Lo decompose and Lurn lnLo a drv enouah sLaLe Lo burn
properlv. 1he componenLs of Lhls sLove are unlversal for all rockeL sLoves (llaure 3-9), lL has a
maln chamber, a combusLlon chamber, fuel shelf, and a Lop, whlch can flL a poL LhaL wlll hold
enouah soup Lo feed 7-11 people.


I|gure 3-9: 1he kecyc|e kocket (I|sher 2009)

1o properlv use Lhe composL, and Lurn lL lnLo blomass, lL musL drv ouL. 1o do so, Lhere are
mulLlple lavers and shelves (llaure 3-10) Lhe composL has Lo ao Lhrouah. 1he composL box wlll
conslsL of screens LhaL wlll fllLer ouL Lhe composL from laraesL Lo smallesL ln slze. 1he flrsL
screen (Ca.) wlll sLop Lhe bla pleces of composL from falllna furLher down Lhe shelves. 1hese
pleces wlll resL and drv ouL over Llme. 1he resL of Lhe screens (Cb., Cc., and Cd.) all use Lhe
same Lheorv. 1he composL wlll ao pass Lhrouah Lhe dlfferenL levels of screens, all Lhe wav unLll
Lhe boLLom of Lhe composL box. 1he boLLom shelf mosLlv conslsLs of llquld and Lhe smallesL
parLlcles of composL. 1he composL box separaLes Lhe dlfferenL slzes of composL, resulLlna ln a
qulcker and more effecLlve drvlna process.


A - CCM8uS1lCn
CPAM8L8
8 - luLL SPLLl
C - CCMÞCS1 8Cx
u - SLlulnC uCC8 1C
ulSCPA8CL CCMÞCS1
SPLLvLS

28



I|gure 3-10: 5ect|on Draw|ng for Þart C (I|sher 2009)
3.3.9 Cran¢ Styl¢ Stov¢
Cooklna wlLh Lhe rockeL sLove, on a barae could poLenLlallv be danaerous and dlfflculL. 1he
barae could move or [erk aL anv alven Llme, noL Lo menLlon weaLher condlLlons. 1o mlnlmlze
dlsasLers, a crane sLvle pullev svsLem could be verv useful (llaure 3-11). 1hls svsLem would
prevenL manv accldenLs. 1he sLove ls hoL when cooklna, as well as Lhe lLems around Lhe sLove,
Lherefore Lhe safeLv of Lhe chef ls lmporLanL. 1he pullev would creaLe an easv safe wav for Lhe
chef Lo properlv remove Lhe poL from Lhe sLove, and place lL on Lhe slde Lo cool down before
eaLlna.

I|gure 3-11: 1he Crane 5tove (I|sher 2009)


1hls svsLem musL be operaLed bv more Lhan one person. lL ls lmporLanL Lo have Lwo or more
people operaLlna Lhls unlL aL once because Lhere are Lwo ma[or [obs lnvolved. CperaLor
number one needs Lo pull Lhe poL up (8) wlLh Lhe lever svsLem, whlle operaLor number Lwo
pushes Lhe crane arm (C) over allowlna Lhe hoL poL Lo shlfL over Lo Lhe coollna box (u).
A - ÞC1
8 - ÞuLLL? S?S1LM
C - C8AnL 8C1A1lCn ÞlvC1
ÞCln1
u - CCCLlnC 8Cx
L - CCM8uS1lCn CPAM8L8
l - lLlÞ uÞ uCC8
C - luLL SPLLl

29

3.3.10 Comfort Stov¢

1he ComforL SLove ls Lhe ulLlmaLe cooklna devlce. 1hls mechanlsm would come fullv loaded,
wlLh a chalr, LhermomeLer, oven mlLLens, shelves, surfaces, and more (llaure 3-12). ComforL ls
Lhe kev Lo cooklna for Lhls sLvle. 1he chef's comforL level ls verv lmporLanL wlLh Lhls deslan, so
lL ls lmperaLlve LhaL Lhe chef ls able Lo relax whlle cooklna on Lhls unlL. 1o lncrease Lhe chef's
well-belna, Lhe sLove ls supplled wlLh a bullL ln sLool for Lhe chef Lo relax whlle walLlna for Lhe
waLer Lo boll. 1hls sLool wlll noL [usL be a place Lo slL, buL Lhe chefs own personal cockplL Lo Lhe
rockeL sLove. Whlle slLLlna on Lhe sLool, Lhe chef can keep Lrack of Lhe Llme, LemperaLure, and
fuel levels. A dlsadvanLaae Lo Lhls sLove ls LhaL Lhere ls onlv enouah space for one chef Lo be
operaLlna Lhe sLove.

I|gure 3-12: 1he Comfort 5tove (I|sher 2009)
3.3.11 Multipl¢ Cooking Surfac¢s

1he sLove wlll be deslaned ln such a wav so LhaL a laraer cooklna surface/poL and a smaller
cooklna servlce/poL can be used as seen ln llaure 3-13. uependlna on how manv people are
belna cooked for deLermlnes whlch parL of Lhe sLove wlll be used. 1hls deslan provldes
slmpllclLv Lo Lhe rockeL sLove. WlLh one unlL all-LoaeLher lL wlll be easler Lo sLore and poslLlon
Lhe sLove, as opposed Lo havlna Lwo separaLe sLoves. AnoLher posslblllLv for Lhls deslan ls Lo
slmplv creaLe lnserLs for Lhe cooklna area, whlch can ranae from a small poL, Lo a larae poL, Lo a
arlll of some sorL. lf Lhere are Lwo cooklna surfaces ln one sLove Lhen Lwo separaLe parLs of Lhe
meal can be cooked slmulLaneouslv uslna Lhe same fuel source.

A - CCM8uS1lCn CPAM8L8
8 - 1CÞ Cl 8CCkL1 S1CvL
C - u1LnClLS 8ACk
• SÞA1CPuLA
• knllLS
• SÞCCnS
• CvLn Ml1S
u - CCun1L8 Su8lACL
L - CCun1 uCWn 1lML8
l - 1L8MCML1L8
C - SLluL Cu1 Su8lACL lC8
CPLl
P - CLCCk
l - ÞuLL Cu1 S1CCL
!- WlnuCW
k - ÞL81LC1lvL 8CCl lC8 unl1

30

1here are advanLaaes and dlsadvanLaaes Lo Lhls sLove deslan. Cne of Lhe advanLaaes wlLh Lhls
sLove ls LhaL Lhe user can be cooklna Lwo separaLe meals aL Lhe same Llme. AnoLher advanLaae
ls LhaL one does noL alwavs have Lo cook ln laraer quanLlLles, Lhe user can choose wheLher or
noL Lo cook for a few people or [usL for one person. 1he dlsadvanLaae Lo Lhls sLove ls LhaL lL mav
requlre more fuel ln order Lo heaL boLh cooklna surfaces.

I|gure 3-13: Mu|t|p|e 5urface 5tove (Coo|edge 2009)

3.3.12 Saf¢ty Stov¢

1he SafeLv SLove wlll be deslaned wlLh Lhe educaLlon of Lhe publlc ln mlnd. 1he sLove ls user
frlendlv and safe Lo vlslLors who mav noL have experlence belna around such sLoves, as seen ln
llaure 3-14. A baslc rockeL sLove deslan wlll be used buL wlll be encased ln a proLecLlve caslna
LhaL ls heaL reslsLanL so LhaL Lhe ouLslde of Lhe rockeL sLove wlll noL be hoL Lo Lhe Louch. 1he
openlna Lo Lhe combusLlon chamber wlll have small door Lo cover where Lhe fuel source ls
belna burned. 1hls small door wlll also be heaL reslsLanL so LhaL openlna and closlna Lhe door
wlll noL cause Lhe user Lo be burned.

Cne of Lhe advanLaaes of Lhls sLove ls LhaL Lhe user wlll be safe mosL of Lhe Llme. AnoLher
advanLaae ls LhaL Lhe user wlll noL have Lo worrv abouL people, who do noL know how Lo use
Lhe sLove, aeLLlna burned bv Lhe sLove. 1here are a few componenLs ln Lhls deslan LhaL mav end
up belna arouped wlLh anoLher deslan.

31


I|gure 3-14 5afety 5tove (Coo|edge 2009)

32

4 D¢cision Pbas¢
4.1 Introduction

1hls secLlon wlll dlscuss Lhe process LhaL 1eam Mel 8rooks used Lo declde upon a flnal soluLlon.
1he crlLerla LhaL were creaLed ln SecLlon 3 wlll be used Lo score Lhe alLernaLlve soluLlons. ln Lhls
secLlon, we used a ueclslon MaLrlx meLhod Lo choose Lhe flnal soluLlon.
4.2 Crit¢ria D¢finition

Lducat|ona| Va|ue- AlLhouah Lhe rockeL sLove does noL need Lo be a museum exhlblL, lL sLlll
needs Lo Leach Lhe vlslLors of Lhe barae abouL susLalnable meLhods of cooklna and proper uses
of blomass.

Iunct|ona||ty- 1he rockeL sLove musL be able Lo cook for aL leasL slx people whlle lL ls on Lhe
barae. lL musL be able Lo be used dallv and mulLlple Llmes a dav. 1hls sLove ls aolna Lo be Lhe
maln sources of cooklna on Lhe WaLerÞod, so lL ls lmporLanL LhaL lL funcLlons.

Amount of Iue| Used- 1he rockeL sLove should be deslaned ln wav LhaL ls requlres Lhe mlnlmal
amounL of fuel. 1herefore, less of a fuel source needs Lo be collecLed prlor Lo Lhe deparLure of
Lhe WaLerÞod.

Lase of Use- 1he ease of use facLor ls lmporLanL wlLh Lhls rockeL sLove because Lhe user musL
be able Lo qulcklv learn how Lo properlv use Lhe rockeL sLove Lhrouah slmple lnsLrucLlons. lL ls
lmporLanL LhaL Lhe user, or chef, undersLands Lhe lnsLrucLlons, because Lhev wlll have no oLher
rellable means of cooklna on Lhe barae.

Durab|||ty: lL ls lmporLanL LhaL Lhls sLove be able Lo wlLhsLand slx monLhs of conLlnuous use on
Lhe barae. 1he sLove wlll be used evervdav for cooklna meals for Lhe members on board Lhe
barae, Lherefore lL ls prlorlLv LhaL Lhls sLove wlll be sLurdv wlLh no rlsks of breaklna.

Cost: 1he cap on Lhe amounL of monev Lhls sLove can cosL ls $300. lL cannoL cosL more Lhan
LhaL amounL. Anv soluLlon LhaL wlll cosL over $300 wlll be dlsreaarded because of Lhe funds are
lnsufflclenL Lo supporL Lhe pro[ecL.

Ma|ntenance: 1hls sLove wlll be used evervdav, and needs Lo have conLlnuous malnLenance, Lo
ensure LhaL Lhe sLove wlll work properlv. lL ls lmporLanL LhaL Lhls sLove wlll work LhrouahouL
Lhe slx monLhs on board Lhe barae, Lo ensure Lhls, Lhe sLove musL be easllv malnLalned. 1he
deslans LhaL are noL as easv Lo clean and malnLenance wlll be alven fewer polnLs ln Lhe declslon
process.

5afety: 1he sLove wlll be hoL, and lL ls lmporLanL Lo have proper proLecLlon around Lhe hoLLesL
parLs of Lhe sLove. lL ls lmperaLlve LhaL Lhere wlll be no accldenLal burns from Lhls sLove. 1he

33

venLllaLlon of Lhe sLove ls also a concern and wlll be an lssue closelv examlned durlna Lhe
declslon process. 1he n?lu, has alreadv lnformed Lhe cllenL LhaL Lhe sLove wlll noL be allowed
lnslde anv sLrucLures on board Lhe barae, Lherefore Lhe sLove musL be deslaned ln such a wav
LhaL lL wlll survlve Lhe weaLher ouLslde. SafeLv ls verv lmporLanL Lo Lhe cllenL and wlll be
facLored lnLo Lhe bulldlna and deslan process.

5h|ppab|e: 1he sLove musL flL ln a box LhaL can hold up Lo 300lbs, whlch wlll be shlpped Lo new
?ork ClLv. 1here wlll be mulLlple deslans and so a mlnlmal welahL ls deslred. 1he shape of Lhe
box ls flexlble, and unknown aL Lhls Llme.

Lase of 5etup: SeLLlna up Lhls sLove should be raLher easv. When Lhe cllenL recelves Lhe box
wlLh Lhe sLove ln lL, Lhev should be able Lo Lake lL ouL of Lhe box and use Lhe sLove wlLh Lhe
leasL amounL of seLLlna up posslble. 1hls wav Lhe cllenL wlll noL wasLe Llme seLLlna up Lhelr
cooklna devlce, and wlll be able Lo eaL prompLlv on arrlval.
4.3 Solutions

Þlease refer back Lo SecLlon lll for more deLall on each one of Lhese soluLlons:

8ackvard 88C
8ockeL SLove
8ecvcle 1heme
MulLl-surface
Cven sLvle
Lorena
Crane sLvle
SafeLv Lheme
Pouse deslan
Coffee Lheme
ComforL sLvle
Slmple deslan
4.4 D¢cision Proc¢ss

1eam Mel 8rooks used Lhe uelphl ueclslon meLhod Lo come Lo a flnal declslon. 1he uelphl
ueclslon meLhod ls a process LhaL Lakes lnLo accounL Lhe dlfferenL crlLerla LhaL needs Lo be meL
bv Lhe flnal deslan. lL uses Lhe welahLed crlLerla LhaL Lhe aroup came Lo a consensus on (1able
4-1), and a scale LhaL Lhe aroup declded on. 1he scale LhaL Lhe aroup used was from 1 Lo 30, 1
meanlna LhaL Lhe deslan dld noL meeL Lhe crlLerla and 30 meanlna LhaL Lhe deslan meL Lhe
crlLerla perfecLlv. Cnce Lhe crlLerlon was ranked, lL was mulLlplled bv Lhe welahLed crlLerla.
llnallv, Lhe numbers from each column were added LoaeLher Lo alve a LoLal aL Lhe boLLom of
Lhe column for each deslan. As shown ln 1able 4-2 and 1able 4-3, Lhe Lwo deslans wlLh Lhe
hlahesL LoLals were Lhe Slmple ueslan and Lhe 8ockeL Shape ueslan. AfLer some dellberaLlon,

34

1eam Mel 8rooks unanlmouslv declded Lo deslan Lhe 8ockeL Shaped 8ockeL SLove because lL
besL saLlsfled Lhe sLaLed crlLerla.

1ab|e 4-1: We|ghted Cr|ter|a 1ab|e. Lach co|umn represents the score that the group member gave for the
cr|ter|a. 1he |ast co|umn |s the consensus and f|na| we|ghted va|ue that the team dec|ded on. 1hese are used as
the mu|t|p||ers |n the De|ph| Dec|s|on method.
Cr|ter|a Mo||y 8r|an C. Cra|g 8r|an Þ. Consensus
Durab|||ty 9 7 7 3 7
Cost 10 9 6 1 3
5afety 9 9 10 8 9
5h|ppab|||ty 7 10 9 7 9
Lase of 5etup 7 10 9 2 4
Aesthet|cs 6 2 8 3 6
Lducat|ona| Va|ue 3 6 7 6 6
Iunct|ona||ty 10 10 9 10 10
Amt. of Iue| Used 10 3 9 8 8
Lase of Use 8 10 9 9 9
Ma|ntenance 9 8 7 8 8





















33

1ab|e 4-2: De|ph| Dec|s|on Method. 1he top va|ue |n the row |s the score that the a|ternat|ve so|ut|on rece|ved
from the group. 1he bottom va|ue |n the row |s the top va|ue mu|t|p||ed by the we|ghted va|ue, wh|ch g|ves the
tota| va|ue for the cr|ter|a.
Cr|ter|a We|ght 8ackyard 88C kocket 5hape kecyc|e 1heme Mu|t|-5urface Cven-5ty|e Lorena
30 30 33 33 33 33
Durab|||ty
7
210 210 245 245 245 245
13 20 20 10 20 10
Cost
3 75 100 100 50 100 50
23 40 13 10 33 10
Ma|ntenance
8 200 320 120 80 280 80
33 40 40 26 23 26
5afety
9 297 360 360 234 225 234
20 31 23 23 22 23
5h|ppab|e
9 180 279 225 207 198 207
30 33 30 33 33 33 Lase of
5etup
4 120 140 120 140 140 140
40 30 33 30 30 30
Aesthet|cs
6 240 300 210 180 180 180
26 27 34 23 23 23 Lducat|ona|
Va|ue
6 156 162 204 150 150 150
40 40 20 27 33 27
Iunct|ona||ty
10 400 400 200 270 350 270
33 33 40 23 30 23
Lnergy Used
8 280 280 320 200 240 200
37 40 30 33 33 33
Lasy to Use
9 333 360 270 315 315 315

1ota|

2491 2911 2374 2071 2423 2071









36


1ab|e 4-6: De|ph| Dec|s|on Method Cont|nued
Cr|ter|a We|ght Crane 5ty|e 5afety 1heme nouse Des|gn Coffee 1heme Comfort 5ty|e 5|mp|e Des|gn
23 48 33 43 40 43
Durab|||ty
7 175 336 245 315 280 315
13 34 20 40 13 40
Cost
3 75 170 100 200 75 200
23 22 20 33 23 33
Ma|ntenance
8 200 176 160 280 200 280
40 30 23 33 30 33
5afety
9 360 450 225 315 270 315
13 30 23 40 13 40
5h|ppab|e
9 135 270 225 360 135 360
13 40 30 40 20 40 Lase of
5etup
4 60 160 120 160 80 160
43 30 33 23 40 23
Aesthet|cs
6 301 210 245 175 280 175
47 17 23 30 23 30 Lducat|ona|
Va|ue
6 282 102 150 180 150 180
23 30 20 20 23 43
Iunct|ona||ty
10 250 300 200 200 250 450
40 40 13 40 33 40
Lnergy Used
8 320 320 120 320 280 320
23 42 33 40 40 40
Lasy to Use
9 225 378 315 360 360 360

1ota|

2383 2872 2105 2865 2360 3115

4.5 Final D¢cision )ustification

1he aroup applled Lhe uelphl ueclslon meLhod Lo Lhe dlfferenL alLernaLlve soluLlons, and Lhen
dlscussed Lhe resulLs. 1he aroup came Lo Lhe concluslon LhaL Lhe 8ockeL Shape 8ockeL SLove
was Lhe opLlmal cholce. 1he welahLlna of Lhe crlLerla and Lhe uelphl ueclslon MaLrlx was
helpful ln comlna Lo Lhls flnal declslon. 1he uelphl ueclslon MaLrlx was easv Lo read and made
lL clear on whaL Lhe sLrenaLhs and weaknesses of each of Lhe alLernaLlve soluLlons were. ln Lhe
end, Lhe 8ockeL Shape 8ockeL SLove was chosen because lL was Lhe besL cholce because lL
saLlsfled all of Lhe sLaLed crlLerla, and seemed llke a plauslble deslan LhaL Lhe aroup could bulld.

37

5 Sp¢cification of Solution
5.1 Introduction

SecLlon llve of Lhe deslan documenL lncludes a deLalled flnal deslan descrlpLlon, cosL analvsls,
lnsLrucLlons for lmplemenLaLlon and use, and Lhe proLoLvpe resulLs.
• 1he deslan descrlpLlon wlll have updaLed deLalls, whlch mav be dlfferenL from Lhe
descrlpLlon found ln SecLlon 3. 1eam Mel 8rooks collaboraLed and creaLed a deslan LhaL
would fulflll all crlLerla found ln SecLlon 4.
• CosL Analvsls ls presenLed below, Lhls shows all cosLs LhaL wenL lnLo Lhe bulldlna of Lhe
rockeL sLove. lL also puLs lnLo perspecLlve Lhe cosL ln hours, lmplanLaLlon cosLs and
malnLenance cosLs for Lhe fuLure.
• lnsLrucLlon for lmplemenLaLlon descrlbes Lhe obllaaLlons prlor Lo use for Lhe 8ockeL
SLove.
• ÞroLoLvpe resulLs explaln Lhe LesL resulLs from Lhe rockeL sLove Lo see whlch klnd of fuel
source wlll produce Lhe besL heaL. As well as how much wood wlll be needed Lo fuel Lhe
sLove. 8esulLs wlll also lnclude Lhe Llme lL Lakes Lo boll an averaae amounL of waLer.
5.2 Solution D¢scription

1eam Mel 8rooks lnlLlallv seL ouL Lo bulld Lhe 8ockeL Shape 8ockeL SLove chosen ln SecLlon lv,
buL durlna Lhe consLrucLlon of Lhe sLove, Lhe sLove looked less llke a rockeL, and more llke a
roboL. lor LhaL reason, 1eam Mel 8rooks declded Lo alLer Lhe deslan sllahLlv and name Lhe
sLove M2-82. 1he name comes from Lhe lnlLlals of Mel 8rooks, and 2 + 2 ls equal Lo Lhe number
of aroup members. 1he sLove ls Lhe same baslc deslan behlnd Lhe 8ockeL Shape 8ockeL SLove,
buL lL does noL have anv of Lhe flns. 1hls allowed Lhe Leam Lo use less maLerlal, buL sLlll creaLe a
quallLv sLove.

1he M2-82 sLove seen ln llaure 3-1 lncludes a fuel maaazlne, fuel shelf, combusLlon chamber,
chlmnev, and poL sklrL, all of whlch are found ln LradlLlonal rockeL sLoves.


38


I|gure 5-1 Þ|cture of M2-82 kocket 5tove
1he stove was pa|nted wh|te so the art|sts on the WaterÞod can put the|r own art|st|c touch on the stove.
1he bodv of Lhe sLove ls made ouL of a recvcled 16 aallon oll drum, whlch was chosen because lL
ls llahL welahL buL durable. 1he welahL of Lhe bodv was lmporLanL ln Lhe declslon process
because Lhe sLove musL be shlppable.

1he combusLlon chamber shown ln llaure 3-2 ls made ouL of flre brlck, wlLh one reaular red
brlck on Lhe back. As Lhe name suaaesLs, flre brlck ls bullL Lo be able Lo wlLhsLand hlah
LemperaLures, whlch ls a necesslLv for Lhe combusLlon chamber. llre brlck has low mass, hlah
lnsulaLlve properLles, and ls relaLlvelv lnexpenslve. 1he red brlck ls used ln Lhe back raLher Lhan
a flre brlck, because when loadlna Lhe fuel a flre brlck could become damaaed. lf a crack
developed, Lhls would drasLlcallv reduce Lhe efflclencv of Lhe sLove. 1he red brlck prevenLs Lhls
from happenlna. 1he brlcks are held LoaeLher bv a heaL reslsLanL morLar.


I|gure 5-2 Þ|cture of Combust|on Chamber (12" |ong and 13" 1a||)

39

1he combusLlon chamber ls held ln place wlLh sLeel all Lhread rods shown ln llaure 3-3 LhaL are
bolLed Lo Lhe sldes of Lhe bodv. 1he all Lhread rods prevenL Lhe combusLlon chamber from
movlna abouL Lhe bodv of Lhe sLove. 1hls ls lmporLanL for Lhe lona Lerm use of Lhe sLove, buL
also because slnce lL ls belna shlpped Lo new ?ork ClLv, Lhe chamber musL be flrmlv secured.


I|gure 5-3: Þ|cture 5how|ng the Combust|on Chamber 8e|ng ne|d In Þ|ace by A|| 1hread kods
1he bodv of Lhe sLove ls fllled wlLh vermlcullLe (llaure 3-4), whlch ls a llahL mass lnsulaLlve
maLerlal, up Lo Lhe Lop of Lhe combusLlon chamber. 1he lnsulaLlon lncreases Lhe efflclencv of
Lhe sLove, whlch reduces Lhe amounL of fuel needed.


I|gure 5-4: Þ|cture of Verm|cu||te |n the 8ody of 5tove

40


Cn Lop of Lhe combusLlon chamber resLs a sLalnless sLeel plaLe shown ln llaure 3-3. 1he plaLe ls
used Lo supporL Lhe cooklna vessel, buL also seals off Lhe vermlcullLe from Lhe resL of Lhe sLove.
vermlcullLe ls known Lo conLaln asbesLos, so seallna Lhe lnsulaLlon from Lhe resL of Lhe sLove
was lmporLanL ln order Lo prevenL conLamlnaLlon


I|gure 5-5: Þ|cture 5how|ng 5tee| Þ|ate |n 8ody of 5tove
A poL sklrL ls used because lL maxlmlzes efflclencv. 1he sklrL forces heaL up Lhe sldes of Lhe
cooklna vessel, whlch areaLlv lncreases Lhe efflclencv bv Lransferrlna Lhe heaL from Lhe
convecLlon currenL Lo Lhe poL. 1he poL sklrL was made from an old aceLone conLalner and ls
bolLed Lo Lhe sLalnless sLeel plaLe, whlch holds Lhe poL sklrL ln place.


I|gure 5-6: AutoCAD Draw|ng 5how|ng the Convect|on Current Þroduced by Þot 5k|rt

41


1he lnslde lld shown ln llaure 3-7 ls made ouL of sLalnless sLeel, wlLh an openlna cuL ouL Lo Lhe
same slze as Lhe poL sklrL. lL ls sealed alr LlahL Lo prevenL heaL loss. 1he chlmnev ls used Lo
release anv excess heaL Lo avold Lhe bodv of Lhe sLove from becomlna Loo hoL, whlch ls a safeLv
hazard Lo Lhe user of Lhe sLove. 1he chlmnev ls made ouL of llahL meLal.


I|gure 5-7: Þ|cture 5how|ng the Þot sk|rt, Inner L|d, and Ch|mney
llnallv, Lhe ouLer lld shown ln llaure 3-8 ls made ouL of an old sLadlum llahL and ls used Lo add
aesLheLlc value Lo Lhe sLove, buL lL also helps Lo keep Lhe heaL lnslde of Lhe sLove.


I|gure 5-8: Cuter ||d of 5tove




42

5.3 Costs

1he cosLs for worklna on Lhls pro[ecL are broken up lnLo Lhree secLlons: deslan cosLs,
lmplemenLaLlon cosLs, and malnLenance cosLs. 1he deslan cosL secLlon menLlons Lhe flves sLeps
LhaL were followed Lo compleLe Lhe rockeL sLove and Lhe amounL of Llme LhaL was spenL ln each
sLep. 1he lmplemenLaLlon cosL secLlon breaks down Lhe cosL per lLem of maLerlals LhaL were
used ln bulldlna Lhe rockeL sLove, and alves a LoLal cosL for Lhe rockeL sLove. 1he flnal secLlon,
malnLenance cosLs, descrlbes whaL wlll need Lo be done and how much lL wlll cosL ln order Lo
keep Lhe rockeL sLove operaLlonal.
5.3.1 D¢sign Cost {bours)

1he deslan cosL shown ln llaure 3-9 ls represenLed bv how manv hours 1eam Mel 8rooks has
spenL bulldlna and deslanlna Lhe rockeL sLove. 1he amounL of Llme bulldlna Lhe rockeL sLove ls
spllL up lnLo flve phases, and proceed ln Lhe followlna order: deflnlna Lhe problem, problem
analvsls/llLeraLure revlew, alLernaLlve soluLlons, declslon process, and deslan speclflcaLlons.
1eam Mel 8rooks has spenL a LoLal of 177.73 hours on Lhe rockeL sLove.

Des|gn Cost (hr)
8

44.25
25¼
14.5

8

103
57¼
Def|n|ng the Þrob|em
L|terature
kev|ew/Þrob|em Ana|ys|s
A|ternat|ve 5o|ut|ons
Dec|ss|on Þrocess
Des|gn 5pec|f|cat|ons

I|gure 5-9: 1ota| 1|me 5pent on M2-82 kocket 5tove

43

5.3.2 Impl¢m¢ntation Cost

1he lmplemenLaLlon cosL of Lhe rockeL sLove ls expressed ln Lerms of dollars. 1able 3-1 shows
Lhe cosL of maLerlals used ln bulldlna Lhe rockeL sLove. 1eam Mel 8rooks spenL a LoLal of
$116.93 on Lhe rockeL sLove.

1ab|e 5-1: 1ota| cost to bu||d the M2-82 kocket 5tove
Item Cur Cost Þotent|a| Cost
AceLone ConLalner for ÞoL SklrL lree lree
luel Source lree lree
16 Callon Cll urum lree $3
Alumlnum SheeL MeLal $18.33 $18.33
vermlcullLe $1.73 $17.63
MorLar $4.96 $4.96
Cooklna ÞoL $19.43 $21.39
llre 8rlck $16.17 $16.17
8ed 8rlck $.31 $.31
Ad[usLable Alumlnum Llbow (Chlmnev) $3.89 $3.89
nall Clue $1.93 $1.93
nuLs and Washers $4.13 $4.13
All 1hread 8ods $4.10 $4.10
Plah PeaL Sprav ÞalnL (x2) $16.18 $16.18
Sand Þaper $2.69 $2.69
1ota| $93.89 $116.95

5.3.3 Maint¢nanc¢ Cost

1he malnLenance cosL of Lhe rockeL sLove ls expressed ln Lerms of dollars. 1he rockeL sLove ls
Lo be ln use for aL leasL slx monLhs, buL has Lhe capablllLv Lo lasL much lonaer Lhan LhaL wlLh Lhe
proper care. Þroper care of Lhe M2-82 rockeL sLove means brushlna ouL Lhe combusLlon
chamber once ln a whlle ln addlLlon Lo cleanlna ouL Lhe poL used Lo cook ln. lf anv of Lhe
seallna on Lhe combusLlon chamber sLarLs Lo crack, heaL reslsLanL brlck morLar wlll do a
sufflclenL [ob Lo seal Lhe combusLlon chamber aaaln, and Lhe heaL reslsLanL morLar cosLs around
flve dollars. ln addlLlon Lo Lhe seallna on Lhe combusLlon chamber, Lhe fuel shelf mlahL need Lo
be replaced wlLh a fuel shelf made of a sLronaer meLal. 1he currenL fuel shelf ls made from
alumlnum sheeL meLal, and ls sLarLlna Lo droop afLer a few hours of LesLlna. A fuel shelf made
from a sLronaer meLal wlll ensure LhaL Lhe fuel shelf wlll be more durable. A new fuel shelf
could be donaLed and cosL noLhlna, or could be purchased from a hardware sLore and cosL up
Lo LwenLv dollars. 1he LoLal malnLenance cosL of Lhe M2-82 rockeL sLove could ranae from
noLhlna Lo rouahlv LwenLv flve dollars.


44

5.4 Impl¢m¢ntation Instructions

1he M2-82 8ockeL SLove ls deslaned Lo provlde Lhe WaLerÞod wlLh a rellable means of cooklna.
1he M2-82 8ockeL SLove ls also aolna Lo be used as a Lool Lo Leach vlslLors of Lhe WaLerÞod
abouL blomass cooklna and Lhe use of rockeL sLoves around Lhe world. 1he M2-82 8ockeL SLove
ls aolna Lo be locaLed on Lhe WaLerÞod barae ln a covered area. Around Lhe M2-82 8ockeL
SLove wlll be slans posLed wlLh lnformaLlon on whaL a rockeL sLove ls, whv Lhev are used, and
how Lhev are belna lmplemenLed around Lhe world. 1he vlslLors of Lhe barae wlll learn abouL
blomass and Lhe need for more efflclenL means of cooklna due Lo resource depleLlon around
Lhe world.

1he M2-82 8ockeL SLove ls noL onlv aolna Lo be used as a Lool Lo Leach, buL wlll also be used Lo
cook dallv meals on Lhe WaLerÞod. 1he WaLerÞod wlll have an efflclenL sLove, whlch wlll
requlre mlnlmal amounLs of blomass Lo fuel Lhe sLove. WlLh Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhls rockeL
sLove, Lhe people of Lhe WaLerÞod are aolna Lo be able Lo cook meals uslna mlnlmal amounLs of
fuel.

A deLalled llsL of lnsLrucLlons ls lncluded ln Appendlx 8 and frequenLlv asked quesLlons
assoclaLed wlLh Lhe use of rockeL sLoves can be found ln Appendlx C.
5.5 Prototyp¢ R¢sults

1he M2-82 8ockeL SLove was LesLed on SaLurdav Aprll 23, 2009. 1esLlna was conducLlna uslna
wood for fuel, whlch creaLed a sLrona flame. 1he wood performed verv well ln Lhe combusLlon
chamber and was easv Lo sLarL. 1o LesL Lhe amounL of fuel lL Look Lo boll waLer, Lhe fuel used
was small, drv pleces of wood. Welahlna ouL a pound of wood, Lhe aroup sLarLed Lhe flre. 1he
flre was creaLlna uslna onlv 3 small drled Lwlas and a slnale crumpled up plece of paper. Cnce
Lhe flre could susLaln lLself, Lhe poL was puL on. 1he resulLs were as fallows:

About a ha|f pound of wood - bo||s 1 ||ter of water |n 11 m|nutes from co|d start.
About a ha|f pound of wood - bo||s 4 ||ters of water |n 15 m|nutes from hot start.
About an e|ghth pound of wood- cooked an egg |n 5 m|nutes from co|d start.

lL ls lmporLanL Lo use Lhe leasL amounL of maLerlals for fuel, as well as produclna Lhe maxlmum
amounL of heaL for Lhe sLove. 1hese resulLs prove LhaL Lhe M2-82 rockeL sLove accompllshes
Lhls bv uslna less Lhan one pound of wood Lo boll and susLaln heaL Lo Lhe sLove.


43

ó App¢ndix A: R¢f¢r¢nc¢s

8arnes, uoualas l. Cpenshaw, kelLh, SmlLh klrk 8. van der Þlas, 8oberL. (1994). ºWhaL Makes
Þeople Cook wlLh lmproved 8lomass SLoves?" World 8ank 1echnlcal Þaper. 1-39.

8aLes, LllzabeLh (2006). ºnew 8ockeL SLove ueslan." 8ollloo lolot., 1(31), 20-24.

8rvden, ur. Mark, uean SLlll, ÞeLer ScoLL, Ceoff Poffa, uamon Cale, 8ob 8allls, ken Cover
(2006). ºueslan Þrlnclples for Wood 8urnlna Cook SLoves". Shell loundaLlon, Aprovecho
8esearch CenLer, 3-20.

Cunnlnaham, W.Þ., Cunnlnaham, M.A., Salao, 8.W. (2007). ºConvenLlonal Lnerav."
£ovltoomeotol 5cleoce. A Clobol cooceto. Nlotb £Jltloo, McCraw-Plll, Avenue of Lhe Amerlcas,
new ?ork, n?, 427.

uavls, M.L., MasLen, S.!. (2009). ºSolld WasLe Lnalneerlna." Þrlnclples of LnvlronmenLal
£ooloeetloo ooJ 5cleoce. 5ecooJ £Jltloo, McCraw-Plll, Avenue of Lhe Amerlcas, new ?ork, n?,
391-392.

Lnerav lnformaLlon AdmlnlsLraLlon. (2007). º8enewable Lnerav."
<hLLp://www.ela.doe.aov/klds/eneravfacLs/sources/renewable/blomass.hLml>
(leb. 23, 2009).

Cale. Saddleback Colleae. ºWood Smoke and Women's PealLh." (Mav 2006).
<hLLp://flnd.aalearoup.com/lLx/sLarL.do?prodld=LAlM>. (leb. 23, 2009).

"PealLh LffecLs of Wood Smoke" LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Aaencv. LÞA. 1 Mav 2009
<hLLp://www.epa.aov/woodsLoves/healLheffecLs.hLml>.

kllcovne, ScoLL (2003). º1he WeaLherlzaLlon 1ralnlna CenLer" vetmlcollte nozotJ upJote
<hLLp://www.pcL.edu/wdce/wLc/pdf/W1C-1ech-updaLe-vermlcullLe.pdf>
(leb 23, 2009).

kondamudl, n., MohapaLra, S.k., Mlsra, M. (2008). ºSpenL Coffee Crlnds as a versaLlle Source
of Creen Lnerav." cbemlcol ooJ Motetlols £ooloeetloo, unlverslLv of nevada, 8eno, nv, 1-6.

MassachuseLLs lnsLlLuLe of 1echnoloav (2003). º1he ur. Wlnlarskl 8ockeL SLove."
< hLLp://web.mlL.edu/aLs/uocumenLs/lesoLho°20refresher°20ocL°2003.ppL>
(leb. 23, 2009).

Mc8av, Arlc (2006). ºLfflclenL Wood 8urnlna." leok Oll 5otvlvol. ltepetotloo fot llfe Aftet
CtlJctosb, Clobe ÞequoL., 39-66.

46


Mlchel, Andreas (2003). º8ockeL SLoves and CLher 1echnoloales." £tbos coofeteoce.
www.bloeneravllsLs.ora/sLovesdoc/C1Z/8ockeL_SLoves_Þro8LC_norLh_am.pdf (leb. 26, 2009)

new Mexlco SLaLe unlverslLv (nMSu). (2003). ºllrewood lacLs." coopetotlve £xteosloo 5etvlce.
colleoe of Aotlcoltote ooJ nome £cooomlcs, nMSu, Las Cruces, nM, 1-2.

Cfflce of Lnerav lndependence and Wlsconsln ueparLmenL of AarlculLure, 1rade and Consumer
ÞroLecLlon. (2007). ºÞower lnLlaLlve." hLLp://power.wlsconsln.aov (leb. 23, 2009).

8avner, Llsa (2007). º8lomass SLoves." 1be 5ooov 5lJe of cookloo ooJ Otbet £coloolcollv
ltleoJlv cookloo MetboJs fot tbe 21
st
ceototv, Chelsea Creen Þubllshlna., 112.

8uan, 8oaer. "11 mosL amazlna sources of blo-fuel" Lcofrlend. 2006. 1 Mav 2009
<hLLp://www.ecofrlend.ora/enLrv/11-mosL-amazlna-sources-of-blo-fuel-parL-l>.

ScoLL, ÞeLer (2003). º8ockeL SLove ueslan Culde." <hLLp://www.repp.ora/dlscusslon
aroups/resources/sLoves/SLlll/AprovechoÞlans/8ockeL°> (leb. 23, 2009).

ScoLL, ÞeLer (2004) ºlnLroducLlon of Lhe 8ockeL SLove Cooklna uevlces (Pousehold SLoves, 8read
Cvens, lnsLlLuLlonal SLoves) lnLo SAuC 8ealon" utoft kepott. (leb 26, 2009).

ScoLL, ÞeLer (2004) º8ockeL SLoves for Sub-Saharan Afrlca"
www.bloeneravllsLs.ora/sLovesdoc/ScoLL/rockeL/8ockeL°20SLoves°20for°20Sub.pdf.

ScoLL, ÞeLer (2004) ºlnLroducLlon of 8ockeL SLove 1echnoloales (lnsLlLuLlonal SLoves, Pousehold
SLoves and lnsulaLlve 8efracLorv 8rlcks) lnLo Mozamblque" urafL 8eporL. Þro8LC souLh,
Aprovecho.

ScoLL, ÞeLer (2003) ºlnLroducLlon Cf 8ockeL SLove Cooklna uevlces ln uaanda". AbbrevlaLed
urafL 8eporL. C1Z-LAÞ ConsulLanL. Aprovecho 8esearch CenLer.

ScoLL, ÞeLer & !avme vlnevard (2003) ºnew 8ockeL SLove ueslan for CenLral and SouLhern
Afrlca"
<www.vtoc.lostote.eJo/etbos/etbos05/ptoceeJloos2004/pteseototloos/scottoewtocketstove.pJ
f>. (leb 26, 2009).

1akano, !un[l. (2009). ºÞvro-Lco SLove for Cooklna on 8ural Areas."
<hLLp://www.pvroeneraen.com/arLlcles08/eco-rockeL-sLove.hLm>. (leb. 23, 2009).

1he Wood PeaL CraanlzaLlon. (2009). ºWelcome Lo 1he Wood PeaL CraanlzaLlon lnc."
hLLp://www.woodheaL.ora/ (leb. 23, 2009).


47

WlLL, M., Wever, k., Mannlna, u. (2006). ºueslanlna a Clean-8urnlna, Plah-Lfflclencv, uuna-
8urnlna SLove: Lessons ln cooklna wlLh cow paLLles." Aptovecbo keseotcb ceotet, ASA1 Lab,
Creswell, C8.

Wood, Marcla. (2008). ºlrom aarbaae Lo aas: converLlna clLv refuse and farm lefLovers Lo clean
enerav." Aotlcoltotol keseotcb, 36.9, 13(1).

48

7 App¢ndix B: Rock¢t Stov¢ Instructions

1he followlna sLeps are lnsLrucLlons on how Lo properlv use Lhe M2-82 8ockeL SLove:

1) Þrepare fuel source
2) Þlace fuel source on fuel source
3) urop a llL plece of crumbled paper down Lop of combusLlon chamber
4) Slowlv push Llps of fuel over flame. 8low llahLlv Lo creaLe alr flow lf needed.
3) Slowlv add more fuel.
6) Cnce Lhe flre ls self-susLalnlna, place Lhe poL ln Lhe sLove
7) WaLch fuel source closelv. Ass more fuel as needed.
8) When flnlshed cooklna pull shelf ouL and leL coal burn ouL.
9) 8emove ashes and clean sLove as needed when flnlshed.



49

8 App¢ndix C: Fr¢qu¢ntly Ask¢d Qu¢stions

1hls secLlon wlll answer some of Lhe mosL commonlv asked quesLlons abouL rockeL sLoves.

C: 1here seems to be an excess |n em|ss|ons. What cou|d be wrong?

A: 8ockeL sLoves requlre proper alr flow. 1he fuel shelf ls probablv pushed ln Loo far,
whlch does noL allow Lhe proper alr flow. Slmplv pulllna Lhe shelf back could solve Lhls
problem. AnoLher posslblllLv ls LhaL Lhe fuel shelf ls overloaded wlLh fuel. 8emovlna
some of Lhe fuel could ellmlnaLe Lhls problem. Also, make sure Lhe fuel source ls drv
and noL weL, as weL fuel wlll cause an lncrease ln emlsslons.

C: 1he food seems to take rea||y |ong to cook. What cou|d be wrong?

A: 8ockeL SLoves requlre proper alr flow. 1he fuel shelf could be Loo far ouL, whlch creaLes
an excess ln alr flow. 1hls allows cooler alr Lo reach Lhe combusLlon, whlch decreases
Lhe efflclencv. Slmplv pushlna Lhe fuel shelf ln should solve Lhls problem.

C: now shou|d the fue| source be p|aced on the she|f?

A: 1he fuel should be placed as close as posslble Lo one anoLher. 1hls prevenLs cool alr
from flowlna beLween Lhe fuel sources, whlch can decrease efflclencv. 1he fuel should
be placed ln such a wav LhaL onlv Lhe Llps are ln conLacL wlLh Lhe flame. 1hls lncreases
efflclencv and reduces Lhe amounL of fuel used.

C: What type of fue| shou|d be used?

A: 1he M2-82 ls mosL efflclenL wlLh wood as a fuel source. Þreferablv Lwlas or klndllna
wlLh small dlameLers should be used wlLh Lhls sLove.

C: now do I c|ean the stove and how often?

A: 1he fuel maaazlne can be cleaned uslna a small brush and dusL pan afLer everv use. 1hls
prevenLs Lhe bulldup of coals and lncreases Lhe llfespan of Lhe sLove. 1he poL should be
cleaned perlodlcallv as needed.

30

9 App¢ndix D: Educational Sign



31

10 App¢ndix E: Brainstorming Not¢s


32



33

                                     

                             

  

        

    

        

  

 

 
 
        

 
  

 
                     


 

 
 
 
      

 
      •  •   •  •   •  •   • •         • •  

 

 
     •  •   •  •   • • •    • • •     

 
  • • • •      • • • •      • •   • •  

 

     •   •   • • • •     • • • •      • • • •     • • • •                     .

                                             .

                                              .

                                         .

4.         2.2.3                                     .

                                 =         .

                                              .

                                             .

                                                .

                                              .

                                                                             .

                                       .

                                  .

                          .

                               .

                                      .

                          .

                     .

                 .

                          .

                        .

                     .

                    .

                                         .

                                .

                •  •  •  •                           .

                           .

     .

                                               .

                                              .

                                                                                                     .

                                                                                                                                                                                                 .

                                                                                                                                                                                                        .

        •    •    •   •                    .

                    .

                .

                  .

                   .

                                         .

                                                                                .

                                         .

                                              .

                                              .

         .

                   .

                                                 .

       .

      .

    .

    .

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