PHY 717







D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S.,
Num. Soc, &c

F.S.A., F.G.S., Pres.



{All rights reserved.)









The work which many years
private and



presented to the public has unfortunately

in progress, as owing to various occupations, both public, the leisure at my command has been but




has been only from

intervals, that

time to time, often at long have been able to devote a few hours to its


During this slow progress the literature of the subject, especially on the Continent, has increased in an unprecedentedly rapid manner, and I have had great difficulty in at all
keeping pace with it. I have, however, done my best, both by reading and travel, to with the discoveries that were being made keep myself acquainted and the theories that were being broached with regard to bronze antiquities, whether abroad or at home, and I hope that so far as
facts are concerned,

and so

materially wanting. Of course in a work which treats more especially of the bronze antiquities of the British Islands, I have not felt bound to enlarge more than was necessary for the sake of comparison on the cor-


on the

far as relates to the present state of subject, I shall not be found

responding antiquities of other countries. I have, however, in all cases pointed out such analogies in form and character as seemed to me of importance as possibly helping to throw light on the
source whence our British bronze civilisation was derived.

may by some be thought

that a vast

amount of


trouble has been bestowed in figuring and describing so many varieties of what were after all in most cases the ordinary tools of the artificer, or the common arms of the warrior or huntsman, which
differed from each other only in apparently unimportant particulars. But as in biological studies minute anatomy often affords the most trustworthy evidence as to the descent of any given organism



from some earlier form of life, so these minor details in the form and character of ordinary implements, which to the cursory
observer appear devoid of meaning, may, to a skilful archaeologist, afford valuable clues by which the march of the bronze civilisation

may be traced to its original starting-place. from saying that this has as yet been satisfactorily accomplished, and to my mind it will only be by accumulating a far larger mass of facts than we at present possess that comparative archaeology will be able to triumph over the difficulties with
over Europe





and the

path is still beset. is, however, being done, and



that so far as the

British Isles are concerned, the facts


have here collected
will at all



have caused to be engraved

events form a solid foundation on which others


be able to

I was able to present to the foreign assembled at Buda-Pest for the International Conarchaeologists gress of Prehistoric Archaeology and Anthropology, a short abstract of this work in the shape of my Petit Album de Vage du Bronze

So long ago as 1870

de la Grande, Bretagne, which I have reason to believe has been At that time my friend the late Sir found of some service. William Wilde was still alive, and as the bronze antiquities of Ireland appeared to be especially under his charge, I had not regarded them as falling within the scope of my book. After his lamented death there was, however, no possibility of interfering with his labours, by my including the bronze antiquities of the sister country with those of England, Wales, and Scotland in the present work,


I accordingly



original plan.

undertaking I have followed the same method as in my work on the "Ancient Stone Implements, &c, of " and it will be found that what I may term the Great Britain and index of bronze antiquities is printed in smaller dictionary

In carrying out


type than the more general descriptive and historical part of the I have in fact offered those who take an ordinary interest book.
in archaeological inquiry without wishing to be burdened with minute details a broad hint as to what they may advantageously

To the


and the


antiquary the


printed in smaller type will be found of use, if only as giving references to other works in which the more detailed accounts of
local discoveries are given.


my own

These references, thanks to members have been carefully checked, and the accuracy family,

and the other purely topographical.. be relied on. as well as the owners of various private collections. and for valuable information supplied. the accomplished keeper of the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. of Bouverie Street. 1881. Swain. I indebted for the loan of Avoodcuts and for other assist- have also to thank the trustees and curators of many museums.R. and Mr. I In conclusion. the Royal Irish Academy. F. for allowing me to figure specimens. engraved for me with conscientious care by Mr. I think. F..A. and especially to those of the Societies of Antiquaries of London and Edinburgh. for having revised those portions of the work Avhich relate to Scotland and Ireland. My Avarmest thanks are. Robert Day.S. I must also thank Mr.S. local I the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland.R. Vll of all the original figures for this work. and am much ance. Hemel Hempsted. Nash Mills. may. The advantages of such a division in a book of this character are obvious. coveries of antiquities new types venture to prefer the request that any disof instruments or of deposits of bronze to me. due to Mr. plements. Joseph Anderson. however. and Canon Green well. may be communicated John Evans. Mrs." and "Ancient British Coins. Franks." it is divided into tAvo parts. of Cork. F. Augustus W.. but for most kindly undertaking the task of reading my proofs. not only for assistance in the matter of illustrations. As Avas the case with those of my " Ancient Stone ImHubbard. March. The Index has been carefully compiled by my sister.PREFACE. To the councils of several of our learned societies. the Royal Archaeological Institute. .S. the one referring generally to the subject matter of the book.


WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. . Succession of the Stone. Origin of the word Celt Views of early Antiquaries Celts— Opinions of modern Writers . Flat Celts from Cyprus and Hissarlik Discoveries of Flat Celts in Barrows Those ornamented on the Faces Flanged Celts Those from Arreton Down And from Barrows Decorated Flanged Celts Flat Celts found in Scotland Decorated Scottish Specimens Flat Celts found in Ireland Decorated Irish Specimens Character of their Decorations Flat Celts with Lateral Stops — — — — — — — — — — — — . . with a Beading round the — — — . Bronze. — CELTS. on the Faces Plain. and Iron Ages A Copper Age in America Scriptural Notices of Bronze Bronze preceded Iron in ancient Egypt Bronze in ancient Greece The Metals mentioned by Homer Iron in ancient Greece Bronzes among other ancient Nations Use of Iron in Gaul and Italy Disputes as to the three Periods The Succession of Iron to Bronze The Preservation of ancient Iron — — — — — — — — — l — — CHAPTER II. FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. CHAPTER III. — Conjectures as to the Use of 27 . SOCKETED CELTS.CONTENTS. 30 CHAPTER IV." or curved Lines. Terms. INTRODUCTORY. Origin of the term Palstave Celts with a Stop-ridge Varieties of Winged Celts Transitional Forms Palstaves with Ornaments on Face With Central Bib on the Blade Shortened by Wear With a Transverse Edge Looped Palstaves—With Ribs on Blade With Shield-like Ornaments—With Vertical Ribs on Blade With semi-circular Side-wings hammered over Iron Palstaves imitated from Bronze Palstaves with two Loops Scottish Palstaves Irish Palstaves Looped Irish Palstaves Irish Palstaves with Transverse Edge Comparison with Continental Forms — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 70 CHAPTER V. CHAPTER The I. "the Recipient" and "the Received" Evolution from Palstaves With "Flanches.

Arreton Down type of Spear-heads—With Tangs and with Socket — Scandinavian and German Halberds — The Chinese form — Irish Halberds — Copper Blades less brittle than Bronze Broad Irish in Welsh Halberds—The Form known Form -Scottish Halberds English and 257 Spain— Maces. 1 SICKLES. as seen in Barrows Hafting after the manner of Axes Socketed Celts used as Hatchets Hafted Celt found at Chiusi Hafts. as seen at Hallstatt Celts in some instances mounted as Adzes No perforated Axe-heads in Britain — — of — — — — — — — Hafting Celts as Chisels 116 CHAPTER CHISELS. CHAPTER DAGGERS AND THEIR Tanged Knives 1 X. Simple form of Chisel rare Chisels — — Socketed Chisels — Chisels with at —Socketed —Tanged GougesTanged Gouges — SocketedLugs sidesIrish HamHammers — mers — Method of Hafting Hammers — French Anvils — Saws and Files almost unknown in Britain —Tongs and Punches — The latter used in Ornamenting—Awls. CELTS. — . 165 CHAPTER Method of VIII. HALBERDS. .. . —RAPIER-SHAPED — BLADES. AND MACES. . TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS OK Kl'KAR-IIEADS. AND OTHER TOOLS. RAZORS. ETC.. HILTS. METHODS OP HAFTING Bronze Celts in Club-like Handles Their Hafts. or Prickers frequently found in Barrows —Awls used in Sewing — Tweezers — Needles — Fish-hooks HAMMERS. GOUGES.. Daggers Knife-Daggers with three Rivets—Method of Hafting Bono Pommels— Amber Hilt inlaid withGold Hilts withnumerous iggers Hilts of Bronze Rivets Inlaid and Ivory Hilts Knife-Daggers with live or six Rivets Knife-Daggers from Scotland— Krom Ireland —Daggers with Ornamented Blades—With Mid-ribs— With Ogiral >utline— Rapier-shaped Blades Rapiers with Notches . VII. — . Mouth — Of a Gaulish type — With vertical Ribs on the Faces — With Ribs end— ing in Pellets "With Ribs and Pellets on the Faces—AVith Ribs and King Ornaments— Variously ornamented Of octagonal Section With the Loop on one Face Without Loops Of diminutive Size — Found in Scotland — Found in Ireland — Comparison with Foreign Forms — Mainly of Native Manufacture PAGB — — in Britain — Those formed of Iron — — 107 CHAPTER The perforated Axes VI. Hafting —Sickles with Projecting Knobs— With Sockets— Sickles found — Found on the Continent CHAPTER IX. probably Mediaeval .. in Scotland and Ireland 94 The Socketed Form Scottish and Irish Knives — Curved Knives Knives with broad Tangs — With Lanceolate Blades — Of peculiar Types— Double-edged Razors — Scottish and Irish Razors— Continental Forms 204 — Hie Base "With Ribs on the Faces Rapiers with Ox-hom and Bronze Hilts— Bayonet-like Blades 222 I — — or — — — — — I — CHAPTEB XI.CONTENTS.. .. . Drills.

. XVII. — . The Gaulish Torque Gold Torques Funicular Torques Ribbon Torques Those of the Late Celtic Period Penannular Torques and Brardets— Bracelets on— graved with Patterns Beaded and Fluted Looped. Tins with Flat Heads large Size With Spheroidal Heads With Ornamental Expanded Heads From Scotland From Denmark Their Date difficult to determino — —With Crutched Heads — — — —With Annular Heads —Those . — — . ETC.. heads CHAPTER XV. PAGE LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS. AND HELMETS. EAR-RINGS. TORQUES. SCABBARDS AND CHAPES. TRUMPETS AND BELLS.71 . Blade Point —With Loops at the Bas'> of the Blade —Of Cruciform Section near the —-With Flanges at the Side of — —WithWith Openings in the Blade Blade — Barbed at the Base —the OjDenings Ferrules for Lunate Openings in the — — — Spear-shafts African Spear Ferrules Continental Types Early Iron Spear310 — Leaf-shaped— With a Fillet along the Midrib — Ornamented on — With Loops at the Sides — From Ireland — Decorated on the SPEAR-HEADS. Shields with numerous raised Bosses With Concentric Ribs With Concentric Rings of Knobs Shields found in Scotland In England and Wales Wooden Bucklers The Date of Circular Bucklers Bronze Helmets Their Date . BUCKLERS. SHIELDS.301 Chapes Mouth-pieces for Sheaths Ferrules on Sword-Hilts — — — — — — — .. Sheaths with Bronze Ends Wooden Sheaths Bronze Sheaths Ends of SwordSheaths or Scabbard Ends Chapes from England and Ireland Spiked .. with Cup-shaped Knds Late Celtic Bracelets Rings Ring3 with others cast on them Coiled Rings found with Torques Finger-rings Kar-rings Those of Gold Beads of Tin Of Glass Rarity of Personal Ornaments in r.". CHAPTER Different Types the Sockets XIV. Trumpets found in Ireland — Trumpets with Lateral Openings — The Dowris Hoard — Riveted Trumpets—The Caprington Horn —Trumpets found in England— Bells found in Ireland 3J7 CHAPTER PINS. Their Occurrence in British Barrows not authenticated Occur with Interments in Scandinavia The Roman Sword British Swords Disputes as to their Age Hilts proportional to Blades Swords with Central Slots in Hilt-plate With many Rivet-holes "With Central Rih on Blade Representation of Sword on Italian Coin Those with Hilts of Bronze Localities where found Comparison with Continental Types Swords found in Scotland In Ireland In France Swords with Hilts of Bone Decorated with Gold Continental Types Early Iron Swords 273 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIII. of 36o CHAPTER XVIII. 343 — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XVI. AND PERSONAL ORNAMENTS. . LANCE-HEADS.CONTENTS. RINGS. BRACELETS. XI CHAPTER XII.riliiu — — — — — — — — — — — — — — .

CHAPTER XX. . Palstaves. ETC. AND THE METHOD OF MANUFACTURE.5o . AND MISCELLANEOUS some Objects Looped Sockets and Tubes Possibly Clasps Perforated Rings forming a kind of Brooch Rings used in Harness Brooches Late Celtic Buttons Circular Plates and Broad Hoops Perforated Discs Slides for Straps Jingling Ornaments Objects of Uncertain "Use 396 Rod. Merchants'. and Spear-heads Moulds of Bronze for Palstaves and Celts The Harty Hoard Bronze Mould for Gouges Moulds found in other Countries Moulds formed of Burnt Clay — Jets or Runners The Processes for Preparing Bronze Instruments for Use Rubbers and Whetstones Decoration Hammering out and Sharpening the Edges 415 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . Difficulty in Determining the XIX. CHRONOLOGY AND ORIGIN OF BRONZE. Daggers. OBJECTS. . Swords. BUCKLES. MOULDS. VESSELS. METAL. Inferences from number of Types Division of Period into Stages— The Evidence of Hoards Their different Kinds Personal. CALDRONS.^11 CONTENTS. Gold Cup Bronze Vessels not found in Barrows Caldrons found Fictile Vessels in Scotland In Ireland Some of an Etruscan Form The Skill exhibited in their Manufacture 407 — — — — — — CHAPTER XXI. CHAPTER XXII. CHAPTER CLASPS. with Figures of Birds upon it Figures of Animals — — Use of — — — — — — — — — — — PAGE — . Composition of Bronze Lead absent in early Bronze Sources of Tin and Copper Analyses of Bronze Antiquities Cakes of Copper and Lumps of Metal Tin discovered in Hoards of Bronze Ingots of Tin — Methods of Casting Moulds of Stone for Celts. BUTTONS. and Founders'— Lists of Principal Hoards Inferences from them The Transition from Bronze Its probable Date Duration of Bronze Age Burial Customs of the to Iron Period Different Views as to the Sources of Bronze Civilisation— Suggested — — — — — — — — — — Provinces of Bronze The Britannic Province Comparison of British and Continental Types Foreign Influences in Britain Its Commercial Relations Imported Ornaments Condition of Britain during the Bronze Age General — — — — — — Summary 4.

12. Rhosnesney 19. Ireland 62 30. 13. Greenlees 59 Froc.. Armoy „ 11. 71 71 vii.WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS.. 74. 16. Soc. Ireland PAGE 64 65 65 I. 329. Llew. 44. Ireland 46. Scot. Trim A. xxvi. Burwell Fen 77 78 78 79 80 80 82 82 83 83 . 39. vol. Journ. Soc. 10.. 35. "Catal. Shippey Severn Sunningwell Weymouth Tipperary Arch. 31. p. xiii.. Dorsetshire 14. p. Perth 60 25. p. Journ. Ireland 36. p. 50. » » » I. Cyprus Butterwick PAGE 40 41 33. Connor FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. 59 Burwell Fen 54. Soc. 27. Scot. 248. CHAPTER via. Journ.. 40. Ireland 38. vol. 62 vol. 58. vol. Applegarth 60 26. 65. Journ. Ant. 42. vol. 22. Clontarf 34. „ 47. Moot Low fig. "Grave Mounds. 60. 32. A." figs. 2. WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES.. Mus. Chatham Culham Reeth Dorchester Colwick Nairn Froc. 43. 73 74 74 75 75 75 76 76 Falkland 23. 3. vi.S. "Catal.S. 120. Scot. Arch. 53. Dams 61 Barrington Harston Froc. 61.. 15. Wilde. 24.A. xii. III. Arch. Mus. Punched patterns » „ 66 66 66 66 67 67 n . Soc. Ant. 57. xxxvi. 5. p. 6. vol. Lawhead vii. 1. p. 51. Ant. 67 67 67 286 68 68 69 69 Plymstock „ Arch.. Lewes CHAPTER 48. Arreton Down 45 46 47 48 49 50 50 52 52 53 53 xviii. Wigton ChoUerford Bridge Troc. The references are to the original sources of such cuts as have not been engraved expressly for this book. 58 N. R. 44 187. Icelandic Palstave 49» jj IV. 21. Ely Barrow 17. 52.. vol. 59. 64. vol. 346. 66. 37. North of Ireland 62 29. Bucknell 55. R. Archceologia.. 62. Drumlanrig 20. 56.. 53 54 54 55 56 57 105. Jewitt. 41. p. FIG." fig. Scot. » Wilde.. Liss 18. Ireland 63 Burwell Fen East Harnham 67. F. 167. Ballinamallard Gl 28. 410." 4. Ant. to 290. p. vol. Yorkshire Weymouth Read Suffolk 7. 8. Thames Norfolk 45. 601. 63. 9. ii.

Arch. vol. 160. Lanesborough 98. vol. xxxvii. „ „ CHAPTER V. Ireland (?) 148. 174. 75. Journ.. Reach Fen 125. „ 96. Ely 82. 138 138 139 139 139 Mus. 90. Fen Ditton 135. Mus. Bell's Mills 132 132 132 133 133 134 135 136 136 136 137 . 109. Wallingford 151. North of Ireland 97. Burreldale 91. „ 101. 108. A. R. Barrington 149.. I. Cambridge Carlton Rode Penvores West Buckland Arch. xviii.. Ant. Ed. Mynydd-y-Glas WaHingford Stanton Harcourt 76. vol. PAGE 84 84 So 85 85 87 88 S8 80 89 90 91 91 VIC 121. Journ. WOODCUT ILLUSTKATIONS. Journ. Fornham 134. 160. Reach Fen . Bath 78.. Miltowu 106. Frettenham 130. Thames 69. p. l'AGE 68. "Catal. 377. p. Kingston 138. Nettleham „ 105. Irthington 71. Bonn Dorchester 123. „ 118. Houns'low 150. I 109 109 110 110 Ill lorchi ster. vol. Ed. „ " Catal.. 171. „ 143. 85. 154. Thames 144.. 88. Balcarry Moss 92. Journ.. p. Bryn Crug Andalusia Arch. 93. 158. p. Crommolin North of Ireland . Wilts 166. 175. 86. 378. 176.. 117. 136. Chrishall 124. „ 103. Journ. Cambridge 146. lie. Bottisham 83. Oxon 112. Belfast [reland 170. 113. 74. 73. Guildford 129. 96 96 96 97 vi. „ 11)1." fig. Athboy Meath [reland Newtown. 122. Whittlesea 155. vi. 140 140 140 141 141 . Oxon Ill 107. Ireland 100. 11. Usk 120. „ 95. Ullcskelf 159. xviii. Reach Fen 160. vol. Arras 162. Westow 153. vol. 69. „ 115. 172. Journ. p. Carlton Rode 133. Dorchester. Croker Collection 157. Ballymena "Catal. Canterbury 119. Blandford 147. vol. p. 160. Caston 132. Pettycur 98 98 99 10C 100 101 101 101 137. High Roding 111. Givendale 145. p. Mus. Thames 141. Ant. Brassington 77. Ireland 102 102 102 102 103 103 103 104 105 130 132 107. Ireland 94. Nettleham Arch. 127. Boss 80. „ 169. p. Nettleham Arch. xviii. Trillick 99. Honington 81. 105 105 105 Arch. 92 92 93 93 94 Bottisham Winwick 84. Ely 131. . llarty 114. Stogursey 128. Bell's Mills 165.. 280. Barrington 126. Wilde. Carlton Rode 161. North Knapdale 164. Newham 152. 87. North Owersby Cambridge Fens High Roding 72." SOCKETED CELTS. 110. „ 102. Cayton Carr 139. Journ. 127 127 128 128 128 128 129 130 130 vi. La'kenheath 140. 89. Kingston 142.XIV FIO. ." 163. Ali'iiston 112 112 114 114 115 173. vol. LeswaH Ayr <nid Wigton Coll. 156. 107. Stibbard 70.. Ireland 168. ii. Wandsworth 116 116 117 117 117 119 120 120 120 121 121 122 122 123 123 123 124 124 125 125 125 126 127 127 Arch. Oldhmy HiU 79.

166 AND OTHER 197 197 198 199 Plymstock Arch. iii. 187. p. Journ. 65. 256. iii. 185. 186 186 186 2nd S. xiv. iii. Edington Burtle 233. 403. 251.. 239. Ebnall Proc. 465. Ant. Harty 178 212. Soc." i 156 158 163 CHAPTER VIII. RAZORS. Kells 245. 199.. Ann.. p. Wilson's " Prch. Carlton Rode 173 204. 243. Harty 174 206. Soc. Near Errol... VII. Athlone CHAPTER IX. vol. Harty Ireland Ballyelarc Reach Fen Ballycastle Ireland Isle of . vol. Scot. Ireland 170 20U. 257. Stone Axe of Montezuma II . Ant. Ant. Scot. 244. Fresnc la 248. . p. . 2nd S. p. Derry 201 238.. xii. Chiusi 188. vol.172 203. 252. . " Wilde. p. 190. 216.206 207 208 209 ii. p.. Catal. vol. p. vol. 259. Scotland Proc. 2nd S. 182 217. Heathery Burn Cave . SICKLES.. 204 205 205 . Soc. vol. Taunton 178 215. . p. vol. Carlton Rode 175 208. 189 Archtseologia." fig. . 2nd S. Heathery Burn Cave 247. Heathery Burn Cave Proc. 253. Reach Fen 195. Bulford 189 189 190 .. ETC.. 132. GOUGES. A. . 2 'J 5. Bronze Axe. 207. 148 148 149 150 152 154 155 !57.. Fresnc la Mere 218.." vol. Journ. p. Proc. 127. 255. 200 237. Modern African Axe of Iron 183. . 378. 229. Heathery 192. Wilde. p. Edenderry Archccoloyia. vii.. CELTS. Dowris 179 Proc. Raron. Ireland 246. 223. p. Kertch Arch. Reach Fen 222. Westow 172 202. Moira . ... Thixendale 196. 91. A. Kilgraston. Thames 235. Everley Mus. Thorndon 178 211. 231. Mcerigen Arch. Mus. 310. Catal.... Hallein . 250. Tay 175 Proc. Soc. Thorndon 241. XV r-AGE PAGE 141 142 via. KNIVES. Scot. „ 234. vol. Wallingford 194. 466. Harty 221. Ireland 178. A. 178 „ 213.200 191.. METHODS OF HAFTING 226. 260. xliii. I. . Upton Lovel 224. 249. xliii. Llangwyllog 230. ] 84. 177... E.206 . Aymara Stone Hatchet 182. Carlton Rode 171 201. . Ireland " Catal. Ireland 179 Proc. I. p. vol.190 191 . vol. p. Thorndon 174 205.WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS. Ant. 180. Mus. Undley 175 .. vol. no. 192. Near Bray 236. p. 66. R. 142 220. Journ.. 166 166 167 168 168 168 169 169 170 Proc. 179. 258. 66. Ireland 176 210. . Stone Axe. 182 „ „ 185 219. Reach Fen 242. 209. CHAPTER Thorndon Butterwick VI. .. Perthshire . 467. 192 192 I. sbit. 346. vol. 232.. 275. Winterhourn Stoke 228. Broxton 198. KeachFen „ Heathery Burn Cave . xxvi. Soc. 613. Soc. Ant. . Winwick 189. vol.. Ant." fig. 181. 196 CHAPTER CHISELS. R. 227.. Skye Mere 209 209 i. Perthshire. Soc. Wester Ord An/. „ 209 Scot. „ " Wilde. TOOLS. Wiltshire Arcliceologia. v. viii. Wigginton Harty 210 210 212 212 212 213 213 213 213 214 211 . vol. xxx. xliii. Carlton Rode 178 214. Glenluce Burn 192* Carlton Rode 193. Brigue 186. p. of Scot.. 400. Yattendon 197. WickenFen 240. Garvagh. Robcnhausen . 254. Soc.

v. AVnoncUT ILLUSTRATIONS.. Arreton Down 245 245 307. Hoo 214 262. vol. Arreton Down 325. Scot. p. Wintcrbourn Stoke . Scot. Collessio 239 Froc. llarbvrnrigge 338. vii. . Barrow 344.. 283. Colloony 309. Musdin 240 301. Great vi. Kinleith 220 Froc. 254 320. 288. Iloinmgton 237 296. X. Camerton 213 304. H. ami A. . Journ. 301. Heathery Burn Cave 271. Wilmslow Hammeldon Down Reach Fen Allhallows. vol.. 423. vol. -bit. mid 245 2nd Assoc.. Ant. Wilde's A. 287. Plymstock . 302. 349. page PIG. 440. 328. 278 279 281 . p. 476. Thames 247 312. Arch. Thetford 251 317. R. p. Forntid.. p. Driffield 279. 299... Dunbar 219 272. Priddy 216 267. Soc. 291. Shropshire 339. 258 258 259 259 xliii. p. Lissane " Catal. Coveney 249 314. 282. p. 440... Butterwick 280. Scot. . p. ii. Londonderry 252 318. I. 2nd S. Magherafelt Journ. Reach Fen 216 264. Helperthorpe 281. Cavan 333. x. . v. xxvi. . x. LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS. p. Mus.. Garton Archccologia. . .. Battersea 343. p. Soc. Soc. Mus. vol. Lidgate A°rup 260 261 262 264 266 267 2G7 268 268 269 269 271 131. 219 274. p... Woody ates 236 -i\u. 197. x. Tipperary 255 321. Soc. 87. Allhallows. HALBERDS AND MACES. 306.. Soc. Matlock SHAPED BLADES. Journ. North of Ireland 255 323. Lady Low 216 265. Mus." fig. 4th H. Ireland 332. 268. 346. Dow Low 298. ." fig.. p. Thames 251 315. Ant. vol. ii. vol. Mus. R. p. vol. 431. 275. Cleigh 239 Proc. 269.. Scot. R... Ant. i. Winterslow 216 266. . vol. Ant. Ant. II. 196. Soc. Stratford le Bow 326.218 270. vol. 286. of Inland.240 Arch. Journ. Journ. 433.. Soc. R. PAG] 261. "Catal. vol. 300. 181. 271 I. Raphoe HILTS.yo\. 286. 11. 292. Scot.. 253 319. A. Chatteris 251 316. vol. Ant. Ant. . Ireland 235 294. Newtown Limavady 334.. Ant. „ Froc. vol. Ireland Wilde. 327.. vol. Rogart 217 Froc. 91. " Sver. As*. E. 284.XVI ma. Ireland Wilde's " Catal. Roundway 278. 289. Plymstock . Ireland Belleek Journ. Kilrea 247 311. Ballygawley 335. Stranraer Froc. Normanton RokeDown 228 229 230 230 231 231 232 233 235 235 Arch. 84. 4th S. 301. 310.. vii. Assoc. A. 330. . Soc. I. 337. Arch. A. .. p. 293. Falkland 336. A.. Arreton Down 329. 285. Ely 255 322. Soc. CHAPTER 342. "Wallingford 218 305. I. S. Balblair 217 Froc.. Galbally Journ. and A. OR SPEAR-HEADS. of Ireland. 263. of Ireland. p. Ireland 246 Wilde's " Catal. Cottle 215 Froc. Soc.. II.. . 271 411. Nidau Froc. vol. vol... China 331. p. . p. Hoo Brigmilston Leicester . —RAPIER223 224 225 227 227 228 CHAPTER XL TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS.-. 324. 219 „ 219 273. 341. 290.. Newcastle XII. . Scot. 441. 314. xii. 340." Montelius." fig. xxvi. Bcdwin vi. vol. fig. Cambridge 243 .. Kinghorn 246 308. p. 221 CHAPTER DAGGERS AND THEIR 277. 347..210 303. Thatcham 247 249 313. Scot. ii." fig. Idmiston 237 239 297. 276. R.

near Dorchester : " 409. 424. xviii. . 23. Journ. Ireland . of Ireland.I. i. I. Beach Fen I. 385. Ireland 399. IsloofHartv 305 306 306 307 308 422. Ireland 295 296 I. Assoc. 368.. Pant-y-Maen 305 371.. 100. Brechin Proc.. Whittingham 352. 384. vol. 159. 257. Mus.. A.. Stogursey. p. p. 359. Elford 406. B. ETC... „ 283 284 284 286 286 287 ii. Wilde. Knockans Lurgan 2nd S.\iii. Burwell Fen 121. Isleham Fen 407. 410. Newtown Limavady 355. „ Muekno „ Journ.. Speen Nettleham p. vol. 111. vol.. Scot. Arch. fig. 432. II. 3rd S. Ireland 356. Beach Fen 305 372. 382. Lakenheath 396. North of Ireland 389. 403. 358. Muckno 4th S. Mus. "Catal. p.. 199. A. p. § A.. . Mus. Ely 349.. Winmarleigh 420. Antrim 415. 364. Little Wittenham Messrs.. R. LANCE-HEADS." fig. A. Arch. 312 312 312 312 314 SHIELDSj BUCKLERS. Near Cambridge 397. ii. Thames 377. Mullvlagan 363. XV11 . River Isis. 378. II. Soc. Wilde. Ireland " Catal. Covem 431... 367. Hereford SPEAR-HEADS. Journ.AGE FIG. 336. p. Soc. 423. 65. AND & ill I. 367. 335. "Catal." p.. § A. 81. Keclogue Ford.. 295 295 Mullylagan Journ. 380. 351. 388.MKTS. Denhead "Catal. Wetheringsett 346.. Harlech 430.. James Parker \ 314 < !o. Assoc. A.. 160. "Catal. 360. Mus. 321 Wilde." 394. Scot. Ant. Thames 400.. 392.. Ant. Mus. Stoke Ferry 374. Lakenhuath Nettleham F.. Ireland. 304 368. 339 341 nil 341 CHAPTEE Thames. Brechin 353. 379. Guilsfield 425. Cloonmore Wilde. p. Lough Gur „ „ Heathery Burn Nettleham Caw . 378. 381. Tiverton . vol. Thetford 395. Soc. Journ. Edinburgh 354." fig. 390. ix. Somerset 304 369.. n xviii. p. Naworth Castle 417. London XIV." figs. 319 319 I. „ " Wilde." fig. 302 303 303 303 Arch. "Catal. j\. 383. i 332 332 333 333 334 334 335 336 337 337 339 . "Catal. Kingston 348. CHAPTER XV. 319 319 320 320 382. p. 386. vol. Bcitli 133. 323 323 323 324 324 324 325 326 326 326 I. R. vol. Stibbard 108. 327 328 329 329 329 330 331 332 . I. vol. B. Blakehope 418. 393. Mildenhall 376. Near Ballvmena ' 402. 345 346 317 : 17 Newark 317 :. Fulbourn 427. North of Ireland 398. ii. B.. 386. 304 370. R. Catal. Guilsfield 366.. Thames 416. Ed. Ireland 401. 357. 128. North of Ireland 316 385. 4 13. 435. A. Achtcrtyro 315 Proc. vol. . River Cherwell 350. 373. Ireland CHAPTER XIII. 414. 361. Ant.. i.. Mus. Ireland 317 317 Wilde. 362. Mus. Sue. Proc. FIO. 345. Ant. Whittingham 419. 322.. Mus. 405. Lincoln Proc." 6g. SCABBARDS AND CHAPES. 391. A. „ 404. Isle-worth 365. . Ireland 375. . 387. R.WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS. Ant. Glancych 126. P. •112. of Ireland. 129. R. vol. Ireland Wilde. 288 288 290 292 292 292 292 294 294 Beach Fen Thorndon Culham Athenry fig. .

Mus. xxxvii. E. 344.. Reach Fen „ . Assoc. EAR-RINGS. Soc. Cornwall 480. Ayr and Wigton 446. Montgomeryshire Proc. 467. Mus. vol. 383 474. 351. vol. I. Cowlam 499. Wilde. I. Ant. vol.. Cowlam 392 491. Wilde. p. Journ. vol. Ireland Wilde. of Ireland. Tralee . A.. Scot. TORQUES. 386 482.. Ant.. BUTTONS. 165.. "Catal. Cowlam 387 388 486. S. 359 441. vol. H. Mus. Achtertyre Proc. Chilton Bustle Arch. Brigmilston 449. R. R. xxv. Sac..-. 494.. iii. 450... p. Ireland Mus. Ireland Wilde." fig. R. 434. Yarnton 380 471. 107469. ii. . Ant.. p. 493. Mus. Stobo Castle Proc. p. „ 459. p. Ant. Ireland 368 Wilde. XVII.. 415." fig. 523. "Catal.. A. vol.. 484. 277. vol. Assoc. WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS. i. 368 464. 444. 324. "Catal. 364 A. and A. 2nd S.. 464. iv. 398 mid A. I. Liss 384 476. 462. 468. xx. Coll. 386 481. Scot. „ 437. A. Ant. vol. ix. 11. Guernsey Arch. p. Evcrley 150. CLASPS. Soc. iii. vol." fig. County Cavan 387 485.. 439. p. iii. 469. vol.. A.. Ant. 457. 468. R. Limerick XVI. vol. Ireland Wilde. ii. vol. p. 322. Mus. Mus.. v. i. RINGS. p. 359 „ Journ. Redhill Proc. 357 I. ii... 447. H. Now S. I.. Portglenone 361 Journ.. Dowris I. 529. CHAPTER PINS. Dorrvnanc 360 "Catal. Journ." fig. p. CHAPTER XIX. ii. 385 478. 107. 370 371 A. Ant. Africa 359 443. 358 440. R. Orton Proc. Broadward S. 463. AND MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS. p.. 422.. R. Scot. Camerton Both from Archccologia. Journ. 360." fig. p. Heathery Burn Cave Proc. Scot. Dumbarton Proc. Soc. A. Arch. 74. p.xvm FIO. R. 370 370 370 370 A. I. North of Ireland Keelogur Ford I. Soc. TRUMPETS AND BELLS. Mus." fig. vol. and A. 461. 451. 4th 496. p. K. p. Wedmore „ Proc. 1th S. Journ. Wedmore 378 379 470. 447. i. 365 366 366 367 367 367 p. Soc. Soc. Scilly 383 475. 397 397 397 p. 385 479. Assoc. viii.. 452. 400 400 . Soc. 3rd p. R. Journ. ix. 83. p. Cross 386 483. II. xxxvii. 498. 106. 4th S. vol. 480.. 2nd S.. 382 472. p. FIO. 435. Scot. Assoc. 372 465. A. 467. 495. p. . Wilde. Scratchhury 369 456. River Wandle Arch. Edinburgh 372 Proc. 369 455. i. Arch. Wilde. "Catal. vol. 131. Goodmanham Greenwell's "British Barrows. "fatal. xliii. "Catal. vol. PAGE 166.. Ant.. Ireland Wild.. 422. Bryn Criig . "Catal. 392 492. Ant. vol. of Ireland." fig. 371 448. 350 350 350 AND PERSONAL ORNAMENTS. p. 392 490. vol. Ham .. Soc. 382 473. iii. 200. of Ireland.. Ant. p. p... vol. The Caprington Horn . Heathery Burn Cave Proc. A. West Buckland 375 376 377 CHAPTER 438." fig. Taunton 452. Arch. R. ix. Camb. 24. 448. vol. 497. 390 489. Woolmer Forest Proc. I." fig.. Soc. Beith Aijr and Wigton 435. „ Coll. Journ. 30. Mus. BRACELETS.. 442. Soc. vol. PAOK 349 ' CHAPTER XVIII. 449.. 494. i. 164. vol. vol. I.. Stoke Prior Arch." p. 8. Scot. 384 477. 66. "Catal. xliii. Ireland 458. Wilde. Reach Fen 399 Mus. BUCKLES. 246. Trillick Journ.362 . West Buckland Arch. iii. vol. Cambridge 460. p. Ant. vol.. Scot. 390 488. vol.. "Catal.. Journ. Normanton 385 ArchcBologia..." fig. Yetholm 436. p. „ 389 487. 138. 453. 130. 2nd S. R.

Ann. Journ. 215. p. xx. „ 522. 540.. Mus. vol. 510. . for "St. Ballymonoy 519. 189. „ 446 . MOULDS.. i... Ant. 526.. 402 402 431 431 43a Both from Proc. CALDRONS.448 ii.. R. Julien Chateuil" read "St. ETC. 48.. Scot." vol. 452.. vol. xvi.. 450 450 450 . for " Staffordshire „ .. p. Harty . p. 322.. 403 404 404 404 404 405 Deny . Heathery Burn Cave Proc. 513. 433 434 434 503. p.. 515." „ 34. Journ. Campbelton „ „ 437 437 437 439 440 440 441 442 CHAPTER XX. Ireland " Wilde. . Amiens .. Wiltshire 529. 538. 511. „ „ „ „ „ 207. p. „ 518. 532. Co. p. for "Staffordshire" read" Shropshire. A. Edinburgh Proc. Golden Cup. Ant." " line 15. 539... HothamCarr 528...WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS.435 436 Arch. I." 4 from bottom. 523.. of Scot. 531.."St.. Lough Gur New S. 426 Harty ERRATA. 336. 132. 409. 170. p. Catal. Genoulph" read "St. Ant. Catal. vol. Heathery Burn Cave „ 502. Maghera. 530. Proc.. 533. 2nd S. Jullien. p. 408 Arch. Knighton 521. "Preh." . „ Proc. „ 508. 512.. Coll. Soc. p. vol.. 2nd S." fig.. Amiens 505... 16. A. Broughshanc 520.451 452 452 453 ii. iii. METAL. " read " Shropshire.. 527. 2nd S. R. Soc.. Heathery Burn Cave Proc. 507. Journ. 158. vi.501. /m. Falmouth Arch. Kincardine Moss 410 Wilson. vol. for « Crishall read " Chrishall.. . . 412 I. Soc. . . Abergele 50G. . 409. 132. Ant. for " Staffordshire „ „ 4. vol. " under fig. i. 514.. . „ 537. AND THE METHOD OF 534. Ireland 517.. . 509. 314.. vol. vol. Dreuil. 39. for " Spain read " Portugal. Soc. Stogursey 535. Harty 504. vol. MANUFACTURE. . 500." fig. Billaton . Ballymenu 516. . . Ant. Scot. . Soc. Ant. Page „ . be. 525. „ . Chapteuil. „ 536. 236. for "Suffolk" read" Sussex. Kirby Moorside Hove Sussex Arch. p. Genouph. no.. XIX PAGE 42'j PAGE 401 wo. 120. Dreuil. Bog 413 CHAPTER XXI. p. Capecastle Mus. 322. 117. xxiv. VESSELS. vol..." „ 20." 3 from bottom.. 123." " read " Shropshire. 143. 411 407. Soc. Ireland " Wilde. 524. iii.


into the intermingle. The duration and chronological position of this bronze-using period will have to be discussed hereafter. So that. the three stages of progress represented by the Stone. by several tribes of different descent. but I must at the outset reiterate what I said some eight or ten years ago. Though the succession of these three stages of civilisation may here be regarded as certain. or for the commencement of that of Iron. though their succession. and Iron Periods. and shade off the one other. u I . more- — over. and Iron was either practically unknown in this country. overlap. and customs must have required a long course of years manners.CHAPTER I. like the three principal colours of the rainbow. Bronze. There must of necessity have been a time when in each district the new phase of civilisation was being introduced. INTRODUCTORY. I am induced to undertake a similar task in connection with those Bronze Antiquities which belong to the period Having when Stone was gradually falling into disuse for cutting purposes. that in this at all events. already in a former work attempted the arrangement and description of the Ancient Stone Implements and Ornaments of Great Britain. the transition from one to the other in a country of such an extent as Britain occupied. probably was. cannot have been sudden. limits for the close of the Stone Period. to become general and even in any particular district the change it as — . it is impossible to fix any hard and fast country. appears to be equally well defined with thai of the prismatic colours. or for the beginning or end of the Bronze Period. so far as Britain and Western Europe are concerned. as 1 have elsewhere pointed out. and the old conditions had not been entirely changed. or had been but partially adopted for tools and weapons.

2 INTllODUCTOllY. unlikely that the views which are held by many archaeologists as to the Asiatic origin of bronze may prove to be well founded. "PrehiBt. to judge from sonic extracts from the writings of the early travellers * Sec posit a. or that the resulting mixture can hardly be regarded as bronze . Wisconsin! alone has furnished upwards of a hundred axis. and knives formed of copper. is that afforded by certain districts of North America. and However probably an acquaintance with lead and other metals." The State of . in addition to stone as a material from which tools and weapons were made. either native or as smelted from the ore. there. in some parts of the world is indeed every ground for believing that the use of native copper must have continued for a lengthened period before it was discovered that the addition of a small proportion of tin not only rendered it more readily fusible. and not in any western country. at times this dearth necessitated the use of copper alone. . the local scarcity of tin may at times have caused so small a quantity of that metal to be employed. however. The most instructive instance of a Copper Age. over the purer metal were known. 40. In connection with this it may be observed that the most important discovery of instru- ments of copper as yet recorded in the Old World is that which was made at Gungeria in Central India. may have Copper Age. copper also was employed. In thus speaking of a bronze-using period I by no means wish There to exclude the possible use of copper unalloyed with tin. and. and this Of feeble traces. p. f Bullcr. but added to its elasticity and hardness. Wisconsin. are reasons for existed in the Old dition without the addition of any alloy. as the production silver involves a considerable amount of metallurgical skill. supposing that if a Copper Age World its home was in Asia or the most eastern part of Europe. [CHAP.* They consisted of flat celts of what has been regarded as the most primitive type but with them were found some ornaments of silver. as distinct from one of Bronze. and used in its pure native conthis may be. there are in Europe but extremely It appears not any can be said to exist. the discovery had already long been made that it was more serviceable when alloyed with tin than when pure. in which we find good evidence of a period when. I. Bpear-heads. a circumstance which seems to militate against their extreme antiquity. if indeed that Avhen the use of copper was introduced into Europe. and thus made it more serviceable Even after the advantages of the alloy for tools and weapons.

1613. though the preponderance of opinion seems to be in favour of all of them being shaped by the hammer and not cast. That they were originally wrought. Valley. cit. have great majority been hammered and not cast.. and would no doubt attract the attention of the early occupants of the country.* that part of America would seem to have entered on its Copper Age long before it was first brought into contact with European It civilisation. as the fires the altars were sufficiently strong in some instances to melt upon down the copper implements and ornaments deposited upon them." )> 202. E. 13. 246— 7. and not cast.A COPPER AGE IN AMERICA. of the Mississ. and after conversation " tira d'un sac une piece de cuivre do la longueur d'un pied qu'il me donna. and was able to produce spear-heads with sockets adapted for the reception of their shafts by merely hammering out the base of the spear-head and turning it over to form the socket. and on attempting to chip it or work it into shape would at once it yielded to a blow instead of breaking.+ the founder of the city of Quebec. Jones. is a priori in the highest degree probable. notice. le quel * "Troli. p. In 1610 he was joining a party of Algonquins. Copper Ln. But though the of the instruments hitherto found. in the same manner as is so often employed in the making of iron tools. C. and that in was a malleable stone. '. Of this ductile property the North American savage availed himself largely. . Colonel C." Boston. op. Squier and Davis have observed. pp. Accustomed to the use of stone. 1879. t "Anc. towards the middle of the has been thought by several American century." That it the evidence of did not altogether escape observation is shown by De Champlain.. and the fact that the metal is fusible could hardly have escaped all cases in a cold state. Slafter. " Les X Voyages du Sicur de Champiain. cited by Slafter. On some parts of the shores of Lake Superior native copper occurs in great abundance. and has been unable to discover any instance of one of these copper tools or weapons having been indisputably cast. Among others I may mention my friend the Hon. if not all. it would appear that the process of melting copper was not entirely unknown. one of whom met him on his barque." Paris. who has examined this question for me. they would at first regard the metal as merely a stone of peculiarly heavy nature.! " that the metal appears to have been worked in discover that it fact This is somewhat remarkable. that some at least of these tools and weapons were antiquaries sixteenth produced by the process of casting.) given by the Rev. Mon.

it would appear as if the word would be more correctly in ordinary use. in Archw. 1 p. then. in addition to the works already " Prehist. &c. precious as gold. as indeed it is in one instance. now our version is translated brass — a — For notices of American copper instruments see." p. 'i. viii. et le faisant fondre le mettoient en lames. have led to the knowledge of other fusible metals. Without denying the abstract possibility of this having been the case in some part of our — globe. are mentioned." vol. i." p. and had not European influences been brought to bear discovered. xi. and an alloy already eventually to the art of manufacturing bronze and Peru.s. when two A'essels of fine copper. et avec des pierres le rendoient uny. Ii7. evidence of a Copper Age. 12). in them frequent mention of most Implements of the metals But the Avord ntr'm. Wilson. See also an interesting article by Dr. v. Emil Schmidt. The light thrown upon the subject by the Hebrew Scriptures is but small Then.j. Times. which in compound of copper and zinc would be more properly translated copper. % Ezra. however. however. however.. beau et bien franc. and OAving to the readiness with which it may be produced in the metallic condition from some of its ores. ]>. A -!'l of copper and -0G of tin (Mooru's . during most of which period the process of fusing In course of time. vol." have here. quoted.fiir Anth. " Trch. ch. J In some passages. I think it will be found that among the nations occupying the shores of the eastern half of the Mediterranean a part of the — world which may be regarded as the cradle of European civilisation are all archaeological discoveries in favour of the succession of iron to bronze. though there it would seem erroneously. 205. We upon the country this discovery might. it will here be desirable farther to enlarge. &c. this art was the metal was unknown. on which. as in other parts of the world.t known in Mexico So far as regards the Old "World there are some who have supposed that. iron must have been in use before copper. Lubbock. I. 65. —not only In the Introductory Chapter of my book on Ancient Stone I have already touched upon this question.* in comparatively modern times. is. rne dormant a entendre qu'il en avoit en quantite la ou il l'avoit pris. owing to iron being a simple and not a compound metal like bronze. qui estoit sur le bort d'une riviere proche d'un grand lac et qu'ils le prenoient par morceaux.4 estoit fort INTRODUCTORY. however. [CHAP. but even historical evidence supports their testimony. t "Anc Peruvian chisel analyzed by Vauquehn gave Mineralogy. Man.

as. ch. || ** " Exod. of modern criticism tend to prove that it can hardly be so remote as the fourteenth century before our era. ]>. " no direct mention is made of iron arms or tools till after the Exodus. of the Bible. which could hardly have been done from a metal so difficult to cast as unalloyed copper. To Avhat date this reduction to writing is to be assigned is a question into which it would be somewhat out of place here to enter. 1. s.. may mean scoriarum faber.f silver. . as to the date of which also there is some if tin Vh2 represents that metal. v. 2. § intro iron. ch. v." or a furbisherll of every cutting instrument in those This must. duction * of which he considers to be in favour of the later iron. however. who is mentioned as " an instructer of every artificer in iron. and a place for gold where they fine it." iron. for 5 instance." and that " some are even inclined to doubt the barzel (bra). and brass is molten out of the stone. 37. 3. v. diversity of opinion. xxviii.SCRIPTURAL NOTICES OF BRONZE. Indeed commanded were known. we find evidence of a considerable acquaint" ance with the metals Surely there is a vein for the silver. were known. In the Book of Job. be regarded as an accepted fact that at the time when the earliest books of the Hebrew Scriptures were reduced to writing. 22. v. iii." Phonicier. '22. Before quitting this part of the subject I ought perhaps to allude to the passage respecting Tubal-Cain. Sir Gardner Wilkinsonlf has remarked on this subject that whatever may have been the case in earlier times. % Ch. be regarded as a tradition incorporated in the narrative at the time it was Avritten. rendered bronze than copper. a maker of and which others have connected with that of Vulcan. If Genesis. Movers** has observed that in the whole Pentateuch iron is mentioned only thirteen times. It may. Smith's " Diet. or more probably bronze. but not tin. § the seventh in descent from Adam. where Moses* is to cast five sockets of brass for the pillars to carry the hangings at the door of the tabernacle. and there appears little doubt that the word its use as an alloy for copper can hardly have been unknown. and probabh with some accessory colouring in connection with the name which brass and metals. ch. Iron is taken out of the Lead is also menearth. then. Egyptians. while bronze appears no less than forty-four. being really that metal. and brass. lead. xxvi. however. iv. The results. xxxi. as also the fact that bronze." ii. gold." vol. iron. v. of the Hebrews Gesenius has suggested dross. tin. and not t Numbers."* : tioned. " Anc.

1879. 54. and now in the British * " Anc. partly due to religious motives.6 INTRODUCTORY. in T. only in exceptional cases." vol. indeed. Egyptians. the reader may consult an excellent article by the Rev. See also Emil Soldi. among the Jews. Chabas himself is. John Hodgson in the first volume of the Archceologia JEliana (181G). J "Catalogue do Boulaq. 246. mainly as exhibited by Egyptian monuments. p." . and was the object of a certain repugnance. G9. and partly to the greater abundance of bronze. and upwards of 3000 made use of it for all the purposes to which we now apply it." From this paper I have largely borrowed in subsequent pages. of opinion that iron was used with extreme reserve. M." p. Chabas. M." &c. "L'Art Egyptian. among the ancient Egyptians. thinks that the Egyptians of an early Pharaonic age were acquainted with the use and accounts for the extreme rarity of actual examples by the rapid decomposition of the metal in the nitrous soil of Egypt. Sec also "Tho Egyptians in the Time of the Pharaohs. 41. iii. and. "An Inquiry into the Era when Brass was used in purposes to which Iron is now applied. the discovery of iron among Egyptian antiquities is of extremely rare occurrence and there are hardly any to which a date can be The most ancient assigned with any approach to certainty. which the Egyptians well knew how to mix so as to give it a fine temper. dawn of their historic period. and even prescribed its oxide as a medicinal preparation.+ on the contrary. For other passages in Scripture relative to the employment of brass or bronze.* judging mainly from pictorial representations. Sir Gardner "Wilkinson. Chahas. 1872. of iron." pp. believes that the people of Egypt were acquainted with the use of iron from the years B. or steel instruments . M. 218. From whatever cause. was with gold and silver the fittings for the Tabernacle. to be a curved scimitar-like blade discovered by Belzoni appears beneath one of the Sphinxes of Karnak.f the author of a valuable and interesting work upon primitive history. As to the succession of the two metals.C. t " Etudes sur F Antiquity Eistorique d'aprds les sources Egyptiennes. his opinion to great weight. there is a considerable diversity of opinion among those who have studied the subject. Mariette. associated [CHAP. and seems to think that from some mythological cause that metal was regarded as the bones of Typhon. so This he considers to have been to speak. bronze and iron. p. 217. 217. and iron. pp. p. whose personal explorations entitle is of opinion that the early Egyptians never really made use of iron. 99.

" strongly favours such a view. " Op. vol. Steel. Basil Cooper in vol.. Did. 57. however.** who. of meteoric origin The Coptic name for which has been interpreted by Professor LauthH as "the Stone of Heaven. Birch translates hn <>u /. (Jhabas. Day. nor the interpretation of the colours red and blue on the tomb of Barneses III. but little used under the old Empire copper was employed in its II . xxxviii. the baa of heaven. how ever. " Preh. p.N. a steel such as at present used would sooner become clogged and unfit for use than if emsteel ployed for sharpening steel knives. Devon. 11 ** . probably from some religious motive. + Without in any way disputing the occasional use of iron amonothe ancient Egyptians. t Day. has also been pointed out by M. p." page § Wilkinson. and Day. 67. 217. op." p. 380. p. the metal of Iron was weapons being always painted in red or bright brown. 7 Museum. or celestial iron. p. ii. However this may be. The existence of a for the purpose of sharpening seems to imply not only the knowledge of the preparation of the metal and its subsequent hardening. if used for sharpening bronze knives.< heavenly wood" or "stone" (J See also a paper by tho Rev. p. l . p. Lepsius has observed that the pictures of the old Empire do not afford an example of arms painted in blue. Assoc.116. vol. to have been found in a joint between the stones of the Great Pyramid.. it seems admitted on all hands that the use of iron in Egypt in early times was much restricted.)." 1877.BRONZE IN ANCIENT EGYPT. 5410. 41. " Les Metaux dans "Zeitsch. it seems almost impossible that no trace of them should have come down to our times. If the iron in use among the 11. 111.f wedsre of O iron appears. vit. may have been too hastily regarded as a steel instead of as a whetstone of a blue colour. I may venture to suggest that the round blue barj against which butchers are represented as sharpening their knives in some of the pictures in the A sepulchres of Thebes. cit. op. its reflecting the colour of the sky. May not this have arisen from the first iron there known having been. Use of Iron and Steel. cit. 377 Merog.* Its date is stated to be about 600 B. Had such tools been known. los Inscrip. T se of Iron and Trans." &c. Catal. stead where the hardness of iron was not indispensable. iii.. Egypt. 32. " Preh. p.c. Dr. Sprache. Moreover.. as being intended to represent blades of bronze and iron or steel respectively.. but also of files or of other tools to produce the peculiar striated surface to which the sharpening property of a steel is due. 1870. -2Egypt. f. as it ? appears to have been in some other iron. * X || No. The resemblance of this term to BAA. is inclined to consider that steel was so called on account of B€Nine. countries.

again to cite Agatharchides. t "Photii Bibliotheca. early Egyptians were meteoric." as applied to iron. The source whence the * tin. 152. some of the appears crude principal sources of copper being in the peninsula of Sinai.f whose testimony I have already adduced in my " Ancient Stone Implements. X "Herod. c. an Egyptian.S INTRODUCTORY. men were in no way acquainted with the use of iron. which in its form served also as a kind of circulating medium. which formed a constituent part of t Chabas. p. cit. of war.. was applied to the loadstone. bone of Horns. and the latter smelted at Wady-Nash. or its use restricted. op. and who accounts for their being of that metal by the fact that when those mines were wrought." and who relates that in his time. Lepsius. col.C." which. iron must have been in general use in Egypt. or to connect iron was at all rare. Plutarch on the authority of Manetho. who wrote in the days of It appears to be used only in contrast to the Ptolemy. circa B. p. both its rarity and its restricted use "would be accounted The term " bone of Typhon. In the seventh century B. ii.. [CHAP. and it seems difficult to admit any great the first name " antiquity for the appellation. there were found buried in some ancient gold-mines in Upper . cit. op.J who were armed with bronze. I. it is worth while Egyptian mining. ran to Psammetichus to inform him that brazen men had risen from the sea and were wasting the As Psammetichus himself is described as wearing a country. who had never before seen men armed with that metal. 100. brazen helmet." ed. however.* the tools for various trades." lib. thought and in connection with ancient upwards of 3000 years B. for on the landing of the Carians and Ionians. according to the same author.. 1343. One where both turquoises and copper ore were extracted. Egypt the bronze chisels or wedges (\a-rop8e? yaK/cai) of the old miners. the arms mentioned would seem to have been offensive rather than defensive. L653. -17. including those of the weapons engraver and sculptor. of the chief mines was situated at Sarbout-el-Khadem. were all made of that metal. . that of bronze was most extensive. and its celestial origin acknowledged. 57. is given by tor. it with a period when Although the use of iron in Egypt was at an early period comThe paratively unknown.C. The copper mines of Wady-Magarah are to have been worked as early as the second dynasty.C. It to have been mainly imported from Asia.

the successive use of the question as to in the different metals Egypt seems to be excessively obscure.C. p. according to M. . Among the Assyrians iron seems to have been in considerable use at an early date. On the whole. Soc. King of the Soumirs and Accads. is the material evidence. from M. and to have been exported from that country to Egypt. to judge name and hieroglyphic are unknown." p. Lenormant. who reigned about 1700 B. iv. that in discussing the evidence afforded by classical writers it will be needless to separate them.C.. it seems possible that it may have been tin. Indeed. or at least in which cutting instruments of bronze preceded those of iron. bronze image to which a date can be assigned appears to be that on which M. philology of the use of bronze for cutting history agree as to the priority that. some of them being almost impossible to identify by name or representative sign. mainly with the view of showing the succession of bronze to stone.* while disputing any general and universal sequence of iron to bronze. in Southern Babylonia. to judge from documentary evidence alone. The mythology and literature of ancient Greece and Rome arc so intimately connected. h though from some of the uses to which the metal designated by ° Avas applied. in order (o show and along the northern shores of the Mediterranean. "L'Art Egypt. S. we turn to the actual bronze tools and Aveapons in abundance.f who. of course. Crawfurd. the former afford much of this evidence in the I have already cited evidence. confesses that Ancient Egypt seems to offer a case in which a Bronze Age clearly preceded an Iron one. but the among the objects found at Tel earliest testimony of both Greek and Latin authors may be taken indisthe more ancient criminately. 2200 B. however. Dr. Introductory Chapter of my book on Ancient Stone Implements. tain age.BRONZE PRECEDED IRON IX EGYPT. 25. relics of the past. instruments to that of iron.C. but knives and long chisels or hatchets of bronze were The Sifr. indeed. Birch reads the name as Kudurlived about 2100 B. is 9 its much more uncertain. Others in the British Museum are mabug (about referred to Gudea. 5. t Soldi. Oppert has read the name of Koudourmaponk. vol. * Trans. was derived. though. and are either of late date or at best of uncer- late So strong. Chabas' silence. we find If. the bronze. together with what corroborative testimony I am able to procure.). while those of iron are extremely scarce. that the Mr. on the present occasion I have to re-adduce it. Ethnol.

and that as iron took the place of copper." lib. too. Modern German Er-z. I suspect." 2nd 8. copper. I. which is of their languages. cap. ical x«^k*«C. J . Tepuztli then became a general name for metal. which originally meant Saxon ur. that in Sanskrit.e. which is the same word as aes and aiz. but from that of bronze.* work long It is all the more curious. somewhat doubtful how as used by the earliest Greek authors." Sut to return to Greece. Tvlor's " Anahuac. The Gothic eisarn. which the Mexicans first became acquainted through iron. makes it likely that iron was not known previous to the separation of the Aryan nations is the fact that its names var} in every one But there is a " name for copper. bronze or brass. Old High German er. and the same scholar concludes from this that 'in 1 Germany bronze must have been It is. i. should in Sanskrit have assumed the almost exclusive meanfore. the meaning of ayas was changed and specified In German. and when copper had to be distinguished from iron. (Julius Pollux. " Lectures on the Science of Language. * XoXkevuv Si icai to (TtCqptvttv iXtyov. after the blacksmith had to a great extent superthe bronze-founder and the copper-smith in the fabrication seded An analogous transition in the meaning of of arms and cutlery." 1861. too. for the words significant of working in iron are not derived from the name of that metal. in use before iron. the name for iron was derived from the older name of copper.. however. " The Mexicans called their own copper or bronze tepuztli. is considered by Grimm as a derivative form of aiz. 1864. The Greek language itself bears witness to this fact." 2nd S. with their intercourse with the Spaniards. far the word of course. but came to mean metal in general. AngloLike chalkos. changed from the former to the latter meaning and we can watch the same transition in the corresponding words of T . which is said The same word is now used for to have meant originally hatchet. p. and the old forms of ^aXK-ev^ remained in use in connection with the smith and and yciXicebeiv his words has been pointed out by Professor Max Miiller. the latter black tepuztli. therethe Teutonic languages that the Sanskrit ayas.10 INTRODUCTORY. 140. too. iron. vii. the former was called red. [ciIAI". copper. Tore ruv aidi)aov spya£o/i£vouc " Onomasticon. p. English ore. ayas meant originally the metal. Gothic ais." shared in common by Latin and the Teutonic languages. was ^aX/ros. t " Lectures on the Science of Language. ing of iron. ces. 231. 24). p. the Latin ms. 229.." t I am not certain whether Professor Max Miiller still retains the views He then pointed out* that "what which he expressed in 1864. mrin.

intended to apply to unalloyed copper. regards the word as meaning copper is firstly. as some think by the agency of water. and which Mr. 108. one alloy of copper and tin is rendered most malleable — — by rapid It cooling. "Anc. being applied to it. G12. Rev. bright.. 132. by cooling in the air. its malleability by means of heat Indeed. " Mineralogie Homerique. and at the same time less brittle. Arch. Mineralogy.S. the probability that Homer would not represent the walls of the palace of Alcinous as plated with bronze. Fireclays." pp. pp. and Ghuc. Soc. steel According to some the impossibility of hardening bronze like by dipping it into water had passed into" a proverb so early as the days of JEschylus. p. gleaming. . 424).. Professor EtoUestoo is inclined to refer the expression to the "tendering" of bronze (Trans. heat has the effect of rendering that metal intensely hard.* . so far from being adapted for hardening that metal. Agamcm. 57.* copper and tin which we now know as bronze. 97 iKseh. the whole he concludes that ^ci\ko^ was copper hardened by some method. nor introduce a heaven of bronze among the imposing imagery of battle (II. who on all questions relating to Homer ought to be one of the best living authorities. The process it While the plunging into cold water of steel at a red softening it.BRONZE IN ANCIENT GREECE. 126. t The reference is to Millin. because Homer does not to be inapplicable to bronze : . — || . X "Metallurgy § Moore. appear to have known anything at all of the fusion or alloying of The second reason he considers further strengthened by metals. it is immaterial whether the cooling after annealing or restoring takes place slowly or rapidly. N. but this statement seems to require confirmation.. Fuel." vol. on copper the reverse is the result and. p. vol. 6. on account of the along and vthpo^. but "•yclKkov fiacpac has by others been II * " Studios on Homer and the Homeric Age. iii." p. secondly. i)vo^r. iv. Gladstone considers and thirdly. Brist. because it always spoken of by Homer as a pure metal with other pure metals. 11 or to that mixture of Mr. Copper. Gladstone. 1878). xvii. is that which is usually adopted for annealing or tion. and epithets cpvOpo?. 499." &c. as Dr. Arch.f slowly I regret to say that these conclusions appear to me to be founded to some extent on false premises and on more than one misconcep- more probably according of heating copper and then dipping it in water or allowing slowly to cool. or else and On to a very simple process. has been stated § that bronze of the ancient composition may by cooling it slowly be rendered as hard as steel. Percy has observed. which mean red. v.

it is no doubt true that ^aX/to? is occasionally spoken of by Homer as a pure metal." 11 viii. 34. tion of the fashioning of the shield of Achilles by Vulcan may for the moment be assumed to be of the same age rest of the Iliad In the celebrated descripwhich — — we find . employed for the purpose of alloying copper." xviii. moreover. were twenty The cows^j on the shield of Achilles were of tin. metal and steel. [CHAP. mainly. Even the term indomitable may refer to the difficulty of melting copper in its unalloyed condition. or even iron. and brass. he had succeeded in imitating the temper of an ancient thought bronze sword. however. distinctly as to a process of hardening bronze by a dipping or (3a(pi). xi. In the breastBut tin was also used in the pure condition. With. that " res. Rossignol. it may be argued. but no details are given as to whether he added more than the usual proportion of tin to his copper. 24. xi. Gladstone. "Iliad. Ave must from this fact infer thai the use of bronze was not unknown." p. in conse- quence of the same name being applied to both copper and bronze. we must translate h-cKjairepoK. for thus . I. indeed. of Agamemnon § there were ten bands of black kvclvos. mentioned by Homer and to copper. regarded as referring to the impossibility of dyeing metal. . Geoffroy. or whether he hardened the edge with a hammer. however.* XoiAkov SVi' TTVftl fiaWev aTCipia. if not. 238. xviii. the descripHephaistos tion could not have been more complete. J t || " Mn.. as this metal appears in ancient times to have been mainly. and twenty of tin. 474. 674." We is tin. bronze. 450..12 INTRODUCTORY. and Virgil t represents the Cyclopes as dipping the hissing bronze in water — TRra lacu " " Alii stridentia tingunt — but the idea of bronze being hardened or tempered by this process appears to me to have been based on a false analogy between this The French chemist. as the the copper and tin mentioned in juxta- and if it had been intended to represent position with each other as engaged in mixing and melting bronze. plate bosses * + In his shield twelve of gold. regard to the other reasons adduced by Mr.* Some of the commentators on Hesiod and Homer speak. Kaa-crtTipov tc. like the Latin find. || " Lcs Metaux dans l'Ant. though not exclusively.

bright."Bel § || Holtzapffel. If The bending of the points of the spear-heads against the shields of the adversaries is. Virgil. "Turning and Mechanical Manipulation. however. in favour of these weapons having been of copper rather than of bronze. "JEncid. 561. . vii. calls to mind some of the pottery and bronze pins of the Swiss Lake dwellings. though certainly yellow. the red colour § of copper. half ounces to the pound. . and certainly no copper sword would break into three or four pieces at a blow instead of being merely bent. up As to the bright cent. **"IL. 743." p. when no doubt speaking of bronze swords and shields. as pure copper \a\/i-o<r would be singularly inapplicable to such a purpose." iii. vii. which usually With regard hues it acquires by assigns to that metal the brown or greenish influences. vol. and tin which Vulcan could have thrown the latter metal into the fibre must have been in order to melt it. i. Journ. This collocation of various metals.METALS MENTIONED BY HOMER." xviii. which are decorated with inlaid tin. micat sereus ensis. viz. in gold. As a matter of oxidation and exposure to atmospheric rendered more fact. 13 made the of both gold and tin. )>. or inlaying them by way of ornament. 271. IT Iliad. makes special mention of their glitter -^Erataxjue uiicant peltrc." Indeed. or about 15 per is and shining properties of the metal. For these and other instances see Prof Phillip . they are in its polished condition." " ' vol. and his greaves* of soft tin. and the remarkable bronze bracelet found at Mcerigen.** As to Homer having been unacquainted with the fusion or that without such knowalloying of metals. Age du Bronze. iii. "II. to the epithets red." 348. silver. not greatly impaired by an admixture of tin within the to about two and a proportions now used by engineers. 10. 10. t Desor et Favre. though perfectly applicable to bronze they ill assort with the popular idea of bronze. and gleaming." 363.. in the Arch. xvi. * t xxiii. it may fairly be urged it would have been impossible to work so freely as he has ledge and that the only reason for described. '259. the mere fact of the swords of Homer being made of is in favour of that metal being bronze. 612. and border of the breast-plate of Asteropaeus t was formed of glittering tin. p..+ which is inlaid with iron and a yehW brass by way of ornament.

Hist.+ have occasional mention of this metal and of steel in the Homeric poems. It would appear that Tamassus in this island was in ancient times a noted mart for this metal. it were the custom even in those days to colour steel blue by exposing it. viii. long and well derived from it to the . 21. . || i. bears witness to one of the chief sources of its supply having been the island of Cyprus.. Trees. fir Anthrop. 549. I.In-/. iv. Houssel in Rev. p." xiii.. 98. Arundelian Marbles. the difficulty in regarding it as significant of steel measure due to the colour implied by the adjective form Kvuveos. to a certain degree of heat as is usually done with watch and clock springs at the present day the deep blue colour of the sky or sea might well receive such an epithet. vol. Midler. . Grsec. however. 184. % Arch. and certainly in later times that word was to a substance occasionally used as a blue pigment.C. which is so graphically described in the after it — — Odyssey. are cut down and wood carved with tools of bronze and the battle-axe of Mcnelaus^ is of excellent bronze with an olive-wood handle.. polished. That steel of some kind Avas known in Homeric days is abundantly evident from the process of hardening an axe by dipping it in cold water while heated. even though the adjective had the signification of blue. The advantage arising from mixing a proportion of tin with the * M. which in this as well as some other passages seems to stand for Homer copper and not bronze. p. According or 248 years before the taking of Troy. p.. Before noticing further the early use of iron in Greece. cop}>er.14 INTRODUCTORY." xi. Ch. "Eragm. t " II. we can also understand the epithet black f being occasionally applied to it. being a dark blue. [CHAP. Assuming the word steel Whether considerable to mean a appears in a great metal.S. for instance.* If.. "II. 5 "OdyB8. iron was discovered B. it will be well to see what other authors than Homer say as to the origin and ancient use of bronze in that country. but though we 1432. as it is according to Nitzsch and other critics the Temese || mentioned in as being resorted to in order to exchange iron for vaX/ros. not ajmlied improbably a dark blue carbonate of copper." i. vol. The name of the principal metal of which it is composed.. 612.." vol. had been polished. If Kvavos be really steel. yet weapons and tools of bronze are far more commonly mentioned and described. v. 295. was designated by the term Kvavos is a matter of doubt. N.

both seem to have been of considerable rarity.wiii. Be ck. Hymn. cit. "Geog. Diodorus Siculus. I! t Lib. arts).§ or the Telchines." lib. a Phrygian. In an interesting article on the use of meteoric iron by Dr. 12.C. and the trouble and care it involved. p. vol. iron and even steel were Though. meteorites as iron was first made at a time subsequent to the discovery of the means of smelting iron from disc of iron. but this self-fused its ore. 640 ascribed to the Idaean Dactyli. the suggestion is made that the final >/^ov of ouiipos is a form of the Aryan ais (conf. § 8. and with the Latin Sidera and the English Star. p. 64. Iliad. xii. c. "Hist. ed. 31. may very doubtful. to have discovered the art of casting iron. v.. and thus prove that even in the days when these notices were written the art was of ancient date.1K0X IK ANCIENT GREECE. as the forging of iron. " "Anc..." lib." %% p.. c. and it is by no means improbable that. ft of Biebrich on the Rhine. who appear to have lived about They are also said to have improved the accuracy of but no doubt the process on a smaller scale was practised casting. . 2Vd. iii. whom Aristotle regards as a Lydian. $ viii. Strabo. 935. 5. xiv. 15 copper. The mass or goXov is games of abroypiiavov. inclines to the opinion that the recognition of certain however. often applied to a shooting-star or (nlcijpo^) it is meteor. Pausanias f ascribes the honour of first casting statues in bronze to Rhcecus and Theodoras the Samians. to have been the inventor of bronze. though unsafe to insist too much on mere verbal similarity. The invention of the metals gold. Nat. L. in Del. c. Stone Dnp. vii. appears to have been the case with the Egyptians." lib. lib. 1680. 14.^] as has already been observed. lib. 1807. and thus rendering it tit tlie same time more fusible and must have been known before the dawn of Grecian history.. harder. . . % Op. cbs. lvi. Beck. G. II not unknown in the days of Homer. were well * Plin." 1. the first iron used by the Greeks was of meteoric origin.++ formed one of the prizes at the funeral possibly have been meteoric.. Dr. J but no really reported ancient objects of cast iron have as yet been discovered. silver. " if Callimacbus. The accounts given by early Greek writers as to the first discoverer of the art of making bronze by an admixture of copper and tin vary considerably. PJicecus and his colleague are also long before their time. 826. c. * Theophrastus makes Delas. and copper is also B. who made the sickle of (Jhronos and the trident of Poseidon.Anthrop. § 5. tt Archie fio. which Patroclus. I have elsewhere** called attention to the possible connection of the Greek name for iron with dart'/p.

and Virgil t describing the glitter of the bronze swords of some of the host of Turn us. . p. . such as shields." The difference between the age of Homer and Hesiod in respect to the use of metals is well described by Mr. 1282. " Juv. 150. and arrows. ot D-. especially for those intended for piercing rather than cutting. \ii." i. however. times of bronze. A ersaque in opprobrium species est falcis alienee. . when the commodity was rare. tius § less well is already hackneyed : known — . Sed prior a3ris erat quam ferri cognitus usus r ." 3 i "Troad. \ "Op. ." 1869. The succession of iron to bronze is fully recognised by both Greek and Latin authors. \d\Kia ftkv rivxta x"Xk(oi Si ft oIkoi Unya^ovTo. || 2(3. as with copper. Et ferro ecepere solum proscindere terra). is to say compared the cheaper metal." 143. 'Voir r>' >'/i' XrtXicip v" $ v.was not restricted to copper or bronze. . a worker in which metal was. I. termed a %ii\Kev?." lib. . manus. . and thus extended to iron. et seqq. helmets. t "Ma. but also came in time to mean metal in general. had come to be the inferior. ungues. Even swords were also somecuirasses. or at all events the tradition of their use was preThus we find Euripides * speaking of the served by the poets. The passage in Hesiod. Posterius ferri vis est. and when its value was very great. The former " lived at a time when the use of iron (in Greece) II was just commencing. £ where he of the third generation of men who had arms of bronze speaks and houses of bronze.. bronze-speared Trojans. fiiXat. Lib.' but in the days of Hesiod "iron. in those days. Avho ploughed with bronze. ct item sylvarum fragmina rami. 5' ovk tax 1 fiCrjDOQ. as well as for those which were merely defensive. [CHAP. as is evident from the epithet upon that metal. nor is the record of Lucre- " Anna Et antiqua. for the black iron did not exist. dentesque fuerant..erisque reperta. Gladstone. Mundi. ^aXKey^ecoi^ Tpwcov.16 INTRODUCTORY. Inde mimitatim processit ferreus ensis. Probably. such as spears. known ttoXvic/jliito? so often bestowed For a considerable time after the Homeric period bronze remained in use for offensive weapons. . as we have already seen. lances. that.. the use of the word ^aA/ros. and greaves." and the poet "looks back from his iron age with an admiring envy on the heroic period. 713. lapides.

" p. he states that bronze was rarer and more precious than gold nor was it in use among the Scythians. razors. as a fact worth recording. JEliana.** The Sagartii ft in the army of Xerxes are mentioned as not carrying arms either of bronze or iron except daggers. i. In Laconia iron is said to have formed the only currency in the days of Lycurgus.. if Lib. 123 Lib. x.|| a powerful tribe B. drills for iron. iv. and knives. there can be n<> doubt that iron must have been known in Greece some ten or twelve centuries before our era. c. the Chalybes on the shores of the Euxine practised the manufacture of iron on a considerable scale. it Avas at that time an It also appears that as extremely rare metal. and from them came the Greek name for steel. || - > - §§ Bochart's "Phaleg. § Olymp. Theogon. X Op.." v. p. the use of iron and steel was universal among the Greeks. that the Massagetre. 215. " " « Norn. " t Hercul. He instances. a favourite metal with the poet.)8 ed 170 '. as already observed. iii. ** Lib. and to Saturn f a steel reaping-hook. vol. and Laconia. which occupied the steppes on the east of the Caspian... shows that this metal was in common use. But certainly some centuries before the time of Herodotus.C.++ at a much later date. however. stamps. as if bronze were still of not . 711.C. in the fourth century B. '>-. i. . That of Sinope was used for smiths' and carpenters' tools that of Laconia for files. c.. vii. 113." od.BRONZE AMONG OTHER NATIONS. Among the ^Ethiopians' on the contrary. cited in Arch. 85. thinks it worth while to record that among the Lusitanians the spears were tipped with bronze.. . Taking all the evidence into consideration. * "Scut. 17 and a sword of His remark that at the feast of the gods the withered + part of a five-fingered branch should never be cut from the green part by black iron. made no use of iron or silver." v. XX Lib »' V." od. 161... the older metal bronze retained its place. c. and that for religious ceremonies steel Hesiod gives to Hercules* a helmet of iron. still frequently cites spears and axes made of bronze. 208. Bronze was. &c... records that different sorts of steel are produced among the Chalybes in Sinope. though. pointing their spears and arrows and forming the heads of their battle-axes with the former metal.§ for Pindar. tt Lib. 71. ^aXvylrM Daimachus. swords. C . 23. i. about 470. 122—138. By the time of Herodotus. who wrote before 400 B.C. Lydia. Strabo. and masons' tools and the Lydian kind for files. but had an abundance of ^a\A-o9 and gold. c. ct D.'* v. and probably as early as that of Homer. unfrequent use. if not indeed in actual use long after iron was known.

17." p. early as B. Hist.* is a strongseems needless again to do more mention the bronze ploughshare used at the foundation of than Tuscan cities. which I have It witness of this earlier use. cap. and that if it had been in the days of the heroes it would have been bronze and not iron designated by the oracle as the For this he cites evil. further argument he derives from in the temple of Minerva at Phaselis. which his countryin religious rites. and the iron lying on it. c Ed. however. "Thes. i. c. 07.. as to the existence of what Ave should now term a Bronze Age in Greece. the hammer Pausanias on this opposed to the anvil. and long before the If the Articles days of Ennius. and probably the sword likeThere arc no works of Latin authors of a date nearly so wise. lay with the bones of Theseus § in the of Scyros was also of bronze. Plutarch. xxxiv. !| t § "X " Laoon.. These Lichas recognised in the two bellows of the smith. though bronze had not been altogether superseded for offensive arms such as spear-heads and battle-axes. while the ferrule and point of his spear are also of that metal.18 INTRODUCTORY. iron or steel was in common use. in the fifth B. who wrote in the latter half of the second century of our era. had described the place as one where two strong winds met. for in their days all arms were of bronze. laid up and the sword of Memnon in that of ^Esculapius at Nicomedia.. King of the Tuscans. [CHAP. A The spear-head which remote as that of the earlier Greek writers.. + Herod... 4." Ii1». and the bronze sickles of Medea and Elissa. 14. Isle of the bronze axe of Pisander. the spear of Achilles. the bronze knives and shears of the Sabine arid Roman priests. men had been commanded by an Homer as his authority. and one evil lay upon another. it. iron was in general use in Italy.C. I must. which is entirely of bronze." p. or even 600. who speaks and the arrow of Meriones. 500. iii.. The Pythia + oracle to seek. remained even in later times. I. and the preference shown for its employment mentioned elsewhere. observes that at that time they had already begun to use iron in war. cap.C. " of Peace which Porsena. . lib. discovered the bones of Orestes. 1C24. The tradition of the earlier use of bronze still." lib. however. where form was opposed to form. tendered unto the people of Rome" were as Pliny represents them. Rtono Imp. again bring forward the sacculations of an intelligent Greek traveller. the Romans II * " Ano. century Pausanias f relates how Lichas the Lacedaemonian. iii.

Lib. and corn. a country in which copper or bronze swords are said to have been in use in the days of Ki. used for spears and swords.c. were in such close communication with the opposite coast of Gaul must have had an equal acquaintance with iron. * See Zeitseh.. b c 2 . as well as In Spain. But this by the way. % "Bell. according to Plutarch. about b. 1870. Whether the modern Toledo and Bilbao blades are legitimate descendants of these old weapons we need not stop to inquire. The Catti had the metal in abundance. when they adopted the Spanish sword. on the right coast of the Baltic.C. VI. and observes that iron is obtained on the sea-coast. and adds that bronze was imported. The Cimbrians in the first century B. such an unusual circumstance could hardly have escaped record. and large swords. B. 1897 48.c. ac- cording to Tacitus.C. In b. times that fevrum and gladius were almost synonyms. 200. 13 . and learnt the method of preparing it. The Britons of the South of England who . but among the Aestii. at the fact that iron and steel were in such general Looking use at Rome during the period of her wars in Western Europe. In whatever manner the metal was preso thoroughly was iron identified with the sword in classical pared. the softness and flexibility of which led to the discomfiture of their owners. it Avas. gold. v. In the the iron swords of Noricum were in great repute. and Augustan age Romans themselves seem but — — T farther north in Germany. for they were forbidden the use of that metal except for tilling the ground. Caii Marii.USE OF IKON IN GAUL AND ITALY. silver. Pliny mentions that the best steel used in Rome was imported from China. $ Strabo includes iron. and those of iron under Kung-Kia. had. javelins. B. 22. so that there also history points to a Bronze Age. vii. but in small quantities.. 1 9 must even in those early days have had iron weapons. p. and they had even chain cables of iron. ii. 131. we may w ell believe that had any of the tribes with which the Roman forces came in contact been armed with bronze." iii. The Gauls of the North of France had in the time of Julius the Caesar + large iron mines which they worked by tunnelling bolts of their ships were made of that metal. among the products of Britain.C. Caesar mentions ingots or rings of iron as being used for money. though iron did not abound.. fur Eth. Gall.* the son of Yu." vol. it was scarce. t § " Vit. 224 the Isumbrian Gauls who fought with Flaminius were already in possession of iron swords.! iron breast-plates. 2197 48. to The have been badly armed so far as swords were concerned until the time of the Second Punic War." 420.

. p. "Prch. iv.. Ethnol. p. Soc. T. 18. 105. mention that. The Abbe Barthe'lcmy showed from ancient authors that the Roman. 190. meaning of course from Gaul.. p. nor Franks had ever made use of copper or bronze in their swords. 70. 205. About one hundred and as to the date of bronze thirty years ago. it had this country was first exposed already. Soc. Jonrn. Eth. vol. and as his contentions have already been met by Sir John Lubbock. he admits that in Greece and Italy that metal was for a long period the only one employed for cutting instruments. Wright's opinions. Romans. Gauls. who has gone so far as to express "a firm conviction that not a bit of bronze which lias been found in the British Islands belongs to an older date than that at which Csesar wrote that the Britons obtained "In their bronze from abroad. Levesque de la Ravaliere maintained. .§ in 1751. there have been not a few who have maintained that the idea of a succession of stone." p. known." As in the same page he goes on to show that two hundred years before Christ the swords of the Gauls were made of iron. on the Academic occasion of some bronze swords. like the neighbouring coun- tries to the south. I think. however. or bronze must have been in earlier use than iron. though maintaining that copper * Tram. " Les Mctaux dans 1'Ant. and iron * is delusive Among these was the late Mr. v. See also Anthrop." Ith ed. Notwithstanding all this historical testimony in favour of the authors • prior use of bronze to that of iron. German. when applied to Western Europe. passed from the Bronze into the Iron Age. p. as already mentioned.See Possignol. p. that neither the Greeks. 73." fact these objects in bronze were Roman in character and in their primary origin. and other objects being found near Gannat.20 INTRODUCTORY. a discussion weapons took place among the members des Inscriptions ct ] belles Lettres of Taris.+ Avhile denying the antiquity of British. + Trans.. and Scandinavian weapons and tools of bronze. as iron was not known in Greece until a comparatively late date. $ . [CHAP. bronze. a spear-head. so that from the we may safely infer that when to Roman influences. iron had long been concurrent testimony of several historians in the time of Julius Csesar. vol. it seems needless to dwell on Mr. on the contrary. be effectually disposed of by the facts subsequently to be mentioned in this volume.t and will. "Rev. iv. vol. xxii. vol. % Arch. I ma}^. in the Bourbonnais. Times. Some antiquaries of the regarded them as weapons made for use others as merely made for show. Thomas Wright. Assoc. The Count de Caylus considered that the swords were .

x. \>. tt A. Had he been present at the opening of the tomb of that monarch in 1G53 he would. X Archiv. with whom Dr. Hans " are well worth the Hildebrand's " Heathen Period in Sweden and contain a vast amount of interesting information. . Rector Genthe** also engages in the fight upon the same side. "Le Tombcau dc Childeric. p. however. this. Irch. 161. and. p... or. of " the so-called Bronze Mainz. 17. " Sammltiiig zu Sigmaringen. Sophus Miiller § to the rescue. 186." tries of northern countries as of Italian origin. vol. reading. Ludwig Lindenschmit. and therefore that these swords . indeed. as mere homely imitations of imported articles. almost amounting to an interEngland national war of words. So early as 1860 t my friend Dr. p. 141. These three antagonists bring Sophus Miiller ft again to the front. a formidable ally in Dr. if made in the counwhere found. he went on to argue that and of the time of Childeric.* still warmer discussion than any which has taken place in or France. these may have been only weapons of parade. f. 181. 153." i. Lindenschmit at once grappled. whose comments on Dr. 127Op. vol. had commenced his attack on and shown a disposition to regard all bronze antiquities Period. p. H Op. no bronze sword of that country can with safety be assigned to an earlier date than the sixth century. or possibly funereal offerings in lieu of efficient swords. were not Roman. viii.DISPUTES AS TO THE THEEE PERIODS. fur Anthropoid vol.. -'> vol. fur Anthrop. Strangely enough. in fact. $ Archiv. one. 27. Hostmann. p. t || . p.C. Hostmann % again II Not content with appears upon the scene.. ix. Dr. Sophus Miiller goes so far as to argue that while Greek swords of iron are known to belong to the eighth century B. and before engaging with Dr. renewed the campaign he in 1875 + again mustered his forces and He found in even a more formal manner. Shortly after Dr. 21 earliest arms of the Greeks were of bronze that iron was only and that in later introduced about the time of the siege of Troy times anions the Romans there was no mention of bronze having been used for weapons of offence. and as one great argument of his opponents was that bronze not be produced with the finish and ornaobjects could mentation which is found upon them without the use of iron and * Cochet. has in more recent times arisen between A some of the German antiquaries and those of the Scandinavian kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden. at. Hans Hildebrand brought Dr." p. cit. Hostmann's method of dealing with Dr.. they Avere Frankish. have seen that he had an iron sword. ix.

and even some bronze weapons. nor whether at the time the Scandinavians or Britons were using bronze for their tools and Aveapons. pp. remained in use long after iron and even steel were known. 9 of copper to 1 of tin. It seems to me. and afford convincing instances of this persistent use. up to the present time. in fact. 41. any more than he would deny that the use of stone for certain purposes continued not only after bronze was known. Moreover. and it the editors of the Archiv think I best to close the discussion after Dr. that a considerable amount of misconception must have existed in the minds of some of the disputants. but whether any of them were there in use at a period when iron and steel were unknown. of much the same character as they were some thousands of years ago. the former of whom produces a kind of affidavit from the late director of the Polytechnic School at Hanover and the court medallist of the same town. worth while to enter into all the details summarise them would occupy more room than I could spare. and stating that presimilar ornamentation to the spirals. Lindenschmit's final retort. as even to . to the effect that certain kinds of punched work cannot be produced with bronze punches. and. and as to the limitation of the objects which can with propriety be referred to that age. but even after iron and steel were in general use.22 steel tools. alloy.. x. Lindenschmit. authorities in the he brings forward an official document signed by four museum at Copenhagen. The real question at issue is not whether any bronze weapons co-existed with those of iron and steel in Western Europe. No antiquary of experience will deny that many bronze ornaments. I. [CHAP. not only in barbarian but in civilised Our flint strike-a-lights and our burnishers are still countries. vol. INTRODUCTORY. G3. both as to the accepted meaning of the term Bronze Age. however. this a final charge is made On by Professor Hostmann '"" am I Dr. but to a certain stage of civilisation. Antkrop. it is not a question as to Avhence the knowledge of bronze was derived. * Arch. zigzags.f. as applied not chronologically. viz. . the inhabitants of Greece and Italy were already acquainted with iron and steel but it is a question whether in each individual country there arrived a time when bronze came into it have not thought of this controversy. and punched cisely lines which occur on Scandinavian bronze antiquities had been produced in their presence by a workman using bronze tools only Both plate and tools were of the same on a plate of bronze.

of metals probably spread from certain centres. the that this evolution of form. Near the shores of the Mediterranean the use of each metal no doubt prevailed far earlier than in any of the northern countries of Europe and though the knowledge . for in each part of Europe there appears to have been some special development. together with the moulds of the bronzefounder and some of his stock-in-trade. This is a question to be solved by evidence. the proof of the one having succeeded the other is almost absolutely conclusive. and there is no trace of an iron tool among them the presumption is strong that at the time when these men and these hoards were buried iron was not in use. When barrow after barrow is opened. When. such as those at Arras. in various countries Ave find interments and even cemeteries in which bronze and iron weapons and instruments are intermingled. and weapons of bronze and stone only are found accompanying the interments. took place without its course being affected by any introduction of a fresh and qualifying influence in the shape of iron tools and weapons. in Austria. however. When. particularly in the forms of bronze instruments. are of the highest importance in this question. and broken bronze. however. in Yorkshire. and the forms of those in bronze are what we have learnt from other sources to regard as the latest. which must have required a considerable amount of time. 23 use and for certain purposes superseded stone. The lessons taught by such cemeteries as that at Hallstatt. while the forms in iron are not those for which that metal is best adapted. by a careful examination of the forms of bronze instruments we can trace a certain amount of development which is in keeping with the peculiar properties of bronze and not with those of iron. and not a trace of iron or steel when hoards of rough metal . while iron and were practically unknown. It is not.isteel tive character. and by our own Late Celtic interments. are disinterred. but are almost servile copies of the bronze instruments found with them. though in the nature of things that evidence must to some extent be of a ncg. to be supposed that even in countries by no means geographically remote from each other the introduction either of iron or bronze must of necessity have taken place at one and the same chronological period. and we can thus to some — extent fix inference is a kind of chronological succession in these forms. its progress can have been but slow. moreover. and there is no absolute uniformity in their .THE SUCCESSION OF IRON TO BRONZE.

'except in so far as a neglect of its use would argue some want of intelligence on the part of those who did not avail themselves of so useful a metal. in the same manner as in my "Ancient Stone Implements" I was forced to describe many forms. as will subsequently be seen. yet of bronze special districts. 33. fix with some degree of confidence the country in which they were found. simple compared with Britain. on As to the ornamentation of bronze this none in bronze of the ordinary ancient alloy. of manufacture was carried on. and nothing could better illustrate the transition of one Period into another.24 INTBODUCTORY. on inspection of a group of bronze antiquities. and though some commerce in tools and arms no doubt took place between neighbouring as a rule there are local peculiarities characteristic of tribes. So marked are these that a practised archaeologist can in almost all cases. however. But even supposing that iron and steel were I known during some what manner it part of the so-called Bronze Age. In each country the process types extending over any large area. main features of the case or the interest attaching to would affect the do not see in the bronze objects which I tibus et am about to describe. I have seen on objects which I should refer to the Bronze country Age but what could have been effected by means of bronze punches. our types are for the most part indigenous. arrow-heads. and yet I have seen the comthat plicated Scandinavian ornaments accurately and sharply reproduced by Dr. by means of bronze tools only. [CHAP. of which indeed examples have been discovered in bronzefounders' hoards in France. on many of the Danish forms. est ratio " is " non existentibus eadem a De non maxim apparenof some whether it was known or not. Otto Tischler. which avowedly belonged to the Hronze Period. it matters but little in the absence of iron Mortillct. It will be seen hereafter that some of the objects described in these pages actually do belong to an Iron Period." 32. "Fondurie de Larnaud. and bracers. To this rule Britain offers no exception. * Aveight in archaeology as well as in law . than the fact that in these pages devoted to the Bronze Period I must of necessity describe many objects which were still in use when iron and steel were superseding bronze. and though some forms of instruments were no doubt imported. such as battle-axes. and and all trace of its influence. . by bronze tools.* and what are probably such also in Such ornamentation is. 1. yet. or the overlapping of the Bronze Age upon that of Iron.

has well dealt with this and observes that in some graves of the Bronze Period the point objects contained are incrusted with carbonate of lime. 5 for believing pletely as those in bronze. which would have protected any iron instrument of the Bronze Period as Not only are the iron Avell as it has done those of Saxon times. Up to that time no coin had ever been found in any one of the many hundred piece. In with Sir John Lubbock I was engaged in opening a company grave in which we had come to an interment of the Early Iron Age. Brid. the Bronze. Arch. also affords strong ground that had iron been present with bronze in other early interments The importance attaching to would also have been preserved. that inasmuch as priority of the use it is A readily oxidized and dissolved in the soil. the reputed occurrence of bronze swords with Roman coins as late as the time of Magnentius cannot be better illustrated than by a it discovery of my own in the ancient cemetery of Hallstatt. Aveapons discovered in Saxon cemeteries often in almost perfect hoards preservation. and Qhuc. eagerly graves which had been examined. Hoc.THE PRESERVATION OF ANCIENT IKON. iron may have disappeared. . when amidst the bones I caught sight of a thin metallic disc of a yellowish colour which looked like a coin. and which way Ead from its appearance had evidently been buried some years. which by some means had worked its down among the crevices in the stony ground." or six-kreutzer . picked up with the date 1826. accompaniment to all early on the three periods known as the fessor Rolleston. and " It proved to be a sechser. so that the absence of iron as an Prointerments counts for nothing'. The fact that at Hallstatt and other places in which graves have been examined belonging to the transitional period. the weapons and tools of iron.1 caution against drawing important inferences from the mere collo' Trans. but on the sites of Roman occupation whole of iron tools have been found but little injured by rust. and the Stone Ages.* in a paper while bronze has been left . accompanied by a socketed celt and spear-heads of iron. when both iron and bronze were in use together. this coin been of Roman date it might have afforded an argument for bringing down the date of the Hallstatt cemetery some cenAs it is. 25 point which is usually raised by those who maintain the of iron to that of bronze is. though oxidized. still retain their form and character as comIron. 1S7S. more by acids naturally present and indeed lias done so. it affords a wholesome turies in the chronological scale. this disc.

I. . cation of objects when there is any possibility of the apparent association being only due to accident. It will. Age in a book particularly devoted to the weapons and instru- ments of bronze found in the British Isles. common occurrence. if not more than has already been said on the general question of a Bronze enough. be thought that enough. such as has been observed in several barrows and in the well-known instance of the cone of La Lake of Geneva. [CHAP. and the sources from which our bronze civilisation was derived. the different classes of instruments intended each for some special purpose. It is now time to with the examination and description of their various proceed forms and in doing this I propose to treat separately. so far as possible. recorded by Morlot. and at the same time to point out their analogies with instruments of the same character found in other parts of . Europe. and Iron in Western Europe. In further illustration of the succession of the three Ages of Stone. tained. I begin with the instrument of the most the so-called celt. I might go on to cite cases of the actual superposition of the objects of one age over those of another.26 INTRODUCTORY. in the however. Their chronological sequence so far as it can be ascerthe position in time of the Bronze Period of Britain and Ireland. Bronze. will be discussed in a concluding chapter. Tiniere.

they seem to have been in use for peaceful as well as warlike purposes — — Celts ma)" be described as may flat or having ribs along the sides flanged. It is also probably among the earliest of the instruments fabricated from metal. 329. . is NEQVE HIC ATRAMENTYM. or having the side flanges extended so as almost to form a socket for the handle on either side of the blade. like the American tomahawk. though in Of this country it is possible that some of the cutting instruments." a chisel. and it is employed both in his Vulgate translation of the Book of Job'" and in a quotation from that book in his Epistle to Painmachius. II.. These tools or weapons for. to which the name of celt has been applied.1. all the forms of bronze instruments the hatchet or axe." authority of the word Mr. 24.m interesting paper communicated * to the Society of Antiquaries of London. f but as this inscription is a modern forgery. such as the knife-daggers. . SED MALLEOLI) BRANA VLLA This inscription X JProe. The only author in whose works the word is found is St. in [stria. vol. winged. t P. Knight Watson. A. and to be the equivalent of ccelum. . .23. \ r said to have Leon found at Pola..CHAPTER CELTS. A T MEMKT CHI/I'M UTKUATVS 8ILEX. Jerome. p. Ant. which is in its turn said to be derived a codando (from carving). Soc. Cap. 3%.:}: has given ADIIVC. vii. which required a less amount of metal for their formation. is perhaps the most common and the best known. are of equal or greater antiquity. v. xix. Of most of these classes palstave has been given there are several varieties. " it does not add to the celtis. See. VEL PAPYRVS. The name of celt which has been aiven to these instruments is " derived from the doubtful Latin Avord " celtis or " celtes. 2nd S. be divided into several and socketed. as will be seen farther on. to which variety the name of classes. S. The word also occurs in an inscription recorded by Gruter and Aldus.. in .

whatever its origin or derivation. like celte . and so far as the Burial Service of the Roman Catholic Church is concerned can have maintained its ground Nor is this difficulty diminished when we consider for centuries.28 CELTS. sculpantur in silice . it will be convenient to retain it." or. The probability of such an error would be increased if his MS. there is no its being translated "certe. as it is translated." occurs in the same passage other instance of . and that in all probability these most ancient and the best. There can be no doubt. 12372 nearly and assuming that this was by pen. well-known word like certe . as Beger pointed out two centuries ago. Jerome. can have ever supplanted a word. Under any but as the word celt has now obtained a firm hold in our language. had the lines arranged in couplets in accordance with character. having " in his second revision of the Bible in testimonium in petris sculpantur. he would have thought that the word for stylus was used twice over." according as the word pointed ivb or "TI)b. the passage standing thus when un-pointed : — its poetical main bm &yn tTDxrrvYisn "n?b Very possibly the word used by St. by way of a synonym. IT. that a number of MSS. and that." translated the passage as " certe in the Vulgate have given the inaccurate rendering should more extreme of the two. and the derivation of which from coelo he regards as impossible. of the Vulgate read certe instead of celte in the are the passage in Job already mentioned. that the ordinary and proper translation of the Hebrew -^^ is ficulty of either is "in seternum" or " in testimonium. But this only adds to the dif- understanding how a recently invented and an unknown such as celte is presumed to be." On the other hand. The other contention involves two extreme improbabilities the — one. Jerome. a similar word. that St. so far as I am aware. and the corruption into celte in order to make a distinction between heaven and a chisel would then at all events have been possible." the other and the word certe should have been ousted by a that the well-known word had it been utterly new-fangled. some accident read for "T2/b by St. view of the case there are considerable diffieulties. Jerome may not have been celte but coelo. a " " with a stylus. and have inserted some word to designate a graving tool. [CHAF. several details as to the origin and use of this word. which he considers to have been founded on a misreading of the word certe.

patre edita coelo. under the title Celtes. at nisi hasc vox Latinis incognita vulgata Libri dorus. .. minus videtur convenire. 19 quamvis alii non Quicquid quod tamen minus quadrat. scilicet avunculus. ex forma patct. Celte data. inquit DuLOHiob c. Geltm." or celestial as "kelestial. Celte. * Rev. iii. together Avith the following first The nection with Celts I can trace dialogue " : — Et nomen et instrumentum mihi obscurum est. instrumentum Statuariorum hoc esse. Avho. addit covs. John in Archceol.1. t Epig\ xxxiii. qui huic faveat. 88. vol. How the Romans of the time of St. ii. dorus. Metallum reposuit Archveophilus. . in versione sed Certe ibi legant. in his " + (1G96). p. fallor two. and hence have given them this unmeaning appellation. gives an engraving of a celt of the Brandenburgicus palstave form. Instrumentum hoc ex oere est. 109. quod duritiem Lapidum nescio an superare potuerit ? XJti lapides diversi sunt. Habetur." vol. Dow (ho Arch.ORIGIX OF THE It has call WORD CELT." let him do so let us adhere to the old spelling. Jerome would have pronounced the word caelum or celtis may be inferred from the punning line of Ausonius with regard to Venus." possibly from some mental association of the instruments with a Celtic or Keltic population. See also IV:vs." " Our antiquarians have commonly ascribed them to the ancient Celtoe. parva qusedam simulacra adornare. % Vol. Alabastro. i. 418. of Manchester. qui simulacra ex Cera. Lucianus dixisset. p. and Whitaker's " Tlist. ubi cum lusum non insuavem Deos sculpere. From some such cause also some of the French antiquaries must have coined the new plural to the word. Even in this " * with it has been said to the ancient weapon regard country denominated the celt. " Orta salo. id quod Joh. t to these . BoncCelte ? excepit Arcbleophilus est ? . respondit Dulo.. cum nullus aptandi manubrii locus tenda. qua voce generibus csedunt et poliunt. p. rege ita diversa fuisse etiam metalla instrumentorum Lis Dulodorus. suscepta solo. aliisque lapidum Grascis dicitur 'E<yA:o7reiW." If any one prefers pronouncing celt as " but at all events kelt. ix.v in vol." author of modern times Avhose use of the word in con" is Thesaurus Beger. 1. been the fashion among some Avho are fond of novelties " instruments kelts. Scot. usus est in Somnio. et tyK07rea yap /jlol dictus vertit. sit. figuris incidendis aptissima neque enim opinio Molineti videtur admitSecurim appellat. p. 24. infit ArCHiEOPHiLUS Instrumentum Statuariorum est.

me non contradicento. Dr. ical ical ical Ko\a7TTi/paK tu Ttuv %epoiv e£e/9." 1754. nevertheless. Antiquities of Cornwall." vol. COELA. he states his belief that bronze weapons had formerly been in use in Denmark. by whom the word celt had been completely adopted as the name for bronze Borlase. ex allegato Luciano planum (ov\o7Tpe7res est. and the softer kinds of stone will seem the less absurd if we remember that. i P. first consider the opinion of British antiquaries.30 csedendis CELTS. facile cesserim."* published in 1G55. me relinquis. he regards as hand weapons for close encounters." of a bronze celt being a statuary's chisel for carving in wax. hafoitum servilem assumes. for if there were any celts among the objects discovered they were probably termed battle-axes by Leland. .oy\ia.' scant perished nere the Mount in S. and Roman antiquities of bronze were generally regarded as being of or Greek origin. II. f P. Axis for Warre. [CHAP. as he calls them. 7. Hoe autem non obstat. destinatorum.. the manner that all in which such instruments were hafted was unknown. or cunei. Leland' s words are as follows J late Yeres syns Spere Heddes. 3 . Vet.! hatchets and axes by the middle of the last century. found in Jutland. modeVAvcpeta etiam Statuariorum instrumenta fuisse. vel terris. CELTES. and Swercles of in his " : " — coper wrapped up in lynid Eilaries Paroch in Tynne Works. which He also ^vas. vel tum. and cites two flat or flanged celts. Yectes. Gloss. Si tamen res Tibi lapidibus mollioribus fuerit adhibiminus probetur. for in his " Museum Wormianum. however. molliori vocabulo yXvcpe'iov ccelum poteris et appellare et credere. ayj]fia KOTreas. a Danish antiquary of the seventeenth century. iii. at the time when Beger wrote. In a work treating of the bronze antiquities of Britain Ave must. says that by the spearheads he certainly meant those which we (from Begerus) now " There was found of call Gelts. 2G5. Celtem instrument mn ferreum ferreum chalvbe munitum sereum vel dicit proculdubio quod durioribus lapidibus servient. so that it by no means 1 follows but that he was right in speaking of spear-heads. ut ceris. p. for he adds that had they but been provided with shaft -holes he should have considered them to have been axes. " $ Ttin. yXvcpcia.34. alabaster. ical avaKi'j^r)]. inquit. was more enlightened than Beger. Olaf Worm. Scalpra The idea prce manibus iMbebis. at a loss to know how they were hafted. speaking of some "spearheads of copper mentioned by Leland. si /j. ubi Humanitas.

and were regarded by Moscardo § as the heads of great darts to be thrown Moscardi. p. fol. at a somewhat earlier date. suggested to a staff might be used war flails. of ancient Writers that the ({ linnen. A flat celt Roman " found in Staffordshire. he maintains that some old instruments of bronze found 1709. but chisels which Such were used to cut and polish the stones in their tents." I Padua. 31 Camden makes mention this of the same find * : "At the foote of (St. 1G37. ii. U " . such as were mountains sometimes found within the forrest of Hercinia in Germanic. 30. Lud. they are Roman. Stukeley. and swordes of brasse wrapped. sacrifices. 110. p. as in which mettall there is a medicinable vertueto heale." 172:>." " Hearne. nor the heads of spears and javelins. near Bramham Moor. I fist. c. of Staffordshire. iii. Michael's Mount). and For evident it is by the monuments not long since in our Wales." vol.. 211. instruments were also used in making the Roman highways and in draining their fens. from a catapult. are not the heads of British on the contrary. "Nat.VIEWS OF EARLY ANTIQUARIES. they found SpearFathers. But happily that age was not so cunning in devising meanes to mischiefe and murthers as ours is. which are reproduced in the Avchcuolo<ji<<. are of the palstave form. axes. PI. 171. lib. although the wounds given with brasse bee lesse hurtfull. asserted a Roman origin for bronze celts. p.5G. Plot takes to securis with which the Popw slew their II RoAvland. The imaginative Dr. Plot % also. Yorkshire. VIII. 86. v. and the Britans used brazen weapons. the Cimbrians. Moscard. 18 and 19. 188.5. 403. Lort paper subsequent ly * " in the year 1724. heads. of Staff. founding his opinion mainly on two. which he regarded as the heads of bolts.i[ in his as Mona Antiqua by a that looped palstaves fastened thong Restaurata." took a less philosoWriting to Thoresby t in phical view of these instruments. to the Society of Antiquaries which is to be found in the Minute Book of the Society. communicated a discourse on the use of oils. which are engraved in the Museum These. v. p. be the head of a sacrifices. not axes used in their spears . 403.. f P. J " Mus. .." cd. Hist. vol. 1G." 168G. within the memorie of our whiles men were digging up of tin. the editor of Leland's Itinerary. according as Macrdbvus reporteth out of Aristotle. ** in his abstract of it is given by Mr. " Nat. Britannia. An men- t || " Thoresby's Correspondence." p. vol.

that no representations of such easily to be procured. He argues that the Romans of Italy Avould not have made such instruments of brass after Julius Caesar's time. and that . t Count de Caylus has. n. fig. put them in their pouches. and that metal was so Farther.. ever. Borlase. Dr. 2G3. Aveapons occur specimens exist in the cabinets of the curious in Italy. or of Italian invention and workmanship. howrests to support the Utuus of the Roman augurs. As to the uses of celts. of Cornwall. who. xciii. xciv. 1). He concludes that they were made and used in Britain. for chisels to cut stone withal (as such instruments must have been absolutely necessary in making the great Roman roads). Borlase himself comes to the somewhat lame conclusion that they formed the head or arming of the spear. or hung them to their girdles by the little ring or loop at the side. one of them at least as late as " not take them to be purely I. as most of them seem too correct and shapely for the Britons before the Julian conquest. they were for the most part made when the Britons had improved their arts under their Roman masters. however. CELTS. much less to refute them. pi. accompanied by Roman the time of Constantius did on the Trajan or Antonine Columns." p. but that though they were originally of British invention and fabric. or the * "Ants. fig. Stukeley undertook to sliow that celts were British and appertaining to the Druids. engraved two which are said to have heen found at Herculaneum. that few where they none have been found among the ruins of Herculaneum f nor are any published in the Museum Romanum or the Museum Kircherianum. when not using them to cut off" the boughs of oak and mistletoe. as tools with which to engrave letters and inscriptions.. d'A»t. vol. foreign. and as After all. the recipient and the received in which the handle was received.82 tioned." Eoman."" notwithstanding that he was under the impression that a number of socketed celts found at Karnbre in 1744 were . coins. He thought that they were chisels (lice. and the flat and palstave forms. which entered into a notch in the handle. Borlase cites the various opinions of the learned. as the sickles with which the Druids cut the sacred mistletoe. classes. . 2. and observes that if they had not been advanced by men of learning it would be scarce excusable to mention some of them. are regarded as Transalpine antiquities. the socketed. In a more sensible manner he divided them into two that is to say. when the superior hardness of iron was so well understood. ii. the javelin. [chap. They had been taken for heads of walking staffs.

and calls them slinghatchets. The Rev. Lort. He concedes. Borlase. maintains that though the use of bronze originally preceded that of iron. and as for slinging of hatchets against an enemy. that for such weighty heads there was no occasion for feathers. which he also describes. 84. from the derived from the In name of the instruments.^ been found in barrows associated with spear-heads of flint. D . yet that regard must be had to the circumstances of each country. however. Cooke. v.""" who communicated some observations on the Society of Antiquaries in 1776. however. Arch. Mr. 33 arrow. so that it would not follow that a bronze celt found in be said was that Ireland.CONJECTURES AS TO THE USE OF CELTS. take upon himself to assert that some socketed celts. celts Lort. and speaking The Rev. ancient or modern. 106. Appended to the paper by Mr.. ix. Lort are notices of several bronze celts. Collinson as Gaulish weapons used by the Roman auxiliaries at the time of Claudius. citing Homer as his authority for 1787 makes some pertinent remarks respecting celts in a letter to Mr. Rowland comes the nearest to the truth of any author he has read. Some of the celts. when he says that they might be used with a string to draw them back. Ireland Avas prior in age to the invention of iron. however. he does not remember any instance. which at different times had been brought under the notice of the Some which had been exhibited in 1735 Society of Antiquaries. He will not. p. moreover. and mounted one of them on a shaft. were regarded by Mr. Pegge did not approve of the celtis or ccelare. p. and something like a feather to guide them in flying towards the enemy. and regarded a large flat celt found in the Lower Furness as manifestly designed to be held in the hand only. vol. but thought Celtic people who used the instruments were not Roman. it is in doing so. All that could into it was older than the introduction of iron and when that was. * no one could pretend derivation of the it name his to say of celt Mr. differed from Dr. which is published in the He points out that from some of them having Archceologia. Mr. are too light to do any execution if thrown from the hand. took them to be axes. opinion in especially as they were frequent t Vol. were designed for the same purpose. He also probable that some at least were military weapons. Samuel Pegge of the a^iv^v evyaKnov. Benjamin Cooke and Mr. and thinks that Mr. and to much better adapted to the chipping of stone than to any other use which has hitherto been found out for it.

formed a most useful implement . and suggested that they were secured to their handles by strings tied round them in the * . Mr. 102. or religious purposes. " Our rude forefathers doubtless rttached the celt by thongs to the handle. architectural. 189).+ who discovered a few flat and flanged celts in the Wiltshire barrows." vol. t Arch. p. settled.A. "Nfflnia Britannica" (1793). or chisels. Lort latter pattern is the Archceologia. p. adzes. pointed out the manner in which looped palin .. just as we have sent to the South Sea or destructive Islands an imitation in iron of the stone hatchet there in use. mens described by Mr. He thought that the flat form must be the most tools such as might be used in hollowing out the trunks of trees to form canoes.. [chap. we find Sir Richard Colt Hoare. He thought that they were ill adapted for any warlike purposes. Harford. perhaps. though it might be mounted as a tool. weapon from these simple materials. Arch. but it might have tipped a dart or javelin." He thought that the metal celts might have been fabricated abroad and exported to this country. but that it was more reasonable to refer them to the early inhabitants. . staves could be hafted so as to serve either as axes. Lincolnshire. "Ancient Wilts. he seems to have regarded the whole of them as chisels rather than hatchets.C. $ p. Coming down to later times. and. II. vol. i. 98. in the same manner as modern savages do and. of probably not less than two centuries B.. As many were found in Gaul. like them. expressed his opinion that a clue as to the uses of celts might be obtained from a consideration of similar instruments which had been brought from the South Sea Islands. the art of making them might have been introduced from Gaul. and regarded them . p. Ireland and in places where the Romans never were The specimen on which he comments is of the palstave form. from which the pattern of that with the socket for the insertion of a handle was taken for among the numerous speci. vol.34 CELTS.S. From the method of halting of one of those he found (see Fig. on an ancient celt found near Boston. regarding them as for domestic.§ in some observations communicated to the Society of Antiquaries in 1818. J.t writing in 1801. he rather supposed that they were imported from the Continent or. Douglas* was of opinion that the bronze arms found in this country were not Roman. 203. C. 1812. he thinks it could never have served as an axe. not one of the mentioned as having been discovered in a barrow. F. Sir Joseph Banks. xix. xiv. 153. and not for military.

Journ."" in some remarks on the ancient weapon denominated the celt. some instruments found with them being As to their date.. and shows that an important element in the transition from one form to the other has been the method of hafting. 1 and 327. He also enters into the subjects of the casting and ornamentation of celts and as in subsequenl I shall have to refer to these as well as to the methods of pages hafting. &c. Scot. the first whom I have to mention is the late Mr. undoubtedly gouges. John Hodgson. Du Noyer's papers . and that consequently the celts. V.THE PRESUMED USES OF same manner CELTS.. as being * I worthy of all credit. Rickman J communicated to the Society of Antiquaries a paper on the Antiquity of Abury and Stonehenge. n 2 . ArcluBol. in the notes to which he propounds the theory that the socketed celts were used merely as chisels. and probably a weapon of war.. B. iv.C. like a blacksmith's chisel. ii. pp. 35 as the stone axes used in the South Sea Islands were fastened to theirs. G. Arch. About the same year the Rev. i. xxviii.§ who in 1847 communicated to the Archaeological Institute two papers on the classification of bronze celts. secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 418. Arch<rcil. About the year 1816 the Rev. he thought that bronze Among writers of comparatively modern times. He traces the gradual development in form from the bronze celt shaped like a wedge to that which is socketed. p. from which he considered it to have been developed. communicated to that society a valuable memoir in the shape of f"An Enquiry into the iEra when Brass was used in purposes to which Iron is now applied. or at least 400 years. vol. began to give way to iron in Britain nearly as soon as it did in Greece. p. JEliana. He also traces its connection with the stone celt. In 1839 Mr. which are still of great value and interest. with hafts of wood inserted in the socket. found in this island belonged to an era 500. vol. vol. f J Arch. I content myself here with citing Mr. They could be then either held in the hand or by means of a withe. p. or that with wooden hafts they might be used as chisels for hollowing canoes and for similar purposes. Du Noyer. 199. vol. well adapted for use as wedges for splitting wood. advocated the opinion that it was an axe. while they were struck with a stone hammer. John Dow." of which mention has already been made in the Intro- He thought that celts were tools which were ductory Chapter. 17.

so far as the development of the socketed celt was concerned. 1853. Thomas Hugo. which so often is found on the side of celts of the palstave and socketed forms. he would probably have come round to another opinion as to the ordinary method of hafting. In 1849 Mr. though it is of course possible that in some instances these instruments may Had he practically tried have been mounted and used as spuds. he would have known that whatever was the form of the Roman dolabra. he would have found mounting that with but slight strain the shafts would break or the celts become loosened upon them. F. Following in the steps of some of the older antiquaries. instrument out of a should it thought that they or chain to draw the thong become wedged among the stones He in the process of destruction." The ring or loop.S. he appears to regard them as of Roman dolabra.A.. it can hardly have differed from their other implements in being made of bronze and not of iron and he would have thought twice before engraving bronze celts from Cornwall and Furness as illus" trations of the Roman dolabra in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. in making He roads and earthworks. or a tied to the much also smaller number might soldier's belt or girdle. a dozen or . serve for the attachment of a wall. he was persuaded that the celt was commonly used not as a hatchet. to those which were adapted to be fitted to straight wooden handles. however. them and using them as crowbars. Du Noyer. Assoc. vol. but identifies and them with the Roman as a spud or a crowbar. and in similar military operations. ancient handles. In fact. his object being to prove that among the various uses of bronze celts one of the most important was the application of them in destroying fortifications and entrenchments. such as but been acquainted with the have been discovered in the Austrian salt-mines and elsewhere. p.* who followed much the same system as Mr. . The next essay on celts and their classification which I must adduce was written by the late Rev. or whatever the uses for which it served. though he differed ix.36 CELTS. was thought by Mr. Journ. an instrument origin. which he thinks was used as a chisel or a crowbar. Du IS oyer. And had he been better versed in archaeology. confines his inquiry. * Arch. Had he twenty perhaps being strung together. James Yates communicated a paper to the Archaeological Institute of a far more speculative kind than those of Mr. [chap. 63.. Yates to have been principally of use to assist in carrying them. II.

290 %Proc. et seq. in his "Catalogue of the Copper and Bronze Antiquities in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. may also refer to the late Sir W. who suggests that a thong may have passed through the loop by which the weapon might be propelled. xxii. which might be fixed in the ground. Pitt-Rivers). xiii. vol." to Sir John Lubbock. but the ferrules of spear. See Revue de lit A/tuns. p.. Journ. t Arch. p. Syer Cuming.. 2ud S. vi. been shown by Count (lozzadini to be unfounded. The name of the late Mr. though admitting that they may occasionally have been made in the countries in which they are found." published in the same year. He considered that the loop was not used for securing the celt to its haft. et seqq.. \>. xviii. 1869. I may mention that accomplished antiquary. Un. celts were mounted with a straight shaft." § has also devoted a few pages to the consideration of bronze celts and axe-heads. fit. I may also venture to refer to an address^ which || * Arch. and to General A. vol. vol. section in his " Prehistoric Times " . vol. as he was persuaded that. Service Inst. but for hanging it up at home when not in use.. Aut. in the "Horse Ferales . Soc. 43. to Mr. or for suspending it from the soldier's girdle whilst on the march. Mr. Foreign writers I need hardly cite. vol. Hugo's paper was followed by some supplementary remarks from Mr. Thomas Wright* has already been mentioned. or even used at times as offensive weapons. Roy. v.S. 5th Ser. Beige. Journ. and contends that socketed celts are neither chisels nor axe-blades. p. the late Mr. Assoc. 392. F. more especially in connection with interments in sepulchral mounds. R. 37 from him with regard to the method of hafting. however. In his various works and papers he claims a Roman origin for bronze celts and swords. Wilde. but 1 may mention a remarkable idea that has been promulgated by Professor Stefano de Rossi as to celts having served as money.A. 148. Among other modern Avriters who have touched upon the sub- ject of celts.OPINIONS OF MODERN -WRITERS. 188. || . whose remarks in connection with an exhibition of bronze antiquities at a meeting of the Archaeological I Institute in 186 If are well worth reading. which has. Franks.shafts. In conclusion.+ on Primitive Canon Greenwell.... in his excellent lecture iii. in his "British Barrows. like spuds.. in general. § P. Lane Fox (now Warfare. Albert Way. % Jour.

in the same chapter with the flat celts. I shall divide them into the following classes : — Flat celts. and between these latter and the so-called propose. with and without loops. are not provided with a stop-ridge to prevent their being driven into their haft. 1873. It is difficult to celts and the I palstaves. . to which class of tools it is not unlikely that some of the narrow celts of the other forms should be referred. delivered to the Society of Antiquaries on the occasion of an exhi- bition of bronze antiquities in their apartments in January. Winged celts and palstaves.38 I CELTS. [chap. Flanged celts. II. which of those which have a stop-ridge in the same chapter as the palIn a subsequent chapter I shall with and without a loop. to include the flanged celts. Socketed celts. and to treat draw a hard and fast line between the flat flanged. What are known as tanged celts may perhaps be more properly included under the head of chisels. staves. In treating of the different forms of celts on the present occasion. as to the manner in which these instruments were probably speak hafted. therefore.

Such a view has much to commend it. It has been figured and described by Sir William Wilde. use of stone for cutting purposes was dying out and that of metal coming in but the mere fact of their being of copper is by no approaching in character to the stone hatchet. as already observed. xi. however. of the precious material was required. . and even the socket. the stop-ridge.* I have not seen the implement. 367. as being probably the earliest bronze implements or weapons.I. the simple form. as to the manufacture of it may be doubted whether in the it weapons or tools of a lighter kind. and that most nearly it was probably the have been continued in use after the earliest. appears to have been cast in a mould formed upon a stone implement of the same class. vol.CHAPTER III. such as daggers or knives. in an Etruscan tomb. have been regarded by several antiquaries Flat celts.. like the flint circumstances of the finding. Some celts of the simplest form found in Ireland are of and have been thought to belong to the period when the copper. Mus. FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. A." pp. 169. Berlin." p. 395 (Etruscan Coll. but. t "Horse Ferales. . liaw been regarded with superstitious reverence. nor am I aware of the exact Celts may. however. p. Among celts. R. Jomn. which was found the precise shape of an ordinary stone celt.. and is preserved in the Museum at Berlin. A copper celt of 6 inches long and 2| inches wide. when metal was would be so readily applied to purposes for which much scarce. or those of simple form with the faces somewhat and approximating in shape to the polished stone celts of convex. No. earliest times.. the Neolithic Period. arrow-heads inserted in Etruscan t necklaces of gold. . means conclusive on this point. and it does not appear to me quite certain that this specimen Avas ever in actual use as an * "Catal. 130 Arch. though may introduction of the side flanges. 3244).

* " Catal. and of Dr.. preh. though they economized the metal and lessened the bulk by The annexed flattening the sides. the same form were his Schliemann f excavations in search of Troy. but subsequently proved to have a number Fig. They were at first thought to be of copper. III. [CHAP. are of the simple flat form. f p.5f Sweden."" 1867. I'rvc || p. As." fig. Kenner. H Worsaae.** Hungary. Proc. preh. shows a celt in my own collection. ft "Cong. about forty miles north of Boorha. implement. Bengal. May. &c.40 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. p. and justify Sir W. copper celts with which we are acquainted. 292. A of flat celts. island of ThermiaJ in the Greek Archipelago.. On analysis Dr. Fig.I. 29. "Cong. :VS0. some short and and others long and narrow. 178. said to Ik. 34G. 366. repeated the form with which they were best acquainted. ft Museum." Hologna vol. Percy found them to be of pure copper. R. and from the Sifr.— Cyprus.^ in the Mhow Talook. i. from Cyprus which in form might be matched by celts of flint. many of which are now in the British Museum. possibly. were found at Gungeria. 1870.A. i. 227. broad. in Southern Babylonia.. Funde. Wilde'" in his supposition that the first makers of these instruments. 2nd S. and was not placed in the grave as a substitute for a stone hatchet or Ceraunius. cut. prch. Soc. those from the excavations of General di Cesnola in Cyprus. However this may be. some of the earliest bronze or. though it must be acknowledged that the type in stone is rather that of Scandinavia than of Eastern Europe or the Levant. vol. small per-centage of tin in them. are also in the British Nearly similar instruments. Soc... ** "Cong." Buda Pest vol. have been found in Anstria. p. ." p. J § M. The same form was found at Tel Some from that place. 1." p. in Central India. " Nord. "Arch. having once obtained a better material than stone. it A slight ridge in seems to mark the upon distance that the narrow end penethe oxide trated the handle. iii. Numerous in tools or weapons of found by Dr.. p. Olds.. Ant.|| Denmark. 1. mnde of copper. 437." Stockholm vol. Schliemann at Hissarlik. " Troy and its Kemains.

five " Ancient Stone Implements.R. 225) were found. it is unsafe. at whose right hand the knife-dagger (Fig. accompanied by a flint knife formed from a broad external flake." Copenhagen vol. Ant. France.—Butterwiok. f "Cong. it is probable. They have usually a small per-centage.S. 1878. 188." The handle of the celt or axchead could be plainly traced by means of are figured in || of jet and one of sandstone. p. 1 866— 71. In treating of the different forms and characters of bronze celts. modelled on the pattern of the stone axe. p. metal. f I 41 have one 3f inches long. p. from lloyat. prch. Tin Figs. 3G9 and 370. and 1 £ inches at the smaller end. then those from Scotland. and need here only repeat that the occurrence of implements in copper. p ml is I i . In front of the chest were six buttons. It is 4 inches long. Dax. IS % § || I. does not of necessity imply a want of acquaintance with the tin necessary to mix with copper to form bronze. in the East Riding of Yorkshire. and lastly those from Ireland. 407. Mem. preceded that of bronze. in some part of the world. Soc. two of which my a dark line of decayed wood.A. cutting edge. from appearance only.S. in the Introductory Chapter. but may only be significant of a temporary or local scarcity of the former I may also add that without actual analysis. 015 to 2 08 of tin in them. the simplest form. of the forms usually occurring in bronze.* and Italy. made some remarks on the probability of a copper age having. I think it will be best first to take those from England and Wales. de Borda. 279) and the bronze drill or pricker (Fig. and of the places and circumstances of finding.+ I have already. I begin with those which have been found in barrows in England. It lay at the hips of F. be regarded as the earliest type of bronze axe antecedently to the r appearance of either flanges or socket. Soc.§ the body of a young man. 2f inches wide at the J Fig. by the Rev. and to all appearance the weapon had been worn " The blade is of slung from the waist.DISCOVERIES IN BARROWS. or whether it has not an appreciable per-centage of tin in it.. A large and thicker specimen is in the Museum at Toulouse. du Nor*/. 2 represents a flat celt found in a barrow in the parish of Butterwick. Puy de Dome. to judge whether copper is pure. It had evidently been fixed into a solid handle to a diplli of 2 inches i * Bull. and may. 2. F." p.. " British Barrows. 57. Fig. Morlot. Canon Greenwell.

a lath -hammer at the edge end." described as having been It is a celt of this kind which is engraved by Plot \ \ as found near He describes it as "somewhat St. H See " Catal. pi. vol.* In this case a man of called Shuttlestone. 279. and a diminutive bronze celt. p. William Bateman discovered a skeleton with the remains of a plain coarse urn on the left side. 19. One (4£ inches) was found on Bevere Island." t Vol.% It is about 5h inches long. has a celt found near the same place a. §J Allies. mentions that Mr." 445. [CHAP. Staffordshire.42 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. 151." tab. the handle. 48. in the parish of Merryn. 1787. The celt and dagger are engraved in the Archaeological Association Journal.d." at Harlyn.^] Dr. T. vii.. Bertram's Well.** in his letter to Mr. p. About the middle of the left thigh was a bronze celt of the The cutting edge was turned towards the plainest axe-shaped type. iv. Museum this is described as "of the most primitive type. Ham." p. p. which had Fig. vol. head were a small flat bead of jet and a circular flint (probably a much like "scraper"). 3L "Catalogue..l +t . Vol. 111. but in outline more nearly resembling Fig. 19. which was unfortunately thrown away. of k Derb. pi. a flint arrow-head much burnt. Mr. Journ. with a spear-head of flint. p. Derbyshire. Arch. and no as "like a bit of a buckle. p. 11. closely resembling the stone celts in form. xxiii. vii." Not improbably this was an axe-head of the same class. p. A celt of much the same character as Fig." p. 32. and the instrument itself had been inserted into a wooden shaft for about 2 inches at the narrow end. but this seems to be a mistake for an arrow-head. It is there stated to have been found with a flint spear.§§ "Ten || Years' Diggings. but not so on the like. 1848. " Vest. only larger other. Cornwall. Adam Wolsey the younger. 85.] and the former in the ArchBohgia.. a military weapon also. 217. No. No. ** Arch. 2. opened by him in June." and regards it as a Roman sacrificial axe. of Matlock in Derbyshire. This was described by the man at work on the spot The discovery was quite accidental. than. 75. In a small barrow named Borther Low. fine proportions and in the prime of life had been interred. p. p. XX "Nat. a pair of canine teeth of either a fox. Hist. t Vol xliii p P. Assoc. xxii. 11. Lort already cited. of the Ants. was found in company with two diadems or lunettes of gold such || ' ' as the Irish antiquaries call "Minds.]] The objects were found at a depth of about six feet from the surface. upper part of the person. ix. A very similar discovery to that at Butterwick was made by the late Mr. and in form much like Fig. of Staffordshire. surrounded by Close to the fern-leaves and enveloped in a hide with the hair inwards. AVorcostershire." notice seems to have been taken as to whether there were any traces of an interment at the spot. 403 . 4f inches long and 2f broad at the cutting edge. near Padstow. though the earth in contact with the articles is " of an artificial character.. 217. and is engraved in the Archceological Journal. Thomas Bateman in a barrow upon Parwich Moor.§ about two miles south of Middleton by Youlgrave." and 2 inches only in length. with two rivets for the attachment of been of horn. 74. at Blakelow in the parish of Ashover. Samuel Pegge. or a dog of the same In the catalogue of the Bateman size. xix. and with them was another bronze article. 29. In contact with the left arm lay a bronze dagger.

. both in bronze and what is apparently copper.**' One from Normandy." Another was found in Finistere.). Many of the flat celts are ornamented t Op. has a slight ridge along the centre of the sides. p.S. more or loss artistic * Arch.. 2nd S. Sharp.DISCOVERIES OF FLAT CELTS. 3. . Soc. but thicker. ".. in the collection of Mr. have been found on the other side of the Atlantic in Mexico. as well as the angles between the faces and the sides. Yorkshire. Cambs. Lancashire. seems to show some trace of a transverse ridge. F. in whose collection the others are . Lower Furness. Leicestershire J and.^ Others Archeologique are in the Museum at Narbonne§§ and elsewhere. F. specimen in the same collection (5£ inches).1. pi. ^[ near Danbury. 2nd S. than that there was of necessity any intercourse betweon the countries in which it has || | preserved. (1842).. P. Glamorganshire (6£ inches).. Whitehaven. ..\ The celts found on Baddow Hall Common. I have seen specimens of the same type from Taxley Fen. ** XX Illl PI. v. Arch. found with another (4 1 inches) nearly similar Swansea (4 J inches.A. vii. been of this character. some sickle-like objects." vol. Vol. Yorkshire (5f inches). 378. I have specimens from the Ciudad Eeal district. i. ii. 44. Essex. 2. is figured by Schreiber. S. Journ. E. "Dieehernen Streitkeile " tt " La Seine Inf. ii. and near Pont Caradog. 552. Isle of Man." §$ "MatSriaux. i. Mortimer. and others (about 5 J inches) from Alnwick and Wallsend. One from the Seine is engraved in the " Dictionnaire de la Gaule. is indented with a series of slight hammer marks at regular intervals. One from Ackenbach.. With nearly straight sides like Fig.E. p. seem to have . One. 179. vol. p. X Froc. Shrewsbury. p. The form is also found in Spain. found at Knapton. ]». i. Wallace of Distington. Brithder. Taf. A Mr. ix." vol. Ant. in that of Messrs. Charnwood Forest.S. iv. Some of these are very thin. S. has one (6£ inches) from Hango Hill. p. p. prevailed. A few of these flat plain celts have been found in France. 1. near Fimber. Northumberland. I have myself oelts of the same class from the Cambridge Fens Sherburn Carr. A. Others of nearly the same form. vol. 1.. xviii. Huntingdonshire (4J inches long). which. 27. " 1.* near Grappenhall.inches broad at the edge. . much decayed). § in company with a palstave without loop. 525. and other articles. f IT in a cit. found with three others. 158. and from Eaisthorp. 43 Others of the same kind have been found near Duxford. Castleton. The plain flat form like Fig. and given to me by Canon Greenwell. found in the ruins of Gleaston Castle.. 106. v. Some from 1 the/lepaiiments of Doubs and Jura are engraved by Chantre. the form is not uncommon in Hungary. ii. Cheshire f the Beacon Hill. Yorkshire (E. vii. and therefore that most naturally adopted for hatchets. near Battlefield. 2. ff figured by the Abbe Cochet. p. vol.. 9 inches long and 5 inches broad at the cutting edge. This circumstance to my mind rather proves that the form is the simplest. 2 is also occasionally found in Germany. 251. II vol. one of which was 6 inches long and 3A. toI. In Canon Greenwell's collection are three (about 4f inches) found at Newbiggin. is engraved in the Archaohgia. Materiaux. near Homberg.. and many of the copper celts of North America are also of the plain flat type with an oblong section.

iv. The first which I ad- duce was found with an interment.A.. or on both . vol. The late Mr. like Fig." By the kindness of Mr. slope towards either end from a transverse ridge near the middle of the blade. This ridge is never very strongly defined. Llewellynn Jewitt. Thomas Bateman in 1845 found what he described as " a fine bronze " and " of elegant outcelt of novel form " line near the head of a contracted skeleton in a barrow caUed Moot Low. i. 8. but before pro- ceeding to notice any of them. 68. " " Vest.S. as will subsequently be mentioned. 202. Unit shown in Fig.J I am enabled to give a figure of this instrument in Fig. and is now in the British Museum. 4 was found in Yorkshire.44 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS faces." p. 5. xxvi. xliii p. (8 inches) was found at East Surby. 35. 75. 3. X Arch. 187. Derbyshire.. III. The patina upon it has been somewhat injured. Ant. as the total thickness of the blade from ridge to ridge is what rare The plain variety is somerarely more than half an inch. § "Grave-mounds. line ornamented with. Bush Barrow." pi. As will be seen. 444. in which the faces. 2. but one ornamented on both faces will be and an Irish example is shoAvn in Fig.. 18. Normanton. short vertical lines punched in. " Ancient Wilts. it will be well to mention another variety of the plain celt." fig." vol. Rushen/" In Hoare's great work a specimen from the of this character. instead of being nearly flat or uniformly convex." p.ow t || * "First Rep. it has slight flanges along the sides. and the ornamentation is so slight that it is a question whether the celt ought not to rank among those of the plain kind. 3. under Fig. with its edge upwards. — Moot with the body. A large doubly tapering celt is engraved as being of this plain but from the more accurate engraving doubly tapering type given by Dr. described. . No. manner on the the sides. Arch. pi. Dorb. of Man. F. or [CHAP. Comm. and the upper part is ] . in Britain. Some of those already mentioned partake Isle of Man. T. and must therefore be spoken of later on. but . . Thurnam + it appears that this instrument has flanges at the side.§ about half-way between Alsop Moor and Dove"It was placed in a dale. Catal.f I now proceed to consider some of the flat celts ornamented with patterns probably produced by punches. p.

iv.A. each made up of short diagonal indentations in the metal. It parallel lines. to the Society of Antiquaries.. and together forming the pattern which will he hetter understood from the figure than from any description. was found at WTiittington. Soc.. f Proc. L. i 2-50. but on a much smaller scale. 2nd S. the ornamentation upon the faces consists of 45 is in places very well preserved.f Gloucestershire. and was presented by Mr. One. A»t. and bavin*. — Yorkshire.S. No... i them. in the " Horse Ferales. W." * This style of ornamentation on the sides is more common on Irish than on English or Scottish celts. Law The ornamentation is much rence. leaving a long concave hexagonal space in the middle hetween 1 Fig. The side- numerous are ornamented hy having two low pyramidal hosses drawn out upon them. of tho doubly tapering form with lunate edge.tinsides worked into three facets of a pointed oval form. having the central portion of the Made ornamented with a series of lines in a chevron pattern.1'KNAMKXTKD ON THE FACES. . however. vol. F. 4. i. 4. * PI. 5£ inches long. This celt has already heen figured.

. Stukeley's drawings is given in the Arcfaeologia. is said Arch. so that grinding the edge would not in any way injure the pattern. It has become thickly coated with a dark . as. Below the lower band the surface has been left smooth and unornamented. p. though the graining is now ahnost obliterated. in form like Fig. No doubt many blades which were originally ornamented after the same fashion as this specimen have now. Journ. with the side edges slightly recurved. on Fig. probably by means of a punch in form like a narrow blunt chisel. III. but between the ornamented portion of the blade and the edge there is a curved hollow facet. found at Risdon. vol. is described as being "ornamented with punched lines in a very unusual manner. sage-green patina." and with the surface "elaborately worked with chevrony linos and orna- a large celt which ments which may have been partly produced by hammering. or having had their angles beaten down by hammering. —Weymouth. lost all traces of their original decoration. where the patina has been destroyed. near "Weymouth. there is a projecting ridge running along either margin of the faces. Suffolk (6 inches). of which a bad representation from one of Dr..46 like that FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS [CHAP." It was found in Northumberland. The celt shown in Fig. in consequence of the sides having been somewhat chamfered. I have a flat celt from Mildenhall.. In the collection of the Duke of Northumberland* is " appears to be of the flat kind. and again about an inch above the cutting edge. vol. f Arch.f near "Warrington. 363. which has in places The unfortunately knocked off. having the appearance of a plaited band. Along the lower side of this some- 5. 6. beautiful original ornamentation of the celt has been admirably preserved by the The greater part of the surface patina. 5 might perhaps be more properly placed among the flanged celts. has been figured with a sort of grained been pattern like morocco leather. loO. 7. p.. the greater part of the surface of which has been grained in a similar manner. without having welldeveloped flanges along the sides. what curved ridge. M. a belt of chevrons has been punched in. Esq. Dorsetshire but I do not know under what circumstances. Another belonging to James Kendrick. The faces of the blade are not flat. nothing can be seen of the graining. xviii." Another. The upper part of the blade has at the present time exactly the appearance of dark green morocco with " blind-tooling " upon it. the ridge below which runs nearly parallel with the edge. but taper in both directions from a ridge rather more than half-way up the blade. It was found on Preston Down. through oxidation or the accidental destruction of the patina.D. Joum. On this.. xix.

G. That in the British Museum was obtained faces." The author says that these instruments were from 9 to 12 inches Long.OUXAMENTED ON THE to FACES. pi. p.f In some instances the faces of the celts have been wrought into a series of slightly hollowed facets. j). * Arch. the faces Fig. was found near Sidmouth. and this has produced slight flanges at the margins of the These facets are ornamented with diagonal linos. 82 J 3rd edit. ii. but had neither Loops. | three facets. grooves.3. Lancashire. pi. viii. i: have been found in the long barrow at Stonehenge. is in the British Museum. apparently of the same kind. 14.. nor any other contrivance by which they could bo fixed in a shaft. 18 is. The sides have been hammered into long. and had a broad and narrow end. vol. f Trans.— Read. Ito. or indeed applied to any known use. This cell was found with two others. One such from Read. Devon Assoc.* One 4h inches ornamented with a number of longitudinal cuts. 13. The central space between the two series of ridges and also the margins of the faces are ornamented with shallow chevrons punched in. and is engraved as Fig. v. and is described and " engraved in Whitaker's History of the Original Parish of Whalley. vol.. . v. 6.

Newent. covering the part of the blade usually decorated. Dr.. Ant. Charles TWneley. i. p. Suffolk. two of which (6£ and 5| inches). Ant. Soc. In the celt shown in Fig. The other is ornamented with a series of curved parallel lines running across the blade. p.. p. xxxi.A. and are in all probability merely due to the hammering necessary to produce the kind of cable pattern or spiral fluting which is seen in the side view. Another celt of this kind (4f inches) w. Gloucestershire. and of Dr. the celts Avhich have been described as belonging to the flat variety might. Whitaker. i. Samuel Ware..* near Clare. Troc. with almost equal propriety.. . Arch. as on Fig. Arch. vol. or those which have projecting the greater part of each side of the faces.. t Troc. Bury and West .f ucar J\ perty of found witha bronze spear-head having loops at the lower part of the blade in the Kilcot Wood.. and through the junction of their bases. The faces are ornamented wifh parallel rows * Proc. i. vol. some of in the original casting. or I now come As has already been observed. were several of this class. 26. as have also two that are not ornamented. but I do not know the exact locality. nineteen bronze celts discovered about the year 1845 on the pro- Among a chevron pattern. which likewise were presented by Mr.S.s'"//'. The two others were formerly in lato Mr. 1st S. vol. Inst. 369. They have a slight projection or ridge at the thickest part of the blade. 496.. by the to the flanged celts. vol. produced ledges along either by hammering the metal at the sides of the blades. P. 83.48 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. Ware to the British Museum. the collections of the Kev. F. at Postlingford Hall. III. [CHAP. Suffolk. are figured in the ArclmoOne of them is ornamented with logia. and the blade for some distance below this is ornamented with an incuse chevron pattern.. 16. 2nd S. Milles. now in the British jj^ Museum.S. and produces a thickening along the margin upsets which almost amounts to a flange. have been classed as flanged celts. p.A. Soc. The blade towards the edge and above the ridge is left This specimen was found in plain. It is in my own collection. The faces taper in each direction from a transverse ridge. as the mere hammering of the sides with a view to render " them smooth " or to produce an ornament upon them the metal. 7 the flanges are very slight. and having vertical lines running through the centres of the chevrons.

p. may possibly have been the store deposited some ancient founder. about the year 1735. mented both on the face and sides. v from by its hiding-place. xxxvi. p. They are said to have been found arranged in regular order. tinami I. v. 329. . 113. Franks has suggested. The others are_4J inches long. and of one of them a woodcut * which by the permission of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries is here reproduced as Fig. blade itself is of the doubly tapering kind. dots. as Mr. and is one of the largest of its class in the British Museum. were. —Arreton Down.FLANGED CELTS FROM ARRETON DOWX.inches) was ornachapters. f Arch. in the Isle of Wight. 8. of which mention will be made in subsequent Of these one (6|. which he was unable to reel ami The others were ArchcBologia. E vol. of short diagonal Hues. 8.. It is 8 inches in length. $ is given in the plain. besides the spearheads and dagger blades.f and. As will 1h srcn. 49 bounded at the lower end by a double series of and a transverse row of diagonal lines. lilfi Fig. but is at present only known froni a drawing in an album belonging to the Society of Antiquaries. Vol. four of these flanged celts. In the remarkable hoard of bronze instruments discovered on Arreton Down.

— Plymstock.R. and are brought with great precision to a sharp edge. The extent of the flanges or wings also varies. 190).'!. 327.. xxvi. 9 and 10* are shown two more of these doubly tapering flanged celts. III.S. p.— Plymstock. celts are of the same general typo.„ II IliHSMrf'. one of which is given as Fig. about a mile east of Preston. 301. and in some they project considerably. shown in Fig. Fig. who described the hoard. .50 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. F.. which were found in the parish of Plymstock. Franks. Albert Way. All the sixteen win 'ill II i 1 in IhHp IBfl " I I f Dll I ii.. but vary in length from 3i' inches to 6| inches. 10. They lay beneath a flat stone at a depth of about two feet below the surface. noticed a peculiar slight groove extending only as far as the For the loan of these cuts I am indebted to Mr.. the late Mr.-' ill !. A.' Fig. t Arch..Journ. a spear-head or dagger. and a narrow chisel (Fig. At the narrow or butt end. [CHAP. f Devonshire. three daggers.!'!. Thescaloof the cuts is there erroneously stated * to be \. 9. together with fourteen other celts. In Figs. W. vol. 346.

which owes its great preservation to having been inserted in a handle of wood. p. apparently a ring about 4± inches in diameter. xi. My own impression is that these marks are " the " narrow ends with the hammer merely the result of drawing down after their sides had been somewhat "upset" or expanded by hammering out the side flanges. 227)." The occurrence of celts of this character is not limited to interments by lloaro inhumation.:]: Sir R. The greater number of the objects found at Plymstock were given by the Duke of Bedford to the British Museum. vol. xliii. having a tang pierced with four rivet holes for fixing in a handle. and the remainder to the Exeter Museum. and an oval perforated stone mace. Colt Hoare has recorded some other cases. he found a massive hammer of a dark-coloured stone. or. These were accompanied by a very curious object of twisted bronze. p. 51 commencement of the lateral flanges. Near tho head were a small celt of this kind. Brit. xxix.* The following are the particulars of this On the floor of the barrow was the skeleton of a tall man discovery: lying from south to north. Colt Hoare found a contracted skeleton buried either in the trunk of a tree or on a plank of wood. Four or five celts with slight side flanges were found in the Wiltshire barrows by Sir R. 209. found. i: -2 . in a cist 2 feet deep." vol. 90 . an awl with a handle (Fig. Wilts. The sides of some of these celts have been hammered so as to present three longitudinal facets others have the sides simply rounded. 4 1. will be described in a subsequent chapter. when produced from the mould. a rude C I * "Anc. vol. had been slightly bifid. Wilts." t "Anc. Mr. — my "Ancient Stone Implements. 202. One of the most interesting features of this discovery is its analogy with that already mentioned as having been made at Arreton Down. ornamented with zigzag and other patterns. opposite the tang. a "lance-head. is a long oval hole. 7. through which passes one of three circular We links forming a short chain. Colt Hoare. and a bronze celt with small lateral flanges 3} inches long. marvellously inlaid with pins of gold. some objects of bone. Oran. the representation of which I have reproduced in . Franks thought that the narrow end of the celt. The largest of these (6 J inches long and 2£ inches broad) was found in 1808. p." have here an instance of bronze weapons occurring associated with those of stone and with gold ornaments. The character of the groove is shown in the portion of the side view given with each figure. some bone rings.. which were regarded as the remains of a shield. In the ring itself. Near the right arm were a large dagger of bronze and a spear-head of the same metal. in a tumulus known as the Bush Barrow. Near his shoulders lay the celt. and near it were some other gold ornaments. and a small dagger. In a bell-shaped barrow near Wilsford. i. an ivory (V pin.i. I . ii. as he terms it. xxvi Arch.FLANGED CELTS FOUND IN BARROW 'S. Sir R. Wilts. pi.f at the feet of the skeleton of a tall man. On the breast of the skeleton was a large lozengeshaped plate of gold. The handle of this dagger. intermixed with wood and thin pieces of bronze. a pile of burnt bones. About eighteen inches south of the head were several bronze rivets. fully 13 inches long. pi." X "Anc. In a barrow on Overton Hill. where these objects are figured. a whetstone with a groove in the centre.. Way and Mr. and that the little cleft had been closed by the hammer. vol. In another barrow of the Wilsford group Sir K. near Norraanton.

F. § Arch. 28. i.. p.52 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. Arch.. fra Broholm.. preh. J| A peculiar form of flanged celt is shown in Fig. Among other specimens of this form of celt may be cited one found on Plumpton Plain. p. iv. and a small bronze celt. §§ and is the property of Mr.. 7. is given in This example was found in Dorsetshire. I have specimens from Evreux (Eure). The type also occurs in Italy § in some abundance it is found more rarely in Germany. || Coll. Amiens (Somme). p. Flanged celts much Kke Fig. ring of bone. Ii." Bologna vol. vol. Times. preh. fig. 292. Layton. 1. Fitch. Examples from Denmark are figured by Schreiber. Some from Haute-Saone. p. F." tab. Journ.— Thames. decorated with a fluted chevron pattern on the sides. Oldsag. 9 have been found in France. xiii.. IT Die ehernen Streitkeile. % Diet.. 111.. The flanges extend as usual nearly to the edge. and is now in the Fig. "Album.S. A small example. and one (6| inches) from Wye Down. de la Gaule. vol. " Fred. Arch. 3. is shown in Fig. Another. Fig. both in the Mayer collection at Liverpool. Canon Green. 6.* near Lewes. . 11. also with side flanges. .A.ff The form also occurs in Sweden. Francisc. 13. N. 428. xiii. preh. and is in the collection of Mr. and only 2£ inches long..S. British Museum. 3. Soc. ii. 2.** and Madsen. and witli indented herring-bone and chevron patterns on the faces. R. vol. Cong." pi." fig. ii. fig. 100. vol. set level. Arch. 17. Ant.— Norfolk. Cambridgeshire. Rev. " La Suede " XX Montelius. T. pi. Lubbock's "Preh." vol.. Kent. has one (3| inches) from March. 6. 11. " Cong.. i.R. v. 5.V2. PI. §§ Proc. In the same collection is a beautiful celt with side * Suss. xxi. xxi. Lisch. xxiii.f Rhone. [CHAP. F. and Compiegne J (Oise) have been figured. but at the upper part of the blade are well. down so The as to project still farther over the faces. pi." pi. 12. now in the British Museum one (4 inches) found near Dover in 1856." p. Sussex. 42. though at a lower original was found in the Thames.S. 2nd >S. 12. Taf. ornamented with a fluted pattern on the sides and with the blade slightly tapering in each direction from a central ridge.S. The original was found in Norfolk." Bologna vol. and Lyons. 268. i.A. t Chantre. fig.^| Segested. ** " ft " Afbild. || Fig..

—Dorsetshire below the thickest part ornamented with a lozengy matted pattern much like that on Fig. of Arch Inst. was found near Lewes. 13. "Westmoreland (6f inches). 15. p.* Sussex. p. 51. Jonm. The hatching on some of the lozenges is from left to right. Marshall Fisher.. vol. xviii. is shown in Fig. but with the alternate lozenges plain and hatched. Chichester vol. on others the portion of the blade reverse. 167. the sides curiously wrought and engraved or punched. which has the Fig. i * Arch. Fig. and now in the museum of Mr. 14. Shiffner. A flanged celt of unusual type. 62. An example of nearly the same kind is shown in Fig. will vertical and transverse. whence this . and is the property of Sir II . Both faces are ornamented below the thickest part with broad indented lines. and the faces exhibiting a pattern of chevrony It lines.. cut is taken. as be best seen in the figure.DECORATED FLANGED CELTS. Bart. from a celt found in the Fens near Ely. 53 flanges found near Brough. of that city.

17. but at a much less inclination. . much larger specimen (6 J inches). § Diet. The two left-hand facets on each side have the grooves running upwards from left to right on the third facet they run downwards. A Danish celt. . iviii. ornamented in a similar manner. xii. 17 is of somewhat the same character. 2. A pretty little celt. the faces of which are decorated in a nearly Fig. each having a series of diagonal grooves wrought in them. possesses one (4f inches) found at Horncastle. The original was found at Liss. p. but the transverse lines are closer and not continuous.. was found at Mareuil-sur-Ourcq § (Oise). is shown in Fig. X Arch. de la Gaalc. The original was found at Barrow. 207. vol. p. Comb.. p. Fig-.. III.* Anglesea. but the grooves on the faces are straighter A and wider apart.. — Barrow. The Rev. with the aid of a hammer. Canon Greenwell. The sides are hammered into three facets.54 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. is engraved by Madsen. Flanged celts decorated on the faces are of rare occurrence in France. Arch. Hants. One of narrow proportions. and is now in the British Museum. Lincolnshire.R.— Liss. found near the Menai Bridge. . Jouni. xxi." vol. 167.S. ii. Suffolk. and ornamented with lozenges and zigzags. and there is a slight central ridge on the faces. viii.. t " Afbild. ornamented with transverse ridges in the lower part. * Arch. They have evidently been produced by means of a small blunt punch. The punch with which the grooves and ornaments were produced has also been employed along the inner angle of the flanges. 16. 4th S. has also cabled sides. [CHAP. 278.f The celt shown in Fig. J near Petersfield. 16. similar manner but the sides show a cable pattern. vol. F. pi.

p. I think. L. another somewhat slighter and broken in two. All the specimens grinding. — of one of the last-mentioned castings is here It reproduced on a smaller scale as Fig. Assoc. be due to some chemical action which has gone on since the bronze was buried in the ground. 19 is shown a remarkably well-preserved specimen in my own collection. Culter§ (5^ inches). Journ. may remark that the instruments of the flat form appear to be comparatively more abundant in that country than in England and Wales. A casting for a longer flanged celt found at Vienne (Isere) has been figured by Chantre. t "Album. A. X Arch. Cunliffe. 55 The only instance known to me in which the rough castings destined to be wrought into this form of celt have been found in Britain is Eev. 20. exhibited what had evidently been the stock in trade of an It ancient bronze -founder or merchant. will be seen that a broad runner is left at the butt end. . p.CASTINGS FOR FLANGED CELTS.f I hammering and Turning now to the flat and flanged celts discovered in Scotland. vol. but this deposit of tin upon the surface may. 1. pi.. E. S. near Wrexham. Instruments of nincli the stuun character have been found near BiggarJ (6^ inches). IS. had been found at Rhosnesney. vi. p. three castings for flanged celts. and consisted of six palstaves. one recorded in the Archceologia Ca/rnhn nsis * by the Barnwell. 18. xvii. all from the same mould. 70. Dumt'vicNlongitudinal facets at a low angle to each other. and the shank of a fourth all of them rousdi as The cut given they came from the mould. Sir R. At the meeting of the Cambrian Archaeo- logical Association at Wrexham. Bart. the blade of a small dagger. which was probably destined to be broken off the sides would also be ham. over with tin. 1. which is said to have shire.. mered. ..— Rhosnesney. In Fig. The sides present two been found near Drumlanrig. * 4th Cat. so as to increase the prominence of the flanges and the whole would be planished by . Other specimens have three facets on the sides." § Ibid. In hammering these the margin of the faces has been somewhat raised they are otherwise smooth and devoid of ornament. and may not have been intentionally produced. vol. have the appearance of having been washed \ Fig. iii.

of these and not- ably the celts from Sluie. XX Op. ** " Preh. vol. 19. in collection. vol. J. I think. p. S. Scot. iii.. ix. 380. 7. and ix.. 431.^[ near Edininches) . p. . 428.. A. Scot. Alexander Smith is and Dr. S. i>. p. iii. shire (4 inches across face) . S. of Scot. ix. * Proc. p. iv. p. blades. P. S. P. 6 inches) near Abernethy. §§ oxidation Their conclusion rather in favour of the celts having been intentionally tinned. shire Inverness. % P. Ant. p. ix. p. 6. (4f MidEdinburgh inches). p. 32. III. 245. that metal would . have been An interesting paper on the subject lias thought to be tinned. II. vol. App. p. A. ft Vol. if so. iv." 2nd ed. the Hill of Fortrie of Balnoon. A. near Ardgour § House. ii. and Ravelston. p. A. P. (5f inches) the Hill of Fortrie of Balnoon. vol. i. Stevenson Macadam.. Soc. vol. Ravelston. both in Lanarkshire on the farm of Colleonard. Banffshire (5| inches long).f Morayshire three which were ornamented) (two. § 8.|| Inverkeithney. (7 Cobbinshaw. been written by Dr. my One found in the Moss of Cree... S. . S. S. . has been mentioned by Wilson. Drumlaurig. 187. S. have Wigtonshire. 381. A. 430.^ Some — Fig. so as to protect them from and the influence of the weather. ix. vol. f P. that the tinned appearance of the castings for celts from Rhosnesney affords a strung argument against this feature being the result of intentional tinning for. vol. II Arch.| Perth.*'* near Wig- own ton in Galloway. Ann. 182. vol.. vol.]] Others from Inch and Leswalt. and is en- graved in the Ayr and Wigton Collections. §$ P.... 431. A.* near Banff (found with at Sluie on the Findhorn. S. || p. also been figured. burgh calder. S. S. however.. cii.56 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS [CHAP.

pi. both flat One with four vol. Materiaux. Scot. which was probably added increase the hardness of the metal. Ant. and some considerable alteration of structure has taken place within the body of the metal. some of from Eildon. Soc. Edinburgh are other flat celts. Midlothian and Kintore Tarland.»> -y. 105. also the Museum is burgh. and its weight is 5 lbs. r. It is 1 3§ m A celt of this class. 7 ozs. and two with a f Proc. lection has all the appearance of having been intentionally tinned. vii. . for the use of the woodcut of which I am indebted to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. v. It is shown on a scale of rather more than one-fourth in Fig. Some on the * " of the Scottish celts. places. « near Edinburgh. Fif eshire Vogrie and Ratho. slight flanges at the edge.f on the south side of the Pentland Hills. .FOUND IN SCOTLAND. — La win: ill. 20. something like "crackle In the Antiquarian Museum . inches in length. have been found in the South of France. from the surface of which the tin would be certainly removed in the process of A bronze hammer from France in my colfinishing the blades. ii. p. faces. at them with . Aberdeenshire and other .* at Edinprobably the largest ever found in the United Kingdom.." 6. but only If inch at the nar- row end. even partly within the socket but in this case the bronze appears in order to unusually rich in tin. side with slight flanges. vol. and doubly tapering.7 have been applied to the blades after they had been wrought and ground into shape. Some but celts of this form. Roxburghshire Inch. & -. Fig. . as ." is fissured in all directions. the surface china. 9 inches in its greatest breadth. 7. 20. and not to the rough eastings. It was found in digging a drain on the farm of Lawhead. nadamff Sutherlandshire Dunino. Its thickness is about § inch in the middle of the blade. are ornamented raised longitudinal ribs.

is cited by Wilson.f Morayshire.. A. 21 was found near of the Society of Antiquaries of p. S. Ann. t "Preh. in the Catalogue of the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. series of short incised or punched lines upon their faces. * P. 21. \ The tastefully is ornamented in the celt shown iii. ed. Nairn. E 22. vol.* Banff. 245.— Nairn. [CHAP.58 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. III. One of those from Sluie. p." 2nd i. i Fig. . S. were among those found on the farm of Colleonard. . 381. vol. another has shallow flutings on the blade another. and now Museum in Fig... is also ornamented with incised lines.

witli a circular depression on one face). one of which (6f inches) has had grooves about half an inch apart worked in the faces parallel to the sides. A. one from Longman. 1. chisel-like punch. Fifeshire. Journ. narrow indentations arranged longitudinally for about half the length of the lower face. so as to form very pointed chevrons down the centre of the blade. Assoc. faces is almost exactly similar. Septent.. vi.DECORATED SCOTTISH SPECIMENS. so as to form a herring-bone pattern. 41. both said to have been found near Falkland. 9.8. pi." p. in Arch. pi.— Greenlees. having a round hole at the upper pari of the blade. I have two flat celts. One found in Peeblesshire* (5| inches long. 116. 23. p. versely. is said to have been found in Scotland. vol. the following may be mentioned.J * Engraved t P. } with parallel belts of short. vol... p. . 1. f Macduff. 21. The doubly tapering celt shown in Fig. X "Itin. The other (5 inches long) has had broad shallow dents about -h inch long and £ inch apart made in its faces. Fig. 1. Of Scottish flanged celts resembling Fig. xvii. Banffshire (3| inches long). and is engraved hy (ierdon.— Falkland. S. No. Scotland. Below the ridge the face has been ornamented The wreathed lines appear The ornamentation of both to have been produced by a Ml Fig-. to the Council of which. but nearer the edge trans- The sides are worked into three longitudinal facets. 22. vi. 22 is also said to have been found near Falkland. I 59 am indebted for the use of the cut. Another of the same class.

2. having the sides ornamented with a cable pattern and the faces with rows of triangles alternately hatched and plain." 18G1--3. with but slightly raised flanges and peculiar ornamentation is near Spottiswoode. ). Afbild.60 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS [chap III.f and is in the collection of the Rev. p. though found in Denmark. is shown in Fig. whether it is of independent origin. viii. t Troc. ii. and is now in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 24. The original was found near Perth.* Berwickshire. The sides are fluted in a thickly set parallel hammer or punch cable pattern. Soc. Fig. James Beck. xii... such as is so common on socketed celts. Ant. It is represented in Fig. 601. A celt with five hatched bands surmounted by triangles. 602. and on the blade above are segments of concentric hollows of the same kind. Ant. F. 24. and with the sides cable moulded. Another with similar sides. \ Proc.]: much resembles this Scottish specimen and some of those from Ireland. There is a which the blade has been ornamented by faintly marked stop-ridge. Scot. pi. vol.— Api-ilegarih. Parallel to the cutting edge are three slight fluted hollows. forming what heralds would term flanches on the blade. Ant. Tidsk. vol. celt A shown in ' ' ' ' Fig. See also "Ant. .A.. Soc.. Fig. 85. Scotf> this cut. xxi. but with the lower part of the faces ornamented with narrow vertical grooves. 7. Whether in this ornament we are to see a representation of the "flanches" of the or winged palstave like Fig. p. p. above marks.§ Dumfriesshire. and is in the collection of Lady John Scott. p. I will not attempt to determine.S. vol. I am indebted to the Council for the use of 2nd X " Madsen. 23. S. It was found at Greenlees." vol.. xii. was found at Applegarth. 24— Perth. 5. r J A flanged celt with a slight stop-ridge. 25. Soc. * Proc.

26. and of all the localities at which they have been " found. 98. shown a small example of a celt apparently of pure was found at Ballinamallard. and the sides have a kind of fern-leaf from Trillick. of the facts hereafter mentioned are borrowed. and are never ornamented.FOUND IN IRELAND. J from which some large amount of information upon this subject. flat celts of the simplest form have been So numerous are they that it would only encumber these pages were I to attempt to give a detailed account of all the varieties. Co. now 1 in the British Museum. Some of those of the rudest manufacture are formed "of red. 27 copper. Fig. and to which the reader is referred for farther information. of this cut. celt of ornamentation.. Museum of the a Royal Irish Academy. Cork. pattern upon them.— Ballinamallard. I have another. 361. In Fig. vol. though with different The curved bands on the faces are formed of Hues with dots between. only 2£ inches in length. from Ballybawn. . 120. Fig. xiii. Scot. Soc. presented to mo by ]\1 r.S. Sir William Wilde. p. F. and was kindly added to my collection by the Earl of Enniskillen. more like Fig. p. Ant. in his most valuable Catalogue of the A very large number of found in Ireland." has placed on record <y Fig. almost unalloyed copper. Co.* Fifeshire. Fermanagh. Another decorated is Gl the same character. which is Eobert Day.— Dams.A. Balbirnie. 26. am indebted to the Council for the loan t Wilde. like that on the winged celt The original was found at Dams. 28. from King's County. * Proc. A small celt is of this character."f These vary in length from about 2| inches to 6| inches. shown in Fig. 27.

* Fig. J frequently on the longer and narrower form. such as is to be observed more mmmm Fig. FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS.— North of Ireland. is shown in Fig.62 Fig. 28 of bronze. 29. F. of which a remarkably small specimen from the collection of Mr.— Ireland. i without any marked central ridge. 28. and ' /)' • \ Fig.A. Ill The instruments celt. R.. In . 30—Tipperary. in this instance made of this type are in general nearly flat. shows a very common form of Irish [CHAP. Day. 29.S.

t and now in the British Museum. 31. For the use of this cut I am W. F. vi. The ornamentation on each face is the same. 28 is from 4 to 6 inches. from On my own collection. and the angles between the faces and the sides are slightly serrated. One from Greenmount. of the Royal Irish Academy. size. The usual length of the celts like Fig. p. unfortunately.R. . Franks. The surface has the patterns punched in. and weighs nearly 5 lbs. or possibly by the pane or narrow end but it is far more probable that the former tool was used than the latter. celt of this class. Another ornamented in Fig. is shown this the roughly worked pattern has been produced WSmmmmmU Fig. F. and the sides have been hammered so as to produce a succession of flat lozenges upon them. Joum. It was found near Connor. large and highly ornamented flat celt in the collection of Canon Greenwell. Some few Irish celts are slightly fluted on the face. p. xxvii. (7£ inches) is given in Fig. tills G3 case it will be seen that the blade tapers both ways from a low central ridge.DECORATED IRISH SPECIMENS. 31. Co. hammer . in the museum. One in the British Museum. vol. Castle Bellinghani.S.R. Others of these flat celts are in outline more like Fig. One such. and the sides have been hammered so as to produce a central ridge along them. f Arch. from a specimen found in the county of Tipperary. with two others of nearly the same * "Vol. 30. is 12 J inches long by 8£ inches broad. is engraved in the Arclwological Journal* An example of this kind Occasionally the flat surface is ornamented. Co. 20. 410. i by means of a of a long blunt punch. Fig.— Ireland. A. 308. which. Louth. The two faces are nearly alike.. A Antrim. one of which was indebted to Mr. 32.S. must have been of nearly the same size.. 6. like the English specimen. is somewhat imperfect. is shown in Fig.

and the sides are ornamented like those of Fig. the sides have often been "upset" by hammering. has been vertical lines. however. This speci- . is a curved band of alternate triangles. [CHAP. broken off in old times. 32. one of triangles alternately hatched and plain. 1 Fig. III.64 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. indentations. below the ridge have been neatly hammered. 33. which. 4. and three narrow bands across the blade.— Connor. where it will be seen that the median ridge along the sides is interrupted The faces of this instrument at intervals by a series of flat lozenges. one cross-hatched. The other is ornamented with a cross-hatched border along the margins. Not unfrequently a pattern is produced upon the sides. as in Fig. and one with Parallel with the cutting edge. scraped by the finder. so as to produce a thickening of the blade at the margins almost amounting to a flange. so as to produce a kind of grained surface not unlike that of French morocco leather. like that Much of the surface is grained by vertical across the centre of the blade. \ In the celts tapering in both directions from a slight transverse ridge.

Mr. In the case of a celt of much tho same form and size (7| inches « bich belonged to the late Rev. though. like those on the hibited.* The decoration of the faces often extends over the upper part of the In blade. Fig. this peculiarity is well exFig. much of this was probably hidden. { Fig.' Thomas Hugo. 34. 05 men.. The beautiful specimen shown in Fig. celt last described. F . 249.— Ireland.A.A. The sides have in this case a kind of cable pattern worked upon them. Robert Day. approximately parallel to the edge. F. 248).S.—Clontarf. Fig. The sides have the long lozenges upon them. The lower part of the blade has two shallow flutings upon it. The same kind of decoration occurs on the sides of many specimens in the museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy . when hafted. * See Wilde. borrowed from Wilde (Fig. Co. Dublin. 35 was presented to mo 1>\. which is unusually large. 26fi. 34. The ornamentation of the faces is remarkable having so many curved lines brought into it.i .DECORATED IRISH SPECIMENS. F. 88.S. and was at one time . was found near Clontarf.

which is left smooth.—Ireland. p. — Ireland. i hammered upon the centres of the lozenges being roughly hatched with * Arch. There but the upper part has a coarse lozenge pattern WHP Fig. it [CHAP. J Fig. 36. .. 37. 35. xi. vol.* is the upper part of the Fig. and not the lower. 38. 295. it. % Fig.—Trim. III. no central ridge. h blade that is is decorated.— Ireland.66 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS. thought to have been found in the Thames. Jouni.

Canon Greenwell has another example found at Carrickfergus. G. engraved. which was presented to me by Dr. The punch most commonly fH Mi Pf i Fig. In the second. show some of the patterns full size.I. * See " Catal. Co. 39 to 43. 40. III Fig. of Clevedon. found at Tullygowan. as hammered. 9. M. Antrim. There is little doubt of this instrument being of Irish origin. bike Fig.CHARACTER OF THEIR DECORATIONS. possesses a longer specimen (5| inches). It will be observed that even the cabled fluting of the sides ceases opposite the transverse ridge. F 2 .R. W. 37 and 38 are shown two more of these slightly flanged ornamented celts." vol. Aquilla Smith. and the blade is decorated by boldly punched lines.. produced by means of punches. producing a shallow round indentation. there is a fairly well defined though but slightly projecting curved stop-ridge. 36. Fig employed must have resembled a narrow and blunt chisel but a kind of centre-punch. Meath. . " . This specimen was found at Trim. a question whether according to Wilde. Co. 39. 42. R.'near Gracehill. gouge.S. ill isi ms noodoDOOooa & /> o o "o °o 0°oO ooooo Fig. though in producing it some artistic feeling was brought to bear. The first is in the museuni of the Royal Irish Academy. was also employed. The patterns punched upon the celts of this type show a great variety of form. In Figs. Other celts. the faces of which are ornamented with a nearly similar design. 28G to 290). Figs. 389 et seq. 41. even the finest lines might not have been produced by a chisel used after the manner of a What were probably punches for punch.R. though it is possible that in some instances the other processes may have been used. 67 transverse lines.. however. Most of the patterns engraved. A. Fig." p. though grained surfaces and straight lines like those on Sir William Wilde describes them Fig. and has already been figured by Wilde (Fig. have the upper part of the blade plain and the lower ornamented. and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell. Mus. borrowed from Wilde (Figs. however. The lower part of the blade is fluted transversely with chevron patterns punched in along the curved ridges. and not a little fertility of design in the ancient artificers. Antrim. 17 also frequently occur. punched. A. I. iv." The cable fluting on the sides is beautifully regidar. Brackenridge. forming a pattern which a herald might describe as "per saltire argent and azure. x. 298). or cast."" Various combinations of chevron patterns are the most frequent. The Rev. Wilde. pi. Co. Possibly this roughening may have assisted to keep the blade fast in the handle. F. Vallancey. were. and possibly a somewhat curved punch like a blunl In some cases the lines between the punched marks are. It is. Sg o 43.

1IT. either in the mould or on the casting. as if to prevent its being driven into the handle. though they approximate closely to the chisels described in subsequent pages. and once more widens out at the edge. Fig. and they vary given in Fig. as will subsequently be mentioned and in the Fonderie de Larwas a punch with an engrailed end for producing a naud. so narrow. 0. in length from about 3|. One of these is shown in Fig.* " kind of " milled mark. with concentric the loam of the mould. from the museum of the Royal Irish Academy.68 FLAT AND FLANGED CELTS [chap. the upper part of the blade of which and light. or possibly chisel. producing such patterns have been found in some English hoards. however. seems best adapted for impressing celts . . It is much broader at the original to which it is somecutting edge than the blade from Culham." pi. pient flange is more fully developed above the ridge than was found at Armoy. —Ireland. . 45. Another. and the instrument itself so small Fig. 44. 45. tapers in both directions from a central transverse ridge. ' ( hantre. Another Irish form of celt. The blade tapers both ways. 51 in their place in the following chapter. and the stops are formed by the gradual widening out of the blade. it is tool rather what allied. An is example of this kind. Chapter VII. Co. 55. Some few of the Irish ornamented ridges like the English example. This type Other varieties of this form are described in is also known in 8 inches. as will he seen. Fig. be here mentioned. and the inciThe below. one of which is more distinctly tanged than the figure. that a question whether it should not he regarded as a chisel or paringthan as a hatchet. near which there arc lateral projections on the blade. Jura. have well-defined stopbut these will be more One or two other forms may. —Armoy. is. Others are in the British Museum. Fig. Antrim. 44. " Album. There are nine or ten in that collection. 10. 1. which again contracts with a similar curve. circles.

" I' id . 46. also in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy. but with stops at the sides instead of on the face. Flat celts of iron with lateral stops have been found in the cemetery at Hallstatt. f inch broad at the edges. though not to the same extent as the plain specimens just mentioned. 69 A showu doubly tapering blade in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy.Willi LATERAL STOPS. Austria. and about J inch thick. has a stop-ridge on one of the faces only. 176. t ( " ipanos." pi. 7 . was found at Farley Heath. has a slight stop-ridge on the face. Some of the thin votive hatchets found at Dodonat are of the same form. and the central ridge lias grown into a well-marked shoulder against which the end of the rest. In the next chapter are described the celts in which the side flanges have become more fully developed. and also expands at the sides. 47. * ' hat'i could Nbrd. A Danish instrument of the same kind is figured by Worsaae. 47. — Ireland. A double-edged instrument. in Fig.* W0M Fig. liv. Ohteager. Fig. as shown in Fig. as well as winged palstaves and socketed celts of the same metal.— Ireland. 4f inches long. 40. Surrey. It is ornamented with straight and curved bands formed of chevron patterns. An instrument of the same form. so as to form wings to embrace and steady the handle. No. and are significant of such blades having been in actual use in Greece. and is now in the British Museum.

we take the side flanges as a criterion. it does not materially assist in the classification of this group of instruments. If. no above it. and not themselves socketed for the reception of a handle. we find the ridge in a rudimentary form in the blades which taper both ways next as a slightly raised ridge or bead running across . there is a wide range of form. at last. and two tion of celts may be identical in other respects with the excepone being provided with a loop and the other being without it. a jjrojecting ridge for the purpose of ridge. although for convenience' sake it is best to . greater development is given by a reduction in the thickness of the blade The presence or absence of a loop at the side is. but as this is a mere minor accessory. extending along nearly the whole blade we then find them confined to the upper part of the instrument. we find them ranging from a mere thickening on the margins of the flat celts to well-developed flanges. a good differentiation. however. to soon seen to be futile. the blade . so as to be capable of being hammered over to form a kind of semicircular socket on each side of the blade. . doubt. To any one who has examined an bronze instruments found in this extensive collection of the country it will at once be apparent that in the class of celts designed to be fixed in some sort of haft. find that the flanges preventing the blade being driven too far into its wooden handle. as found to be a gradual transition from what at first sight appears to be a well-marked form into some other which presents there is different characteristics. divide them into well-marked classes Any is attempt. WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. as it has been termed. for instance. and in some cases of great lateral extent.CHAPTER IT. to which. then as a better-defined ridge. In other cases we have some part of their apparent projection due to a diminution in the thickness of the portion of the blade If we take as a criterion the stopwhich lies between them.

so that the palstaves provided with it may be in some cases of later date than those without it. one of of the palstave form the varieties is the result. thus leaving a recess or groove on each side into which the handle fitted. comes to us from the Scandinavian antiquaries. mdlc " Palsl n still in use in known by the these name of paalstab.ORIGIN OF treat Till-. In the present chapter I propose of the celts with a stopof the winged celts. and which somewhal resembles bronze . though f\ the identity in the ornamentation of of the two varieties reason for this some two and the fact of their being classes. The other and more common variety of the palstave form has the portion of the blade which lies between the wings or side flanges and above the stop-ridge cast thinner than the rest of the blade. properly paalstab. or more Fig. 49. The winged described flanges as celts may in those be generally which the are short and have a great amount of lateral extension. 71 An additional of form separately. and it will be well here to make a few remarks as to the origin word. 48. Their reason for adopting the term was that there is Iceland a kind of narrow spade or spud. and of ridge. be found in the possibility that the loop was may a comparatively late invention. and meaning of the The term palstave. When these wings are hammered over so as to form a kind of socket on each side of the blade. to treat those of the palstave form. occasionally found together. !. which is Pig. are almost conclusive as to their contemof the instruments of the poraneity. I have already made frequent use of the term palstave. TERM PALSTAVE.

" unless the word labouring be used in the sense of the French labourer. defines palstaves as II wedges.. "spade staff" than "labouring staff. to labour. p. with the view of securing a fixed terminology. 1849. Latin pala and French pelle) means a kind of spade or shovel. then. P. See Nilsson.72 instruments. the name of a kind of wooden shovel used by bakers for placing . p. 59. which he engraves has neither groove nor stop-ridge. indeed.. it is applied quaries to all may be the original anti- by northern the forms of celts with the exception of those of the socketed type. like into the English language. 56. vol. more or less axe-shaped. so that the word " But this to me erroneous. WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. that it The term should be introduced into the archaeology of England. The word. loaves in the oven.§ Among restricted " English antiquaries it has." 2nd ed. of Copenhagen. and with lateral flanges destined to The typical example. 74. but whatever meaning of the word palstave. staff. or pala. having a groove on each side terminating in a stop-ridge. Although not strictly applicable to the (bronze) instruments in question." had already been used in 1848 in the "Guide to Northern Archaeology. however. Woodcuts of two of these Icelandic [CHAP. . " Translation of Worsaae's Primeval Mr. suggested in a note to the Journal is that paal comes from the Icelandic verb pula. J p. been used in a more Professor Daniel Wilson sense. Thorns. palstaves are given in the Archceological Journal* from drawings communicated to Mr. They The derivation of the term are here by permission reproduced. by the Earl of Ellesmere. 25. f London. IT. i." + edited celt. Ann. as is shewn by passages in the Sagas. pall (conf. 382. like Fig. that it seems desirable." "Preh. " Skandinavisku Nordens Ur-Invanare.""]* says that the "term Paalstab was formerly applied in Scandinavia and Iceland to a weapon used for battering the shields of the enemy. secure * Vol. I think. this designation is now so generally used by the antiquaries of Scandinavia and Germany." means the labouring appears Pul. and has now. to be rather The meaning of the term would appear. survives in the English language as peel. I have not been able to refer to the passage in the Sagas menbecome adopted tioned as above by Mr. laborious work but pcdi (at pcela) means to dig. but is what I should term a winged celt. $ |j vii. Thorns. 92. p. a hold on the handle. Yates by Councillor Thomsen. in a note to his Antiquities of Denmark. indeed. and signifies hard.

— Wigton. F. I have a nearly similar specimen. of which I have to treat is that of the These are almost celts provided with a stop -ridge on each face. The face between the two bands has a grained appearance given it by hammering. 73 Iii the present work varieties of I propose confining the term palstave to . the two form already mentioned . wings hammered over so as to form specimen. 00. and having the lower part ornamented with vertical punched lines. A fine Fig. I have a sketch of another (6£ inches) found near Longtown.B. This celt was found at Eougham.. Cumberland. Another (5| inches) with only a slight stop-ridge was found at Aynhoo. always flanged celts. Forest of Dean. In the same collection is another blade (5f inches) of this form. The sides have three facets. with a small stop-ridge. Norfolk. 50. 668 . the winged celts what may be which have their and those with the portion to the blade termed external sockets of the blade which lies between the side flanges and above the stop thinner than that which is below. that in the centre ornamented in a similar manner." p. from Stanton. is shown in Fig. The first form.CELTS WITH A STOP-RIDGE. of North.S. The wings or side flanges are also faceted by the same process. $ and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell. Cumberland. and is is the collec* Baker's "Hist. but only 4J inches long.* Northamptonshire. however. and with a second curved band at some distance below. It was found at Wigton. with the stop-ridge consisting of a straight narrow raised band across each face. Gloucestershire. in 1860. viz.

Fig. The blade below the stop-ridge is . The flanges are worked into three facets ornamented with diagonal grooves.. but provided with a stop-ridge.-'' Winged celts of nearly the same One of form. Cambridgeshire. . IV. which results from the The form occurs occasionally in Ireland. 51 shows a beautifully wrought and highly decorated flanged celt. $ found in excavations at Chatham Dockyard. The original was Fig. and is in the collection of Canon Green well. * "Catal. fig. The two faces of the celt are ornamented with an interlaced pattern produced by narrow dents. In Fig.— Chatham. A somewhat similar but unornamented variety of instrument. 52. and are well developed. found at Bucknell. 52. 51. with a border of chevrons along each margin punched into the metal. 53 is shown a winged celt without stop-ridge found in Burwell now in my own collection.". Mm R. above it . Northumberland. 258." p. This fine example of an ornamented celt was found near Chollerford Bridge.— Chollerford Bridge. [chap. Henry Dryden. The form of the blade is otherwise that of a flat celt. inch thick. and one (4] inches) is figured by Wilde. A. and the lower side of the stop-ridge has a moulding worked on it. The side flanges or wings have been hammered into three facets. these in the British Museum. except that there is Fen. are occasionally found. I.S. Herefordshire. As will be seen. 54.R. partaking more of the palstave character. the recess for the haft ends in a semicircular stop-ridge. F. a slight irregularity in of the flanges. and is now in the British Museum.74 tion of Sir WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. is shown in Fig. is shown in Fig. provided with a somewhat curved stop-ridge connecting the two flanges. Fig. and hammering the sweep of the sides. 373.

and half as wide again as the Culliam chisel. in the collection of the same character (7 J inches). Although these instruments are so narrow thai llioy may be regarded as chisels rather than axes. Oxon. only f inch. which was found near Dorchester. own collection. Oxfordshire. Bloxam. The original was found at Culham. — Bucknell. but in the straight part between that point and the edge only a little more than f inch wide. and the wings. 53. Warwickshire. lllilP Ml!. F. The blade at the lower end of the wings is an inch wide. 4J inches long. 54.— Burwell Fen. 1 IHNUlr ''"''iiiiP^ Fig. yet from t heir general character so closely resembling that of Fig. from a line just below the wings. I have thought it best to insert them here. project ions. 55. which form triangular . Fig. near Abingdon. 75 A celt of much is Wolvey. i Scotch example will lie subsequently cited.A. I have another specimen. The double curvature of the sides may be noticed in the narrow chiselThe blade in this instance tapers both ways like celt shown in Fig. H. M. found at Mr. and is in my . to Another form of winged celt without stop-ridge is shown this the blade is flat. 56.S. % Fig. A In i ulham.VARIETIES OF WINGED CELTS. 53. but without there being any actual stop-ridge a third slope is produced by the lower part of the blade having been drawn down by hammering to form the edge.

. and three are said to have been arranged in a symmetrical spiral rings.R. 57 shows a winged celt with a broad low stop-ridge. Yorkshire (5J inches) and Wolsingham. I have a nearly similar palstave (6 inches long) found in Wicken Fen.. a torque. In one found on Hollingbury Hill.S. 57. and now in the British Museum. Northumberland (5£ inches) Brompton. vol. and above it ridge is well below the level of the side flanges.R. Durham (of inches). It was found with others near Reeth.V inch thick. In this the blade below the stop-ridge is . the It was found stop-ridge is nearly on tho same level as (lie side ilanges. near Dorchester. Had they been hammered over to form semicircular receptacles on each side of the blade the instrument would have been more properly described as a palstave. together with four looped armilho. .76 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. Oxfordshire.— Dorchester. v. 56. In this as well as in that from Dorchester the stopinch. Fig. p. The part of Fig. the blade above this is about £ inch thinner than the part below. 324. which manner in a depression dug in tho chalk. and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell. and is in my own collection. where are also other specimens of this stand at right angles to type from Linden.— Eeeth. Joitrn. IV. Fig.. so that though transitional in character it belongs to one of the classes to which This specimen was found I would wish to restrict the term palstave.. Cambridgeshire.* near Brighton. it. in the year 1825. N. Both the torque and the & * Arch. [chap. F. . in the North Riding of Yorkshire.

p. stop-ridge better defined than in the One from Grasny is in the at Evreux. With it were palstaves of different varieties. This specimen was found in the gravel of the Trent at Colwick. from a hoard found in that Museum neighbourhood. de la Gaule. . though the stop-ridge is usually less fully developed. Camb. for when halted this Mr. and Hay. Usually the stop-ridge is nearly on the same level as the part of the side flanges on which it abuts. 57 are of not unfrequent occurrence in Ireland. The junction of the fluting and the face produces an elliptic ridge of elegant outline. Barnwell. and it is thought that this was done intentionally. near Aberdovey. near Nottingham. however. when two large torques were found. Norfolk (6jJ HiilllllP 111 Fig. The wings are rather wider and the figure. I have one from a hoard found at Bernay. The blade is f inch thick at this ridge. One from Jonquieres* (Oise) has been I have a good specimen (6£ inches) from the Seine at Paris. inches). ii. so that the blade would be as it were dovetailed into the handle. but none of them provided with loops. the same type from Attleborough. these instruments were of the looped kind. Brecknockshire curious variety of this type found at Monach-ty-gwyn. it was intended rather as a moans of giving it a grip on the handle than as an ornament. however. near Abbeville. regards it in the light of an ornament. if tightly I have specimens of much tied to it. Plain palstaves of this character are of not unfrequent occurrence m the North of France. as will be seen in Fig. Berks (6 J inches). t Arch. palstave were broken 77 . A - ] * Diet Arch. and the bottom of this fluting tapers somewhat in the contrary direction to the my own diately tapering of the blade. at the time of the interment. part of the instrument must have been concealed by the wood. There are several in the Gottingen Museum.TRANSITIONAL FORMS. figured. 4th S. 21. below the stop is fluted. on' only one face of the palstave. but above the stop-ridge barely f inch. In this case. The form also occurs occasionally in Holland. 5S.. within each of which was placed a palstave. has on the bottom of one of the recesses for the handle a number of sunk diagonal lines crossing each other so as to form a kind It seems to me that though this cross-hatching occurs of lattice pattern. (7^ inches). 58. vol.. It is rather thinner near the stopridge than somewhat higher up. Winged celts of the type of Fig.— Colwick. They also occur in France. Newbury. and is in The blade immecollection. A similar discovery is recorded as having been made in 1794 on the Quantock Hills.

.inches). Another (6§ inches) from Llanfyllin. and I have one from the neighbourhood of Lille. near Cambridge. from Swaffham Fen. — Ilarston. IV. near Ely (6^. 60 the same general type is preserved. is also of nearly this type.. from the Carlton Bode find is in the Museum at Norwich. In Fig. 59. Another (5J inches) Rev. Marshall Fisher. Oxfordshire. One from North Tyne (f>. 25. One from North Wales* (7$ inches). viii. The original was found at Barrington. and it appears as if one of the moulds had been somewhat deeper than the other. in the collections of Mr.78 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. 209. and is in my own collection. also in my own collection. in an unfinished state. There were two or three in the hoard from Bernay. — Barring-ton Fig. the half-oval ornament below the stop-ridge is preserved. near Abbeville. is in the British Museum. 59 is also abundant in the North of France. The same is the case in a large specimen (6^. I have seen others from the Fens. but there is a vertical " Hone Ferales." pi. 60. of Ely. p. and from Mildenhall (6 J inches). but there is a raised bead round it.t Montgomeryshire. The variety like Fig.inches long) from Weston. S. has two of the looped ridges one below the other on each face. I have other specimens of the same type. Banks. and of nearly the same size. 4th S. 59. The joint of the two moidds in which it was cast can be traced upon the sides of the instrument. Camb. iv. in the Newcastle Museum. Fig. [CHAP. and the . In this type and in that subsequently described the ridge at the sides of the semi-elliptical ornament sometimes dies into the upper part of the blade. There is also a slight median ridge running down the blade. Cambridge and from The semi-elliptical ridge on the latter is larger Dorchester. In the palstave engraved as Fig. near Ross. and flatter than in that figured.\ inches). vol.. of Cottenham. t Arch. near Cambridge.

Berks. Mr. In palstaves is of this class there often a slight projection on each of the sides a little below the level Below this proof the stop-ridge. Oxfordshire. p. vol. pi. the angles of the blade having a manner as to produce a series of small pointed oval facets along them. A rather peculiar variety of this type (6f inches). Camb. 4th S. These were probably designed to steadying the handle. Quy. near Cambridge. An instrument of this type from Les Andelys § (Eure) has been Fig. "Wantage." p. near Cambridge (6| indies). and was developed. assist in A palstave (7 \ inches) from Cy- nwyd. near "Witney. found in Anglesea. % Arch. found at Freeland.. Arch. § Diet. one from Bottisliam. who has kindly allowed me to engrave it. 118. and Eeach Fens. Gl. figured. like that from Shippey. from a hoard Some found in Normandy. like those in a palstave from Newbury. In a narrow palstave of this class. there are three short ridges at the bottom of each of the recesses for the handle. as will be seen in Fig.i * Arch.J Merionethshire. specimen found at Shippey. there is an attempt at ornamentation been hammered in such along the sides. 13." and "Ancient Arm. appears to be of this type. found at Harston. which is in my own collection. Journ.. well there is no median ridge below the ornament. 5| inches. t Meyrick's " Cardigansh. 61. On some palstaves of this class there is a series of vertical ribs within This is taken from a the semi-elliptical loop. one of them with a loop.|| from the Bernay hoard have a similar ornament. as well as another from Pendinas HilLf near Aberystwith. "La Seine Inf. on each side of the central ridge. on which there is nasmaller vertical ridge. within th ment. xxxiii. subsequently described. I have other specimens of the same type. but without the ornamentation on the sides. with the vertical rib in the shield. Assoc. near stop . p. more jection the sides are usually carefully hammered and planished than above it. v. vol. Norfolk (6£ inches)." by Skolton. I . has been engraved by the Abbe Cochet. || . xlvii.. near Cambridge. near Ely..— Shippey. rib 70 running clown the middle of the semi-elliptical ornament below the and the median ridge along the upper part of the blade is more fully In this specimen. 1. Another. 272.PALSTAVES WITH ORNAMENTS ON FACE. and 6 J inches long respectively.. In that from Bur6 inches. de la Oaule. Canon Gfreenwell has one which was found with three others. from Burwell. which is in the collection of Lave Marshall Fisher of Ely.* has been figured. One from Snettisham.

43. Gloucester. and are now in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. Vorz. . but no elliptical ridge below the stop. It has a slight rib down the middle of the blade. One of the same class (6 J inches).80 is WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. * Lindenschmit. 62 is shown an example of the kind from a specimen in my own collection found in the Severn. Fig. having nearly the same general form. in the [chap. is en- graved in the Sussex Archceological Collections.. found on Chryton inches). four others (about 6£ inches long). 63. Dickinson of Hurstpierpoint . and there is a well-marked At the upper part. p. i. with four vertical stripes. In Fig. The end of the recess for the handle is somewhat rounded. Suffolk (5 J James Carter of Cambridge. is in the collection of Mrs. No. 268. 63 in making the railway near Bognor. found near Brighton. "Alt. found at Sunningwell. engraved from a specimen in my own collection. is shown in Fig. ii. is Norwich Museum. Taf. in the collection of Mr. i. near the stop central rib running clown the blade. Hill. were found with two of the type of Fig. ill si H^^l Fig. Heft. una. heidn.* In some cases these vertical lines below the stop-ridge are not enclosed in any loop.— Sunningwell. with five short vertical ridges. The type is also found in Northern Germany. Another. 1 1 . f Vol. near Abingdon.— Severn. Auother from Lakenheath. Sussex. near Wainlodes Hill. apparently of the same type. iv. IV. 62." vol.] Another variety. A palstave with this ornament is in the Museum at Soissons. 63.

. in casting. steadying the handle. is in the Mayer Collection One of the same kind was found with a hammer.ff and fiord. p.^f^j In another variety the blade is nearly flat. Heft i. vol. Alt. § Proc. now preserved in the British Museum. especially in the North of France. there are also slight side flanges. much narrower in the blade. ii. vol. 64. Weymouth. and the bottom as well as the end of the recess for the handle is rounded. J J Sussex. perhaps designed to assist in some Near the end of the recess are one on one face and two on the other. No. Vorz. Radnorshire. 2. neighbourhood of Penzance. 163. p. German examples have been figured by Lindenschmit. Arch. p. i. . rather narrower in the blade than the figure. vol. 255. This is markedly the case in a fine example of the same type (6£ inches) with the provenance of which I am unacquainted. Suss. A. broken spear-heads. 8. Lev. p. I have examples much like the figure found in the hoard at Bernay. Kent.. the side flanges of the blade are continued almost down to the edge. near Abbeville. Montgomeryshire. In three and Caersws. It has been thought by Professor "Westwood that these holes were connected with the manner of fastening the instrument to its haft. XX S. 81 The metal in the recess for the ridge. x. Others. handle is thinnest near the stop. vol. Berks. but it appears to me much more likely that they arise from accidental defects This is certainly the case with two specimens of my own. having only a broad protuberant ridge extending along the upper part to the stop. is shown in Fig." vol.. chisel. in Burgesses' Meadow.. like those on Fig. C. iii. "Horaa Ferales. palstaves of this kind found in the parishes of Llandrinio. v. also in my own collection. Ant. found &t Newbury. found near Winfrith. a tanged at Liverpool. also in the British Museum. from Bucks]: : . so as to be somewhat dovetailing. iv. || || * X || Arch." pi. Ireland. pi. have been discovered in large numbers in the North-west of France. x. Arch. The mouldings along the sides of the blade are often much more fully developed. 38. the metal between the side flanges tapers towards the top of the Oxford.. Journ. 647. One (6f inches) found near Ashford. Worcestershire Llangwyllog.. and Lovehayne. and St. 132. vol. xxix. Assoc. 2nd S. Soc. Dorset. 77. p. p. xxvii. 435.* near Cirencester from the mouth of the Eiver "Wan die. Harmon.. is in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. 1F1T ft §§ Trans. f Arch. pi. ix. which also have holes through the same part of the instrument. iv. h. xxvii. vol.. xvii. iv. vol. 112.. In this. p.PALSTAVES WITH A CENTRAL RIB ON THE BLADE. Allies. The hoard is now in the Ashmolean Museum. IT ** Illl Arch. "Wore. p. 3. there is a hole in the metal between the two recesses for the handle just above the stop-ridge. (6 inches long). G . 26. " Collections. Siws. found near Longford." vol. x. 4. f in Surrey. 134. || . Devon (5£ inches) where several appear to have been found in the rough I have an example from the state in which they came from the mould. Taf. In another. slight longitudinal ribs.** Billingshurst. u. vol." p. from Chichester. Coll. Journ. A palstave of this kind. One (5 inches).^" Anglesea (6 J inches) from near Bognor. p. 183. Palstaves of this type have been obtained from the following localities from South Cerney. Coll. where the metal is thin. and rough metal. pi. § Astley. Palstaves with a central and two lateral ribs on the blade are of not unfrequent occurrence on the Continent.§§ near Broad Down. "Montgom.

I A short and thick form of palstave is shown in Fig. Devon. 188). near Caesar's Camp. with one of the looped kind somewhat like Fig. .| Anglesea. Another (6£ inches). engraved from a specimen found in Burwell Fen.—Weymouth. while at the top of the recess it comes to a nearly palstave of this character was found on Kingston Hill. Ormerod. % 3rd Series. . In a specimen found at Winwick. as it is sometimes. found near Llanidan. F. p. 2nd t Arch. was found at the same time. W. 65.. xiii. from Ashford. pi. and is in A A A Fig. Close to the stop the or thinnest near the stop-ridge. — Burwcll Fen. which was found at Masseyck. 236 283. instead of being of nearly even thickness.f Lancashire. Surrey. p. vol. 82. Cambridge.S. Kent. is engraved in the Archceologia Cambrensis.Gr. but with a more defined semi-conical bracket below the stop. Soc. on the frontiers of Belgium and Holland. IV. 64. p. palstave much like that from Winwick was found at Chagford. xiv. It has been thought diameter (Fig. Another of these plain palstaves. the possession of Mr. 65. i. 76.82 WINGED CELTS AND FALSTAVES [CHAP. On one of its faces * Proc. ixv... If inch in ridge appears to be nearly flat. vol. clearly have a palstave of nearly the same form. is in the Mayer Collection at Liverpool. 269. vol. vol. G. instrument. Assoc. Journ. S. as is often the case. p. the blade below the stopbroad flat ring of bronze.* sharp edge. xv. that this was attached to the shaft to prevent its splitting. Ant. metal is ^ inch thick. Fig.

^aaasE Fiir. so as to keep the wood close to the blade when a blow was struck. A long chisel-like form of palstave is shown in Fig. so as to form a kind of barb. The flanges at the sides of the recess have some notches running diagonally into them.— Burwell Fen. also from the "ambridge Fens. It is ornamented with a semi-elliptical projecting ridge below the stop. In this instance it is not improbable that the cutting end of the original palstave has been broken off. is in the Mayer Collection at Liverpool. near in Fig. Kent. 67. it 83 has the semi.. In a third. and is now in my own collection. 66. only 2t] inches long. for the handle are somewhat undercut. 07. A form of palstave without any ornament below the stop-ridge is shown This specimen was found in 1846 at East Harnham. I have another nearly similar tool.SHORTENED BY WEAR. G6. below the On the other there are five ribs instead of one within the ornament. but without any barbs. such as would prevenl the blade from being drawn away from the handlo when bound to by a cord. and perfectly flat below the The ends of the recess stop-ridge. found at Chatham Hill. I have another from Bottisham Fen (4f inches). The sides are remarkably flat.elliptical ornament. g 2 ( it < . stop-ridge. One. t. The thickness of the blade Salisbury. not quite so heavy in its make. and the blunt end that was left has been again drawn to an edge by hammering. from the neighbourhood of Dorchester. This plain form with a square stop-ridge is found in France and in Western Germany. with one vertical rib in it. engraved from a specimen in my own collection found in Burwell Fen.— East Harnham Fig. merely recessed for the handle. lambridge. above it but little more than £ inch. The shortened proportions of these instruments are probably due to wear. below the stop is nearly ^ inch.

and now in the collection of General A. I have seen another (6-| inches).— Stibbard. 442. Ant. f 'Itin. xx vi. Surrey. found in the Thames. In Canon Greenwell's collection is one (7 inches) without any ornament below the square stop-ridge. f 1 1 staves (Fig. i Arch.S. pi. It was found at Westburton Hill. which formed part of the great hoard found at Stibbard. and without loops). is in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. Pitt Rivers. 09. Cur. like that on the socketed celt. 407). It was found with others (with. The form of palstave with the side wings or flanges hammered over so as to form a kind of semi-circular socket on either side of the blade.inches). Sussex. there are neither barbs at the sides nor any ornament below the stop-ridge. and the sides F. 68. xcvi. E. I have seen another of the same character (4^ inches) which was found at Wolsonbury. found Another at Sutton..! is engraved by Stukeley. found at Windsor. Fig. near in which there Woodbridge. ii. A very beautiful narrow palstave. The Eev. together with a mould for p. is shown in Fig. A narrow palstave. 527). apparently of the same character.. with the side wings slightly hammered over. at Hotham Carr.84 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES." Cent.S. Proc. J Norfolk. and is m the collection of Mrs. Inst. Oxon. [chap.— Thames. Fig.R. and about ten castings for spear-heads (see Fig. found in the Thames at Kingston. p.. near BigThere are depressions nor. the angles are ornamented with a kind of milling. 68.S. In Fig. iv p. F. be Fig. James Beck. Suffolk. with a projecting rib below the stop-ridge and also in the recess above.* has a palstave of this kind 6 inches long and 1J inch wide at the edge.. but single instead of double. Sussex. N. on each side of the rib below the forming an ornament like that on Fig. Soc. R.A. York- i shire. Dickinson. is of rare occurrence in Britain. ' are also decorated with zigzag and chevron patterns. 69 is shown an unfinished casting for a palstave of unusually small size. and is usually provided with a loop. stop. Norwich vol. . vol.. About seventy such castings were found. was a tongue-shaped groove below the stop-ridge. IV.. (4 J. 81. As will seen. 148.

71. small specimen from the A collection of Canon Greenwell. Taf. ". chisel-like blade. u. 48. 71. from North Owersby. 14. Heft i. Palstaves of the adze form. Journ. 85. in Fig. shown in Fig. in the same It has a remarkably narrow Irish examples will be subsequently cited. Another. runners broken off castings. like Fig." Taf. Streitkeile. Von Braunmiihl.'(' Fig. $ 3. Taf. vol. Cumberland.. || Did. and numerous fragments of metal. are but very seldom found in Britain. 72. is shown in Fig. South Ger- many. vol. Heft i. I have. "Die ebern. 70. de hi Oaule. . u. Taf. |j is engraved by Lindenschmit. "Alt. 49. i.R." vol. a socketed chisel. 58 Arch.* about twelve miles from York on the Scarborough Road. § One with a loop. Vorz. . 85 In a hoard of about sixty bronze objects found at Westow. collection. Fig. or having the blade at right angles to the septum between the flanges. w . iii. " Alt. including some jets or The type is of common occurrence in Austria. two tanged chisels. Lincolnshire. and about thirty socketed celts.. 70.S. Assoc.. i * Arch. t Vorz. i. i. ii. Arch. six gouges. Schreiber. 72. F... Joarn. vol. One from Baden f is figured by Lindenschmit. pi. " X vi. 381. iv. i. and in the Rhine district. and the South of France. (1826).— North Owersby. Others have been found near Landshut. engraved for comparison a larger Irthington.PALSTAVES WITH A TRANSVERSE EDGE. j Bavaria.—Bonn. near Bonn. from Hesse. was one palstave of this kind." 13. is It was found at Irthington. iv. I specimen in my own collection. h. which came from the Valley of the Rhine. but without a loop. Deutschon Grabmaler h. p. Fig. p. " Alt.

Some have a loop on one — || . 159. 7ter Ber. 412. §§ Brewood. vol. p. Lancashire barrow on Morridge. for some length of time both forms appear to have been contemporaneous and in use together. p. XX Arch. Journ. xxix. but the diaphragm * (• "La Vie " L</S Souterraine. vol. xiii. vol. 73.. v. ix. Arch. vol. Journ. 30." p. vol. HHf Arch.. 251. fft I'roc. 73.^f^f^f near Lincoln. The form has also been found in Italy. 03.. vol. § Palstaves without loops. 9. xvii. x. IV.^ near Bushbury. p. Rhos-y-gad. 11 Arch.. p.86 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. Aid. face.ff Cumberland." vol. Journ. In the hoard at Battlefield. vol. *** Arch. Taf. character of ornamentation occurs on the instruments of both The Indeed. punched in after the instrument was fashioned. This represents a palstave in my own collection found near Dorchester. 302. iii. xiv. Journ. Ackers Common. A A specimen from Escoville is in the museum at Caen. Journ. . Oxfordshire. .**** near Shrewsbury. p. are recorded to have been found at the following places The Thames. XXX f''-»c.. H11 Arch. p. 100. ff f Rotherhithe Wolvey. Other instances are given in . 327. p. Sleaford. ||| Chapter XXII. and three curious curved objects were found together. and lumps of metal. 30. 403.. Assoc. 2nd S.** North Riding. most of which will be mentioned in subsequent pages. p. |||1 Anglesea. xviii. 90. The following instances may be cited. 85. Several were found with unfinished socketed celts. " Materiaux. entirely devoid of ornament. p. ii. Essex. and a Warrington. ix.. : I Illl . .. 2nd 8. at Romford. vol." -l().*** Lincolnshire Canada Wharf. p. Staffordshire nearLlanvair Station.m'ordsh. "lot's" Nat. vol. vol. p. Tav. iii. ii. near Kingston Drewsteignton. Ant. and has been figured by Shnonin. vol.. Morbihan. Soc.||||| **** I'roc. : was found at Villeder. x.J A beautiful palstave of the same character is preserved in the Antiken Cabinet at Vienna. a palstave without loop. Journ. one was found with looped palstaves. vii. socketed celts. spear-heads. a socketed chisel. and a tube.. x. I.. ** Arch. Hoc. l'ulillitlrs. vol. §§$ . 6ter Bericht.[Snr. 3-1G. ft Arch. vol.. seen from Pig.. Aspatria. Hist. as will be classes.. Keller. di Palet. however. Several with and without loops have been found in the Swiss lake-dwellings.. fragments of swords and spears." fig. ^|^[ near London the old River.^[ Devonshire. mens in the museums at Rouen and Tours. 10. 2 IS.. p. f the type being termed the Hache Troyon by Desor. Some of them are. 129. p. a flat wedge-shaped celt. 2nd S. . xviii. Jul. vol. 158. At the stop the metal is 1£ inch thick. palstaves which are provided with a loop on one side The same present as many varieties as those without the loop. Yorkshire. Arch.. Cundall Manor. Taf. Journ. Arch. p. At Nettleliam. i. Journ. The loop has unfortunately been broken off. . 164. p. near long and narrow example of this type There are speciPloerniel.. * [CHAP. Its sides are ornamented with four small sets of concentric circles and a pattern of dotted fines. % § || Bull. Arch. Ital. Journ.. vol. have been found in the Thames. of St. p. Journ. Handsworth.. but of which no detailed description is given.^| Warwickshire and near Corbridge. Palstaves of which it is not specified whether they were provided with a loop or no. . Journ. §§§ Glamorganshire (?) Plain palstaves without loops have frequently occurred with other forms of instruments in hoards of bronze objects.

fig. | In some the bottom of the recesses. Arch. Nearly thirty palstaves. Oxon. iv. found at Pulborough. a narrow specimen of this kind 5f inches long and 1£ inch broad at the edge. and a moidd for socketed celts. 171 Proc. 1 12. another from near Wallingford. and would then have been drawn out and sharpened in a curtailed condition or if not broken would become eventually " " by wear. F. in 1877. xcvi. p.. Others from Stretton. Montgom. The short specimen shown in Fig. iii. 2G8. 214. siderably A narrower proportions. and there is a proI have jecting bead round its margin. Ant.^[ Staffordshire (5J inches). xiv. 437. II i». Soc. vol. viii. mostly. swords. p. This specimen is shorter than usual in the blade. — Dorchester.S. Coll. near Worthing. vol. (. Montgomeryshire. were some instruments of this kind. associated with socketed celts.A. . v." ** Ibid. Stukeley has engraved a somewhat similar palstave found near "Windsor. 52. of this typo. Berks. p. vol. 37. Arch. Ant. 113. is engraved in the Salisbury volume of the ArchaeoThe Eev. 192. found in the neighbourhood of Dorchester. In the British Museum and elsewhere are stumped up many palstaves and celts which have been worn almost to the stump by A . JJ Arch. gouges. ii. has one (6J inches) of logical Institute. 116. spear-heads. p.'oil. Davy. found at Eamsbury.LOOPED PALSTAVES. ii. N. like Fig. 87 between the two recesses for the haft is only § inch thick. near Woodbridge.. 2nd S. § Suss. vii. vol. p.. * V.. fragments of two daggers. x. in the ArchceoTwo others of this character (5 inches) were found on Hangleton logia. Camb. || In the hoard found near Gruilsfield.. though badly. H. James Beck. 73 may originally have resembled this as such instruments must have been liable to break. p. Suffolk. A number of palstaves of this kind were discovered in 1861 at Wilmington. Cur. but of precisely the same type. I have seen now in the Lewes Museum.. " vol. and communicated to me by Mr. 74. Soc. which not improbably has been con- worn away by use. Arch.. xx. The whole of these are f Sussex. found near Wallingford. . Journ. II Vol. and lumps of rough metal. I believe.. 251. re-sharpening. vol. and another at Glangwnny. A.. pi. p. ff near Brighton. Arch. 3rd S. &c. of coarse earthenware. 117. Down. instead of being square. The whole had been packed in an urn. 3. In this the blade is flat and without ornament. is rounded more or less like Pig. scabbards. larger example of the same type.." Cent.. and Lancashire ** (5 k inches) are engraved. t rroc. vol. X "It. 112. § Sussex. Coll. somewhat larger instrument.S. \\ near Caernarvon. I have seen others found at Sutton. p. tt Suss. vol. in company with socketed celts. were found with about twelve socketed celts.. is shown in Fig.* Wilts..

Derbyshire. John Brent.A. is shown in Fig. 75. and is in my own collection. illllliflllliillliB Pig. and the other in the British Museum. Some palstaves of much the same general character have a median ridge. It was found at Brassington. In the palstave engraved as Fig.—Wallhigford. 74 are occasionally found in One with a small bead running down the centre of the blade West Meath is engraved in the Archceologia* One from Grenoble. p.— Stanton Harcourt. found in Looped palstaves of the type of Fig. Oxfordshire. . 84. 1. occasionally almost amounting to a rib. p. 3. running down the blade below the stop. near Dover (6J inches). pi. 108. On the face of the recess there are some slightly raised ribs running down to the stop. the central rib down the blade is much more fully developed. | Allies. [chap. is in the Mayer Collection at Liverpool. f Isere. ix. so as to keep the handle pressed against the central (6 f. 74. * Vol. TV. iii. which are not shown in the cut. Yorkshire. One of this kind from Stanton Harcourt. Pig. ix. is engraved by Chantre. \ WorcesterI have also a large specimen shire. One from Ombersley. one of which Canon Greenwell's collection. has an example of nearly the same t}rpe from in Blean. Mr. t " Album. 75. pi. F.. from Bottisham.88 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. 76. Cambridge. near Wirksworth. It is considerably undercut at the stop. Another from Buckland." pi. 4. appears to be of the same kind.S. Two is (6| inches) were found near Bolton Percy.inches) diaphragm of metal. near Canterbury. iv. Ireland.

viii. p.E.S. but I do not know where it was discovered. in that case more lozenge shaped.— Bath. . is in the British Museum. vol. is in the collection of Arch. Northamptonshire. is engraved in the Archaologia. p. It is much like one which was found on the Quantock Hills. near Salisbury (5f inches). and are in the possession of Sir Charles Trevelyan. | Vol. One of the same type (5| inches) from Elsham. 3rd S. In Fig. 77 is shown another variety which has two beads running down the sides of the blade. Others with the ribs very distinct were found in a hoard at aldington. 89 A palstave figured. Lincolnshire. j\ Lincolnshire. 94. xiii. and project to obtuse points about half an inch above the stop. One of narrower form (6£ inches) but of the same character. I bought this specimen Fig. Another of the same character from Llanidan. and is engraved in the Archceologia. i at Bath. however. Two palstaves and two torques were on that occasion fomul buried together. from Boston. The side flanges are. Canon 283. F.. Northumberland. £ Fig.LOOPED PALSTAVES WITH RIBS ON BLADE. Holland. and at Aston le Walls. 102 % Arch.. 77. lias been It is said to have been found with another without a loop. Grreenwell. I have seen others of the same general character which were found at Downton. as has already been mentioned. —Brassington. Camb. W One with a narrower and more distinct midrib. p. 7C. in addition to the central rib. found at Nymegen.* Anglesea. pi.. found with socketed celts (some of them octagonal at the neck) at Haxey. J in Somersetshire. \ix. is in the museum at Leyden. Guelderland. xiv. Lincolnshire. vol.

were found A mented with an indented chevron below the stop-ridge. vi. It. as web as one from the Cambridge Fens (6 inches)." p. 78. 130. "The Brit. is ('<finhrr>tf<is. Palstaves of the same character. either straight and converging. 77. and the converging ribs much slighter. I have one such from the Cambridge Fens. found in Spain. Huntingdonshire. pi.. § 4th Ser. Much Marele. X Arch. 78 was found on Oldbury Hill. has been figured. or curved so as to form a semi-elliptical or shield-shaped loop. I. occurs also in Ireland. 381. on the site of Taunton. Radnorshire. One (6f inches) found at Danesfield. [CHAP. and one without a loop. f In the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of London is a heavy narrow looped palstave (8 inches by 2 inches) with this ornamentation. HerefordI shire. found near the Upper in the Archceo/o(//(t filled with metal. The unfinished casting for a palstave of the type Fig. I have a smaller specimen (5 inches) from the Cambridge Fens. 1 (6 J inches) in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. in 1879. Mus. vol. The original of Fig. The central rib running down the blade is in many cases connected with some ornament below the stop-ridge. -which was found with a plain bronze bracelet. others (6 inches) were found with a chisel and a spear-head.§ with some rough castings of flanged palstave of this character 6 inches long. but without the loop. || Ibid." t Wilde. and is in my own collection.90 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. Some of the palstaves have a raised inverted chevron below the stop-ridge by way of ornament. near Woodbridge. Two celts at Bhosnesney. has the middle rib large. iii. 78. p. and are orna- One Fig. found in Northamptonshire. have already been described under Fig.. p. Woodhouse Farm. 63.. 71. Six others (6 inches long). 79. ii. The looped type.|| near Wrexham. near Bangor.— Oldbury Hill.]. IV I have another of the same type. and I have seen one (C>\ inches) which was found at Broomswell. The ornament consists usually of raised ribs. 3rd S. apparently of the same character. 409 at Sherford. have a smaller example of the same type (of inches) found at Hammerton. and Rom. vol. fig.* near Taunton. Knighton.. at Winterhay Green. but imperfect. Cumb. 273. like p. p. * Pring. near Ilminster. 77 (5£ inches) was found with four looped palstaves. There are some which have only a slight central ridge on the blade. as on Fig. Suffolk. as on Fig. like Fig. is engraved The loop. owing to a defect in casting. 7G. 20. .. and what from the description must have been a small ribbon-like gold torque. "Catal. A. and a spear-head like Fig. I have seen one found near Chelmsford (6f inches) with much the same ornament.

oUO. ix. was found in the neighbourhood of Ely. 79. Eeft i. in which the vertical rib does not extend into the This specimen was found at Honington. Arch. —Iloninffton.' nearly the whoh * "La Seine Inf.^: Sussex. The type is found upon the continent. in the Blackmore Museum. One from near Giessen. Marshall Fisher. who has kindly allowed me to figure it.has been I have an examine from the neighbourengraved by the Abbe Cochet. 14. depressions.—Eoss.. it ~Fis. at Broxton. Suffolk. de Fig. stops short on joining the ridge forming the In others it forms a heraldic pale running through the shield. u. The original. shield. iv. and is in the collection of Mr. 80. rather narrow at the stop-rid^v. p. is figured by .PALSTAVES WITH SHIELD-UKE ORNAMENTS. 1 1 % Suss. m Fig. Grey Egerton. Lindenschmit. vol. V. the faces of the diaphragm between the recesses for the handle have raised ridges or ribs running ah mil. 80. 91 and are in the collection of Sir P. as in five found at Waldron. shown and was found near Eoss. i. A smaller variety. which is of more yellow metal than ordinary. ! Cambridge Fens (5f inches) shield. In some the shield-shaped ornament consists of merely two triangular A palstave of this class." vol. and with almost triangular blade. M. is shown in Fig.. Cheshire. In a specimen from the rib runs onlv part of the way up the shield. hood of Abbeville. In one such from Downton. 8t. is shown in Fig.. Bart." p.f That with the shield-shaped ornament below the stop-ridge. 79. is in my own collection. . 407. in the museum at Darmstadt. Coll. One from Normandy. Taf. t " A. near Salisbury. The central Fig. h.

Fig. These are longer than in mentioned. It does not. the extremities of the cutting edge are recurved. other. [CHAP. IV. As will be seen. whence reproduced. seem to be the result of a constant in order to renew or harden the edge. appear that the instruments were originally cast in this form. Though the hammer was thus triangular depressions with a rib left between them. together with the recurved ends.— Bottisham. shown in Fig. . 79. may be called the field of the shield is on one face nearly flat on the other there are indentations on either side of the central ridge. but the wide segmental . inches). and now in the blade a bead running down This shield-shaped ornament below the stop-ridge is well shown in a 82. freely used. Cambridge. as in that from Nettleham. What palstave from Bottisham Lode. 1G0. Yorkshire. In some specimens the ornamentation consists of a greater or less number of parallel ribs below the stop-ridge. engraved as Fig. S2.-'" Lincolnshire.92 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. both in this and the specimen from Ross shown in Fig. 81—Ely. Fig. vol. almost identical with The shield ornament is. hammering out of the blade. 81. edge. however. there is between the two depressions. p. 83. like that on Fig. the whetstone was employed both to polish the sides of the blade and to perfect the cutting edge.. xviii. length. Journ. replaced by two this in size and form. five on one face and six on the the Nottingham specimen shortly to be In one found at Hotham Carr (5f Canon Greenwell's collection. With this were found two others and this cut is * Arch. however. I have a French palstave found near Abbeville.

with three ribs below the stop-ridge. a ferrule. Oxfordshire. Soc. 2nd. so as virtually to make five ribs.. was made in 1860 near Nottingham/'-' where a palstave was found similarly ornamented. inches Another (6-j inches) was found at Vronheulog. fragments of swords.]. Cumberland. } flanges at that part of the blade of the same length and character as the ribs in the middle of the blade. Canon Greenwell has specimens of this type (6£. 7s. X Arch. and a ferrule. It was accompanied by sixteen socketed celts.. 158. two spear-heads.inches) from Llandysilio. Kg. 84. with two socketed celts. Denbighshire. S. j 1 . four spear-heads. 83. vol. 332. and Private Plate. A nearly similar discovery In Mr. 99. vol. in the same collection has the ribs . Suffolk. < * Troc. f Arch.. There are also side of the peculiar type Nettleham. in 1849.. Journ. —Cambridge. two peculiar socketed celts. a tanged knife. &c. Brackstone's collection was a palstave of the same type. but also having three ribs on the diaphragm above the stop-ridge. 209. 4th S. Ant. p. p. on which the three ribs stand out in high relief and converge so as to form a triangle below the stop-ridge something like thai on Fig. viii. Camb. They are now in the British Museum. vol. found near Ulleskelf. Merionethshire long. p. and (6 inches) from Ubbeston. I have a very fine and perfect specimen (6| inches) from the lambridge Fens. which will be subsequently mentioned. I have a palstave found near Dorchester. 93 a fourth -without loop..PALSTAVES WITH VERTICAL HIBS ON BLADE. . one of them shown in Fig. i. viii. One (6 inches) from Keswick.! Yorkshire. of the same kind as Fig.

* Norfolk. 363. a fragment of a sword. is shown in Fig.^: immediately under Beachy Head. . is in the British Museum. at Cumberlow. hammers. vol. and rough metal." No. Smith's " Coll. xxxi. § Arch. pi. p. celts. Ant. left blade. in there having been two run- ners by which the metal was conducted into the mould. pieces of metal. which when broken off two projections at the top of the These being hammered so as to round the external angles and flatten the ends have come over towards each other.. three lumps of raw copper. 85— Carlton Rode. i. 117Sec Borlase. Fig. v. . vol. in Purbeck. 105 " Catal. and made what was a notch with parallel sides into one which is dovetailed. vol. with two socketed celts. 80. with- out stop-ridge. A good specimen of the same character but bent (5| inches)... Lichfield's collection it was probably found in the neighbourhood of Cambridge. p. must probably have been of this kind. chisels. &c." pi. They passed with the Thai found " Avoided />>/ Payne Knight in collection into the British Museum.. is rare in A specimen from the great England. It originates." § with the socket " double or partition. however. [CHAP. 85. vol. a an old wall. It seems to have been the stock in Some other specimens from the same trade of a bronze-founder.. Arch. so common in France and Germany. Anthrop. as well * p. vol. . 51 Arch. 9. which may possibly have been made of service in hafting the tool." as described by Mr. p. Hutchins in a letter to Bishop Lyttelton in 1768. gouges.. Norwich Mus. and with the side wings hammered over so as to form a kind of semi-cylindrical socket on either side of the blade. and four gold armlets. xx. Arch. 84. In this hoard were found numerous socketed celts. p. i. is shown in Fig. p. and as it formed part of the late Mr. find of Carlton Eode. Journ. Another palstave of the same character was found. which has been much cleaned. i Arch. Three others were found in 1806. 494. having a series of ribs upon the diaphragm as well as below the stop-ridge. p. "Ant. There is usually at the top of the blade a sort of dovetailed notch. lxviii. Herts. IV.. vi. hoard will subsequently be described. The form of palstave. vol... Inst. of Cornw. ii. with many socketed fragments of swords and daggers. Assoc. on the beach near Eastbourne.94 WTXGED CELTS AND TALSTAVES." vol. f Journ.f near Baldock. This specimen. 6. xvi. Journ. A palstave. In this instance the upper series of ribs extends nearly to the top of the instrument. 195. It was probably thought that they assisted in making the haft firm to the blade.

. vol.. p. 96.|||| near Mawgan-in-Meneage. xii. vol. vol. Arch. Joum. Iron palstaves with and without loops. p. Hallst. precisely like those on some of the bronze palstaves from the same locality. Looped palstaves. p. "Das. Austell. 75 is said to have been found in a barrow near St. §§ Borlase. II Sacken. 188.. u.§§ Cornwall. p. 21.^] Oxford. are much more abundant on the Continent than in Britain. iv. They are now in the British Musemm The upper part of a palstave of this character was found with socketed the Hundred of Hoo. Soc." p.. 05 bably found with socketed as part of another. p. socketed celts.IRON PALSTAVES IMITATED FROM BRONZE. In a specimen in have been found in the cemetery of Hallstatt. Taf. Grab. but the cavity is probroken instrument of this kind was due to defective casting. vol. Joum.** Devonshire. p. together with several socketed celts. and not the bronze in so ill imitation of the iron. No. The fact of the disappeared form occurring at all in iron shows that the iron instruments were made in imitation of those in bronze. Moi/. | Cornwall.!! and with socketed celts. and in the Lake habitations of Savoy and Switzerland. Journ. i.. of Cornto. but others more like the ordinary Italian form of palstave. specimen found in 1871 at Penvores. was found at Wickham Park. fig. looped palstave rather like Pig. in Ehenish Prussia. 85.. 186. Croydon. 2nd S. 188... J and several from Germany § by Lindenschmit. v." Taf. 184. must have been extremely difficult to and though we can readily trace its evolution in cast it accorded with the necessary conditions for the of malleable iron that it seems soon to have profitable working when iron came into general use. are recorded to have been found in Harewood Square. and the lower part of the blade of iron or steel. Journ. and swords from the same cemetery. &c. near Kidwelly.. vii. || t § "Alt. in that this was cast hollow to receive a centralprong. some of them closelyapproximating to the form of Fig. h. Eefl i. iron The same observation holds good with the spear-heads. H forge bronze. xi. Tins form of instrument. Von H |||| . Palstaves of this loops. both with and without A Danish example is engraved by Worsaae. Corn.. but no details are given. own collection the side flanges are ornamented with transverse my ribs. be. A Cliff. V.. in 1791. with a section in the form of the letter above. ** Arch. It has been thought celts. xiii. X Oldsager. vi. "Nan. Ant. v. though easily cast.* Kent. In one instance the upper part with the flanges is II of bronze. with a broad chisel-like blade. Assoc. Arch. Assoc. celts and metal on Kenidjack type. . without sufficient details being given of 1lu ir types. ft Arch." Journ. 85. {J Caermarthen. Numerous examples have been found in Prance. vol. vol. Palstaves provided with a loop on either side are of rare occurren< e in the British Islands. Proc. London. Inst. Cant. A A * Arch. vol. 123. gouges.

387 vol. p. Norris at that place. Another two-looped instrument of a different character was found at Bryn Crug..—West Buckland. 88. x. * Arch. 107. Journ. copied on a reduced (Fig. [chap. in making the Cheddar Valley line of * railway.f Somersetshire.) and a bracelet. in company with a tanged knife and a pin with three holes through its flat head It is shown in Fig. xxvii. 481. 86. Council of the Royal Archaeological Institute. —Penvores.96 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. to the Society of Antiquaries in 1873. t Arch. It was found in Somersetshire in 1868. j near Carnarvon. With it were discovered a torque (Fig. in the same county. vol. A. xxxvii. Lx. In character it closely resembles that from Brassington. W. loop. flanged . 450). 87 was found at West Buckland. 230.. IV. but there was no sign of any tumulus. xxv. 468. is engraved as Fig. For the use of this cut I am indebted to the % Arch. 246. . and is now in the British Museum. S7. In the same collection is another. p. Fig. the main difference consisting in its second Fig. 86. was exhibited This specimen. p. Another found in 1 842.) and also some charcoal and burnt bones. and having the central rib less fully developed on the blade. Sanford. 247 vol. Cornwall. vol. p. 6£ inches long. Journ. somewhat lighter below the stop-ridge. Irish specimens will be subsequently mentioned. Bryn Crug. Another example. shown in Fig. It resembles a scale from the Archceological Journal. with another from Cornwall and two from Ireland. vol. p. Fig. 88.. 76. and is in the collection of Mr. is in the possession of Mr. . Journ. (Fig. Fig. near South Petherton.

Aberdeenshire. much like that from Eeeth (Fig. p. 153. v. 58. 192. Soc. 89. at Paris in 1878. Andalusia. ft Proc.] and is here by permission reproduced as Fig." p. was ploughed up on the estate of Barcaldine. 'J:'. xvii. preh.. In the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh is a winged celt 4A inches long much like Fig.** Argyle|| shire. 4 inches long. now in the British Museum. w\ ii. Arch. Soc. Journ. possibly in old times.. vol. chisel-shaped celt. xi. has a cup-shaped projection at the butt end which has been filled with lead. with the wings somewhat curved inwards. but in most cases both the blade and the tang are long and narrow in their proportions. „ ** Proc. Many so closely resemble English specimens this chapter are that it is needless to give representations of them. Assoc. 6 inches long. has also been A broken and unfinished double-looped palfigured.ff Keith Hall. p. Another was found at Langoiran I (Gironde). H . 55. A * | $ "Materiaux. in the parish of Tullynessle. Journ." Gongoray vol. vi. Ant. stave from Oviedo. in character much like Fig. but have seen one much like Fig. 7 Arch. vol. f Vol. p. II Arch. vi. p. Aberdeenshire. One from Tarbes* was in the Exposition des Sciences Anthropologiques. 56. "Ant. Scot. and is now in the Toulouse Museum. I have one like it from a mine in the Asturias. An engraving of one from Andalusia is given in the Archaeological Journal.. Joum .PALSTAVES WITH TWO celt LOOT'S. 30 Wilson's " Prch. Fig. but h. vol. One rather broader from the Sierra de Baza.^f in the parish of Carnwath.. celt. which was found on the top of a hill called Lord Arthur's Cairn. p. vol. The form is much more abundant in Spain. 110. 69. was found at Another winged Kerswell. Dumfriesshire. p. xxvii. was found in Burreldale Moss. % Andalusia. xiv. An engraving of one much like it has been published. 21. 203. but for what purpose it is impossible to say. Scot. Proc. Scot. and from the neighbourhood of Peebles. 86 which was found in the Department oi Haute Ariege.. vol. p. Ant. Lanarkshire. . 369 Martinez.n ingfi slight stop-ridge.. Soc. Another. The forms of celts and palstaves treated of in found also in Scotland. though less frequently than those of the flat and perhaps flanged forms described in the previous chapter. dc Andal.. 230. In the same Museum are also winged celts (5 inches) from Birrens- wark. 97 lies between the side except in having that part of the blade which loops raised to the level of the flanges. 89 as a reference to the figures in the preceding pages will sufficiently indicate their character. p." fig. Ann. § There are several such in the Museums at Madrid with the head of metal left on the castings. Ant. 56). In France these double-looped palstaves are of rare occurrence.

v. . found between Balcarry and Kilfillan. but without any stop-ridge.. 382. Kircudbright. in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 21 Preh. 'J 1. i. § || |J to be common in Scotland. i.inches) from Kilnotrie. is said to have been found near Tintot-top. p. "Cat.ii. vol. Two of these palstaves are figured on a larger scale in the Ayr and Wigton Collections. the stop-ridges instead of being at right angles to the face of the blade shelve outwards. p. the lateral flanges are continued below the stop-ridge. 6." E. Ed. 113." vol. p.98 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. near Dunse.. Fig. Wigtonshire. of Scot.. xvii. Septent. Wilson. Gordon's " Itin. 1. £ in Clydesd.] Another palstave from Winclshiel. Ant. Ann. has been figured from Baron Clerk's § collection as having been found in Scotland. Mus. of S< ot. p. i. Another of much the same character. otherwise the figure would almost justify an attribution of the instrument to Southern Germany rather than to Scotland. Ann. "Preh. 56. fig.. pi. ccvi. % Arch. p. 90. of fern-leaf pattern along them. and which from the engraving appears to have a well-marked stop-ridge and to have the side flanges much hammered The over. however. The sides are hammered into V-shaped depressions forming a kind 91. E'ig. No. Palstaves with a side loop have been said * Wilson's 48. Assoc.pp. In some palstaves in the British Museum.. t V<»1. In a palstave (6J. viii." vol. A palstave without loop.* Crossmichael. to whom I am indebted for the use of Fig. and there is a median ridge down the blade. says that it has no stop. vol. of [CHAP. Journ. . 110. pi. . 2 Gough'a "Camden." vol. One of them is engraved as Fig. — Burreldale Moss.— Balcarry. 90.. has also the flanges somewhat hammered over." p. 383. " Arch.8 and 9. IV and has been engraved by the Society of Antiquaries Scotland.ilc description.

but does not figured. but generally speaking there are sufficient peculiarities in their forms Fig. A. Wilson describes it as a crowbar or lever. 77. p.. to which the reader is referred for the more highly ornamented celts. Other Irish types have also been in- cidentally cited. " " Cat.. palstave rather like that from Balcarry. Wilson. vol. ii " Catal. 78. Inst. that some Irish instruments of the latter class have already been mentioned in the preceding chapter. 92. i 2 . 377 . 110. t Srptent. say where it was found." p. Mus. fig. Antrim. One from Aikbrae. like Fig. have occaI been found in Ireland. Mus. 521. $ Scot. 1. is in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy." vol. Arch. has been Wilson gives another example like Fig. but with a loop. vi. I may observe that it is so difficult to draw the line between the flanged tapering both ways from a central ridge. 91. The "spade" he gives as his Fig. but without holes in 4he side stops (7 1 inches). p. pi. have one (54 inches) from Armoy.. and one is figured by Wilde. but as its total length is only 7^ inches it can hardly be classed among such instruments. Jown. I. The wide-spreading celt with a slight stop-ridge and segmental band upon the blade.— Pettycur.^: Fifeshire.. 27.. is thought to be accidental. i. 386. and those which have a slight projecting stopridge upon them. men- tioned in the Catalogue. following pages. besides those origin.. varieties. or possibly as a chisel. Preh.* Lanarkshire (6| inches). vol. as seen in Fig. like Fig. Co." ]>." p. xvii. and the bend in the upper part. 21. X Arch. Joum. Assoc. 59 is in all probability Italian. R. 1. § A is A Turning now to the instruments of this class discovered in Ireland. is said to have been found in the year 1810 in a barrow near Pettycur. as in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland there are no authenticated examples. the reader is referred to Wilde's celts without a stop-ridge. * Arch. Some of the Irish palstaves much resemble English and Scottish types. to enable a practised observer to recognise their For several other varieties of form. Winged sionally |) " I tin." p. || "Catal. 99 but this can hardly be the case. somewhat similar tool. figured by Gordon t as having been found in Scotland. ( )TTISH PALSTAVES. 394. Ed. 92. It is described as very strong. What may be classed as a celt with two side loops.. Fig. Ann. 53.

cit.. p. 259. 373. Co. 93 —Ireland I have another froin Armoy. I have another from County Antrim. type has a very high stop-ridge coming up to the level of the side wings. the blade above the stop-ridge being somewhat thinner than it is below. I have a specimen near Enniskillen. t Op. . and with broad lozenge-shaped wings. A remarkably fine specimen from Westornaments on the wings and at the lower meath with punctured Some are been engraved by Wilde. a long fusiform boss has been cast in the centre of the blade. a low having projecting ridge Fijj. Palstaves without a stop-ridge. In a palstave in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy. without the segmental The type of Fig. with a still slighter transverse ridge. in which the lower part of the blade has a slight median vertical ridge. also occurs." p. 93. on which is a central vertical ridge with two others marked. Antrim (6 inches). fig. but like Fig. Mus. IV. A. which forms the upper boundary to a shield-shaped projection on the blade. R.100 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. 373. The base of the shield is pointed.. between the wings.! with elliptical wings. on each A side less definitely not uncommon * " Catal. [('HAP. One of nearly the same type. are of rare occurrence. 54 has also been found. 94. is shown in Fig. 262. An example is shown in Fig. I. fig.* margin of the band has band. (6 inches) from Ballinamallard. like Fig. 56. 50.

E. The compartment is ornamented with vertical punch marks. 97 shows an example from Lanesborough. In other cases the ridge of the wings is continued as a moulding on the face of the blade. * J 97. Wilde* has pointed out. —Ireland. Longford. m III i Kill Tig. F. as will be seen in Fig. Mus. with only a slight stop-ridge. as seen in Fig..-North of Ireland. which. Fig.—Lanesborough.. Such compartments are often seen on the winged celts. A. 95.. On a specimen at Dublin there are on the otherFig." p. "Catal. Co." "' »1 Ml i. Bg 260 . i r / P Fig-. as Sir W. "7. 96. but there is here a slight shoulder at the base of the central facet which may have assisted in securing the blade to the handle.IRISH PAFSTAVI- 101 is In another instrument in the same collection the whole blade thickened out so as to form the stop-ridge. I. may have served "to keep the tying in its place. 95. now in the collection of Canon Green well. From the base of this there sometimes proceeds a vertical rib. wise flat sides elevated transverse ridges. sometimes with a vertical rib in addition. K.S. so as to enclose a space below the stopridge. Inverted chevrons by way of ornament below the stop-ridge are not uncommon. 96. The outside of the wings is faceted after a fashion not unusual in Ireland.

on the sides of which a kind of fern-leaf pattern has been hammered. with a low stop-ridge and with a vertical rib passing through an inverted chevron on the blade. and the side wings A small example are hammered over so as to form an imperfect socket. x. Co. The original is in the collection of Mr. from Trilliek. 101.A. 7. The shield plate has two vertical hol- New lows worked on it." p I have a larger specimen (4£ inches) VallanceyJ engraves a palstave of this type. . iv. Mus. in Fig. 99. pi. 379. of the kind is shown I. Fig. Fig. 9S— Trilliek In some instances. The side of a celt ornamented in the same manner is small palstave. f 2.—Ireland. [CHAP. A engraved by Wilde. x. is shown in Fig. * "Catal. Co. The same style of ornament occurs on palstaves of other forms. 98 is shown a celt from Trilliek.. Tyrone. 99. Vol.— In] mil.102 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. In Fig. or rather punched.* Fig. iv. there is in the centre of the stop-ridge a kind of bracket on the blade. 100. Vallancey. IV The sides of other specimens of much the same type are otherwise fashioned and ornamented. pi. not unlike the carving on one of the stones in the great chambered tumulus of Grange. 101. Tyrone.— Ireland. F. Robert Day. R. Another form of winged celt. 270. + fig. A. with two vertical grooves in the blade. 100. vol. f Fig.S. is shown in Fig.

so as to form receptacles in which the wedge-shaped ends of the split handle would be held tight against the Made." p. G30 in Wilde's CataThe sides have deep diagonal note] les upon them and the tipper logue. 37'-». . 1. $ with loops like Fig. Wilde * has engraved a specimen (6f inches) like Fig. Mas. Palstaves with a loop at the side are not of such frequent occurrence in Ireland as those without. from the Dublin Museum. however. 103. A P.. 102. The shoulders. fig. fig.LOOPED IRISH PALSTAVES. have already been mentioned as found both in Ireland and Scotland. Co.— Ireland. found at Miltown. perhaps in order to assist in steadying the blade in its handle. side flanges. It is No. slightly | flanges. Fig. from the English and foreign specimens like Fig. and Sir W. i . is shown in Fig. so Fig. are inclined upwards at an angle of nearly 45°. part of each face is chequered. 103. in which the conical bracket dies into the stop-ridge and A is in the British Museum. 104. 102. R. and the stop is supported by a conical bracket. 273. Fig. 85 in having a wellmarked shoulder or stop on the blade between the wings. Others. It differs. 381. Dublin. is shown in Fig. Palstaves of nearly the same character. These inclined stops have hceii observed in other palstaves of different forms. fine example.— Ireland. but without the loop. 105. 77 as well as that f which I have here shown on a larger scale as This latter has the wings well hammered over at the base. instead of being nearly square to the midrib. have a bracket on the blade between the A remarkable form with slight side flanges and no stop-ridge. Wilde has called attention to them in connection with a palstave much like thai qow under The most consideration. 265. 377. but without any projection or loop on the side remarkable feature in the Miltown example is a projecting.—Ireland. A. 101. Another noteworthy palstave. + " Catal. 103 Others -with flat blades and no brackets have the side flanges hammered over in the same manner. In this the side wings are not hammered over. 263. * P. as to form a kind of socket on each side of the blade. Jig.

521. Cork. p. also from Italy. and a square compartment chequered in lozenges above them.. Another remarkable and indeed unique instrument. pi. p. while for the actual tying it would be more convenient. iii. vi." Taf. [CHAP. tt "Catal. p. 222. but with the bottom of the side socket more circidar. This latter is wanting on the other fiice. vol." p. with the loops not quite symmetrical. but. It is like a flat celt." pi.there is also a projecting neb. vol. 382. on examination. curved spike or neb placed near the top of the blade rather above the At first sight it looks like an position usually occupied by the loop. as the cord ..S. with a loop on either side. pi. vol. in 1854. but the corresponding cartouche below is divided into small lozenges alternately hatched * " Catal. would have merely to be passed over a hook." pi. ii. fig. vol. Ant..f Some of the socketed celts from the Bologna hoard have curved nebs on each side instead of rings. Thomas Hugo. but has grooves and stops at the side like a palstave with a transverse Below the stops are two loops. ii. Journ. and not to be threaded through a loop. have been engraved by De Bonstetten.** Co.." p. 8.A. 1. Instruments of the same character. | and plain. R. Arch. "Catal. x. -86. Mus. 105. are almost or quite as The rare in Ireland as in England. however. A looped palstave of this type. xxi. In a somewhat similar palstave (3f inches) in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy*. Streitkeile. Arch. Journ. in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. imperfect loop. is.|| Double-looped palstaves. and in character like Fig. 271 . . I.. || No. it seems clear that this projection would serve quite as well as a loop for receiving a cord to hold the blade back upon its haft. f Vol. ** Proc. See alao Arch. it is evident that the casting is perfect and.104 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. and on the face here shown there is a dotted kind of cartouche below the stops. 106. 1. No. ISor. p. which was formerly in the collection of the It so closely resembles Fig. 91. fig. "Dieeher.. iv. xciv. 100. Journ. 433. 194. p. A. 377. I It was supposed to be unique. The sides below the stops are edge. " Recueil d'Ant.— Miltown.§ and Caylus. Suisses. It is 6J inches long. F. is en- graved by Vallancey. IV. have. Rev. 86 that it is not Fig. ornamented with transverse lines. 1. jf is shown in Fig. $ IF G." p. but more semicircular in outline. on consideration.. I am not sure that it was intended for the same purpose. viii. vol. another specimen of this type (6f inches) found at Ballincollig. 641. only specimen engraved by Wilde ^f is in the collection of Lord Talbot de Malahide. worth while to engrave it.J Schreiber. . 393. " Etecuei] d'Antiq.

The palstaves with a transverse edge are of more common occurrence in Ireland than in England. at Edinburgh in Fig. Another Irish specimen (3 In the Museum of (lie K'hvmI Irish inches) is in the British Museum. ma.. It is ferent manner.— Ireland. I ' is j * Proc. That engraved as Fig. Fig.A. IOC—Ireland. 109 Fig. Antrim. is in the Bell Collection in the Antiquarian Fit. iv pi s 6 "Catal.— Ireland. p 521.S. Thomas similar tool Hugo. F. I. 105 Another Irish instrument of nearly the same form.S. A . llymena. Soc. but are even there very rare. p. 156. Ant. has each of its faces ornamented in a dif. the North of Ireland (4 inches) with the stops less distinct. F. and.f The smaller specimen shown in Fig. 107. R. and is in the collection of Mr.A. Museum shown but its exact place of finding is uncertain. 107. tiy 19' . vol. t Vol. I iii. 109 was found near Ballymena. Co. Robert I have one from >ay. J Fig. Academy are several varying in length from 2| inches to o\| inches They are classed by Wilde among the chisels. Mus. 108 was formerly in the collection of the Rev. like that last described.* A figured by Yallancey. but without the grooves and stops at the sides.HUSH PALSTAVES WITH TRANSYEKSK EDGE.-.

as a rule. nor that in which the stop-ridge forms a circular collar above a blade with headings Nor have we the common Italian form. it was the palstaves may fashion of the objects rather than the objects themselves for which . though some were east in various parts of this country be of foreign origin. the English representatives of which will be discussed in the next chapter. the instruments of this kind are characterised instructive to by some local peculiarity. . as in each country. the long narrow form almost resembling a marrow spoon nor that with the almost circular blade. We have not. Perhaps it will be more mention certain conti- nental forms which are conspicuous by their absence in Britain. of is . It would indeed be a difficult task to attempt. the narrow Scandinavian form. it will at once be remarked that. chapter with those of neighbouring countries. much like an ancient mirror. the North. the case with the socketed celts of that country. the palstaves of the South. [cHAP. which is often highly decorated. And yet. yet. with the V-shaped stop-ridge. the closest analogies are to bo observed between some of those of England and France. Nor have we the German form. hut. Tn describing the various forms illustrated by the figures. as might have been reasonably expected. the inhabitants of Britain were indebted to foreign intercourse. while in the more peculiarly Scottish and Irish types the resemblances are more It must. again. to prove that these instruments so that. in comparing the instruments described in the present . I have from time to time called attention to the analogies which they present with other European forms. the southern French form with a kind of contracted waist and broad side flanges or rounded wings in the middle of the blade nor. however. IV. . and the North-west The same France present some distinguishing characteristics. and it is hardly necessary to make any broad comparison Avith those of of British palstaves and winged celts other European countries. with the along the sides. and especially of France. evidence in the shape of moulds and bronze-founders' hoards. be borne in mind that there is good remote. blade like a long spud nor. for instance. if not in several districts in each country.106 WINGED CELTS AND PALSTAVES. such as will subsequently be mentioned. again. Even in the area now embraced by France there does not appear to have been any single centre of manufacture. taken as a group.

the blade was imbedded in the handle. Stukeley. and are worthy of being rescued from oblivion. a gradual development can be traced from the flal quently celt. The class of celts cast in such a manner as to have a socket lor receiving the haft is numerously represented in the British Isles. There is at least one instance known of the inter mediate form between a palstave will) pocket-like recesses on In each side of a central plate and cell with a single socket. but it also requires much less skill in casting than the blade provided with a For casting the flat celts there was. 3 . indeed. whereas in the case of the flat and flanged celts. no need of a socket. p. as will subsebe seen. to the palstave form." originally given to the two classes by Dr. one on each side of the blade while on certain of the . tin. and of the so-called palstaves. " the recipient and " the received. with the wings hammered over so as to constitute two semi-cir cular sockets.CHAPTER V. That the recipient class is of later introduction than the received is evident from several considerations. or formed in loam. In this form of instrument the haft was actually imbedded in the blade. so that " the terms. socketed celts flanges precisely similar to (hose of the palstaves lm\ e been cast by way of ornament on the sides. being sufficient to give the shape to a flat blade of metal. iii. are founded on a well-marked distinction. a Hat blade not only approaches most nearly in form to the stone hatchets or celts which it was destined to supersede. In the first place. and whal was thus originally a necessity in construction has survived as a superfluous decoration. mould formed of two pieces a simple recess of the proper form cut in a stone. . museum at Trent* there is an instrument in which the socket :i * "Materiaux. which could be afterwards wrought into the finished form by hammering." vol. And secondly. through those with flanges and wings. SOCKETED CELTS.

rectangular. round the mouth of the celt. The decorations generally consist of lines. pellets. The evolution of the one type from the thus doubly apparent. and. cast in relief upon the the top. which may be drawn from this circumstance is that the discovery of the method of casting socketed celts was not made in Britain but in some other country. Not unfreno attempt at decoration beyond the moulding at The socketed celts are. and circles. This may be due to their being of the metal more and liable to injury from blows owing to the thinness to their being hollow. They are nearly always provided with a loop at one side. such as are so common on the solid celts and palstaves. The form of the tapering socket varies considerably. square. or those which served as patterns for the native bronze-founders. faces. are probably the earliest of their class. devoid of ornaments produced by punches or hammer marks. as has already been stated. below which the body before expanding to form the edge is usually round. say to how form of ornamentation was certainly in use at the same time as other forms. V. yet it is impossible to late a period the curved lines. and in other cases presenting every variety of form between these and the square or rectThere is usually some form of moulding or beading angular. were imported from abroad. though some few have been . as Professor Strobel says. is divided throughout its entire length into two compartments between. with distinct curved wings upon their faces. may not have come down. which eventually became This the representatives of the wings. yet socketed celts. [CHAP.108 SOCKETED CELTS. as we know from the hoards in which socketed celts As has already of different patterns have been found together. the section being in some instances round or oval. where the palstaves with the converging wings were abundant and in general use. is quently there and much more rarely on the sides. and it is not a little remarkable that though palstaves with the wings bent over are. oval. of rare occurrence in the British Islands. or more or less regularly hexagonal or octagonal. are by no means unfrequently found. Although socketed celts. been recorded. resembling a palstave with the wings on each side united so as to form a Avith a plate socket on other each side. the socketed form has also been frequently found associated with palstaves. is having on their faces the curved wings in a more or less rudimentary The inference condition. and that the first socketed celts employed in this country. almost without exception. especially with those of the looped variety.

. 110. Ill is shown a larger celt in my own collection. Others are engraved by Lindenschmit. therefore. celts and fragments of metal Another (4 inches). found in the neighbourhood of Dorchester. 59. p. preh. I have specimens from a hoard found at Drouil. probably cast size. keeping those. but tie' neck of the instrument below the moulding is subquadrate in section. The others were plain. and one with three longitudinal ribs. ii. " Age du Br. without loops.j good example from Lutz (Eure et Loir). With it was one with two raised pellets beneath the moulding round the mouth. near Rheims. The wing ornament no longer consists of a solid plate. ii. however. n the socket are two small projecting longitudinal ribs. i p." vol." ptie. Heft t "Cong. I shall. Kent." Bologna vol. and from Lusancy. but without the pellets. and a Dutch example is in the Museum at Assen. • 1 i 1 * " Alt. near Amiens.*' MonI have a telius. but the outlines of the wings of h< palstave are shown by two bold projecting beads wlii el extend over the sides of thr celt as well as the faces. The socket is circular at the mouth. Oxon. together which most nearly I begin with a approximate to each other. There is an example from Maulin in the Museum at Namur.f and Chantre.. and is now also in the British Museum. vaOxon.. V. rious parts of France. Others with the curved lines more or less 110—High distinct have been found a. was in the Douce and Meyrick Collections. i. 5. Essex. and now in the British Museum.THKIK INVOLUTION FROM TALSTAVES. u. it The types are so various that is hard to make any proper take them to a certain extent at hazard. In Fig. h. These are usually of small used as chisels rather than as hatchets. Koding. Taf. found in Thuringia. probably intended m . I have a German celt of this type. with a treble moidding at the top. L09 and were A very few hav< a loop on each side. and is represented in Fig. This instrument formed part of a hoard of found at High Eoding. specimen showing in a manner the raised wings already mentioned. very complete classification of them. On many French celts are shown by depressed the wings lines or grooves on the faces. 293.. from Wateringbury.

1874. p. | near Lewes. Treh.. p. . Greenwell. liesides eight more or less perfect unomamented socketed celts.110 to aid in steadying the haft. ->n& S. p. fig. in 1862. The same type occurs in France.—Hartj Marshes.. ii. v.S. Anderson's . A r<li. Soc. Fig. Proo. vol. vi. 1 * Journ. and are sometimes more than two in number. Inside the socket there are two longitudinal The projections as in the last. p.. In Fig.. Durham." p. Coll. 444. Inst.. Such projections are not very uncommon.* near Baldock. near Amiens. Another with two small pellets between the curved lines was found in a hoard at Beddington. which has been broken and repaired with the edge of another celt. but with two raised bands near the mouth. is now in the collection of Canon dr Fig. and Rom. Anthrop. was found on Plumpton Plain. Ant. A celt much of the same pattern." Stockholm vol. vi.. 1 12 represents another celt of much the same character. 113. and a slight projecting bead all round the instrument just below the two curved lines representing the palstave wings. 268. 1. 13 is shown one of the celts from the hoard discovered in the Tsle of 11 arty." On the face not shown there is a triangular projection at the " betop like a "pile in chief tween the flanches. and was probably found in Wilts. was found with several other socketed celts and some palstaves with the wings bent over at Cuniberlow. I have examples from a hoard found at Dreuil. Hei'ts. F. SOCKETED CELTS [chat. various celts. . I have one with the pattern less distinct from a hoard found in the Barking US wiii- rig. Soc. Essex." It was found at Hounslow. vol. 195. Another (4 inches) from the Heathery Burn Cave." vol. Cong. 408 " J ii. but w it limit the transverse line below the flanches. A celt ornamented in a similar manner. is in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. f "Surrey Arch. 11. 8. The same ornament is often seen on Hungarian though usually without the lower band. % Suss. but with a bolder moulding at top. pi. Some of these are in the British Museum..R. "Croydon Prch. § Kent. which on these celts have just the appearance of heraldic "flanches. to which I shall have to make frequent reference. In the British Museum is an example of this type (4 inches) which has on one face only a pellet in the upper part of the compartment between the two "flanches. vol.f Surrey. original of this figure. Coll.

explained. as the beading round the top varies in character. though ' Uffl lI ( inches long. someIn one of the others. 1 I . has a small projecting boss \ inch below the u>\>. In the one shown in the figure there are three distinct what expanding beaded mouldings above the loop. as well as the half of a >. the variation in length appears to be connected with the method of casting. there is a considerable difference observable among them. especially in the upper part above the loop. 115 The five other plain celts from the same hoard were all rather less than the one which is figured. and moulds. in IN. In Tig. Although so closely resembling each other that they were probably cast in the same mould. The outline and general character of the celt shown in Fig. -Hurl y. which on left face. The beads which form them are continued across the sides. AVaddesdon. found at as seen with the Loop towards the spectator. The vertical ridge above the topmost moulding shows where there is a channel in the moidcl for the metal to pass If the celts had been skilby. and appear to have been cast in three different moidds.Vj. Five socketed celts of this plain character (2^ inches to 3| inches were found together at Lodge Hill. tools. its •> Newton. and were lithographed on a private plate by J\Ir. there are only the tube. no traces of this would have been visible.V>]|. and to have arisen from a greater part of the mould having been "stopped off" in one case than another. fully cast so that their top was level with the upper moulding.WITH CURVED LINKS ON THE FAC] 111 hammers. 114 is shown one of the plain socketed celts from the same hoard. in fact in that which was found at the same time. five celts of this type were found. Hacks. Edward Stone. It will be noticed that the " flaneh. The mould in which 11 11 lMMIIlMlllil it was cast was found at the same time. 15 ma\ be is strongly marked. 111. two lowest of the beaded mouldings. J Fig. Running part of the inside the socket are two longitudinal ridges which are in the same line as the runners way down by which the metal found its way into the mould. Cambridgeshire. Fig. and in some is double and not single The two projections within the socket are in these but short. mould for one of smaller size. and above these again is a plain. As will subsequently be of the plain part above the upper moulding. In the British Museum a celt of tin's hind. " on these celts are placed below the loop and not close under the cap-moulding. and the upper half-inch of the celt The three others show very little first mentioned is absolutely wanting.

from Bottisham. The repetition of this process would. 116. 116. plain with the exception of a single or double beading at the top. Celts of this general character. is shown in Fig. and when thus injured was doubtless. nearly similar celt found in Mecklenburg has been figured by Lisch. and have been found in considerable numbers. or bent.. to some extent. from the ordinary form in having a ridge or ill-defined rib on each face which adds materially to the weight and somewhat to the strength of the instrument. Oxon. It was found near Dorchester. in the course of time. found with a hoard of bronze objects in Reach Fen. . $ Fen." 1865. though the second moulding is often absent. . or the solid part be broken away from the socketed portion. Herts. near Gorhambury. restored to its original shape mS0 Fig. In my own collection are specimens (3 inches) from Westwick Row. by being hammered out. and other places.— Reach Fig. jagged. taken as representative of one of the most common forms of English socketed celt. and there is a consi- derable range in size and in the proportion of the width to the much some more wear of a doubt due to instruments having been shortened by use and than others. 117— Beach i Fen. p. a spear-head like Fig. materially diminish the length of the blade. found with lumps of rough metal from Burwell Fen. in M. Cambridge (3^ inches). 78. Burwell Fen. found also with metal. 381 and a hollow ring. [chap. The edge bronze tool must have liable No length. of this range is been constantly to be- come blunted. This particular specimen differs.* A larger celt of the same general character. V. and then re-ground and sharpened. This may also be regarded as a characteristic specimen A of the socketed celts usually found in England. Cambridge. until eventually it would be worn out. Cambridge (3 inches). however.112 SOCKETED CELTS. occur of various sizes. In the Reach Fen hoard already mentioned were some other " celts of Pfahlbauten.

117. i. Journ. These are in the possession of Captain Brooke." 1841. BOUND THE MOUTH. A socketed celt with the single moulding was found with spear-heads. Wymington. p. If Hartshorne's " Salopia Antiqua. Surrey. obtained at Honiton. p. near Little Wenlock. I have seen others both with the single and double moulding which were found with some of the ribbed and octagonal varieties. x. Some with both the single and double moiddings were found in company with others having vertical beads on the face like Fig. has a treble moulding at the top. and lumps of metal. are of common occurrence in England. In the collection of Messrs. near Driffield. xcvi. with a socketed gouge and about 30 pounds weight of copper in lumps. 2nd. vol. No. near Bilton. Cur. one like Fig.. They are..PLAIN WITH A HEADING this type. This last has the slightly projecting beads down the angles. of York. one in the centre of each side running down the socket.. v. and These are now in the portions of a sword. and a part of a bronze blade at West Halton. in the year 1735. which has four small ribs. to the number of forty. X Stukeley. Another. Norfolk (4 inches). a peculiarity I have noticed in other specimens. "It. and other articles. § Arch. 2 J inches long. was found at * Arch. and two like Fig. 343. p. is a celt with the double A moulding (3 Frodingham. p. of Ufford Hall.. 69.. in the middle being larger than the other two. . about 12 miles N. vol. i. at Sittingbourne. 124. 113. v. I believe. p. apparently with the double moulding. 113 They were associated with gouges.. XX Proc. at inches long). a socketed knife..J Others with the double moulding. with the double mi >ulding Tun (4 inches). 124. One of them has a slightly projecting rib running down each corner of the blade.W.* Lincolnshire. Suffolk. Assoc. 83.. t Arch. J J Coombe Wood. 60. The socket is square. found at Fimber. The socket is round rather than scpiare. Soc. 76. was found in digging gravel nearCresar's Camp.^| Shropshire. vol. I . and some small whetstones. p. One (4£. Some also occurred in the deposit of nearly a hundred celts which was found with a quantity of cinders and lumps of rough metal on Earsley Common. vol. M. vol. v. || . ** Smith's "Coll. parts of a sword and of a gouge. 133. seven spear-heads. Ant. 67 2nd S. Journ. were found with twenty swords and sixteen spear-heads of different patterns. xxvi. as well as with two of the type shown in Fig.inches). and with a nearly round mouth to the socket. Cambridge (4 inches) and from the hoard found at Carlton r . near Alnwick Castle. p. Bateman Collection. hammers. celts Socketed and from 2 inches to 4 inches in length. 9. Another with the single moulding was found near Windsor . Eode.** Kent. Journ. I have other examples of this t} pe from a hoard of about sixty celts found on the Manor Farm. and also with two socketed celts. It is now in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. i. now in the Dover Museum.. part of a dagger. was found with others (some of a different type). § Northumberland. that || partaking of the character of the three types last described. at Martlesham. p. 101. Arch. plain socketed celt. in 1828. 96. 349 Devonshire. ft Engraved in Arch. Ant. Bedfordshire (3| inches) from Burwell Fen. chisels. Catal. with a small head at some little distance helow the principal moulding round the mouth. p.f Yorkshire. near Woodbridge. vol. Four socketed celts of this class with the double moulding were found. Another. knives. vol. . about the year 1726." vol." pi. Mortimer. 114. p.

18. Gross has specimens from Auvernier and Moerigen. like that on In the same hoard were looped palstaves. "Deux Stations. and closely resembling the common Irish type (Fig. Hill. near Devizes. which is hollowed and slopes away from the side on which is the loop. 120. are occasionally found in England. That shown in Fig.. US. Norfolk. scabbards. owing to defective cast- "The Barrow Diggers. and was kindly presented to me by Mr. xbi sup. with a nearly square socket and long narrow is shown in Fig. narrowing to a central waist. but of peculiar form. John Brent. 4 Montg. iv. . A socketed celt without any moulding. F. Socketed celts of this character occur throughout the whole of Prance. Another.S. but having a moulding at the top.—Canterbury. 3. 437.114 Hill. || p. * The loop is imperfect." pi. p.. Arch. x. spears. which was oval.j Fig. the top. is said to have heen found near in a tumulus near the King Barrow on Stowborough Heath. i. Usk. swords. 114. ••' Wareham. t Gross." p. celt of the same general character as Fig. SOCKETED CELTS [chap. the original of which was found at Alfriston.A. 214. to judge from a bad engraving. gouges. Broad socketed celts nearly circular or but slightly oval at the neck. blade Another variety. has above a double moulding. V. . near Holt. vol. " X Arch. 1 67) form and character. § with a nearly square socket. 74. No. Sussex. and is in the Blackmore Museum. Among field. &c. Coll. vol. pi. where is also one found near Bath (3f inches) with the mouldings more uniform in size. is shown in Fig.. 118. Monmouth- I have seen another (3| inches) in the collection of Mr. a cable moulding round the mouth. Dorset. Dr. p. The original was A found at Canterbury.f which closely resemble English examples. Camb. iii. Camb. i. The same form is found among the Lake habitations of Switzerland." vol. is said to have been found under a supposed Druid's altar near Keven Hirr Vynicld.. those found at Guils- Montgomeryshire. 6. that. No. 3rd 8. E. 15.S. Fig. had no moulding at the top. Another..|| on the borders of Brecknockshire.A. They are of rare occurrence in Germany. j Arch. &c. 172.. 119 is stated to have been discovered at the in Castle shire. which was found at Hanworth. 24. but are most abundant in the northern parts. F. was one of somewhat the same chadouble racter.

114. some as late as the time of Constantius Chlorus. the clay having by the heat of the metal been converted into a brick-like terra- ing. vol. | |" more like Fig. The socket the edge. The type is indeed Gaulish rather than British. the bulk were in this condition. and in which the core over which it was cast still fills the socket. never have been in use. i. ii.. 9. t Suss. in the Cotes du Nord. the loop having been almost eaten it is impossible to say whether the surface and edge were left as they came from the mould. Two found with many others in the New Forest* (3 and 5 inches long) are engraved in the Archccologia. 10 Gough's " Camden.—Alfriston. v. have another celt of the same size and form as that from the Portland beach. Others (5 inches long) seeni to have formed pari * Arch. cotta. 4 J inches long." vol. 7. Among the celts found at Kara Bre. and with the burnt still clay cores I in the sockets. fig. which was found near Wareham. . Cornwall. in 1744. The larger has a rib 3 inches long running down the face and terminating in Fig. of bronze celts of this type which was found at Moussaye. but that there was a regular export of such celts to Britain. 12. zc\ i t Ibid. vol. It could. pi. Arch. 26S. and is very abundant in the north-western It appears probable that not only was the type part of France. fig. i2 . with them are said to have been found several Roman coins. and near the church at Brighton. so that of the sea.OF A GAULISH T1TE. therefore. as no haft could have been inserted. p. For I have in my collection a celt of this type. found in our southern counties. originally introduced into this country from France. Dorset. 124. viii. It is waterworn and corroded by the action and worn away. and extends to within an inch of Instruments of this type are principally. Coll. Others of the same type have been found at Hollinghury TTill. that was found under the pebble beach at Portland. In the large hoard. if not solely. were some of this character. near PldneV left Jugon. 115 is very deep.. p. p. an annulet. though longer in proportion. and appears to have been in use. but expanding more at the Others were cutting <»lge. 120. Sussex. however..

U Lindenschmit. vii.. on Site of Taunton. I High Roding. Another with three such knobs on each face.. Another has been cited Celts of this but one. It was found with others at High Reeling." vol. 4. which I is regard as of Gaulish derivation.116 of SOCKETED CELTS [chap. Taf. Journ. set. xvii. xvii. The form of narrow celt. in the Museum Roman remains at Chesterof the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. near Plenee-Jugon. is in is my own col- Within the socket on the a raised nar- centre of each side row rib running down 2 inches from the mouth. and in a large number the core of burnt clay was still in the socket. 122. Fig. 148. 121. p. 122 projecting boss. The original was found in the Cam- bridge Fens. &c.." vol. A hoard of about fifty is said to have been found near Bevay. which.^} Belgium..f is in the museum at Alnwick. h. Journ. on one of its faces. p. said le-Street. "Materiaux." vol. in the || same department. Celts like Fig.§ to form are of have been disinterred with is which there was also of Northumberland's from Cornwall. Journ. Plain socketed celts nearly square at the mouth have occasionally been found in Germany. from Bath. and Rom. Another. A deposit of sixty was discovered near Lamballe (Cotes du Nord). have been found. 1. Vorz. i. Essex. § Arch. is ornamented with a small In Fig. 120 are of very frequent occurrence in Northern France.. but a specimen is rare inches) of nearly the same form as . t Arch. vol. is shown an example with two pellets beneath the upper moulding. Pring. with palstaves. i. fine rapier. Taf. ft Arch. 75. 120 in in outline. in the hoard found at a Mawgan. One from Pomerania** is much like Fig. and one of more than two hundred at Moussaye. xxxvii.. consisting almost entirely of this type. V. " Alt. the figure was found. i. large hoards. Arch. vol.ff * X || Arch. fur Eth. and is now in the British Museum. vol.. p. vol. placed near the Fig. or to within J inch of the The type (5 Fig. p. not nearly so elegant as that of a more purely English type of which an example is shown in Fig. ii. ix. Heft ii. sickles. vol. 121. 94. Journ. " Brit. 539. Duke Durham. 337. u. vii. xvii. 2. ** "Zeitsch." pi. . Assoc. Cambridge Fens.^: rare occurrence in the North of England. p. near Taunton. celts Most of the both these hoards had never been used. and lection. SomerThere is also a resemblance to the Barrington celt.* Cornwall. 75. p. 172. I have already mentioned a celt with a moulded top. bottom of the socket.

would probably carry the case no farther than to prove that the Roman coins and the bronze celts were found near the same spot. .* Essex. I may mention that I lately purchased a fifteenth-century jeton as having been found with Merovingian gold ornaments. 117 top of the instrument. In illustration of this collection of objects of different dates. On any * Neville's " Sepulchra Exposita. 125—Barrington. is said to have been found at the same time. a circumstance which suggests the probability of celts in actual use having served as the models or patterns from which the moulds for casting others were made. and possibly by the same man. or ribs. is shown in Fig. They celts consists of vertical lines. The original is in the British Museum. and was found at Chrishall. Fig. 3. large brass coin of Hadrian." p. like Fig. on the same day. where also several plain celts with single or double mouldings at the top. i Some of the Breton celts. in form knobs on a level with the loop.WITH VERTICAL RIBS ON THE FACES. but are rarely less than three. In some instances the ribs are so slight as to be almost imperceptible. 124. As in other instances.— Reach Fen. vary in number. and a portion of a socketed knife were dug up. much defaced. Fig. have two or three Another and common kind of ornament on the faces of socketed extending from the moulding round the mouth some distance down the faces of the blade. some spear-heads. as in each successive moulding and casting any prominences such as these ribs would be reduced or softened down. the evidence on this A point is unsatisfactory. 123. 120. and if it could be sifted. 123— Crishall. Fig.

had three ribs on its face.. Journ. from the hoard found at Westow. vol. X Op. with.. vol. . iii. The celts found with spear-heads and discs near Newark. p. and having the three ribs farther apart. p.R. x.. see also vol.118 SOCKETED CELTS [CHAI\ V. 332. 70. vol. . ft Evans' ** Arch. fragments of swords. possible traces of metal moulds with clay. xv. now in the British Museum. 185. vol.* in that county. There are some celts which on one face are quite smooth and plain.§ Wilts. but of different sizes. cit. The same is the case with some of the celts which have the slightest " of the The flanches. on which is a jet bead. H. Ant. vol. 102." pi. vol.|J LincolnOthers were discovered in company with a shire. ferrules. viii. Assoc. There are slight projecting beads running down the angles. and numerous other objects. some spear-heads.| near Freston. were found with a socketed knife. and the half of a bronze mould in which to cast them. but with coarse ribs somewhat curved.. p. This specimen was found Fig. already mentioned. ix. 8. A celt with the vertical ribs from the hoard of * Arch. and a tanged knife." such as seen on Fig. p. 111. Assoc. 107. to prevent the adhesion of smearing the castings. other supposition it is difficult to conceive how an ornamentation so indistinct as almost to escape observation could have originated.' and is in my own collection. cit. . .. from the fact of its having a large bronze ring passing through the loop.often cited. \\ Froc.** Durham. with other bronze objects. together with two spears. 58. and now in Canon Greenwell' s collection. Brit. Hv. i. Arch. Cambridge. has given me by Mr.. p. 13. ii. vol. and with a gouge like Fig. it is said.. |j It Op. vii.S. is shown in beads at the angles. vol. 9 "Horao Fcralcs.^] near Garstang. \% Arch. were attached to it subsequently by the finder. It has not the in company with a celt dike Fig. The three ribs die into the face of the blade. Cambridge. p. 125. Mliana. near Nottingham. There can be little doubt that the ring and bead. looped palstave. and which has been so. in the Heathery shown in Fig. F. ii.f in the North Biding. as has been one from Cuerdale. have been frequently found in the Northern English counties. 2nd S. 'Sue. Journ. Celts of wider proportions. at Stanhope. at Barrington. §§ in 18G0. pi. 7. I have one (3J inches) from Middleton. 332. The celt which was found near Tadcaster. pi. 204. vol. xvi. 124. and five others at Winmarley. Arch. f Arch. Seven or eight such celts. would tend to obliterate such ornaments. Lancashire.. p. while on the other some traces of the ribs may just be detected. 362. in the manner in which they may now be seen in the British Museum. a human skeleton and two ancient British silver coins. several from Yorkshire. That found at Cann.. on the Yorkshire Wolds. xx. Another of nearly the same type. v. 419). which not improbably were found at the same time as the celt. One (3f inches long) was found near HullJ in Yorkshire. 116. vol. Ant. are of this type. Journ. " Anc. iv." p. . has been figured. Several others were found in the hoard at West IIalton. pi. and one (4£ inches) from Bockbourn Down. 69. p. S.. which was Harland and Canon Greenwell. 304. Journ. 236. 6 1 Proc. Soc. p. is Reach Fen. Another was found.ffnear Shaftesbury.. xxxvii. Lancashire. one of them having crescent-shaped openings in the blade (Fig. pp. C. i. pi. is also of this type. Coins. p. spear-heads. A celt with three ribs.

Ant. 113). Glamorganshire. I have one (8§ inches) from Llandysilio. In some rare examples the three ribs converge as they go down the blade. ix. Two others (5|. RIBS ON TIIK FACES 110 Burn Cave. Inst. p. The type is not confined to the Northern Counties. which was found with many other socketed celts and other articles at Martlesham. One such is shown in Fig. of which further mention will subsequently be made. socketed celt of this kind (5 inches long). 127. and forms a sort of cornice round the celt.. G. A Canon Greenwell has a inches). ii. Suffolk. vol. J The three-ribbed type occurs occasionally in Franco. Many bave also been found in Yorkshire and Northumberland. Another (1 inches) from Cornwall is in the British Museum. || f Arch.! Sussex. 132. Somersetshire. in making the South Wales Railway. Fagan's. vol. 130. 118. Corn." pi.inches and 4f inches) were found with part of a looped palstave ^[ and a waste piece from a casting. the upper surface of which is flat. is in the Taunton Museum. Norfolk. Denbighshire. A. vol.§ Cornwall.. 'Sm'. p. and was found with twenty-seven other socketed * Proe. p. in the hoard already mentioned (p. being filled up with metal. 31. Some long celts of the same kind were found at Karn Bre. H Journ. celt of this type (4 found at Llandysilio. Toulouse. ii. 2nd S. Ant. and is now in the British Museum. That engraved as Fig. with a square socket. 59. 2nd S. Fig. and other towns. . Arch.. with three parallel ribs on the flat surface.. near Hensol. Assoc.. Durham. the moulding at the top is large and heavy.—Mynydd-y-( ilas.|| St.. on Kenidjack Cliff. Examples are in the Museums of Amiens. 'Jim. v. 4 inches long.. In the same collection is another of much the same character. Clermont Ferrand. as already mentioned. Roy. This specimen is in outline more like Fig. % Suss. in the same county. 126.. Glamorganshire.f near Attleborough. In some celts with the three ribs on their faces.* near Stanhope. p. and part of a spear-head. found in 1849 with others similar. was found near Launceston. and lumps of metal. Coll. 4f inches long. Proe. Three vertical ribs are of common occurrence on celts from Hungary and Styria. Another. i. with two others having three somewhat converging ribs (3f inches and 3^ inches). a socketed knife. fig. 7. No. The loop is badly cast. Bart. found in Wales. Soc. but of ruder fabric. I have seen another. Hood. was found at Pulborough. Poitiers. One from Sedgemoor. vol. 5 Jottrn. 126 was found at Mynydd-y-Grlas. in Great Wood. The original is in the possession of Sir A. " Ilorao Ferales..WITH VERTICM. Cornwall. Denbighshire. for specimens occurred in the great find at Carlton Rode. with traces of the three ribs.

two gouges. some of oval and some of square section. two palstaves. One (4J inches) with five ribs was found in tho hoard at Martlesham. vol. Somerset. Fig. Fitch. I. already mentioned. are in the collection of Mr. and numerous fragments of celts and leaf-shaped swords. E. 3. and another at Uroust in Andreas. is in the Blackmore Museum. and is in the collection of Mr. Examples was found with three and four ribs from Kirk-patrick and Kirk-bride. Surrey. 2nd S. R. celts. pi. i. % Allies." pi. One (3£ inches) with six small vertical ribs on the faces. . 12 Fig." p. two daggers..* Stogursey.. Others with four ribs occurred in the find at West Halton. is engraved as at Frettenham. p. It also in Mr. 427.—Frettenham A specimen with four ribs. Isle of Man. iv.120 SOCKETED CELTS [chap. twelve spear-heads. V. In other rare instances there is a transverse bead running across the blade below the three vertical ribs. vol. 18. Fitch's collection. The celt shown in Fig. pi. t Arch. 1. p.t LincolnOne was also found at the Castle Hill. of M.. Fig. ^ 1.S.— Guildford Fig. J shire. In a celt with * Proc. Wallace of Distington. " " 1st Wore. 128. x. 129. Rep. § Isle of Man. 128 was found near Guildford. near Salisbury. Journ. J. Park.. Norfolk. 129. Soc. found at Downton. v. i. as well as rough metal and the refuse jets from castThe whole lay together about two feet below the surface at Wick ings.A. also already mentioned. Whitehaven. Worcester. On other celts the vertical ribs are more or less than three in number. Suffolk. Coram. F. Arch. Ant. 69.

though the pellets are so indistinct as to have escaped the eye of the engraver. This specimen. but the external faces being rounded. Norfolk. This celt is remarkable for the unusually broad and heavy moulding The notches in the edge. I may mention a large one in my own collection (4f inches) found in the Fig. in which the model that served for the mould was cast. is in good condition. has also the three * "^Iatc'riaux. pellets. and is shown in Fig. near Ely. Tho celt from Caston. the sides of the socket is oval. shown in Fig. 131. is of this kind. Celts closely resembling Fig. which has been kindly lent me or The mouth by Mr. which the engraver has reproduced. Marshall Fisher. 129 are in the museums at Nantes and Narbonne. 131. £ Isle of Portland. are flat. in my own collection. and the probability is in favour of this almost complete obliteration of the pattern being due to a succession of moulds having been formed. £ Kg.— Caston. 130. It is not unfrequently the case that the ribs thus terminate in roundels That from the Fens. are of modern origin. . 11. 130— Ely. at the top. ii.WITH RIBS ENDING IN PELLETS. pi. v. The ribs run about 2i inches down the oxidised to see whether they end in faces. 121 square socket from the Carlton Rode find there arc traces of six ribs on one of the faces only." vol.* As an instance of a celt having only two of these vertical ribs upon it. but the metal is too much pellets or no. each rather more indistinct than the one before it.

but there are short diagonal lines branching each direction from the central rib near the top. but barely 3 inches long. from the Carlton Eode find. and in the place where a ring ornament. I have another of the same kind. Another. Journ. F. was found in the Thames. Bateman's " Catalogue. p.122 SOCKETED CELTS [chap.* near Castleton. near Bury St. Lyme" (1810). J — Fig.S. has one (4J inches) Carlton Rode. from the hoard found in Reach Fen. 133. Fig. there are only four ribs.. Derbyshire. in all respects like Fig. found at Canon Greenwell has one Cascastel. 303. x\ iii.. is in the museum at Narbonne. vol. Another with four ribs. AV. 120 in p. be observed that in the Fornham celt the It will first and last ribs form headings at the angles of the square shaft. from Thetford.G. the late Mr. one with five short five ribs ending in pellets. the celt has only four ribs at regular intervals. Marriott's " Ant. 74. In Figs. . near Milton. A Edmunds. similar (5 inches). celt of this type is in the Stockholm Museum. form. ." ireh. but longer. 133. Brittany. have seen another rather more hexagonal in section. Celts with vertical ribs ending in pellets are occasionally found in France. already mentioned. p. and is in the Bateraan Collection. Suffolk. Flower. I have a small one * like Fig. F. from Broughton. where is also another (4J inches) from the Peak Forest. The latter was bequeathed to me by my valued friend. except that the outer ribs are not at the was found at angles. Another (4£ inches).S. Canon Greeiiwoll. on one face of which the central rib would terminato. but shorter (4 inches). Brough. In the other none of the beads come to the edge of the I have a celt like face.E. of L57. 132 and 133 are shown two celts of this class. ending in pellets. longer ribs ending in larger roundels. One from Lutz (Euro et Loir) is in the museum at < hateaudun others are in that of Toulouse. which was found in the Cambridge Fens. Fornham. in ribs ending in pellets. near Frith. and without the diagonal lines. 133. J. Derbyshire. The other face of from l'Orient.. and the other with from Fornham.

The sides of this celt are not flat.S. J I'i''. Cambridge. and is now in the collection of Canon Greenwell. F. . besides the row of roundels or pellets at the end of the ribs. and each termiin Fig. with indications oi section. which represents a specimen in the British Museum. 134.—"Warwick. from Bottisham lllllli Jl III till Hill -H«i Pig. ]!• It has five ribs. Fig. a second row a little higher up. as is shown in Fig. The metal is somewhal oxidised. and is made rather moro distinct in the engraving than it is in Hie original. addition to the vertical ribs there is a double series of chevrons over the the pattern upper part of the blade. This instrument was found at Fen celt as almost to merge in them. 136. Ditton. In the Warrington Museum is a curious variety of the cell with the three vertical ribs ending in pellets.WITH RIBS AND PELLETS ON found near Saumur (Maine Fig. but somewhal in ridged. i Lode. TIIF l'\( I -. mr>. et Loire). 135. 133.—Fen Dittun. terminal pellets. 134.— JJoii isiiuu. Cambridge. so that in its upper part it presents an irregular hexagon There are ribs running down the angles. On some celts there is. 136. The outer Hues are so close to the angles of the nates in a small pellet. arranged as on An example with a far larger array of vertical ribs than usual is shown The ribs are arranged in groups of three. which by the kindness of the trustees It will be seen thai in of the museum I have engraved as Fig.R.

the simplest and most easily made. 7. at celt has already been figured on a smaller scale. vol. Lancashire. 81 .f Russia. An ornamentation of nearly the same character. des Ant. of a celt with ring ornaments end of the ribs is in the British Museum. p. xv. Some of the l. 158. Arch. 120 have one ring-ornament on each face." 2me partie. V. Yorkshire. Surrey. p. ma- We find these ring ornaments in relief on many of the coins of the Ancient Bri- and in intaglio on numerous articles formed of bone and metal. lian palstaves they are commonest ornaments. p. 137. xxiv. but without pellets the end of the ribs. 284. Next to the cross this ornament is. * Arch. Journ. and is shown in Fig. \ Fig. 137. 138— cayton Carr. t Chantre. j pottery which is known to belong to that period. "Age du Bronze. perhaps. the angles of which are ribbed or beaded. occurs on a socketed celt from Kiew. like the astronomical symbol for the sun 0. . Joitrn. 23G Mem. is in the museum at Nantes. p. for a notched flint could be used as a pair of compasses to produce a circle with a well-marked centre on almost any terial. example from Kingston. X Chantre. composed of two concentric circles and a central pellet. 115. Canon Green well possesses a nearly similar celt (5 inches) from Seanier A socketed Carr.riltany celts like Fig. Assoc. but with pellets having a central boss at the A good instead of the ring ornaments.." 2me partie. " Ago du Bronze. toI.124 This SOCKETED CELTS [chap. xv. fig. £ It was found in Brittany. it is remarkable that the orna- ment is of very rare occurrence on any of the Fig.* near Warrington. But though so the frequent on metallic antiquities of the latter part of the Bronze Age. fig. however hard. p. celt with the same ornamentation. pi. which belong to the Koman and Saxon periods.— Kingston. 1872-7. On Itatons. du Kord. and was found Winwick. at The circles vertical ribs or lines occasionally end in ring ornaments or with a central pellet. 138.. 292. .

. about midway of the spaces between the lower ribs. between which and the moulding round the mouth are two other vertical beads. vol. It is probable that this celt was found in the Thames. In a very remarkable specimen from Lakenheath.— Lakenheath. there are three lines formed of rather oval pellets. and alterThere nating with them two plain beaded ribs ending in small pellets.IP | Fig. p. HI . i. i. See also Arch. Ant. Another of remarkably analogous character was certainly found in the Thames near Kingston. F. and shown in Fig. vol... the three ribs ending in ring ornaments spring from a transverse bead. f Proc.WITH RIBS AND RING ORNAMENTS. 2nd S. Ml. Below the principal nioidding at the top of the celt is a band of four raised beads It is hj way of additional ornament. shown in Fig. Fig. vol. p. 491. vol. preserved in the British Museum and engraved as Fig.R. terminating in ring ornaments. ii. i. 138. Yorkshire. HUPP""* # J . vol. 139.. are traces of a cable moulding round the neck above. Soc. Ant. 139. Soc.! and is now in the Museum of the Society of * Proc. xxx.— Kingston In another variety. 83. Ant. 106.. 21.S.* Suffolk.. 101 2nd S. .. there is a double row of ring ornaments at the end of the three ribs. p. Fig 140—Thames. and Proc.. p. 140. p. and in the collection of Canon Greenwell. 125 On a celt found at Cayton Carr. also in the British Museum. A nearly similar specimen is in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Soc.

1 A * Engraved also in " Horse Feralcs. shown in Fig. F. 141. the two outer of which are connected with from two curved lines<l lines of pellets running down the margins of the blade. as is seen on one of the faces of the curious celt shown in Fig. (he upper one reversed.>. 1luve others less ornamented.A. v. where the usual ribs are replaced by rows of two or three slightly raised Hues. with one ring orna- ment will) at top ribs diverging and three below. ending in ring ornaments. and is in tin- British Museum. but above the transverse bead are three ascending ribs. T. was found in the Thames. On the other face it will be seen that the ornamentation is of a different character. SOCKETED CELTS [ CHAP. . 142. nearly similar celt from Scotland is described at page 1. Layton. 2nd S. There is still a ring ornament at the liase. 428. the pellets in the centre of which are almost invisible. p." pi. V. Soc.S.. which alternate with those that descend. v. All these ribs are double instead of single. In another very rare specimen the vertical lines are replaced by two double chevrons of pellets. f Proc. at Kingston. In some rare instances there are ring ornaments both at the top and at the bottom of the vertical lines. i..126 Antiquaries. . This specimen. 5. The original was found. f and is in the collection of Mr. ribs.* Surrey. On it are only two descending It is shown in Fig.37. Ant.

and is in the collection of Mr. It was found near Blandford. —Thames margin. near is in section a flattened hexagon. Others have three lines. The seetion at the neck is a flattened hexagon. has llntings Mf>M] inches). but without the central rib. as shown in Fig. were a dozen or more of much the same outline and character. formed part of a large hoard. also in the British Museum. and was probably found near Cambridge. found down the angles at for . A celt ornamented in the same manner. Dorsetshire. 144. parallel to the sides." represented by double hnes. of Weymouth. H. and at the top two " flanch. and there are three curved ribs on either side. In this case the section of The specimen is in the British the neck of the blade is nearly circular. 146. In the celt shown in Fig. Yorkshire. was found near Mildenhall. each ending in a pellet. Prigg. for in the collection of the late Mr. now in the British Museum. E. 143. Yorkshire. It seems probable that the instruments from Blandford.VARIOUSLY ORNAMENTED. as it formed part of the late Mr. Pocklington. The neck of this celt It was found at Givendale. B. one straighl ami two curved. Some have a straight rib on each of the sloping sides. E. and others again have merely a central line on the flat face. A celt of nearly the same outline as Fig. Another (4 inches). 127 In another equally rare form there is a treble ring ornament at the bottom of a single central beaded rib. on the flat face. has two ribs on each Fig. Lichfield's collection. as seen in Fig. Medhurst. Suffolk. 145 the central rib terminates in a pellet.. and is now in the British Museum. Bliglrl Gembling. as will as two curved lines on the flat face. and is remarkable on account of its having been cast so thin that it sen incapable of standing any hard work.. in company with until ashed gouges. Museum.

J Another.. f Berks. ornamented with a reversed chevron. and is now in the British Museum. is shown in Fig. 147. Cambridge. 303. Ant. 398. near Barrington. iv. 149. well. vol. below the moulding. 2nd S. of much the sa»me character as that on the palstaves. A rare form of socketed celt is shown in Fig. Another of these instruments. from an original in the British Museum. and a two-edged cutting tool or razor (Fig. 60. Ireland? Fig.E. hut having a curved edge.. is shown in Fig. vol. and a socketed celt like Fig. 150 is in my own collection. 112. A more common form has a circular socket and moulded top. and with short single ribs on each side. Fig. A broader celt. with a flat celt. Soc. Fig. but I doubt its being really Irish. £ $ Barrington. That shown in Fig. 149. a palstave. It formed part of the Cooke Collection from Parsonstown. like Fig.S. formed of three raised ribs. £ Hounslow- Wallingford. and is in my own collection. King's County.128 about two-thirds of its SOCKETED CELTS length.. 148. Canon Green- ornamented in the same manner. . 193). It has at the top of the blade. a socketed knife. a tanged chisel (Fig. The original was found in the Fens.* is in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. below which the neck of the blade is an almost regular octagon. found at Thames Ditton. 148. but in this case formed by indented lines cast in the metal. Soc. f This is possibly the specimen mentioned in Proc. V. of unusually narrow form. a shieldshaped ornament. Pig. and was found at Wallingford. iii. 160. 147. It was found at Hounslow. in company with a socketed gouge. F. 269). It is in the collection of [chap. Ant. * Froc.

Another. Jura. pi. || 1.. 5. i. p. v. pi. 109. Journ. found at Minster.. but the third (3 J inches) is shorter and broader. 4 [ Allies. 55 Arch. x. Another (5 inches long). 493. vol. t Arch. Soc Ant. % " Album. a tanged chisel. I have seen another. A celt of this type. at Holt. vol. Iv. xxiv. at Haxey.ft Another example. I have another of nearly the same form (4f inches). J in Cleveland. Nearly the same form has been found in Swedcn. together with a looped palstave. Arch. vii. 129 One nearly similar. 349 Batoman's Catal. . \\ Arch.R. 293. Anglesea. at Roseberry Topping. iv. xvi. now at Liverpool. together with the mould in which it was cast. celts and fragments of swords and spears.OF OCTAGONAL SECTION. found with a socketed gouge already mentioned.** I have one from the hoard found at Dreuil. Lincolnshire..§ Worcestershire. JEliana. F. p. is in the Mayer Collection at Liverpool. p." Bologna vol. In the collection of Canon Greenwell. Journ. was regarded as an instrument for sharpen- shown Pig. It was found in 1868 in draining at Newham.— Newliiim ing spear-heads. Kent. found at Orgelet. with other kept. from Coveney. I have also one from the Cambridge Fens. In one found at Ty-Mawr. pi. 151. 13...S. 3 K . Northumberland." This was probably found in Kent. broken specimen. 167. in outline the common A celt apparently of the type Irish form. supposed to have been found in Yorkshire. was found in the Severn. The socket is of an irregularly square form. ** MJm. F.. ii. (i0. p.f Yorkshire. Suffolk.S. preh. AZliana. Occasionally the neck of the blade is hexagonal instead of octagonal. It was found with a socketed knife. Yorkshire. 6. pi. near Amiens. is in Fig. more trumpet-mouthed. as well as one from the Lac du Bourget. which were found with others. p.§§ on Holyhead Mountain. In the Faussett Collection. but with a double bead round the top. p. is a celt of this kind. 4 inches long. from the hoard found at Martlesham. cit. 76. vol.. at Bilton. of Fig. ii. iv. 151. resembbng Fig.. without loop. is engraved in the ArcheeoThe mould was regarded as a case in which the instrument was logia. Two of these are of the usual type. the neck of || which is decagonal.3-5. Assoc. 149. vol. Norm. pi. . are three socketed celts article like and an with octagonal necks.E. tl Arch. pi. 213. both plain and having three ribs on the face. fig. " tt Cong. 8. 7.* Another of the same kind seems to have been found." pi. the hexagonal character is continued to the mouth. found at Stanhope. with the angles engrailed or "milled. No. 1827— 8. 150. 2. vol: v. in the Isle of Ely.^[ They have also been found in the Department of La Manche. \ \ Durham. spear* Vol. A Fig. appears to be of this kind. IF Op. Scot. from the collection of Canon Greenwell. and with two holes near the top. is figured by Chantre.

. presented the peculiar f eature of having the hole of the loop in the same direction as the socket of the celt. Palafittes. Institute.— Westow.. and. no longer forthcoming. Journ. unfortunately. . " Les Br. 118.— Whittlesea. which was found in the bed of the Fig. A more Lake of Geneva. Socketed celts with a loop on the face instead of on the side are of exceedingly rare occurrence either in Britain or elsewhere. This form occurs heads. but with a series of mouldings round the mouth of the socket.— Wandsworth. Thames f near Wandsworth. instead of its being as usual at right angles to the blade. fig. vi. &c. 59. That shown in * Chantre. is shown in Fig. 154." whence this cut is borrowed. already mentioned at p. nearly similar celt has been found in the frequently in Ireland. In Fig. a very remarkable celt. and formed part of the hoard found at Westow. Desor. The original is in the collection of Canon Greenwell. "Agedu t Arch." Ire ptie. with the neck irregularly octagonal. 152. It was 4f inches long. V. p. 39.* Another celt. in the East Biding of Yorkshire. p. i Fig. 378. and was presented to the Archaeological The original is. which are now in the British Museum. 152.130 SOCKETED CELTS [chap. 153 is shown. Fig. but of nearly the actual size. not on my usual scale of one-half. 153. vol. besides its general singularity of form.

Troyon's collection. of neai'ly the same form." 1878. of which I have spoken in an earlier part of this chapter. 160. This will be seen in Fig. The socket shows within it four vertical ribs at equal These latter may have distances. which was found with the palstave (Fig. Another of the same class is said to have been found in a tumulus on Frettenham Common.'"" near Lincoln. there being somewhat hollowed oval projections upon each side of the blade. A || A " Et. 155. as already described (page 93). i.. is in the museum at Toulouse. 17. | Jura. 157 are borrowed. 3. in the department of the Hautes Alpes." vol. x. x. Assoc. cit.. Canton Vaud. 155. been intended to facilitate the escape of air from the mould. 153 . One from Bibiers. has large oval plates on each of its sides. which nearly meet upon the faces. One has also been found at Auvernier. of different form. iv. Another (about 4 inches). in the late M. generally without loops. ix. bis. lv. Another is in the museum at Mel /. Omer. p. All these are now in the British Museum. 5 . a hammer. de la Sav. however.§ in the Lake of Neuchatel. " Deux § || pi. was found near Avignon. face have been found in Siberia. Arch. 463. xl. and now in the Antiken Cabinet at Vienna. was in the Larnaud hoard. 154 is in the Museum at "Wisbech. One with curved plates on the sides. the socketed celt (Fig." 210. pi. These are. 3. Brackstone was a remarkable celt. It i^said to have been found with a large socketed celt with three mouldings round the mouth. "Materiaux. p. preh. from the department of Socketed celts with a loop on the Jura. In the collection of the late Mr. It has a round neck with a square socket. was found at Echallens. * Pen-in. Another. Journ." pi. 2. xxvi. I have two from the departments of Haute Loire and Isere. K 2 . and I possess another specimen from the same locality. p. vi. Chantro." pi. that give the appearance of the "flanches" on the face. ** Arch. Another. and was found in company with three socketed celts. Norwich vol. "Exp. pi. xiv." vol. 83). near the River Oise. with diagonal branches from them.. 156. de + la Sav. and other objects at Nettleham. pi. is in the Museum at Lyons it is more spud-shaped than the English example. The nearest approach in form to these celts which I have met with is to be seen in some from the South of France. was found in a hoard at Pontpoint. if Arch. like Fig. Arch. shown in Fig. socketed celt. is in the museum at St. vol. t Chantre. 4.. has survived in a peculiar manner. In the Museum of Chambery * there are three examples from the Lac du Bourget. and a leaf-shaped spearhead at Whittlesea. 157) shows only the indented outline without any representation of the oval plates. and is now in the British Museum. Journ. Another (4 inches).. The second celt from Nettleham (Fig.f Isere. 157). Stations. Op.^ In some socketed celts the reminiscence of the "flanches" or wings upon the palstaves. The type has occasionally been found in the Lake-dwellings of Savoy. was in the Crofton Crokor Collection. but having the loop on one face. exhibiting a modification of this form. Inst. I am indebted to the managers of the Museum for the loan of the specimen for engraving.. 131 Fig. 10. two gouges. and a looped . whence this and fig. f " Materiaux. Another. smaller one. but at the same time produce indentations in the external outline of the instrument. found at Aninger. from la Balme. " Album. Gross.WITH THE LOOP ON ONE FACE. with curved indentations on the sides. "Album. f f Norfolk. i." pi. vol. xviii.

either byengraving or punching.132 SOCKETED CELTS [CHAP.ridge. xviii. 91. Fig.— Nettleham.] The upper part is rectangular and plain. near Ulleskelf Yorkshire. with the exception of the chevron ornament. A 1 ! i' I J mm I in Bill A In J lli Fig. without any moulding round the top.—Croker Collection. r viii. (vol. It will be observed that this celt is elaborately ornamented. 158 is taken. The In general original is 6 inches long. Mr. from which and from an engraving in the Archaeological Journal* Fig. 157. The original is now in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. p. V. . palstave with three ribs below the stop. 1G4). appearance and character this celt approaches those of Etruscan and Italian r origin * Vol. but I see no reason why it may Tho length is erroneously stated to be about 4 inches in a sub- sequent volume Vol. 91. . even on the ring. p.— Ulleskelf. 155. from a drawing by M. with the lower part of the blade and the C-shaped flanches similar to that from Ulleskelf. Kg. viii. is said to have been also found in Yorkshire.— Nettlekam. Du No} er. 158. will be found in the Archaeological Journal. and there is no loop. woodcut. . Braekstone printed a lithographic plate of the three. celt of closely allied character. Fig. 156.

133 it is unique of its kind. 160. Gloucestershire. Plot. however." vol. great hoard found at Carlton Rode. in which. p. so far as I know. of Cottenham. pi. Kir Eth. xxxiii. near Attleborough. not have been found. Staff. A celt of the octagonal form of section and without a loop is shown in It formed part of the Fig. or from the loop having been accidentally broken off. S. already Fig. and hatchet. and all traces of it removed but in many instances it is evident that the tools were cast purIt seems probable that many of them posely without a loop. Hist. i Eeach Fen. . 23. numerous socketed It ill 11 celts. and according to Plot " seems to have been the head of a Roman rest used to support the lituus. Cambridge. of which some particulars have already been 'flie given. 112. Taf. 159 safely he regarded as a chisel.*" It was sent to him by Charles Cotton.^ in Posen. viii. 159. in a sepulchral urn." Another of nearly the same form was found on MeonHill. mentioned at p. loopless varieties is so great that I have thought it best to describe some of the instruments which may be regarded as undoubtedly chisels in this place rather than in the chapter devoted . the trombe-torte. Carlton Roile. crooked trumpet. Fig. vol. 2£ inches long. joint marks of the moulds are still very distind upon the * " Nat. in Britain. pi. v. I have seen another. 113. tool shown in Fig. Esq. and not like the looped kinds as The similarity between the looped and the axes or hatchets. in the museum at Leyden. A is Another was found at Zaborowo. celt or chisel of this character found at Diiren. to chisels. 7. 4. and was in the collection of the Eev.. % "Zeitsch. and do not expand like the common forms of celt. t Arch. with a somewhat oval socket and no loop. Norfolk.t near Camden. vii. as stated. in the hoard from Reach Fen. viii... A longer celt of the same character is engraved by Dr. or home pipe used in the Roman armies. chisel. of those in which the loop is absent. were intended for use as chisels. will be found described." p. in North Brabant. such of the socketed kinds as are narrow at the edge.. It does not show the slightest trace of ever having been intended to have The small may a loop. 160. Banks. 104. and other articles.WITHOUT LOOPS. which was found in Mildenhall Fen. in some cases. this absence arises either from defective casting. is indeed too light for a I " illlill was found with a tanged a hammer. though. class of socketed celts The next which has to be noticed consists No doubt.

p. 1 65. X Segested. been enclosed within the trunk of a tree. V. British Coins. 156. vol. Anth. One of hexagonal section and socket from a hoard found on Earsley Common.. Thurnam that there was every reason to believe that the celt was deposited where found at the time of the original interment. 161.! Yorkshire. sides. Journ.. as in a drawing which I have seen the loop is present. iv. p. p. near Baldock. all tracted attitude. Wilts. 90. f Arch. p. as was thought. vol. pi. fra Broholin. Weighton. Sir R. and two Cann.. A socketed celt with three vertical ribs. A nearly similar Scottish celt is shown in Fig. near the head of a skeleton. The celt and coins are now in the collection of Mr. pi. Kirwan in a barrow on Broad Down. 8. It is said to have lain in the midst of an Farway. It was a account. IItos and is shown full-size in Fig. of bronze. uninscribed ancient British coins of silver. " Oldsag. § II Trans. 116." vol. Wilts. but I believe that this has arisen from an error of the engraver. Colt Hoare mentions " a little celt as having been found with a small lance. and panied as ' A * Journ. ft near Market 61 It is only an inch in length. which is reported to have been discovered by the late Rev. xxiii. vol. Catal. v. Devonshire. With it was a pin connected it with a small light-blue glass bead. 443. were actually with the celt. p. xviii. 7. Dev. 27. in a barrow on Overton The body had been buried in the conHill. Kirwan informed Dr. Durden. || Arch." pi. ** Evans.. Assoc. 300. . is engraved as having no loop. It appears. like Fig. It accomwhich the contracted body of a woman laid in a grave.. " Anc. ii. in 1735. vol. in 1849. .§ near Abury. Celts without loops are not uncommon in France. of Blandford. p. Inst. and are often found of small size in Denmark. vol. and a long pin with a handle. " Anc. celt from the hoard of Cumberlow. 125. 102. Mr. and was kindly lent by the trustees for me to have it engraved. This specimen is in the Norwich Museum. however. at curious instance of the survival of the bronze celt an ornament or amulet is afforded by that which was found in a barrow at Arras. 114. Thurnam's that this was a flat and not a socketed celt.* has been figured as having no loop. York vol. Arch. however. 3j inches long. vi.** near Shaftesbury. ii. 1. No bones." p. Yorkshire. viii.[ A Socketed celts have rarely if ever been found with interments in " barrows in Britain. IT abundant deposit of charcoal which was thought to be the remains of a funeral pyre. from Dr. and had. || celt like Fig. Inst. In neither case are the circumstances of the discovery absolutely certain.134 SOCKETED CELTS [CHAP. 195. is also said to have been found with a human skeleton. R. which lay 1 8 inches from the central cist. xliii.. or Hessleskew.

until I cient deposits. Ant. The majority of the objects found in the group of barrows at Arras. + "Ayr and Wigton § Proc. The nearly square-necked celt shown in Fig. has been figured. given as Figs. The diminutive celts. 135 having with it a necklace of glass beads. and was found at North Knapdale.. and the recorded instances of their finding are comparatively few in number. and have been regarded by French antiquaries as votive offerings.* but nothing is known of it by the present Viscount Falmouth. Wigtonhut with a bead at the level of the top of the loop." 1839. about 2 inches in length. tweezers. so that they might possibly have been used as chisels.J like Fig. in which socketed celts have been found with other tools gers" is It will and weapons.. but with sockets large enough for serviceable handles. p. Socketed celts not more than f of an inch in length have been found in Ireland. 163 is of a broader type than usual. of the plain kind which was found at Edinburgh. 2nd Coll. ii. though hardly so great as that exhibited by those from England. 162. come to though some treat of such anal- of them have ready been mentioned. some of them ornamented with a kind of paste or enamel. 72." vol. 196.§ Argyleshire. . bracelets. probably erroneous. vol. p. apparently of bronze. a large amber bead. we find them to present a considerable variety of types. and the statement in the "Barrow Dig. In Fig. t For the use of these cuts I am indebted to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 164 and 165. Franks has termed the "Late-Celtic" period.OF DIMINUTIVE SIZE. be well to postpone the account of the different hoards of bronze objects. S. or approximately to the time of the Roman invasion of this country.f on the Water of Leith. might also by some possibut this can hardly have been the bility have served as tools case with the Arras specimen. p. seem to belong to what Mr.. and pin. and a brooch. vii. celt found in a shire. ring. in company with those A bog between Stranraer and Portpatrick. Soc. A golden celt found in Cornwall is said to have been in the possession of the Earl of Falmouth. 1 62 is shown a socketed celt Bell's Mills. which have been found in large numbers in Brittany. 10. j Turning now to the socketed celts which have been discovered in Scotland. of which this was one. * " Barrow Diggers. BeS'Mms.

">. Journ. Others with raised lines on the sides are preserved in the museum at Edinburgh. One of these. with a double moulding round the mouth. One (3 J Fig.. || 11 P. was found in the parish of Southend.. A Fig. the main difference being that the neck is of decagonal || • instead of octagonal section. like Fig. pp. 153. xii..* Morayshire.— North Knapdale. Another type. Arch. with three raised bands passing through the loop. 167. /'.136 SOCKETED CELTS [chap. Scot. Edinburgh. ix. 150. One of these was found near the citadel at Leith.. was found on Arthur's Seat. A third celt from Bell's Mills is shown in Fig. Ant. p. Assoc. 166— Bell's Mills. A. ii. A. . second (2f inches). . at Achtertyre. Ann. vol. which appears to be more especially Scottish. p. p. Ml . p.§ One (. 209. 160. iv.^f in Culter parish. 384. Fig. was found at Hangingshaw.. ornamented with four longitudinal lines on each face.V inches). has a round socket and a twelve-sided neck. Socketed celts with oval necks. and resembling the common Irish type. S. Lanarkshire. 3.'5.' vol. 390. celt with a long socket and narrow blade was found. 163. and closely resembles that from the Carlton Rode hoard. was found in the Forest of Birse. xvii. p. . * A type which is also common to England is shown in Fig. with traces of five ribs. f- " rich. have occasionally been found in Scotland. J Fig. inches). This is of the variety without the loop. vol. has the ornamented moidding placed on the neck of the blade in such a manner as to run through the loop. bronze armlets. * Proc. S. three down the middle and two at the margins of each face. Soc. Moulds for celts of other patterns have also been found in Scotland. 164.f Arthur's Seat. /'. S.— Bell's Mills. dug up near Samson's A Bibs. One of this character. Scot. vol. \\. S. in form. has been figured by Professor Daniel Wilson. Another (3 inches) was found with several other socketed celts and a spear-head near the Loch of Forfar. and some pieces of tin. with spear-heads. vol. Another (4£ inches). $ Fig. pi. Edinburgh. Cantire. § S. i. vol. 351. 1 65. A. 435. 1 64 from another of the Bell's Mills specimens. j Aberdeenshire..

i. while at the same time it closely resembles the type exhibited by the mould from Koss-shire already mentioned. modern cast from some moulds found at Rosskeen. has been engraved by Professor D. 61. 1GC— Leswalt !. and is now in the cabinet of the Earl of Stair. the celts of this type are among the latest which were manufactured. Ross-shire. The occurrence of instruments of so rare a form at such a distance apart is very remarkable. 11. as appears probable. are very striking. and may possibly belong even to the Late Celtic period.* It is of hexagonal section. "Wilson. For the use of Fig. Wigtonshire. Aim. and is ornamented on each face by two diverging ribs starting from an annulet close below the moulding round the mouth. upwards of two hundred being preserved in the Museum of th< * " Preh. p. in Leswalt Its parish. fig. 384. The original was found in a peat-moss near the farm-house of Knock and Maize.FOUND IN SCOTLAND." vol. Fig. t " Collections. p. Scot. Socketed celts have been found in very large numbers in Ireland. 166 I am indebted to the Council f of the Ayrshire and Wigtonshire Archaeological Association. bul if. A which expands considerably." vol. and has a nearly flat edge.. . L37 as will subsequently be seen. and endiug in two annidets about two-thirds of the way down the blade. their wide dissemination is the less wonderful. 142). ii. analogies with that found at Kingston. Surrey (Fig.

is the end usually some kind of moulding round the mouth. ix. 6. iv. fig. Day. f " Catal." p. — Ireland.A. giving The effect of the of the instrument a trumpet-like appearance. Ii. V. moulding is not unfrequently exaggerated by a hollow round the neck.. instead of springing straight out from the neck. 168. Fig.A. as in Fig. both public and private. 107. The Irish celts Cork. The most common form is There oval at the neck. 3. Celts of this fluting and some of the following types have been figured by Vallancey. F. much in size. An example of a celt with the loop attached in a similar manner has been engraved by Wilde. F.— Ireland. 306. running over the neck of the celt like half-buried roots.138 SOCKETED CELTS [CHAP. and expands into a broad cutting edge. f Another (3f inches) is in the collection of Mr. vary and the smallest less than an inch. of other collections.S. E.. pi. Fig. A. 392. Day. has upwards of forty in his own cabinet. I. . R. to Royal Irish Academy . and numerous specimens are be seen in Mr. 167. Mus. and the loop. 168 there is a slight shoulder below the trumpetshaped part of the mouth. the largest being a little over 5 inches long. Vol.*" In that shown as Fig. has its ends extended into four ridges.S. 4.

ridges.has a specimen which It seems.* The middle member Royal Irish Academy. A. Antrim. 385. 171.— Ireland. I have another set of three Figs. 280." p. where the two sides converge. small example of the same type. Fig.. These oval-necked celts are occasionally.. near Eallymena. decorated with One of them. also found together at Craighilly. Inside the sockets of most of tho instruments of this class there are near the bottom. Council.! i s shown in Fig. This cut kindly lent by the . Curiously enough. f Wilde. Robert Day. 139 with a triple moulding Fig. but rarely. " Catal. 1| inch long and 1] inch broad at the edge. hut with a single band at the mouth. like our modern shirt-studs. F. these ornain sets of three. 170. R.— Ireland.S. Antrim.—Belfast Fig. is in the British Museum. i 169. with discs at each end of a slug-like half-ring (see Wilde. I. 385. 279. With below the expanding mouth. with four hands (3£ inches) has heen engraved by Wilde. 169 shows a finely patinated celt.FOUND IN IRELAND. one. it are said to have been found a set of three gold clasps. One from Co. is shown in Fig. Mus. or so-called fibulas. in the Museum of the patterns cast in relief upon them. % therefore. 171.A. or more vertical haft. Down. probably destined to aid in steadying the In some instances the upper member of the moulding fig. 594 598). Mr. two. probable that. Co. which was found near Belfast. ments were worn A A celt of the triple band is often much the largest. — of these ornaments. also is one of three found together in the Co. 170. fig. round the mouth is * P.

1th Ser. -Meath. 282. The edge has been much hammered. in Canon Grreenwell's collection. J . so as to be considerably recurved at the ends. F. are of rare occurrence in A specimen from Co. I have an example of the same kind(2| inches). vol. in which there are five equidistant vertical ribs on each face. which cross a ring. has six vertical ribs on each face. Hist. Tyrone. Hoy. V. are placed close together. Wilde f has figured a much larger specimen (41 inches). Others are in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy. and in in the usual manner. Meath. but are ( • Engraved t Fig. one instance Wilde § describes them as " ending in arrow points. The socketed celts with an almost square socket and neck are not so common in Ireland as those of the broad type with an oval neck. of Ireland. Assoc. Athboy. 173.* Fig. J with rectangular socket. which is. Fig. nearly three times as long as the innermost of the three ribs. has the ribs arranged lip moulding. ami Arch. v. Meath." A short but broad socketed celt in the IVtrie Collection lias on each face six vertical ribs terminating at each end in annulets. X Fig. however. 172 shows an example of this kind from pattern. In a few instances the ribs end in pellets. iii a cable Fig. with three vertical ribs. Fig.140 is cast SOCKETED CELTS [chap.— Athboy. 284. in Journ.S. three on either margin.K. p. is engraved as Fig. Socketed celts. and vary in length. 259. from Trillick. Ireland. the outer one being about twice as long as that in the middle. One (2§ inches) found near Cork. Co. and now in Mr. —Ireland. level with the top of the loop. in the collection of Canon Greenwell. Co. and run up to the Another. Eobert Day's collecThey tion. 429. 173. P. 172. 174. with vertical ribs on the faces.

Co. i Fig. Fig. F.A. though molin. 176. 174 shows a good specimen of this typ< yet not absolutely rare. mouth. Fig. Co.. One from Londoncollection. and with three flat vertical ribs below the neck moulding. though the socket is of the loop. the lower one at the level of the bottom This celt is rectangular at the neck. from the neighbourhood of Belfast. who also gives one of the same general type. "Robert Day has an example (3£ inches). punch marks. It has a hexagonal neck. in the collection of Mr. from Newtown 'romFig. Antrim. alternating with three narrow ones. 175. Canon Greenwell has one of the type of Fig. Mr. Mayo. A nearly similar specimen has been engraved by Wilde (Catal. round the mouth (Catal. 277). appears rather than to Ireland. to me to belong to Brittany engraved by Wilde as Fig. 175 shows a short variety Co. derry (4| inches) is in Mr.S. Newtown Ciommolin. 11 111! Fig. A celt (4J inch from Ballina.. with hexagonal neck and five equal beads round the mouth. of the same type. has an octagonal neck. not uncommon occurrence in Ireland octagonal below the rounded fcrumpel ornamented with a series of small parallel beads. between celt of is The neck . nearly rectangular at the neck. £ An elegant is type of socketed shown in Fig. which is which anumber of minute conical depressions have been punched. < oval.FOUND IN 1RELAM). North of Ireland. and five grooved lines round its circular mouth. from Dunshaughlin. I have another (3£ inches). has an oval socket. making Around the loop is an oval of similar the beads appear to be corded. 276). Meath. 170. rather wider at the edge. Ireland. Some few have grooves running down the angles. 283. bul with two plain broad beads. 177. 141 Fig. Day's The long narrow celt with a rib ending in an annulet on the face. Co. with two beads round it. i Fig. Robert Day. from Carlea. Co.. Tyrone (2£ inches). One from Trillick. 176 (3? inches).

521. 7. § Vol. vi. 179. 1871. has been figured by The edge is very oblique. and assumes a form not uncommon among iron or steel I have copied Fig. i. the blade is expanded considerably below the socketed part.§ Others (2 and 2£ inches) from Lisburn and Ballymoney. with a hexagonal neck and a plain mouth. pi. iv. $ Another has been engraved by Vallancey. Oise (?).. Co. I have a celt of this type Dublin (3£ inches). I have seen the drawing of one found at Pontpoint. and has been regarded as a hoe. longer and edge. The surface of the socket is not flat. ^f without loop. xi. Noulet. [chap. There is one more Irish type of looped socketed celts which it will be well to figure. loop has root-like excrescences from it. vol. U " Report on Expedit. 170. du Mus. No. Antrim. "Arch. to Western Yunan. but oblong at the mouth. Uft. axes. 119. p. t P. with ten small what oval mouth. p. As will be seen. d'Hist. bronze instrument of this form.* whose cut is. has been figured by Dr. but in form like Fig. Fig. * P. pi. was found in the Shannon. 6. from the Sanda Val281. 398. but with two projections on one side. An analogous but narrower form is found in France. 177 from Wilde's cut. here reproduced as Fig.! at Keelogue narrower instrument (3f inches) of the same kind has also been engraved by Wilde.— Kertch A loop from Java so that it was probably mounted as an adze. Socketed celts without loops have not unfrequently been found in Ireland. || Dr. socketed celt without loop. was in common use among the ancient Egyptians. Scot. Anderson. but wider at the edge. nearly rectangular. || fig. and another (3f inches). The as already described. are in the British Museum. Soc.142 SOCKETED CELTS. the Council of the Royal Irish Academy. Co. 178. an enlarged scale. socketed celt expanding into a broad axe-like edge is in the Pesth Museum. from Arboe. do Toulouse. V. Ant. on A A A A ley. by the kindness of — lig. 414. The latter is oval at the neck. Ford. . China. 275. fig. and has three facets on one side of the neck. Yunan. Co. and to which Wilde has given the name of the axe-shaped socketed celt. but there is a V-shaped depression across it. ix." vol. beads round a someLongford. 384.inches). while the other is curved. One from Cambodia. Tyrone. One of this type has been figured by Wilde. but wider at the collection. There are two others in the same Another of the same length (2-1i6. t Proc. very remarkable socketed celt without is in the Cabinet of Coins at It expands widely at the edge Stuttgart. Ireland. An example brought from Yunan by the same expedition is in the Christy Collection. Nat." Calcutta. The former has a small bead on a level with the base of the socket. The neck of this latter is from Balbriggan.

S. it will have been observed. In the museum at Stockholm are also some socketed celts with two loops. || r In looking over these pages. socketed celts would.S. near Benfeld. from their abundance. seem to have extended over a considerable period. Soc. is figured by Schneider. F. Ant. || W." Copenhagen vol. p. therefore. is perforated. so southern counties of England. de» 12. to have been found in western counties. most evident in the forms found in the might in those from Ireland and Scotland. Alsace. Only one of the loops... Man. Journ. Journ.. 120. Soc. It is like Fig. 116. A socketed celt with two loops. was found in Estremadura. f Proe. of gigantic dimensions. $ vol. In Eastern Europe the form is more common. the first socketed celts in Britain were doubtless of foreign origin. and from their commend The use of having apparently been found with objects belonging to the * Arch. I have seen others ornamented on the faces. but the fashion of making them spread through local foundries. 262. perceptible Some few of the socketed celts from both England and Scotland are of the type Fig. vol. and were adopted over larger or smaller areas as they happened to themselves to the taste of the bronze-using public. p. and apparently hexagonal at the neck. The specimen shown as Fig. 143 Socketed celts with two loops have not as yet been recorded as found within the United Kingdom. 13 . have been expected. xiv. Ant. 352. Although. Lat< For the use iv. 179 was found in the neighbourhood of Kertch. Salisbury. Arch.]: I have elsewhere described a two-looped socketed celt from Portugal § (6£ inches). p. 91. though a stone moidd for celts of this form was found at Bulford Water. Others from Siberia f have been figured. 2nd S. 1 6 7 it common in Ireland as to be characteristic of — —and a type these appear for the most part. but has a second loop. A two-looped celt with square socket and the loops at the junction with the flattened blade w as in the great hoard found at Bologna. Spain. 45 "Cong. vol.. Seebohm. 9J inches long and 3i inches wide. that though socketed celts occur in numbers throughout the British Isles. N. however.R. A. and that some few types appear to Traces of continental influence are. and different varieties of pattern originated in various centres. .* and^is now in the British Museum. p. p. 1872—7. and are barely. p. &c. Franks. One of these is without loops. du Nord. Trans.MAINLY OF NATIVE MANUFACTURE. found at Ell. ii. Streitkeile. if at all. there was no regular importation of them for use over the whole country . H. yet that those found in England for the most part differ in form from those found in Ireland. vii. as be peculiar to Scotland. and has chevron ornaments in relief below a double moulding. vol. preh. though by no means exclusively. Another." Taf. j "Die ehern. xxxi. of this cut I am indebted to Mr. brought from Asiatic Siberia by Mr.. Elhn.

two a bronze bridle-bit. at Gray's Thurrock. The metal has been carefully welded together to form the sockets. 504 and 505 at Dreuil. seems reason to believe the account of their discovery given in the Archwologia* Some coins of gold and silver are said to have Socketed been found with them. No doubt the final disuse of socketed celts Avas not contemporaneous throughout the whole of the country. side loop. but these are not forthcoming. formed of iron. but socketed be traced in this country as on the Continent celts. and a part of its wooden handle. found accessible to Gaulish influences. * Vol. and there Berks. near Amiens. p. 518. Von Sackcn. 2nd S. somewhat like Fig. Ant. if not quite. celts have also been found associated with clasps like Figs. 453 and 458. &c.... is stated have been found in company with a looped spear-head. late Celtic in character. Another of the same type was in the Archgeologia Cambrensis. and made in imitation of those in bronze. . from Pfaffenburg in the Hartz and others of longer proportions with round . vol. however. Hallst. 250. and both they and the iron palstaves are frequently provided with a side loop. + I have one (5^ inches) with a rounded socket and no loop.t found in North Wales. § t 3rd iii. .144 Celtic SOCKETED CELTS [(HAT.. i. vol." Taf. The transition from bronze to iron cannot so readily chapter. One (4 inches) with a have occasionally been found in Britain. was found in MerionethIt has been figured shire. . sockets from Hallstatt. Soc. Essex. tools or celt. while at Abergele such clasps to accompanied buckles almost. late Celtic character on Hagbourne Hill. p. and some porpins like Figs. Period they must have been among the last of the bronze A socketed weapons to be superseded by those of iron. vii. in which there is no slit like those commonly to be seen in more modern socketed tools of iron. tions of buckles of a These objects are now in the British Museum. and is now in the British Museum. in exact accordance with those on their Some of the socketed celts in iron from analogues in bronze. " Grabf v. xvi. V. 116 but more trumpet-mouthed. S. 348. There are ornaments round the mouth of some of the Hallstatt § socketed celts. I have another (4 inches) with a square socket. p. and their employment probably survived in the north and west of Britain and in Ireland to a considerably later date than in the districts more The chronology of our Bronze have to be considered in a subsequent Period will. t Proc.

in celts were hafted * Deschmann und Hochstetter. not cast. and not bronze and .. I. IRON. The method will which socketed and other be discussed in the next chapter. are also provided with a As an illustration of the view that similar wants.* in Carniola. Chili. xvi. ornament on the faces. in Krain. "Frah. u. vol. . via. is The socket been ornamented by engraving and among the patterns Ave find bands of chevrons. I and weapons in countries widely may mention a socketed celt (10| inches) found in an ancient grave near Copiapo. pi. with similar means at command with which to supply them. Arch. Ansiod." Taf. 145 cemetery of Watsch. been formed in the same as those of the early iron celts from Hallstatt. Begr.. t Rev. xxiii. t In general form it is almost identical with some of the Italian bronze celts. the common ornament of the European Bronze Age. with which manner The surface. . has. more striking still is that the Greek fret also occurs as an perhaps. 1879. but wrought with the hammer. has it also closely corresponds in outline. closely allied to What is. however. 257. therefore. lead to the production of similar forms of tools remote from each other.FORMED OF the loop. but it is of copper. p. statt. alternately plain and hatched.

for chisels. as will subsequently be seen. same time. whether long or short. is that the great At the majority were mounted with elbowed handles as axes. the probability. with the without the addition of any shaft or handle. CELTS. be no doubt that celts and palstaves were cutting tools or weapons. or for spud-like tools or weapons. such as that attempted in the preceding chapters. and some account of the discoveries which throw light upon that subject. and the uses which they were intended to serve. If straight. but. in the second place. would be incomplete without some observations as to the manner in which they were probably hafted or mounted for use. METHODS OF HAFTING Any account of the various forms of celts and palstaves which have been discovered in this country. hatchet. Many of these opinions are so palpably absurd that it is needless Others which regard the instruments as again to refer to them. It is possible that the same form of bronze instruments may have been mounted both with straight and with L-shaped handles. this haft. an axe. in the first place. or adze. judging from what few ancient handles have been discovered.CHAPTER VI. There can. There can. been mounted in such a manner as to serve for axes or having adzes. palstave and socketed forms. In the third place. must either have been straight or crooked. from the form and small size of some celts. it is evident that special provisions are made for a haft of some kind. a kind of chisel or spud must have resulted if crooked or L-shaped. be but little doubt that they were not destined for direct use in the hand In fact. have an evident foundation in the necessities of the case. of some of those of the socketed variety. especially . it is probable that they . In a previous chapter I have cited numerous opinions of the older school of antiquaries as to the nature of these instruments or weapons.

in speaking of the British illustrations. and on the other from left to right. be desirable to make an attempt to trace the successive stages of development of the socketed celts . F. which similar in general form to our modern axe-heads of iron and In Scandinavia also other varieties of these perforated steel. The common hatchet.D.A. Indeed. I shall. my rather than method of hafting. formerly Egyptian antiquities. in illustration of the use of bronze blades as Left. bears an inscription in hieroglyphics upon it.. And first. and with the same inscription. 376." vol. Egyptian axes mounted in this manner may be seen in many museums. same shape and size. be compelled to have recourse to foreign It will also. I may mention an instrument not uncommon in Hungary. S.AXES OF BRONZE. judging from the analogy of some other forms. in treating subject. vol. Sparrow Simpson. foreign examples will become of service. * See "Materinux. Unfortunately this of the blade is corroded.* of the Rev. p. or chisels of any kind. p. 147 were used as chisels. except that of a name the names in the cartouches are different. Journ. Assoc. A hatchet of the same form. xxiii. t Arch. but Dr. v. The hieroglyphics are the same on both faces of the blade. L 2 .S. and have been frequently figured in works on The blade of an axe of this kind. with cartouches probably containing in the collection the shepherd king of the sixteenth or seventeenth In my own collection is another bronze blade of the dynasty. pi. or of a subordinate Ramses of the eighteenth dynasty. with ordinary it flat celt.. by which it was bound against the haft in a shallow socket provided for it.. in connection with this part of the subject also. D. rather than as spuds. in other axe-like type has also been discovered among Assyrian antiquities. and from the discovery at Everley. xv. Birch thinks that the part cartouches contain the name either of Ramses I. this may be regarded As the principally of this part of discoveries of the original hafts of bronze celts have been made upon the Continent. Another and distinct form which has been found in Egypt mounted as an axe or axe-heads have been found. 163. a wooden handle. p. mentioned at as certain. and occasionally occurring is perforated and parts of Southern Europe. but on one run from right.t and by him presented to the British Museum. and. is a flat blade not unlike the except that instead of tapering at the butt-end expands so as to have two more or less projecting horns. '293.

— Aymara Indian Hatchet This represents an iron hatchet used by the Aymara Indians. from Ecuador." vol. 7. the late Mr. . was found in the tomb of Queen Aah-Hotep. 180. pi. said to be that of Montezuma II.S. which was brought from that country and presented to me by my friend.— Stone Axe of Montezuma II. with strong lugs at the top 2 inches long. in South America.148 still METHODS OF HAFTING CELTS [CHAF. It came from wide. have been found in the I have one about 5 inches long and 3 inches same country. and were tied against their The stone the Ambras axe. two Materiaux. Bolivia. and thus prevent * " it from coming forward . preserved in Museum at Vienna. have been found in Peru. bound to its haft.. 181. two turns of which pass under the two lugs of the blade. helves in the same manner. VI. as will be seen by means of Fig. 379. in form more like the ordinary flat celts. secured by a leather thong. and the blade is Forbes. xix.* of the eighteenth dynasty. F. Broad blades of bronze. 180. of the province of La Paz. with two projecting lugs at the top of the narrow part of the blade. Fig. Some blades of this form were hafted in a rather different manner. and shown be of this kind. may also blades of this crescent or cheese-cutter form. Eastern Peru. 181. David In this form the handle is split. Fig.R. Copper or bronze in Fig. but with the projections at the top. Some of the stone hatchets are also provided with projecting ears. p. v.

like Fig. Fig. . " Allgem. of which. held to have been the case with those of the palstave form. and thus prevent it from being driven backwards by any blow while all the coils of the thong hold . Culturwiss. may have been secured by thongs in a somewhat analogous manner. in the same manner as many stone celts appear to have been mounted. as is. of course. 182. 149 other turns pass over the butt-end. 29.. i. will give a good idea of the manner in which much like it in form were probably Another modern African axe has been engraved by Sir John Lubbock. as already observed. like Fig. vol.IN CLUB-LIKE HANDLES. 45. especially as the central projections of the Irish form of celt. I have thought it worth while to engrave this curious example of the method of mounting such or. possible that some of the ancient the bronze celts that are so hafted. Times. The modern iron hatchet. it is probable that these were hafted by the butt-end being merely driven into a club or handle of wood. It must.* It is. the flat and doubly tapering blades. For other examples see Klemm." p. Although no celts with the T-shaped butt-end have been found in Britain. blades. 100. 2. \ seem to be the most ancient." p. in Western Europe. the cleft stick firmly against the two faces of the blade. be borne in mind * "Pi-rli. indeed. 182. fiat celts were mounted after the manner of spuds.— Modern Afrioan Axe of Iron. shown in Fig. by several German and Danish antiquaries. however. from Western Africa. Turning now to the other British forms of celts.

have been hafted with short handles as chisels. were mounted after the manner of hatchets. and xxviii. 2. To all appearance the weapon protected by a wooden sheath. p. Among those found still attached to their hafts in the Swiss lake dwellings. 110. had been worn sluncr from the waist. into a solid handle to the depth of two inches. which cleft a bough of a tree with a short proto receive the stone. engraved which had been under two feet in length. which is copied from Dr. Samml. Lindcnschinit. VI. ed. in which a short stag's-horn straight handle of appear to and socket was mortised as affording a receptacle for the stone. 183. with a club-like handle. 1G. 2. " an axe-blade of bronze. f Canon Greenwell. " Ilohunz." Eng." Taf. the few stone celts. "Luke Dwellings. that as a rule the stone celts. but the majority were fitted for use as hatchets. In a barrow in the parish of Butter wick. In some cases. Eobenhausen. is shown in Fig. harder less liable to split than those of wood.. could be plainly traced by means of a dark line of decayed wood extending from the hips towards the heels moreover. it would seem as if the axe had been . and handle. the axis of the which was in the same direction as the blade. One of Fig. 183. and t "British Barrows. these. as is evident from the surface of the metal being oxidized on that part of the blade had been differently * from what it is elsewhere. 1S8. x." F. 182. some few were mounted in short stag's-horn handles as chisels.. from Robenhausen. xxix. apparently after the manner of Fig.R. pi. 24." In this case the blade fixed. and not with lono* shafts as spuds. which the earliest of those in bronze must in all probability have supplanted. 4.." j>.150 METHODS OF HAFTING CELTS [CHAP. which lay with a skeleton.* In Britain the traces of the original handles of bronze celts have been not unfrequently found. from the presence of decayed wood on the sides of the blade. the handles were made from Avas jecting branch. .S. found what he describes as " the as Fig.— Stone Axe. however. Keller's work. though the actual wood had perished. See also xi. Moreover.

after the manner of the Swiss stone celt shown in Fig. 18-12. The cutting edge was turned upwards towards the upper part of the person. . running along and not across the blade. . of a palstave with the wooden shaft an ell and a quarter long. Years' Diggings. have been found upon celts. that no part of the handle itself. whole was so decayed that not the least part of it could bo taken out of the ground. the somewhat hasty conclusion has been drawn that they were attached to the end of straight shafts instead of into side branches and that possibly this opinion. The opinion first enounced by J. and the instrument itself has been inserted vertically into a wooden handle by being driven in for about two inches at the narrow end at least. In a barrow at Shuttlestone. Derbyshire. Frcderico-Francisceum. beyond this grain upon the bronze. 35. the grain of the wood runs in the same direction as the longest dimension of the celt. into which the blade was inserted the wood. and that this direction of the grain of the wood would be quite consistent with the blade having been mounted in a side branch from the shaft." p.herncn Streitkeile. Although nothing appears to be said with regard to the position of the palstave with respect to the shaft.* near Parwich. There is an account given by Thorlaciusf of the discovery in a tumulus near Store-Hedinge." It may be remarked." p. "not — unworthy of the notice of any inclined to explain the precise manner of mounting these curious implements. may have . running down between the side wings at the other end of the shaft there was a The leather strap wound round for about a quarter of an ell. when once accepted. 151 man celt." "A fact. p. It appears to me possible that in other cases where the marks of the grain of the wood." Freiburg. Batefound about the middle of the left thigh of a skeleton a bronze of " the plainest axe-shaped type. affected insensibly the reports of the position of the blade of the celts with regard to the bodies with which they were found. Fabricius that the celt was the ancient German framea or spear mentioned by Tacitus. " 38. or even the traces of the wood itself. seems have affected observers. as a kind of chisel also insensibly to . however. in Denmark. Bateman." adds Mr. Mr. A. as might have been expected. 4. * " Ten t Cited in Schreiber's " I See Lisch. was preserved.AS SEEN IN BARROWS. 183. this has been cited by Lisch+ and others in evidence of this form of instrument having been mounted spud-fashion. Die . and to the traces of their shafts.

which has been added to the haft in recent for centimes. [CHAP. haft is In this instance. and it has not the appearance of having been exposed It seems more probable that the salt. the as in some of the other cases. than a German specimen. all those of more recent times are in favour of the instruments of the palstave form having been mounted as axes. p. who has Whatever reliance may be placed upon the older discoveries. I am not. one of which is shown in the annexed cut. turies to the action of salt. ended A more conclusive instance is that adduced by Westen- figured a socketed celt without a loop. moreover." iii. or adzes. and not. It looks much more like an Italian tion with the loop outwards. whether it was originally in its which has fortunately had the power of preserving the wood. if so. so as to raise an inference of their having been thrown away. some of the socketed celts of this character were probably used as chisels. a blade Avas still attached to it. broken. now placed.* fen in the province of Groningen. sure whether the blade was actually found with the haft in which is it present posinor. In the museum at Salzburg. or left in the mine. VI.152 METHODS OF HAFTING CELTS spear. there are at least four crooked handles for this kind of blade. Holland. Stuck.— Bronze Axe. 285. Fig. already remarked that on a straight shaft. mounted in this manner I have. hatchets. however. Austria. . assuming that at the time when the haft was lost. 181. almost uninjured. however. would in course of years have dissolved the whole of the metal. perfect. than that it should have left the metal. Ilallem. found in a dorp. * " Antiquiteiten. found in the salt-mines of Hallein. as here.

is a shoulder on it. but there verse. also from the saltmines of Hallein. 1 -3 The position of the blade with the loop outwards is also sus- picious. have been Handles of the In some discovered in the found in the Italian lake dwellings. X Keller. . then expanding at the mounted. has been found at the lake dwelling of Mo3rigen. " Tav. seem to have been mounted on crooked shafts.. celts. Heft. subject. fig. and with but slight side flanges. ii." Taf.AFTER THE MANNER 0E AXES. 32.J on the Lac de In this case also the loop is on the farther side of the Bienne. has been figured by Klemm. at first slight. xxiv. "palafitta" of Castione. it had served for a socketed celt. u. as if the blade had been mounted as an adze. "A. is to some extent witnessed by the development of their form the progressive increase in the size of the wings and flanges. appearing to be intended as a precaution against lateral strains. p. and finally being bent over. That the flanged and winged celts and palstaves were. intended for palstaves. i. Taf. more especially about the middle of the blade. and not as an axe. Ital. iv. same kind. 7. 105. so as to form side sockets on each side of tin' blade. di Paht.." pi. as if A shaft. Anno 4to (1878)." vol. discovered in the South of Even the long narrow palstaves. in the British Museum. such as the blade of an axe undergoes. and palstaves. and not as spuds or spear-heads. in whatever way it is But the flanges.. and not transIn one instance the side branch has no notch. flat colts. then becoming projecting wings. 17. p. In others the notch is longitudinal. Anno i. 7ter Bericht. destined to be mounted in the manner of hatchets or adzes. example of the same kind of haft. There is a long German 8 form with a narrow butt above the stop-ridge. (1875). i. which are eon* " Allgemeine Culturwissenschaft. rather than against a mere thrust. as a rule. looped palstave. seem rather the result of successive endeavours to steady the blade against a sideways strain. which have so much the appearance of chisels. such as that to which the head of a spear or lance is . i. p. . 46 t Strobel in Bull. 186. i. V. Of course the middle of the blade. stop-ridge is a preservative against the blade being driven back into its handle.t the notch is A broken in the transverse direction to the shaft. § See Lindensehmit. mounted in a similar branched handle. h.* and is to be seen There are others in the museum at Linz. Tav. This development can best be traced in the series of flanged and winged France.

seems about down along the sides of the Made below the ridge. Some ingenious bronze-founder of old times conceived the idea of producing a hatchet which did not require a crooked helve. and the design appears not to have spread. 185. Brig-ue. 185. from which it was cast seems to have been a palstave already mounted on its haft. [CHAP. Switzerland. VI. metal. end of the bough. it was probably found both to balance badly. that much more like a chisel than a hatchet. with the smaller side branch running off at Even the band by which the right angles. Valais. In practice. It is. which represents a specimen in my own collection. in fact. The reason why it should have been cast is probably to be found in the fact that boughs of trees with a smaller branch in this manner at right angles to them are not with. in the cleft part of the handle is reproduced as blade was secured . though such boughs are best adapted for conversion into the helves of this easily met kind of hatchet. The usual is length of this form about G inches. near Brigue.154 tinned METHODS OF HAFTIXG CELTS. as will be seen. and to be expensive in . reproduced in bronze. were mounted as hatchets will be evident from an inspection of Fig. a socketed celt. found in the district of Karon. as up to The most the present time this specimen seems to be unique. that the butt-end. and we have here the smooth and rounded Fig. and the width at the edge of 11 inches. however. including the side But that palstaves of this kind flanches. being about f inch. but for hafting which any ordinary straight stick would serve and we have here his new form of axe-head. but with the socket at right angles to the axis of the blade.— Raron. The pattern remarkable features in it have still to be noticed.

found in the Kingdom.SOCKETED CELTS USED AS HATCHETS. of the socket is also spiral.. The helve is only 13f inches long. 102. 2. 3C7. aide how well the discovery of this form of celt bears out the theoretical suggestions of Sir Joseph Banks.37- I. King's County. near Edenhas been figured by Wilde. A. and probably represents a binding round the original wooden handle at the part where.* Sir Samuel Meyrick. Indeed. the kind permission of the Royal Irish Academy. H P. G.. With it were a common another. Mas. and was found about the year specimen my 1872 in the neighbourhood of Chiusi. xix. pi. Jmirn. p. which is still in its place.. is shown an Italian socketed celt of This form. In Fig. which had been secured It is remarkpenannular bracelet decorated with ring ornaments.f this hatchet Mr.J and others. 145. G| inches to its hilt by four rivets.. i. and many small square plates of bronze.— Edenderry bed of the river Boyne. Tuscany. is here reproduced as Fig. i. viii. this is the only instance of such a discovery within the United One such. xlvii. R. || vol. pi. 370. iv. but So far as I know seems well adapted to the size of the blade. Wilde. 155 The banding which extends to the mouth a spiral moulding. though all trace of the wood has disappeared. § Richard Richardson many years ago advanced the same hafted. Dr. is in own collection. with the original handle still attached. p. § " Catal. as in some few instances the original handles have been preserved with them." p.U whose cut. from expeThe straight haft of rience. 186. also retaining its handle. Fig. Leland's Itin. 4.. opinion as to the manner in which such celts were || With regard to the usual manner of socketed form there can be but little mounting those of the doubt. . Dunoyer. vol. and a long. Ueamu's ed. t "Ancient Armour. each having a fylfot * Arch. With this singular celt was found a small dagger. however. a large fibula of silver. X Arch. was secured in its place by a bronze rivet passing through the socket from side to side. it was found most liable to break. 187. p." by Skolton. 186. a scarabams. including Sir W. vol. by derry. Bg. vol.

above the celt. is a nearly circular flat bronze plate. which was covered by a slab of stone. . having been entirely coated with thin plates of bronze. the sides of which overlap. upon it. probably the ornaments of a girdle. All these objects had been buried in an urn. VI..— Chiu. The preservation is due to the handle of my specimen is perfect.156 cross MKTHODS OF HAFTING CELTS [chap. and the end of the branch which goes into the socket appears to be secured by a rivet. handle which passes through from face to face. Florence. J HII nails about f inch apart. At the sides above the celt there are larger round-headed nails.i. or possibly rivets. 187. and have been secured round the handle by its is huh iHHHA tin Fig. and most of them are to be seen in the Etruscan Museum at With the exception of a fracture not far from the angle. This plating is turned over square at the end of the handle. so as to round-headed serve for some its suspension. through which a ring may have passed. where there is a little projecting bronze eye. At the end of the itself.

. the researches in which of Herr Ramsauer have been described by Baron Von Sacken. It may be well here to mention that celts of iron of the flat of the palstave form. the portions of wood which still remain attached to the blades appear also to be oak. has disappeared. to be oak.* These discoveries seem to show that all three varieties were still in use at the close of the Bronze Period. which was detached from contact with The wood of which the handle was metal. with a portion of the haft still in it. when in company with Sir John Lubbock. which has been It has been thought preserved by the salts.AS SEEN AT HALLSTATT. * "Grabfeld von Hallst. Avhile the rest. the presumption is that this instrument belongs to quite the end of the Bronze Age of Italy. and jmlstaves occurred with the wings formed of bronze and the blade of iron. On two bronze palstaves from France in own collection. and the part of the handle beyond the branch which enters the socket presents some appearance <>t having been bound with an iron ferrule. In the same cemetery celts of the two last-mentioned forms were found in bronze." p. of copper. as well as from the objects found Indeed. . probably with the view of The projection is somewhat longer preventing it from splitting. at Paris. a socketed celt of iron. and the end appears to have proportionally been truncated. with it. as if it had metal. than that in Fig. . On an iron palstave from the same spot it seems to be oak. The fracture exposes the wood inside the plates. or oxide. The celt is attached to a branch of the main handle. which projects at an angle of about 80°. In the Hallstatt specimen the inclination of the blade seems to have been towards the hand. or to the transitional period between bronze and iron. 38. This has been split off from the handle. in Austria. 157 it with a round-headed nail in the middle to attach to the wood. 45 with the semicircular side sockets and of the socketed form. only a small part of which remains attached and it is this portion only of the wood which has been preserved by the infiltration of some salts of iron. made appears to be fir. have been found in the cemetery at Hallstatt. On the blade of the celt are some flakes of oxide of lain in contact with some articles made of that from the form. In 1866 I exhumed from this cemetery with my own hands. and not rounded. 185. with projections at the sides like Fig. iron. kind. one from Amiens and the other from the my Seine. . .

xxv. James Kendrick. Assoc. though thov It is. . but here the actual association of the two is doubtful. pi. the bead upon it passing through the loop. and now in the British bronze ring with a jet Museum. VI. and for other purpose. is of much the same character as the shield-like pattern below like Fig. 74. Yorkshire. vol. 188— Winwick.* near Warrington. vol. and nothing would be easier for the workman who found the three objects than to pass the ring through the loop of the I have myself received from celt and the hole of the bead.. ring itself is of stout wire. \ Winwick. . That shown in Fig. vol. though it must be confessed that such an use is purely conjectural.. Hungary two socketed but right to mention that in the British . at . barely Of what service this could large enough to encircle the loop. v J * Arch. 161. J. and was kindly lent me by Dr. vol. when found. .. and these rings may possibly have served a similar purpose. but Fig. 188 was found in company with a bronze palstave without a loop. j Arch. Arch. In the British Museum is a the stop-ridge of some palstaves. have been it is difficult to imagine. made not each having imperfect penannular bracelets passed through the loop in the same manner. was found with a socketed celt in the Thames. with the ends abutting against each other. p. had. Lancashire. O If the association of the larger rings and the celts must be er given up. I have already expressed a doubt whether the celt from Tadcaster. much .Museum is the upper part of a celt with an octagonal neck. Journ. + opposite Somerset House. 1§ inches in diameter. p. flat celts . somewhat like the " " broad arrow of modern times. mould from Northumberland for flat rings. . Journ. xviii. howcertainly had no original connection with the celts." The ornament on the ring. but such rings probably served some Another bronze ring. A. xiv. celts. 236 t A. p. xv. p.158 METHODS OF HAFT1NG CELTS [CHAP. 159. it is needless to cite the opinions which have been held ever. . x. . found with other objects near Kensington. Journ. 269. The but of one continuous piece of metal. There have been in this country a few instances of the discovery of bronze rings in company with palstaves and socketed celts. who in 1858 t suggested that was a " sort of ferrule to put round the it handle of the palstave to prevent the wood from splitting when the instrument was struck.. on the loop of which is a small ring. 3 inches in diastone meter.

The palstaves with the edges transverse to the septum between the side flanges seem to have been mounted in precisely the same also of the some manner to their handles as those of the ordinary form. but the others appear to have been mounted as chisels. In the Nydam find. 107. Ant. on crooked loops. Wcstropp in Proc. which were left projecting a short distance instead of being broken off short at the blade. in the same manner as the Egyptians fixed their adze blades. it is. "All-. Mention has already been made of some Italian helves with transverse notches for the reception of the blade. vol. but in several of the discoveries of objects of that period in Denmark socketed celts of iron have been found still attached to their helves. p. gesch.. 29. . except that when attached they formed adzes. 362.." p. It has been § that the palstaves of the ordinary form may also have been mounted as adzes. Conrad Engelhardt. with eyes for the shafts but there were . vol. v. Copenhagen. the majority of the axes were of the ordinary form.IN SOME INSTANCES AS ADZES. though without any These were mounted as axes. 2nd S. The helves of axes of the ordinary form were from 23 to 32 inches in length. p. Whether the hammering over was for the suggested purpose of rounding the angles or for that of forming this dovetailed notch is somewhat uncertain. handles about 1 7 inches long.. form of the socketed celt. and probably this was so in some exceptional cases." 1859—1863. * 6: Klemm.. Kull. Vimose Fundet" af C. 1869. In some palstaves. Engelhardt. Soc.* The early Iron Age of Denmark is no doubt considerably in date than that of Hallstatt. which appears to have been formed by hammering over a part of the jets or runners of the original castings. vol. 335. however. as to the use 159 the other. 1865. Arch. and not as adzes. portion of the blade is so * Arch. of the one in connection with Some later references are given in the note. but more especially in those of the South of Europe. so as to catch the dovetails and retain the blade in its It is not often the case that this place. there is at the butt-end of the blade a kind of dovetailed notch. described by Mr.. Some of the flat celts may have also been mounted as adzes by binding them against the shorter end of an |_-shaped handle. p. possible that one or more pins or rivets may have been driven through the handle. t $ t " Nydam Mosefund. xvi. and not axes. p. one of which was thought to have been mounted on a crooked handle. In the Vimose find + there were several of these iron celts. " iv. Joitni.

iv.. is provided with a rivet- hole near the top. fi£. which there can be but little doubt served for a cord to pass through. and probably with blades of bronze. B. however. countersunk on either side so as to guide a pin into the place intended for it . Of six thin flat celts. vol. Some contrivance for keeping blades of smooth bronze fast in their handles must have been neces- With stone celts we sary or desirable from the earliest times. f Revue Arch. xxi. 6 inches long. Fig. which is destitute of a loop.. \ Proe. [CHAT. 4. as suggested by Mr. has a circular hole in the same position.f Abbe Bourgeois..+ or Cythnos. as the Abbe' suggests. but within the upper part of celt. 7 or 8 inches long. vol. found in a friend the late my tomb in the department of Loir et Cher. 2. safe remedy against slipping out resinous or pitchy cement. p. one on either it In the case of the palstaves and celts with two loops. In a socketed A inches long. and it seems probable. 105. * Arch. often find that the butt-end destined to be let into the wooden With bronze. . at Paris. Some the blade at both ends than in the mere neb or projection. 2nd S. A»t. which may have received a pin. and A flanged celt from Italy. 73. iii. 100. there was more strength in the loop attached to doubt. seems to show that it was No only against the upper part of the loop that the strain came. which are now in the British Museum. Journ. and now in my collection. that this was connected with the securing of the blade. p. Hoc. curved projection instead of the usual loop. from the Island of Thermia. 436. was no doubt found in the addition of the ring or loop to the side. with the formed of vegetable fibre. iii.1 GO METHODS OF HAFTING CELTS. to the helve. in the Greek Archipelago. so as to hold the blade back to the handle. VI. § Arch. p. vol. A by palstave. have similar projecting nebs. so much less any extent than those of stone. the difficulty of keeping them in tapering place was surmounted by attaching them with some sort of or . Jo>tr». Dunoyer in the case of a long palstave. not only is the wood preserved in the socket by saturation with some salt of copper. Italian socketed celts side. xxix. with a rivet-hole near the butt-end of the blade. pi. 5 1 own the loop there are distinct traces of a cord which was apparently The Irish palstave. p. such a process does not seem to have been adopted to ever.. found in the Seine. howhorn socket was purposely roughened. three that are broad are provided with square or bronze lozenge-shaped holes towards the upper end of the blade. § three that are narrower are without. Ion? that it would have gone through the handle and have allowed * of a pin beyond it.. vol.

I have also two from Salamis. double-edged 8i. Journ. throughout Europe. especially battle-axes. 1G1 side somewhat probranch. 279. Looking at the widespread distribution of perforated stone implements. 235. like Fig. 573. In the first account f given of the discovery. + in my collection a line axe. 369. it seems doubtful whether of the perforated battle-axes of stone any belong to a time when bronze was absolutely unknown. though. p. vol. so that the instrument having used as a crowbar and not as a hatchet. these stone weapons may have remained in use even until the latter part of the Bronze Period. M . vi. v. and Italy. Possibly. vol. Hungary is the country in which the perforated bronze battle-axes seem to have arrived at in Greece in the skill in * Arch. 69. X Lib. have so often been found associated with them in interments. as bronze knife-daggers. it is almost impossible for it to have served in this manner. vi. and one of them is said to have been firmly attached to a wooden handle by means of thongs interlaced and and not across was described as was fitted to be inasmuch as the and i. xix. these palstaves were regarded as having been used for picking out the strata of coal. from Greece. Joum.NO PERFORATED BRONZE AXE-HEADS IN BRITAIN. with a round shaft-hole £ inch in diameter.. This handle been straight.inch wide. which received the palstave or of the celt. Axe-heads of bronze of the modern form with an eye through them to receive a straight helve have not been found in this in the wood.. it seems strange that so few bronze weapons of the same class should be found. p. the But some of the Spanish palstaves* with two discovered. the handle must have been when wood. That the form was already Homeric Age is evident from the feat of an arrow through the shaft holes of a number of shooting I have axe-heads. as already observed. or 7re'Ae/a>9. v. See also Lib. they are not uncommon in Hungary. arranged in a row. seems probable that longed beyond the went into the socket It has been stated loops were. Southern Germany. v. But for the handle is only 2^ inches long groove held by notches country. as In this country they certainly did through the earlier part of it. however.inches in length. recorded in the Odyssey. while the length of the blade projecting beyond the handle is nearly 5 inches. attached to a straight handle of this opinion may have been formed from the grain of that first wood impressed on the upper part of the blade running along it. known t Arch.

Like the American tomahawks. Arch. 2nd S. When first bronze came into use it must have been extremely and to cast an axe-head in bronze. but various causes seem to have conduced to render their introduction difficult. any idea of the loops having merely served . p. They may. the industries. connected with the method of mounting these instruments on their hafts and is not intended for the attachment of a cord.." may. I — t Ep. but would also have involved a far higher skill in the art of casting. Penguilly-l'llaridou. VI. See Arch. lib. these simple blades rendered them well adapted for being readily drawn out to a sharp cutting edge. . as already described. and when once they had come into general use they would not have been readily superseded by those of another form. development. 329. also be remembered that in France. perforated axe-heads of stone were very seldom used. and I see no reason for assigning them to so early a date as the commencement of the Bronze Period of Hungary. are many centuries more recent than those to which the bronze colts must be referred.1G2 tlieir MKTHODS OF HAFTING CELTS fullest [CHAP.. Rev. absence of perforated axes of bronze in Britain. have occasionally been used as "missile hatchets. the flat form of . Moreover. vol. whoso followers were provided with these weapons. to return to the celts of the British Islands. be but little doubt that the loop is. and beautiful workmanship. and those of bronze were in the north of the country unknown. But. 492. iv. progressive modifications in the shape of the former would be less simple. by which they might be withdrawn and recovered after they had been thrown at the enemy. * While speaking of French cells. they no doubt. I think. there can. vol. 20. 4. . hafted in a different method. In the same manner. xxx. may refer to a short Taper on the method in which they were hafted. indeed. the "missiles secures" of Sidonius t but the days of young Sigimer. even were that method more If the bronze celts were mainly in use for peaceful while the warlike battle-axes were made of stone. would have required not only a considerably greater amount of the then precious metal than was required for a flat hatchet-head.* which then as now set the fashion to Britain. written by the late M. of them being of graceful form The perforated copper implements of that country were probably used for agricultural purposes. many It is hard to account for this belong to a much later period. like one scarce and valuable of the perforated axe-hammers of stone. It must likely to be affected by the characteristics of the latter. p.

AS CHISELS. M 2 . and a hone of a blueish colour had been deposited with it. which was found in a cist in a barrow at Everley.* Wilts. C. which I have from Sir R. Professor Worsaae t has published an engraving of a narrow Danish palstave. was not more than about 8 inches in length. In some other I instances. xxi. 182. Hoare's plate. Colt Hoare. by Sir R. he says. p. IS:). Wilts. especially the socketed celts of small size and without loops. such as will subsequently be described. somewhat in the manner smaller proportion described. which was found in a hill in Jutland fastened to its handlo by three rings of leather. 189. we may conclude that the majority of these instruments were mounted for use. but It is shown K several pointed instruments. has more the found." vol. loops would be superfluous. full size in Fig. No example. so as to serve as axes or adzes. have already mentioned that some of the socketed celts of iron belonging to the been found early Iron Age of Denmark have * " Ane. flat bead of bone. This is the more probable as several socketed instruments closely resembling them in character cannot be regarded as other than chisels and gouges. This handle was straight. to serve as chisels. not improbably have A been provided with short straight handles. 163 hanging these instruments at the girdle may be at once disFor such a purpose the projection which we find substituted for the loop would be useless." p. of them may. t " Prim. however. as well as two whetstones of freestone. however. There copied were no bones or ashes found in the cist. Ant. 26. but unlike that from Store Hedinage. than a flat celt.— lived' y. and the presence of two for card^!. On the whole. which was an ell and a quarter long. a appearance of being a tanged chisel. and what appears to be a kind of long. of Denmark. pi. i. the blade has Tig. of a socketed celt provided with a handle of this kind has as yet been into The little instrument of brass fixed handle made of stag's horn. been fastened to the handle by nails or rivets.

. and of the other bronze tools found in Having said thus much however. 28." p. and is the celt. now be this country.164 METHODS OF HAFTIXG CELTS. will. VI. pands with a shoulder projecting somewhat beyond the outside of It continues of this size for about lj inches. mounted A good example of one thus hafted has as chisels. [CHAP. with regard to the early iron chisels. it well to proceed to the consideration of those formed of bronze. * " Vimose Mosefundet. then asrain reduced to the same size as the mouth of the celt.* The part of the handle which goes Above this the handle exinto the socket is tapered to fit it. been figured by Engelhardt. O The whole of the handle beyond the metal is about 4 inches in length.

developed and so far as hammers are concerned.S. 207. W. pebble The simplest form brought it of chisel is of course a short bar of metal left to an edge at one end and blunt at the other where or mallet. but rarely met with in any part of Europe. and not as weapons. David Forbes. make use of no other mallet or hammer than a stone held in the hand. Stone Imp. just as it often does now in the I have elseage of steel and steam. being square in section in the upper part and gradually tapering to an edge at the lower end.CHAPTER CHISELS.K. doubtless. 346. F. was found at Plymstock. there can hardly exist a doubt that they should be regarded as tools. yet in some cases. Already in the Neolithic Period we find many of these forms of tools. described in the preceding chapters. such as chisels and gouges. and not as weapons.t "Anc. many if not most of the instruments of different forms. it is more probable that they formed With part of the equipment of a warrior than of an artificer. where* mentioned a fact communicated to me by the late Mr.S. and the " " cold chisel of the engineer. Bronze chisels of this form are. it seems . regard to the various forms of which I intend to treat in the present chapter. Although. * I am indebted to Mr." p. t See Arch. p. xxvi. GOUGES. vol. however. Franks. especially where they have been found in graves.R. VII.. Journ. Most of the Scandinavian chisels of flint are of nearly the same form as the simplest metal chisels. skilful in working hard stone with steel chisels. F. however. probable that for many purposes a stone held in the hand may have served during the Bronze Period as a hammer or mallet. HAMMEES. were used as tools. . for the use of this cut. One such. A.. AND OTHER TOOLS.. receives the blows of the hammer Such at the present day are the ordinary chisels of the stone-mason. that in Peru and Bolivia the masons.

Fig. conical at the butt end and possibly intended for insertion into a A Fig. It is 7^ inches long. 190. It may possibly have been a large awl. in company with sixteen flanged celts like Figs. 327. inches. . Duke.. Albert Way. Its length is 4 and the cutting edge | inch in width. The F. of Lake House. An Aztec \ chisel of nearly the same form as Fig. hut apparently formed of copper. was found by Dr. probably found in one of the barrows at Lakef or Durnford. 9 and 10. and expands in width at the edge. vol. and a tanged spear-head. who describes this specimen in the late Mr. It is now in the British Museum. regarded it as unique in England and the form. 190." p. VII. smaller chisel. Hungary. p. Schhemann* in his excava- A tions at Hissarlik. has not again been found in this rather more than The . 117. about f inch square in the middle.166 CHISELS. 467. 191. 192. which has produced slight flanges numerous other bronze antiquities in the - . xliii. $ is shown in Fig. about 3 inches long and i inch broad. Plymstock. so far as I am aware. Others of the same form. 192. Devonshire. contains 97 87 copper and 2*13 of tin. The point which was intended to go into the handle appears to have been " drawn down" a little by hammering. shown in Fig.R. near Oreston. GOUGES. HAMMERS." f Arch. The small bronze chisel from Scotland. Bronze chisels of the same form were also in use among the ancient Egyptians. 191. is in the collection of the Eev. Such chisels have also been found in the Swiss Lake-dwellings. I have a large chisel of the same type. Durham. Glenluce. Fig. Musco de Mexico. long chisel. 191. p. and was found with Heathery Burn Cave. Another from Lima contains 94 copper and 6 of tin. near Salisbury. formed from a plain square bar drawn to an edge. One rather larger. already so often mentioned. E. AND OTHER TOOLS. Heathery Bum. vol. 332.. exhibits a somewhat different type the blade tapering evenly away from the edge. also from Hungary.S. and about 4£ inches long. country. en- graved as Fig. which is lunate. * "Troy and its t " Analcs del Remains. which was found in the neighbourhood of Pressburg. three daggers. [CHAP. are in the Zurich Museum. i. Archaeological Journal. handle. It is shown is in Fig. 4J inches and 5f inches long. original is in the coUection of Canon Greenwell.

1856 7. 194. and also of lighter make. of which n<>i ices are given in other parts of this book. which have been described as chisels or hammers. Journ. Fig. blade to the length. p. 192*.. 193. 167 The edge has also been hammered. 31. and is preserved in the Norwich Museum. || . already described and figured at page 133. though more rarely. 192.. 27. t Chantre. with a socket for the reception of a handle. . as is also the original of Fig. 192* is from the great hoard discovered at Carlton Eode. flat chisel (4^ inches) like Fig.|| Norfolk. Assoc.}: shorter edged tools. Keller. but also in the hand alone with found pressure as paring-tools. Journ. vol. 7ter lierieM. Arch. Pig. vol. was found with two flat sickles on Sparkford Hill. Accordingly we find them both provided with a tang or shank for driving into a wooden handle. | — ix. and a socketed celt. not only in conjunction with a mallet. . and was found. "Album. and at least one socketed chisel. 167 Troc. § Arch. it would have been to wooden or horn convenient to attach them handles. CHISELS. Taf. It formed part of the Woodward Collection. was found at Wallingford. but rather broader at the edge. This formed partof the hoard discovered in Eoach Fen. xxii. ii. xliii. 35. vol. found at Ebnall. There were some small chisels of this (Jura). p. on the Numerous arrow-heads and Sandhills of Low Torrs. and knife. like the heavy mortising Chisels of the tanged chisels of the present day. George Wilson. seem rather to have been punches. * Somerset Arch. p. A chisel much more expanded at the edge. 66. Cambridge." pi. and will Two be mentioned subsequently. Soc.. in the relative width of the That shown in Fig. already menThe tioned. Troc. and was the only one of the kind there found. and is in my own collection. Hist. Berks. vol. flakes of flint have also been found among the sands at the same place. p. like the majority of modern chisels. i. marks of the joint of the mould are still visible on the It was found with numerous celts and gouges. vol. A socketed chisel-like celt from the same hoard has been tang. $ chisel of nearly the same form and dimensions is tanged also in the Norwich Museum. gouge. It is engraved as Fig. vii. in company with a double-edged knife or razor. Ant. As and variety vary considerably in size and strength.. p. near Glenluce. Another Carlton Rode.* Somersetshire. chisels were probably used in ancient times. 2nd S. Journ. and also. of Grlenluce. § Salop. Hi. lent me by A which is somewhat oblitpie. with a conical button and a flat plate of cannel-coal or jet. class in the Larnaud hoard f Others have been found in the Swiss Lake-dwellings. and was probably found in Norfolk. as at present. 80 Arch. and Nat. a hammer. 159. 59.TANGED at the sides. Wigtonshire. The original was kindly the Rev...

currier's chisel. p. instead of being as usual * Arch. vol. 2. xxiv. and was described to me by Mr. Another was found at Porkington. Lancashire. "Vest. 193. mentioned by Philoxenus. Derb. 195. 408. about 4 J inches long and 1£ inch broad at the edge. 194. No. but broken at the angles. small part of the blade below the round collar is cylindrical. have also occurred in various other hoards of bronze celts and other tools at Westow. that chisels are generally used for cutting wood and not leather. Assoc. cncrroToVos. In the collection of Canon Green well. A "111111 Fig. Ulverstone. . Ecroyd Smith. \ Fig. 381..* on the Derwent. [CHAP. AND OTHER TOOLS. vii. 58.53. 8. A fragment of a tanged chisel was found with a large hoard of broad spear-heads.. 199. $ In the Mayer Collection at Liverpool is a specimen.. p. VII. Ant. mentioned by Julius Pollux. Arch. Another. was found with spear-heads and a socketed celt at Ty Mawr. 74. 195. F. 8. vol. vol. chisels HAMMERS.— Wallingford. Jo-urn. at Broadward. What appears to be a chisel of this kind (4£. which from their curved edges and general character the late Mr. Shropshire. found near Canterbury in 1761. f Arch. with part of the tang broken off. iii. are two of these tanged chisels from Westow. ." % § Arch. Journ.— Thixendale.. p.j Derbyshire. Fig. &c. who has kindly allowed me to engrave it as Pig. 195. p. Journ. and is in the Bateman Collection. is in the collection of Canon Greenwell... Another." p. Tanged antiquities. and the blade 1\ inches long and 1^ inch wide.S. moreover. James Yates regarded as the a/xtka ^aproor chisel for cutting paper.R. vi. H. GOUGES. scarce in Britain at that time and.t Anglesea.§ Shropshire. to say the least of it. vol. Yorkshire. was found in the Kirkhead Cave. The collar is flat above and almost hemispherical below.inches long) was found near Biggen Grange. and as the t6[io<. In the British Museum is a small specimen of this kind (3^ inches) from the Thames. in the East Biding of Yorkshire. If I were to offer an opinion it would be that any cutting tool of the Bronze Period in Britain was more likely to have been used for cutting leather than paper. The stop. rather like Pig. Journ. -Bench Fen. Some were found with numerous the latter commodity being. p.168 CHISELS. Bateman's "Catalogue.. 4 inches long and £ inch broad at the edge. A remarkably small specimen from Thixendale.

vol. conical. the original of which was kindly lent me by Sir Philip de M. was found with other objects at Burgesses' Meadow. \ The ends. other two chisels from this hoard were more like Fig. Ant. 169 a bead on each face. 196.CHISELS a circular WITH LUGS AT THE SIDES. Nearly similar side-stops are to be observed in the chisel represented in Fig. 196. has already been described at p.— Yattendon. 69. which was found with two others (3| inches and 4i inches) in a hoard of bronze antiquities at Yattendon. With the chisels were instruments collar. following forms. 5 inches long. Cheshire. swords. scabbard : dim II. 'I ' '/ I »'«„:: ' 1 — Broxton. Fig. p. and annular pieces of bronze. 197. . consists of if it appears as condition flat celts.. so that in the side view an oval pin traversed the blade. and flat. of which I have of the given an account elsewhere. An instrument of somewhat the same character. and without any stops or collar. Oxford.S. gouges. Fig.* Berks. and is now in the Ashmolean Museum. vii. ( * Proc. some in a fragmentary socketed celts.. from Farley Heath. F. 2nd S. Grey Egerton. 197. 194. A tanged chisel. socketed and tanged knives. It was found in company with two looped palstaves and a spearhead near Broxton. A very large example of a chisel of this kind is shown in Fig. palstaves.K. 480. Soc. spear-heads. in 1830. about twelve miles south of "Hester.

" Whatever its character. 520. 199." vol. vol. By the kindness of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland it is shown as Fig. 395 is almost identical in form with the chisel from Ireland in my own collection which is here engraved as Fig. Some of these Irish chisels. 54. An example of a chisel of elongated form is in the Antiquarian Museum f at Edinburgh.* His figure is.CHAP. and much stouter in the tang and in the neck of the blade than that here figured. fig. AND OTHER TOOLS. but it is uncertain in what part of Scotland it was found. and somewhat longer proportionally in the tang. [. p. a mere diagram. G13.170 CHISELS.* varying in length from 2 2 to 6j inches. Argylesbire. | Fig. I.. R. . as cataspecimens logued by the late Sir William Wilde. X " Catal. though considerably longer altogether. It is only If inches wide at the edge. however.. Scot. xii. A. 381.— Ireland. I have another example from Belaghey. without any scale attached. of Scot. which approximate to flat colts in character. Ann. which is 6f inches long. p. 199. There are thirteen In Ireland they are much more common. GOUGES.— Scotland. and the instrument is described as an axe blade with a cross limb. HAMMERS. This form of instrument occurs but rarely in Scotland but what appears to be a chisel of this kind is engraved by Wilson. Ant. VII. i. t Proc. 198. . < M |P"« I ' Wilt ' 'in Fig. have already been described in Chapter III." p. * "Troli. Soc. in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. 198. or as a "spiked axe. the original of the is said to have been found with other bronze relics at figure Strachur. Mus. That which Wilde has given as his Fig. County Antrim..

p. . t Vol. Another chisel (4 J inches) in the same collection has side-projections only." some specimens of which will be now chisels. xxxi.i K. though not abundantly. is one (4| inches) with a well-marked collar. mortises. Co". Journ. vol. like Fig. Others in the collection of Mr. 160). 80 . i. . v. Joan/. In our modern mortising chisels the cutting edge. with a well-developed collar. * V .. The edge is only Tilths of an inch in mentioned. " Hora. p. receive handles. from which 192*) and a socketed celt without loop (Fig. or having sockets fco . vol. p. is in One from Beauvais . i. with a narrow end. " formed much like the modern engineer's crosscut chisel. .." pi." vol. I have not met with this bevelled edge among bronze ii. X several specimens. 196 The latter was found at Kanturk. Germain. in the museum at St.. 43. and the tool seems well adapted for cutting width.SOCKETED CHISELS. 195. are all comparatively broad at the cutting edge but there is another variety. This curious specimen was found near Burrisokane. rudimentary form and tools let into sockets. and presents an outline like the upper part oi is . chisels have been found. afford instances of connections of the same kind. Arch. % Arch.A. has a loop at the side of the round part of the blade. 44. 59. clusels.i . Another. 40. so as to have a V-shaped section. 200 is from the great find Rode. Norfolk (1844). The socketed form of chisel is by no means common in this but some instruments. 105 . PL v. Ferales. including a tanged chisel (Fig. Carlton liiule. Arch. having projections Tanged France. instead of being in the middle of the blade. probably intended for use as country have already been described among the These socketed celts not provided with loops.S.. with the square tang broken off. museum at Dublin is one which is decorated Two others are figured in " Horse Ferales. . Robert Day.j at the sides. 171 Among those in the with knobs round the collar. 91. Ant. Another (3£ inches). county Tipperary. which is 2-£ inches long.. resemble Fig. 494 p. have yet to be forms.'' * In the British Museum. usually at the side. and some other have already been described as gouges and hammers. Smith's "Coll. F. such Fig. pp. Cork. That shown in of Carlton Fig. (4i inches) and Fig. described. •">:. The idea of a mortise and tenon must be of very early as a mere stake driven into the ground supplies it in date. Assoc. is engraved in the The form shades off into that of the flat celts Archaeological Joimud. 197 (G inches). viii. vol. '3 »i.

ix. 38. vol.** One with a treble moulding round the mouth and a polygonal neck from Mcerigenff exhibits much taste in its manufacture. de 5. 215. Socketed examples from Italy are in the museum at Copenhagen. Journ. F. 201 is probably the same specimen. Day.. I am not aware of any socketed chisels of the narrow form having been found in Scotland. Preh.] It is now in the collection of Fig. 303. ++ <i ++ Cong. together with a number of objects. ." Copenhagen vol. p. § ii. 2\ inches long." pi. pi. but in the collection of Mr. seen the socket.172 CHISELS. Desor.S.^ and in the British Museum. § Doubs. A number of chisels both of the tanged and the socketed forms were present in the great hoard of bronze objects discovered at Bologna. It has already been figured. Another. No. GOUGES.^f Several have been found in the Lake-dwellings of Switzerland. In France they are also far from common. There is also one in the museum at Narbonne. vi.]: They have been found in Savoy. two in the museum at Tours." ** Keller.S. 6ter Bericht... A Canon Greenwell. * Arch. 201. 8. x. 1878. pi. 7. F. la Sav. 3S2. fragments of swords. 12. found at Boseberry Topping. Arch. vii. is engraved That which I have here engraved as in the Archceological Journal. 46. In Ireland they are rare. I "Materiaux. This was found in the Heathery Burn Cave. In the hoard found at Westow. Taf. || Album. the socket of which is square instead of circular. p.|| and Jnra. 2. already mentioned. On mark the side of this Carlton Rode chisel it may be cast. See also Arch. 485. iii. p. v. The broad celt-like form has been described in a previous chajiter.. B. AND OTHER TOOLS. was found at Bomford. One of them. 216 . " 7. the Bronze which further mention will be made hereafter. Durham. Yorkshire. and socketed celts were found at the same time. In the same collection is a somewhat smaller chisel. " Et. &c. a broken spear-head. was The bronze chisel of the same form. Heathery Burn. vol. . palstaves. at Sheffield. Le Bel Age du Br. Cambridgeshire... "Les ft Desor and Favre. and lumps of metal. Journ. vol. found at the Chatellier d'Amboise. HAMMERS. gouges. 202. i. vi. is circular. Fig. 4. 3. There are. however." pi. x. belonging to of Feriod. Assoc. p. Chantre. VII. Tanged chisels. t Arch. " No. 5. Falafittes.* Essex. of the joint of the mould in which as usual with these tools. shire. Perrin.." fig. is now in the tion.. 3. Preh. Westow. York- Fig. Taf. pi. xxi. [CHAP. were two or three socketed chisels. Exp. 58. Journ. H Ibid. small narrowedged chisel was found in a hoard at Meldreth. Bateman Collec- A are a few specimens of undoubtedly chisel-like character. pi.A. fig. 3f inches long.B." vol. ix. 7ter Ber. in company with socketed celts. de Savoie.

bronze gouges are never found in . Holland. " hollow chisels. v. i.Yo\. but. 42. is curved or hollowed. " lUn-. of which the sockets have been formed by hammering out the metal and turning it over." Arch. From North Germany which is I may is cite one (6£ inches) from Schlieben. instead of being straight. Journ. vol. There was a broken tanged gouge in the great hoard of bronze objects found at Bologna.50 Journ. their sucdo not appear to belong to the early part of the Bronze Period. ii. already so often mentioned. and though gouges of stone were not unknown country during its Stone Period. pi.] in the One from Kempten. so that it is adapted for In some languages. y. which is shown engrave in Fig. Sigmaringen Collection. former is far rarer than the Indeed the only tanged gouge from Britain with which I am acquainted is that from the Carlton Rode** hoard. . xlii. "Die ehern... " Alt. and a few specimens made of flint have been found in this country. working out rounded or oval holes. O 203. Streitkeile. Vorz. the of name by which these tools are It is known is that an early form of instrument." however. indeed. Heft v. Bavaria. while. 7. In the Scandinavian countries. especially as contrasted with the socketed gouge from the same hoard shown in Fig." Taf. on the contrary.|| in the Berlin Others are Museum. in which the edge. will The original ° is in the Norwich which kindly allowed me to be seen.. the tanged and the this cessors in bronze socketed. 173 I have some from Maearsca. 11. it is of remarkably narrow form. Francisc. u. 10.§ andLisch. seem to be characteristic of its later phases. Taf. t Schreiber.. by means of a core in the casting. Of bronze gouges there are the same two varieties as of the ordinary chisel. Taf. 207. "Freder. h.v ** Arch. Assoc. 21. Carlton Rode. i>. the it. II Lindenschmit. ii." No." vol. they are very abundant in Denmark and the South of Sweden. ii. 80 ." Tab.^ Gouges. 61. on the contrary. of which the latter. engraved by Lindenschmit. i.TANGED GOUGES. instead of being produced as usual. i Museum. Dalmatia. iii. viz. are in the museum* at Leyden. . though they are here extremely rare.f Schreiber. Socketed chisels from Emmen and Deurne. trustees of As * Jannsen's " Catal. Closely allied to chisels are gouges. p. t || § Taf. I'Vi-ales. xxxiii.

another was discovered. fragments of knives. + p. at Melbourn. 204. || " Hun** Arch. pi. One of this kind from the Ilarty hoard already mentioned is shown in Fig. with socketed celts. Part of in the hoard discovered at Martlesham in the same county. iv. 1C7. a button or stud. Camb. vol.* in Suffolk. ff This hoard is in the British Museum. A remarkably fine gouge. iii. vol. socketed and tanged knives. In my own collection staves. At Porkington. 12. p. Ant. some (3 A inches) || . p. some of the instances cited. iv. was found. Journ. > P 101 Arch. There were also the two halves of a bronze mould for such gouges which will subsequently be In the Museum of tho Cambridge Antiquarian Society is a described.** near Oswestry and another (2£ inches). and two socketed celts. spear-heads. vol. Aid.K/i/nui. Leicestershire. p. in the hoard of which have been figured.174 CHISELS. are three socketed gouges.... vii. 2EM<ma. vi. Soc.. 408 Arch. 195. Journ... hammer (Fig.. vol. Cambridgeshire. were two gouges in company with looped palThorndon. with a socketed celt. L UUUU1 O VUU. with socketed celts. A plain gouge formed part of the hoard found at Stanhope. p. vol.. which was found with a spear-head (Fig. Journ. p. § Arch. §§ Durham. Another found with socketed celts and some curious ornaments under a large stone at Boseberry Topping. has also been figured.j|55. within the encampment on Beacon Hill. 4 J inches long and nearly 14. Cambridgeshire. at Beddington. AND OTHER TOOLS. 210). pi. Journ.. and various tools of the bronze-founder. c. and an armlet. Journ. &c. aw 1 (Fig. a gouge accompanied the tanged chisel lately mentioned. S.*** Montgomeryshire. 205. 3rd . * Arch. Of English socketed gouges the most common form is that shown in Fig." pi. which comprised numerous socketed celts and the moulds for them. 213. Arch. VII. at Thorndon.|||| Surrey.v. Sop. and lumps of metal. In the hoard found at Guilsfield. Allt. p. Montgom 137. x. iii.. socketed knife (Fig. 294. i p. §§ 35. p. pi. 381. tt /'roc. '205. HAMMERS. and lumps of metal. Another was found with socketed celts and spear-heads at Exning. 323. vol. 240). p. vol. Journ. socketed celts. Assoc. vol..f Yorkshire. x. A gouge was found with four socketed celts and about 30 lbs. of rough copper in an urn at Sittingbourne. at Ebnall." vol. which form part of the hoard from Peach Fen. I'Yralcs. xxii. Another. 204. 391). x. Coll. ii.^] Charnwoocl Forest. p. Fig. Harty. as at Guilsfield and Ebnall. in which were socketed In celts. 3. vol. § in The cutting end of another was associated with socketed celts Suffolk. Scot. xi." vol. Arch. vol. spear-heads. 36. vol. vii.. 'Surrey Aivli. socketed celts. . with socketed celts. Soc. at Kensington. 232. vi. J in Cleveland. p. 58. ii. 81. [dlAP. inch wide at the edge. Arch. 2nd >S.. Arch. ii. 214. p. Arc}*.. 13. iii. HIT .. " Horse. There were two such in the hoard. with spear-heads. vol. J J Kent.^|^f Shropshire. Journ. p. *** Arch. vol. 224). 3 Fer. 1! 1'roc.. vol.. There were six gouges of the same character. &c. p." pi. Coll. fragments of blades. there Pig. v. GOUGES. rough copper. about 3h inches long. and Another was found. . . iv. f+ Ireh. part of a celt mould. Journ. but of different sizes. found at Westow. from an original in the British Museum. and numerous other objects. vol. 5. the upper part of the socket is beaded instead of plain.

which in both is but slightly hollowed. the cut of which has been kindly lent to nit! the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. vol. 175 gouge from Bottishani Lode (3 inches) with a slight shoulder about i inch from the top of the blade. Fig.S. Scot. near Lakenheath. It is broken at the mouth of the socket. They are both rather trumpet-mouthed. the other I have not seen the originals. Ant. The whole are in the museum at Wisbech. about 3 Inches long. 207 is also from Carlton Rode. near Whittlesea. Two from Derbyshire are in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury.inches) one is very slightly shouldered. It was found at Undley. 39. 127. Dorset. v. and a socketed celt with a loop on the face (Fig. describe them from a lithographed plate. a spear-head.. as well as one from the Thames at Battersea (4 inches). 146) near Blandford. are in the same collection. Another'" from the same hoard. was dredged up in the by river Tay. One of three found iu the Heathery Burn Cave (2| inches) is also shouldered. inch wide at the edge. in the figure. They were found with a socketed celt (Fig. one 3J inches and the other broader. as is also a plain example (3f inches) from Scothorn. has the groove. Two gouges (3J inches and 5 inches) were found. Lincolnshire. . 154). The broad short gouge shown in Fig. one 2£ inches long and fully inch wide. in Fig. The original was lent me by the trustees of the Norwich Museum. and is in my own collection. The longer one is of very white and hard -|- bronze. p. 206. v. which is wide and rather fiat. found with various other objects at Hounslow. Of the other two (3 J inches and 3|. 206.SOCKETED GOUGES. the upper part of the neck being larger than the lower. I I & I | Socketed gouges have been found. One Fig. but only 2 inches long. restored the part that is wanting. but 4£ inches long and f inch wide.. A socketed gouge of unusually long proportions is shown in Fig. They are in the collection of Canon Greenwell. and the other 3 inches long and f inch wide at the edge. with a hammer. udley." pi. Soc. I Proc. Suffolk. Two gouges. extending only an inch upwards from the edge.R. but I have. F. thoughvery rarely. 208. In the British Museum are the unfinished castings for two gouges. in Scotland.f This appears to be almost the only Scottish specimen That shown * "Hone Perales. of them is 4£ inches long and Carlton Rode. 207. In the Carlton Rode hoard were also two long gouges with the hollow extending more nearly to the socket end.

5." pi. vii. v.|| I have a specimen like Fig 208. They occurred also in the Dowris hoard.. the latter with a collar at the top. Others from the Hautes Alpes** and from the Fonderie de Larnaud have been figured in Mr. North Brabant. Keller. pi.176 CHISELS. 2. and xl. There are three with moulded tops.. p. and Mcerigen. v. " Le Bel Age du Br. A * "Preh. from Diiren and Deurne. ii. are in the museum at Leyden. fine gouge (about 5^ inches) with a moulded top is in the museum A very fine French gouge of this at Clermont F errand (Puy de Dome). Large gouges with moulded tops. Taf. 7. 1828—9. and in a second hoard also found near that town. 209. Professor Daniel Wilson'" terms it one of the rarest of the implements of bronze hitherto found in Scotland . HAMMERS... Desor and Favre. in the Lake of Bienne. 10 Samml. v. with two mouldings round the top. In Germany they are very rare. This may be the specimen figured by Vallancey. Victor Cross's collection. Rg. iv. in the Poitiers Museum. 209. Soc." pi. || i." pi. vol." Heft. " Horse Ferales.. was found with socketed celts and other implements in the Commune de Pont-point^f (Oise). " at present known. socketed gouges from Ireland are in the British Museum.S. 37. Others were in the hoard at Dreuil. near the river Oise. from the Stations of Auvernier. Vorz. 2£ inches long.A. ornamented with faint diagonal lines. See also Mem. 38. at least One. Scot. u. 4." vol. Ernest Chantre's magnificent Album.JJ Others.. there being twenty specimens in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. iv. and is in the Hotel Cluny. AND OTHER TOOLS. It was found at Kempten. 4. h. It is here engraved as Fig. Others are figured in the Archceological Journal] and " Horse Ferales. Ant. xlii. much like Fig. 7tcr Bericht. pi. " Hohcnzoll." \ In one of these. Ferales. 16. are in Dr. 5. has examples from Mullingar and Derry. " Horse . Mr. ix. i." but he adds that other specimens have been met with in the Tay.Rev. " Alt. R. § 3. 5. There was at least one socketed gouge in the great Bologna hoard.—Ireland. VII. iii. xvi. 9. One gouge Several appears to have been originally tanged. [CHAP. p. Holland. 6. xiii. . is engi'aved by Lindenschmit. v. the hollow is carried up to the collar round the mouth as a square-ended recess. + Pi. with a somewhat decorated socket. 38." pi. has been engraved by "Wilde as Fig. N. Norm. A r ol. pi. from the original in the Museiun of the Royal Irish Academy. Socketed gouges are occasionally found in France. 338.. 208. Bavaria. t Vol." pi. x. 4£ inches long. In Ireland they are considerably more abundant. one of them as much as 4 J inches long. . from the hoard of Notre Dame d'Or. 1. iii. x.S. near Amiens. 34. 399. A gouge § only 2h inches long and unusually broad has a small loop at the upper end of the concave part. Taf. Ann.. GOUGES.ff in the Lake of Neuchatel. 208 found in the Seine at Paris. tf "Deux Stations Lacustrns. character is in the British Museum. 34 ** PI. 335. $ One. but one from the museum at Sigmaringen. 41. pi. Day. Arch. I have a specimen much like Fig. %% H . F. iv. Paris.

and are in my own collection. xxvii.SOCKETED HAMMERS. possible that some of these instruments were of the nature of anvils rather than of hammers. Horse Ferales. -2nd S. I think. f Vol. Sheppey. du Nord. Thorndon.. It is true that what looks like a perforated was found in Newport. p. X Arch. vol. iii. by \Vorsaae. which is somewhat The most common form — — The smaller is more oxidized. Hammers and Anvils. N . though perforated hammers formed of stone are comparatively abundant in this country. but for the present it will be most convenient to speak of them under the latter name. v." pi. Proc. 118. * " " Mem. 3 . and hammer. and the . in company with a spear-head. The heaviest I possess weighs only five ounces. not far from the truth. of the perforated stone hammers belong to the Bronze Period of this country. Croatia. socketed gouge. &c. it is As will subsequently be seen.. f but there is no evidence of its belonging to the and the same period as the ordinary tools formed of bronze . of hammer is that which is shown in from an original in the British Museum found at Fig. as do doubtless most of the perforated stone battle-axes or axe-hammers for in the early part of the Bronze Period it is likely that metal was far too valuable to be used for heavy tools and weapons. socketed knife. suggestion that it may have been the extremity of a bell-clapper It is very probable that many is. and two socketed celts. with the edge turned to a sweep of about is in inch radius. Ant. with a number of socketed celts. yet that instruments of the same kind in bronze are unknown. 142. Ant. 177 1 A socketed gouge. moulds. in fact the whole stock-intrade of an ancient bronze-founder in the Isle of Harty. is said to be of bronze. It is worthy of notice that. p. the museum at One from Siberia * has been figured Agram. 211 and 212 were found. so that upset by constant use. p. Journ. 1872—7. the marks of use are less The metal of which easily recognised. engraved in the Archceo- logical Journal. The two hammer-like instruments engraved as Figs. lightest less than half that weight. 66. p. 33. and even towards the close of the period it seems as if it was only the lighter kind of hammers which were formed of bronze. Lincoln. Another form of tool constructed with a socket to receive the celts handle in precisely the same manner as the socketed and gouges is the hammer. The larger of the two shows a considerable amount of wear at the end. where full size it is en- graved " . Soc. vol.. x.+ Suffolk. 210. Soc.

i already been frequently made. an alloy almost In the Carlton Rode find. 55. AND OTHER TOOLS. By the kindness of the trustees of the Norwich Museum I have been able to engrave it as It expands considerably at the mouth. vii. 212. $ Fig. but in type more resembling Fig. Arch. f in Cleveland.— Thorndon. pi.— Harty. 214. but with the face still smaller. pi. ".178 CHISELS. 2.* It is shown in Fig. so that even in early times the ." pi. 211. was A hammer found at Eoseberry Topping. the two soft metals mixed in these proportions forming as hard as hardened steel. of which mention has Fig. tin. 214. vol. £ singular fact must have been known that by adding to copper the softer metal. iv. was found with a hoard of bronze objects. 211.— Harty. Fig. somewhat larger in its dimensions than Fig. a much harder metal resulted. i. p. vol. § Fig.. 94 . GOUGES. the present time the extremely hard alloy used for the specula of reflecting telescopes is formed by an admixture of about two parts of copper and one part of tin. vol. ii. What appears to be a hammer of much the same kind. the end is " upset " by use. 212. p. spearheads. &c. admixture of tin than is they are formed seems to contain a larger usual with the cutting tools and I have noticed the same appearance in some other instances. Journ. 213. with a socketed * Arch. As will be seen. a torque. HAMMERS. flat sickles. including palstaves. 213— Carlton Rode.— Taunton. 210. * Fig. VII. iv. Scot. and Roman Taunton. was a hammer of much longer proportions than those from the Isle of Harty..Brit. at Taunton. 213. xxxvii. celt. JEliana. p. b. . a gouge. f Arch. having no shoulder upon its body. [CHAP. . 4 Pring. in a larger proportion than the one-tenth At usually employed for bronze. Fig.

one of which is 215. Ant.. small hammer (2£ inches). In the British Museum shown full size in Fig.f and is in the possession of Mr. 2nd S. but four "round-faced socketed punches. iii. at Stanhope. with a hoard of bronze objects. Fer. It appears never to have been in use. for the use of which I am indebted to the Fig.^ It is cylindrical in form.. Soc. Oxford. Bloxam. 215. p. Council of the Society of Antiquaries. spear-heads. 6o. and numerous other bronze relics.IRISH HAMMERS. with trumpets. M.. vol. iii. vol. p. H. is shown in Fig. vol. N 2 . Ant. 216. at Down's. and has a ridge across it. also lent me by the same Council.. 32. one with a long oval face. 2nd S." varying from 2 to 4 inches in length.. found. 216. I am not aware of any examples having as yet been found in Scotland. is in the Wisbech Museum. % Proc. Soc. 13. In Ireland they are rare.S. The end is circidar and slightly convex. Soc. 210. 66. Two other small Irish specimens. t Proc. Proc. Another. 179 and other objects. Hor® § p. A small one was found at Eugby. i. expanding beyond the socket into a large flat blade. I have a hammer (2£ inches) much like Fig.. 13. Another with a circular socket was in the hoard found in Burgesses' A Meadow. Ant. F. 2nd S. 129 " . vol. These are probably hammers.^ King's County. A^liana. ii. found with gouges and other objects near Whittlesea. p. Another broken hammer was found. are in the British Museum. but * Arch. are also several Irish hammers. due to constant use. iii.* Durham.. are mentioned in Wilde's Catalogue.— Ireland Fig. I have one (3 inches) found near Cambridge. with two rings of projecting knobs around it. It is of a different type from any of the others. v.A.— Dowris." pi. pi.

47. Tyrone. . "Les Palafittes. Others from Swiss Lake-dwellings. from Auvernier. Perrin. " vol. Co. M. pi. were in the Bologna hoard." pi. 217). 1. AND OTHER TOOLS." "Materiaux. stouter in its proportions and more was found near Angerville. I have two from France. and a socketed knife. 9. One with saltires on the sides. Stations. x." Afbild. some curved cutting tools. pi. des Plantes. HAMMERS. v. Chantre. of oblong section. pi.* An instrument in the British Museum. pi. . Rabut. Lx. with two projecting lugs on each side for securing the handle. Le fondeur du Jard. of Chambery. 38. In my own collection is one of these looped socketed hammers. Professor Desor has a hammer expanding towards the end from the Lake of Neuchatel. has only a small square hole in the socket. A solid bronze hammer (4£ inches). de la Sav. One of them (3-£. v. together with a large torque and a plain bracelet of gold. with a spear-head. near Falaise. t Chantre. 9 JJ " " Deux Gross. 22. on Bo Island." tf Desor." vol. Keller. || Exp. 6. was exhibited at the Prehistoric Congress at Pesth. at Fresne la Mere. with the shoulder nearer the top.. Socketed hammers have been found in several European countries. pi. The Lake-dwellers frequently utilized such broken instruments.. 216. Age du Br. near Trillick. It was * "Materiaux. 216. p. X § "Age du " Br. i. and was kindly procured for me by the Earl of Enniskillen. from the Lake of Bienne. are engraved by Keller. GOUGES. § Cylindrical hammers have been found among the Lake-dwellings of the Lac du Bourget. both with and without loops. I have also an imperfect specimen with the end expanded. 17. Seine et Oise. " Et. Another hammer. nearly square in section. A short thick hammer was found at Briatexte. "Materiaux.' like Fig. the Station of Eaux Vives. ^f hammer found at Mcerigen** seems to have A been formed from a portion of a looped palstave. p. The other (2 inches). Poland. and an anvil of bronze (Fig. They are occasionally found in Hungary. xiv. Preh. VII. The object engraved by Madsen J J as possibly the ferrule of a lance may be a hammer of this kind. 13. 7ter Bericht. one of them provided with a loop.|| Savoy. near Geneva.j cylindrical hammer or anvil was found in the hoard of the Jardin des Plantes at Nantes. This was found with a broken sword. A hammer also with expanded end was found near Chalon." fig. iii. 6. found near Przemysl. Taf. spear-heads. but not to the same extent as Fig. 10. viii. " Album. was found." lere ptie. pi. .180 CHISELS. xix. p. and ornamented with reversed chevrons on its faces. and may have served as an anvil rather than as a hammer. has a stone mould from the same lake for Another hammer-mould of stone was found at casting such hammers. vol. Arch. 190." 1878. 452.ff is hexagonal in section. ** Desor et " Le Bel Favre. ii. in form much like Fig.. [CHAP.inches). v. sur la Sav. found at Vienne (Isere ?). Tarn.+ and another in the Valley of the A Somme. I have seen one ornamented with chevrons in relief upon the sides.." II pi." . 7. vii." Parenteau.. v. like Fig. in the Lake of Neuchatel. found with a socketed celt and some perforated and other rings. 210. a double-edged knife. Enniskillen. Calvados. and some fragments of others." vol. 15. 212 in form.

but * " Evans. a flat stone must have served as the anvil in early times. is 181 the in the Museum of Academy of As to the manner in which these socketed hammers were mounted we have no direct evidence. or possibly a But though when in use as hammers they hatchet. W. and did till quite recently. Still. seated figure on a hitherto the upper side of the handle. and made in the same manner. stakes and have served as anvils.. and on which to hammer cold work. it is quite possible that some of these instruments may have been fitted on to the end of straight The Rev. I. xix.t and was regarded by the Baron von Sacken as a small anvil. a British prince contemporary with Augustus. in his hand. any longer used country. as it does now among the native iron-workers of Africa. 81. A unpublished silver coin of Dubnovellaunus.. traces of their having been formerly employed appear to be preserved in our language. found with a bronze spear-head. + Among Danish antiquities some carefully made anvils of stone occur. It is also to be observed that of the two hammer-like instruments found together in the Harty hoard one is much larger than the other. is still termed a " stake. p. Wilde. 11. xii. . 6. form convenient anvils on which to hammer out the edges of their sickles. "Catal. A. and Sciences at Cracow. when driven into the ground. Lukis. for many of the country blacksmiths and tinkers of Ireland. Mus. while bronze file the other served as a hammer. that many of them had crooked hafts of the same character as It is worth notice that on some of those of the socketed celts. Stone Ant. and may have formed the head of a stake or anvil. so far as I am aware. 89.METHOD OF HAFTING HAMMERS. Coins. the coins of Cunobeline * there is a seated figure at work forging a hemispherical vase. in R. were mounted with crooked shafts." : p. Brit. was found in the cemetery at Hallstatt. as a rule." It is worthy of remark that an implement of the same kind as these so-called socketed hammers.S. F. A was found with it. which. holds a similar hammer.A. Anc." pi. and holding in his hand a hammer which in the head not projecting beyond profile is just like a narrow axe. informs me that at the present day the peasants of Brittany make use of iron-tipped stakes." pi. It seems probable. t "Grabfeld von Hallstatt. anvils are not. however. Though such in this and which have the great advantage of being portable. of a very hard greyish alloy. C. for a small anvil to cut and punch upon.

217. Mus. R. In the other position the anvil presents no smooth surface on which to hammer. As will be seen. 218.— Fresn^ la Mere. some V-shaped. to me to be of more recent date than the Bronze Period. but a succession of swages of different forms some half-round. it is adapted for being used in two positions. and I am not aware of any other specimen having been found in the British Isles but as it is a form of tool which may eventually be discovered. in Figs. There are also some oval recesses. GOUGES. — |/\| » "Catal. which was broken off after the tool was cast. . On one face is the mark of the runner § inch in diameter. A. according as one In or the other pointed end is driven into the workman's bench.. the one broad Fig. VII.182 I CHISELS." fig. so that their junction forms a ridge. inclined to each other at an angle of about 120 degrees.— Fresno la Mere. On the projecting beak there are three slight grooves gradually increasing in size. and some -shaped. AND OTHER TOOLS. Fig. 217 and 218. The metal of which the anvil is made appears to contain more tin than the ordinary bronze. and the other narrow. HAMMERS. and apparently intended for swages in which to draw out pins. it seems well to call attention to it by engraving a French example. am not certain as to the exact age to which they should be assigned. as there is a thick burr all round it. and therefore to be somewhat harder. I. This part of the anvil has seen much service. . 401. caused by the expansion of the metal under repeated blows. This anvil is shown in two views. one position it presents at the end two plane-surfaces. as if for the heads of pins. Bronze anvils of the form now in use are of extremely rare occurThat figured by Sir William Wilde * appears rence in any country. [CHAP.

and is now in the museum of that town. Iter Bericht. 247). 8 . iii.. The other face and the sides are . A square flat anvil. In my own collection is what appears to have been a larger anvil of bronze. which up to the present time have not been noticed in Britain. found at Auvernier. In form it is not unlike an ordinary hammer-head about 5 inches long but the eye through it appears to be too small for it ever to have served to receive a haft of the ordinary kind. indeed. which contains a large proportion of tin. they have not already been found the saw must not be forgotten. which was found. differing in form. is in the collection of Dr. On one face and one side are rounded notches or swages. Tuf. but thinner. as one face presents the rough surface of the molten metal. 183 This interesting tool was found with the hammer already mentioned. and a plain penannular ring or formed from what was a cylindrical rod.FRENCH ANVILS. part being of cruciform section I have another anvil of about the same size. Gross. vii. a spear-head. the twisted magnificent gold torque . This tool has been cast in an open mould. all of bronze." pi. a double-edged knife or razor. This has a flat projecting ledge at the top. The whole bracelet. Gross. is in the British Museum. . though it probably held a handle by which to steady the tool when in use. at Macarsca. An anvil of the same kind. Ernest Chantre has engraved two other specimens. p. t Keller. It is not find is now in my own collection. somewhat dented on the face. M. but in each position it presents a nearly flat but somewhat inclined face. was found with other objects near Amiens. They were found near Chalon-sur-Saone and near Geneva. near Falaise. 39. a knife with the end bent round so as to present a gouge-like edge. which was found in the Seine at Paris. but which may probably be some day discovered if. A small anvil without a beak. but without the beak. formed part of the Bologna hoard. with recurved cylindrical ends. 28. " Deux Stations. With them was a Fresne la Mere. and a fifth. Both ends are much worn. One end is nearly square and but slightly convex the other is obloug and rounded the narrow way. Dalmatia. and there are no swages in the beaks. .f in the Lake of Neuchatel. hile speaking of bronze — * — "Agedu Br. Saws and \\ Files. also from France. Calvados. It also can be mounted two ways. and at right angles a slightly tapering beak. somewhat much the same general character. and a large at curved cutting-tool of the same character (Fig. Another bronze anvil is in the museum at Amiens. with other instruments of the same metal. one of which is conical and the other nearly rectangular. i. but of fairly smooth. tools.* The analysis of the metal of one of them gives 1 6 parts of tin to 84 parts of copper. by any means that this anvil was rather the tool of a goldsmith of improbable the Bronze Age than that of a mere bronze-worker." ptie.

Part of one from Cyprus is in the British Museum. diadems. Worsaae.. Mus. though some are more sickle-like in shape. 12. lo7. like a from the Lake-dwellings of the Lac du Bourget is in the museum at Chambery. No. [CHAP." Stockholm ii. GOUGES." as being in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. Hallst. "Nord. with the teeth on the inner sweep. p. preh.inch. Spain. coarsely toothed.§ in the Lake of Bienne. vol. Saws have been found both in Scandinavia and in France. In the cemetery at Hallstatt. 11.^[ in the Grecian Archipelago. HAMMERS." pi. in company with various instruments formed of obsidian. with a rivet-hole for the handle. Age du Bronze..f Hautes ALpes. and the serrations appear to have been cast. "Das Grabf. Some fragments of saws occurred in the Bologna hoard. but I have not seen the original and am not confident as to its age. files found. tigs. several in bronze are from 5 to 10 inches long. The bronze pi. "Album. vol. found in the great hoard of the Fonderie de Larnaud. A fragment of what has been regarded as a rudely formed saw of bronze was indeed found. in iron. was and Switzerland. vol. is about 5£ inches long and Period.. at Mawgan. 9 inches long. straight. The early form of file is indeed much the same as that of a very broad saw. 697. No.. in the latter country in hoards apparently belonging to the later portion of the Bronze One from Kibiers. VII. and not when pushed away from him. Sir William Wilde modelling tool. "Album" % Chantre. Chantre. and another circular file. 1874. slightly curved. for the handle.* Cornwall." lire ptie. M. rather doubtful whether it was really a saw. ++ Austria. The Scandinavian type is of much the same character. Olds. Tier Bericht.." p. 337- t E." p." " Keller. Comptes Rend. It is 4 inches by f. v. with a sword and several celts. f inch broad. ** " ++ 87. are and nearly one-half smaller. copper (?) saw from Niebla. at Lammersdorf." 1871. vii.184 CHISELS. six. is in that at Hanover. Catal. spear-heads. des Sc." J Jura. found with celts. 96. Soc. 16. 5. p. II p. I am. also in the British Museum. Von Saeken. has the teeth arranged to cut as it is drawn towards the workman.. short one. &c. 494. A || A A A A The file is another tool of exceedingly rare occurrence in bronze. found at Stade. Taf. and is now in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. though not absolutely unknown in deposits belonging to the close ** mentions " a bronze of the Bronze Period. There were five specimens in that hoard. however. Ant. A file ft was. Arch. xliii. with a rivet-hole near Prenzlau. de l'Ac. is in the Berlin Museum. and with a rivet-hole at one end for attachment to the handle. § 158. p. saw. "Cong. the toothing being coarse and running at right in Upper angles across the blade. files of this character were and one * "Catal. found at Mcerigen." pi. however.. 476. Chantre enumerates sixteen altogether from various parts of France fine specimen. xvii. Two from the "Fonderie de Larnaud. " ft E. AND OTHER TOOLS. saw of pure copper was found in some excavations of dwellings of remote date at Santorin. Chantre. . || xxv.

AND TONGS. to be of service for the latter purpose. ii. before a small fireplace. Egyptians. tough and ductile. Tongs and Punches. published by Sir Gardner Wilkinson. which similar to those from Durham. in the cave at Heathery Burn. been found. or to draw out and harden their edges. 127. A workman are remarkably seated Fiff.* near Stanhope in Weardale. was discovered. Whether they were used merely as fire-tongs. be borne in mind that bronze is a metal however. fig. much too pot. however. for about 2 inches at the end. vol. ' 37'"> . They appear. " half-round" ing one of a o file. FILES. p. becomes "short" and fragile when heated. Ant. with numerous other antiquities. p. Soc. This instrument which is shown in Fig.. Heathery Burn. light In the museum of the Louvre at Paris are some Egyptian tongs of bronze. however. like iron. and tongs. Durham. which instead of being. and is now in the collection of for socketed celts Canon Greenwell. one pair of bronze tongs has. iii. was At least probably administered to them when cold." vol. includfiles. As half of a mould and some waste runners of bronze were found. or for the is purpose of lifting the crucible or melting- a question.. 185 and some which are flat for the greater part of their length are drawn down. hammer. it is evident that the practice of castingbronze was carried on in the cave. t "Anc. and these tongs were probably part of the founder's apparatus. 2nd S. between the anvil. f What 1 have ventured to regard as another of the tools of the Proe. shown in a painting at Tlidbes. there seems to us a sort of natural connection It must. From our greater acquaintance with the working of iron than with that of bronze. holding a blowpipe to his mouth with one hand and with a pair of tongs in is the other.SAWS. 219. 219. 224. into tapering round In the Bologna hoard were several fragments of files. so that all the hammering to which the tools and weapons of bronze were subjected in order to planish their faces.

with socketed celts.— Harty. these sockets were formed over a core of clay inserted into the r . point.— Reach Fen. 220. the broken one has lost a portion from its end exactly corresponding in length with the depth of the socket of the largest . i Fig. &c. 221. handle. celts having been found with the still The heat of the melted metal w as r sufficient to convert the clay into terra-cotta or brick. i Fig. into which the tang w as driven as far as the projecting and its purpose appears to have been the extraction of the stop That cores of burnt clay from out of the sockets of the celts. two prickers from the Harty hoard were originally of the same length. moulds. [CHAP.— Ebnall. and this could be well effected by If the driving in such a pointed instrument as that here figured. 220. is forming the whole stock-in-trade of a bronze-founder. and in this condition Some force was necessary to the cores have been preserved. GOUGES. as well as another which had given in Fig. was found. bronze-founder example lost its is a kind of pointed punch or pricker. extract such hardened cores. gouges. in the Isle of It seems to have been furnished with a wooden Harty. Fig. mould cores is proved by numerous in them. HAMMERS. of which an This. VII. AND OTHER TOOLS. Kent.186 CHISELS. 222.

mers. appear to have been in use for producing the incuse ornaments which occur on so many of the liat and I am not aware of flanged celts. or possibly weights. may. Ant. but it may be that after all it was the broad end that was destined for use. found with socketed celts and numerous other objects in the hoard from Reach Fen. Prigg. or possibly chisels. 221. it is possible that these shorter punches may here have been used for some other purpose than that of extracting cores. Some Council of the Society of Antiquaries. any tools which were used for this purpose having been observed in Britain undoubtedly but. .. p. that of the other presents a small It is possible that. and if so may have been applied to this use. celts. H. and then had been broken off short at the mouth of the celt in the vain endeavour to . Journ. * Arch. . shown in the figure bears no mark of having been hammered it Punches. like the instruments next to be face. already mentioned. oblong these may have been punches used in the decoration of described. Mr. there were found at Ebnall. and broad daggerdoes not appear that any of these were ornamented The tools may.. Hoc. vol. as I have already remarked. two short-edged tools. therefore. They were found in company with . small punches. .. xxii p ll . Assoc.f Salop. 59. One of these is shown in Fig. 2nd S. xxxvi. One of these is shown in Fig. gouges. These two tools have been regarded as hambeing ^ inch. iii. vol. G6 Arch.* in his description of this has suggested such an use. more chisel-shaped at the point. t Proc. however. Journ. The large end of the punch hoard. celts 187 found with it as if it had been driven home through the burnt clay quite to the bottom of the socket. The other is described as of similar form but of rather longer proportions. have been struck with a wooden mallet. as anvils. blades but it spear-heads. the block for which has been kindly lent me by the "were . vol. 222. No moulds were discovered in this case and though the hoard has all the appearance of being the stock of an ancient bronze -founder. without any tang for insertion in a handle.. p. The end of one is sharp.PUNCHES USED IN ORNAMENTING.. have been some kind of strong chisels. I have now spoken of them as punches. possibly used for breaking oft* merely the jets and superfluous metal from the castings. in which case they might be regarded with punch-marked patterns. extract it. which may possibly be punches. other articles of bronze. The thickness of the tool is rather greater than the cut would lead one to imagine.

xliii. may have served for decorating other articles in Awls. Drills. VII. Age. as he points out. to belong to a period posterior to that of the ornamented though decorated spear-heads occur in them.188 CHISELS. That with a regular stop-ridge. or marked as that in a carpenter's awl. mainly to that we are indebted for our knowledge of these the barrow-digger little instruments. however. or Prickers. I A am also. these seem flat celts. [64 . That with a well-marked shoulder. II. Whatever the purpose little doubt that punches were in use of these particular tools. unite the object being to prevent its passing too far into the waist. Some of the punches from the Fonderie de Larnaud and from the Lake-dwellings bronze. enabled to make use of some of the woodcuts which illustrate Dr. III. Allied to the pointed tools last described. I. GOUGES. therefore. and when preserved it only under conditions equally favourable that they would attract It is. some extent with as : They are as follows many — types or That with a simply flattened end or tang for insertion into its handle. almost as handle. but it is only under favourable conditions that such small pieces of metal would be preserved. p. but the is somewhat detailed essay upon them has already appeared in the Archceologia* in the late Dr. or prickers of bronze which have so frequently been found accompanying interments in barrows." from which I am haustive paper on tempted largely to borrow. part. as distinguished from that of a shoe- maker • Vol. but considerably smaller. there can be but for the ornamentation of the . AND OTHER TOOLS. are the awls. Many belong to a very early part of the Bronze form continued in use through the whole period. where the stem and tang . borers. correspond to varieties of the bronze celt. which. Thurnam's admirable and ex" Ancient British Barrows. flat faces and the sides of celts and it will be well to be on the to look out for such tools when hoards belonging For the most the ancient bronze-founders are examined. through the kindness of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries. HAMMERS. Thurnam's paper. drills. No doubt such instruments must have been in very extensive and general use . [CHAP. He distinguishes three types of these instruments. the attention of an ordinary labourer.



One of the first type, from the Golden barrow at Upton Lovel, is engraved by Hoare,* and is shown in Fig. 223. With it were two cups, a necklace It is almost the longest of of amber beads, and a small bronze dagger. those found by Sir E. Colt Hoare, which were upwards of thirty in number. The only longer specimen was found in a barrow near Lake,f and there also some beads and a bronze dagger accompanied the interment. It is considerably thicker than Fig. 223, and the tang for insertion in the handle is broader and flatter. A smaller awl of the same character was found in a barrow on Upton Lovel Down, | opened by Mr. Cunnington. In this instance there were two interments in the same grave, and several flint celts and a perforated stone battle-axe were found, as well as numerous instruments of bone, and
a necklace of beads of jet or lignite. An awl of this kind (3-iV inches) found, with a spear-head, hammer, knife, and gouge

Thorn don, Suffolk, § most of them already described, is now in the British Museum, and is shown in Fig. 224. Several such instruments, some of them not more than an inch in length, were found by Canon Grreenwell in his exploration of
of bronze, at

the Yorkshire barrows.

In nine cases awls or prickers accompanied interments of unburnt bodies, and in three cases they were In most infound among burnt bones. stances instruments of flint were found with them. An aged woman in a barrow on Langton Wold^f had three bronze awls or prickers, as well as an assemblage of bono instruments, animal teeth, marine shells, and C (it her miscellaneous property, buried with Dr. Thurnam regarded these as drills her. used with a bow, but I think such an use is 225. Fig. 223. Fig. 224. ThornButterUpton doubtful. Some of the awls from the Yorki Lovel. don. $ wick. | shire barrows, instead of being flattened at one end, are drawn down to a point at both ends, leaving the middle of larger diameter so as to form a kind of shoulder. These, I presume, are included under Dr. Thurnam's Type TI. Sometimes this central part of the blade is square and sometimes the tang is square, like that described by Stukeley** from a barrow near Stonehenge as " a sharp bodkin round at one end, square at the other where it went into a handle." An awl, square at the centre, and round at each end in section, is shown in Fig. 225. It was found by Canon Greenwell in a barrow at Buttei wick, Yorkshire, in company with the celt (Fig. 2), and other objects. The point has unfortunately been broken off. A typical example of Dr. Thurnam's second class from a barrow at

Vol. i. p. 99, f PI. xxx. 3.


pi. xi.




from the Arch.,

vol. xliii. p. 466.

| Arch., vol. xv. p. 122, pi. iv. 5.
x. p. 3.

Arch. Journ., vol.
cit., p.


" British Barrows," passim. -



45, pi.








Bulford,* Wilts, is shown in Fig. 226. Another was found at Beckhampand a small pricker of the same type was found with a burnt interment at Storrington,f Sussex. Like those found by Sir R. C. Hoare, this was regarded as the pin for fastening the cloth in which the bones were The fact of several of them having been collected from the funeral pyre.


inserted in their hafts, as will subsequently be seen, will prove that this view is mistaken. Several awls pointed at both ends were found by the late Mr. Bateman during his researches in the Derbyshire barrows. In Waggon Low X at the right shoulder of a contracted skeleton were three instruments of flint, and a small bronze awl 1^ inches long, tapering each way from the middle, which is square. Another, pointed at each end, lay with a drinking cup and a rude spear- or arrow-head of flint near the shoulder of a youthful skeleton in a barrow near Minning Low.§ Another of the same kind was found in a barrow on Ham Moor, Staffordshire. Another was found with calcined bones in a barrow in Larks-Low, ^f Middleton.

suffice to


In several instances there were traces of a wooden handle, as was the case with one, upwards of 3 inches long, which was found with a flint spearhead, a double-edged axe of basaltic stone, and objects of bone, among the calcined bones in a sepulchral urn from a barrow at Throwley.** In a barrow at Haddon Field f f there was a small drinking cup near the back of a contracted skeleton,
Fig. 22G.

Tig. 227.




and beneath this an arrow-head of flint, an instrumenf of stag's-horn like a netting mesh, and a bronze awl showing traces of its wooden handle.

In another barrow near Grotam, Nottinghamshire,^ there lay near the thigh of a contracted skeleton a neatly chipped spear-head of flint, and a small bronze pin which had been inserted into a wooden handle. In a barrow near Fimber,§§ Yorkshire, opened by Messrs. Mortimer, there were found near the knee of a contracted female skeleton a knifelike chipped flint and the point of a bronze pricker or awl. With another female interment in the same barrow a bronze pricker was found inserted in a short wooden haft. The Britoness in this instance wore a necklace of jet discs with a triangular pendant of the same material. A bronze pin, 1£ inches long, accompanied by a broken flint celt and some arrow-heads and flakes of flint, together with calcined bones, was found in an urn in Ravenshill barrow, near Scarborough. In some of the Wiltshire barrows more perfectly preserved handles have been found. One of these, copied from Hoare's " Ancient Wiltshire,"^ is shown in Fig. 227. It was found in the King barrow with what was probably a male skeleton buried in the hollowed trunk of an


Arch., vol. xliii. p. 465, fig. 163. "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 85.


f Suss. Arch. Coll., vol. i. p. 55. " Vest. Ant. of Derb.," p. 41.

p. 82. ** "Ten Years' Dig.," p. 155. XX "Vest. Ant. of Derb.," p. 104.

"Vest. Ant. of Derb.,"

U Smith's "Coll. Ant.," ft Lib. cit., p. 106.

p. 60, pi. xxi. 3.

" Reliquary," vol. ix. p. 07. Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. vi.

p. 3.




p. 122, pi. xv.





elm tree. With it was a curious urn of burnt clay and two bronze dagger, one near the breast and the other near the thigh. The handle is described as being of ivory, but I think Dr. Thurnam was right in regardis of the third type, having a ing it as of bone. The awl in this instance well-marked collar round it. Another of the same character, but retainthe shoulder is better shown, ing only a small part of the haft, so that was found with burnt bones in an urn deposited in a barrow near Stonenature of the material of which henge.* No mention is made as to the
the haft was formed. In the case of an awl of the
first type, engraved by Dr. Thurnam, and here reproduced as Fig. 228, the handle is of wood, but the kind of wood is not mentioned. One or two bronze or brass awls with square shoidders are in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy.f Several awls with their original wooden handles have been found in the Lake-dwellings of Savoy, X and others in hafts of stag's-horn in the Swiss Lake-


Whether the twisted pins from the Wiltshire barrows nature of gimlets, as suggested by Dr. Thurnam, is a difficult question. I shall, however, ornaments rather prefer to treat of them as personal It is possible that they may to some than as tools. As to the extent have combined the two functions.
are of the

instruments which I have been describing being piercing and or awls, there seems to be little doubt

Mr. Bateman can hardly have been far wrong in regarding them as intended to pierce skins or leather.

Though not curved

like the cobbler's

sent day, they arc probably early In Scandinavia these family.


awl of the preof the same


^Jdre. i ornamental handles also made of bronze. § They are in that part of Europe often found in company with tweezers and small knives of bronze, and all were probably used together in sewing, the hole being bored by the awl and the thread drawn through by the tweezers and, when necessary, cut with the knife. Possibly the use of bristles as substitutes for needles dates back to


instruments are of sometimes being provided with

very early times. In one instance at least tweezers have been found in Britain in company with objects apparently belonging to the Bronze Age,

though no doubt

to a very late part of


Those represented
p. 597.


* " Anc. Wilts," vol. i. p. 164, pi. xvii. « Alb.," pi. lxiii. t Chantre,

t Wilde's " Catal.,"


Nord. Olds.,"


274,276; Nilsson,

Nordcns Ur.-Invanare,"

55, 57.






229 were discovered near Liang wyllog, * Anglesea, together with a two-edged razor, a bracelet, buttons, rings, &c, which are now in the British Museum. A more highly ornamented pair of tweezers, with a broad end, found with a bone comb, a quern, spindle- whorls, &c., in a Picts'

house near Kettleburn,t Caithness, belongs to a considerably later

The needles of bronze found in the British Isles do not as a rule appear to belong to the Bronze Period, though some of those found on the Continent seem to date back to that age. Two are engraved
by Wilde, + and there are altogether eighteen such
articles in the

Academy. A broken specimen (1| inch) from the sandhills near Glenluce,§ Wigtonshire, has been


of the Royal Irish


Another useful


— though


anciently formed

speaking, a tool may as well be tioned in this place I mean the



hook, of which, however, I am able to cite but one example as having been found in


This was found in Ireland, in Fig. 230,11 kindly lent by the Royal Irish Academy. Fish-hooks of bronze have been found in
the British



considerable abundance on the site of sevenil
Fig. 229.
Fig. 230. Ireland.


of the Swiss Lake-dwellings and a little remarkable that in form

it is





almost identical with the

fish-hooks of the present day.


barb, to prevent the

from struggling off the hook, is in most instances present, and double hooks are occasionally found. The attachment to the line was, even in the single hooks, frequently made by a loop or eye, formed by flattening and turning back the upper part of the shank of the hook. Fish-hooks were found in the Fonderie de Larnaud (Jura), 11 and in the hoard of St. Pierre-en-Chatre (Oise). Such are the principal forms of tools and instruments of bronze found in these islands. Some of them, such as the socketed gouges,
* Arch. Journ., vol. xxii. p. 74. t Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. i. p. 266 Arch. Journ., vol. x. p. 218. " Catal. Mus. E. I. " Avr and A., p. 547. X Wilton Coll.," vol. ii. p. 14. § " Catal. Mus. E. I. A.," fig. 403. H Chantre, " Age du Br.," lere ptie. p. 87Wilde,
- '




can only belong to the latter part of the art of using cores in order to produce Bronze Period, or other hollow recesses in castings was well known. sockets Others, like the simple awls so frequently found in company with instruments of flint in our barrows, appear to extend from the commencement of the Bronze Age to its close. There still remains to be described a class of instruments in

hummers, and


when the

and as the use by the husbandman, and not by the warrior has extended to such a length, it will be well to present chapter

treat of these

under a separate heading.




Sickles are tlie only undoubtedly agricultural implements in bronze with which Ave are acquainted in this country. Already in the Stone Period the cultivation of cereals for food appears to have been practised, and I have elsewhere* pointed out a form of
instrument which may possibly have supplied the place of The rarity of or reaping hooks in those early times. bronze sickles in this country, as compared with their abundance



some parts of Southern Europe, is, however, somewhat striking, and may, perhaps, point to a considerably less cultivation of grain crops in Britain than in countries with a warmer climate, while the inhabitants were otherwise in much the same stage of civilisation.


traditions of the use of bronze


survived to a com-

paratively late period in Greece and Italy, and Medea is described by Sophoclesf as cutting her magic herbs with such instruments
it cpe-navm? To^ua?), and by Ovid + as doing is by Virgil § represented as curvamine falcis ahenaB." Elissa using a bronze sickle for similar purposes

(XaAiceoKTiv "


" Falcibus et messae ad lunam quseruntur aenis Pubentes herbse nigri cum lacte veneni."

bronze sickles were used for reaping corn it seems to have been a common custom merely to cut the ears of corn from off the straw, after the manner of the Gaulish reaping machine described


by Pliny, from the


and not

to cut

and carry away straw and ear together


This practice will probably account for the small

of the sickles which have

come down


us, unless


are to
off the

reverse the argument, and derive the custom of cutting
+ "

* " Anc. Stone Imp.," p. 320. Met,," vii. 224.

" Saturn.," v. f Macrob. " Ma.." lib. iv. 513.


"Nat. Hist.,"

xviii. o. 30.

pars only



from the diminutive

size of the

instruments employed

for reaping. Bronze sickles were hafted in different ways,

sometimes being

fastened to the handle by a pin, either attached to the stem of the blade or passing through a hole in it, combined with some

system of binding

and sometimes being provided with a socket which the haft was driven, and then secured by a transverse

pin or



sickles with a socket to receive the

peculiar to Britain

and the North of France.

handle appear to be The other form

occurs over the greater part of Europe, including Scandinavia, and the blades, as has been observed by Dr. Keller, are always
Dr. Gross, of Neuveville, on adapted for use in the right hand. the Lake of Bienne, has been so fortunate as to discover at Moerigen, the site of one of the ancient pile-villages on the lake,

two or three handles

for sickles of this kind.




three views of one of these handles has been published by the Koyal Archaeological Institute,* and is here by permission reproduced as Fig. 231. This handle is formed of yew, curiously

thumb and fingers, and has a flat place end against which the blade was fastened. In this place there are two grooves to receive the slightly projecting ribs with which the stem of the sickle-blade is usually strengthened. Dr. Kellerf has suggested that the blade of the sickle was made fast to the handle by means of a kind of ferrule which passed over it, and was secured in its place by two pins or nails. The end of the handle forms a ridge, through which are two holes that would admit a small cord for the suspension of the sickle, and thus prevent its being lost either on land or water.
carved so as to receive the
at the


in the case

find this sailor-like habit prevailing among the Lake-dwellers of their flint knives also, the handles of which were

often perforated. There is a remarkable resemblance

in character between this handle and some of those in use among the Esquimaux + for their and knives, which are recessed in the same manner for the planes

reception of the fingers and the thumb. Some iron sickles, of nearly the same form as those in bronze with the flat stem, were present in the great Danish find of the Iron Age at VimoseJ described Early by Mr. ('. Engelhardt. Tl
Arch. Joum., vol. xxx. p. 192. See Lubbock's "Preh. Times,''

p. 513.


Keller. 7ter Bericht, Taf \ii. l. " Vimose Fundi fc," 1869, p. 26.






chord of the curved blades

is from 6 to 7 inches in length, and one of the instruments still retained its original wooden handle. This is between 9 and 10 inches long, and is curved at the part intended to receive the hand. The end is conical, like the head

Fig. 231.—Three views of a handle for a sickle, Moorigen.

of a screw, and is evidently thus made in order to give a secure hold to the reaper when drawing the sickle towards him. Sickles with nearly similar handles were in use in Smaaland,* in the South of Sweden, until recent days.

"Aaxbogerfor Oldkynd.,"

18G7, p. 250.




Of sickles without a socket but few have been found in Britain, and those mostly in our Western Counties. In a remarkable hoard found in a turbary at Edington Burtle,* near Glastonbury, SomerOne of these had never setshire, were four of these flat sickles. been finished, but had been left rough as it came from the mould, into which the metal had been run through a channel near the A projection still marks the place where the point of the sickle. was broken off. As will be seen from Fig. 232, this blade is jet


Fig. 232.— Edington Burtle.

provided with two projecting pins for the purpose of attaching it In this respect it differs from the sickles of the to the handle.
ordinary continental type, which, usually but a single knob.


of this character,


Another of the Edington

sickles with

a single


Fig. 233.— Edington Burtle.


in Fig. 233. This blade is more highly ornamented, and a rib along the middle in addition to that along the back, no doubt for the purpose of increasing stiffness while diminishing Of the other two sickles found at Edington, one is imweight.



and the other much worn. Both are provided with the two projecting pins. Two other sickles found on Sparkford Hill,f also in SomersetOne of these much resembles shire, present the same peculiarity.
Somerset Arch, and Nat. /lis/, /'roc, L854, vol. t Op. cit., IHoG— 7, v"]. vii. p 27.


Fig. 233,




The other is though nearly straight along the back. on both faces. Each has lost its point. A chisel-like tool was found with them. With the Edington sickles were found a broad fluted penannular armlet and what may have been a finger-ring of the same pattern,
a plain j)enannular armlet of square section, part of a light funicular torque like Fig. 467, part of a ribbon torque like Fig. 469, and four penannular rings, some of them apparently made from frag-

ments of torques.


other sickles of the same character, each with two pro-

* itself in association with jecting pins, were found in Taunton twelve palstaves, a socketed celt, a hammer (Fig. 214), a fragment of a spear-head, a double-edged knife, a funicular torque (Fig.
468), a pin (Fig. 451), some fragments of other pins, and several penannular rings of various sizes.

Fig. 234.— Thames.


All the objects found at Edington, Sparkford Hill, and Taunton now in the museum in Taunton Castle.


thinner form of

flat sickle, if



be, has

been found in

a number of bronze objects which were discovered at Marden,f near Staplehurst, there is a slightly curved blade with a rivet at one end, which appears to present a sickle-like character.



have not seen the original, and as it is described as a knife-blade may prove to have been one, or possibly, what is of far rarer

occurrence, a saw.

Of socketed sickles a few have at different times been dredged One of these, found in 1859, is in my own up from the Thames. The blade, which is almost collection, and is shown in Fig. 234.
as sharp at the back as at the edge,

not quite central with the
Roman Taunton,"

* " Brit, and Arch. Journ., rol. xxxrii. p. 94. Pring, t Arch. Assoc Tourn., vol. siv. p. 258, pi. 13, No. 1.


which has been kindly me by the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. One from Stretham Fen. . Ant s ' < vol. 235. Another from Downham Fen (5f inches) is sharp on both of being closed. 85.. In another sickle found in the Thames.WITH SOCKETS. in 1840. Fig. I 2nd S. 199 socket. which in this case also is double-edged.] closely resembles Fig. 1 % Arch. p. but so placed as to make the instrument better adapted for The socket tapers conuse in the right hand than in the left and is closed at the end. <S'oc. instead A The blade of this also is sharp on both edges. That shown in Fig.— Near i The curved socket is \\ by -& inch. v. and is placed at a The less angle to the blade. in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society (about 5i inches). 235. Ant. Franks has shown me a sketch of another found at Dereham which has the external edge of the blade extending across the end of the socket. is of the same character.§ near Enrol. is open. 191. and engraved in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries. vii.. siderably. third. Proc. is engraved on the lt-iit scale of two-thirds linear. In the Norwich Museum is a sickle of somewhat the same character as Fig. Both edges of the blade are sharp. But few sickles have been found in Scotland. vol. but the socket instead of being oval is oblong. much resembles this Norwich example in outline. It has two rivet-holes in the socket. 95. the socket dies into the blade instead of forming a distinct feature. Another sickle from Norfolk J was exhibited to the Archaeological Institute in 1851. Berks* (Fig-. 234.. Perthshire. p. to be described in the next chapter. and has been described by Dr. Soe. 236 was found in the Tay. 2nd S. and has one rivet-hole through it. instead of my usual scale of one-half. J. vol. Alexander Smith. vol. p Joum. p.. 378. found near AVindsor. but the end of the socket. edges. near Bray. viii. The block. Mr. The ma in difference between this specimen and mine from the Thames (Fig. iv. § Proc. 235). knife from AVicken Fen.

Compare " Hone . Fig. but resembles that of the Windsor example already mentioned. I || "Coll. F.. Keniles. has also been engraved.. p. That engraved as Fig. \ called by the serves that it was Irish a Searo. &c. and was pronounced by the Earl of Bristol. 234) consists in the blade being fluted. 101. -527. to whom it was presented. and was found at Garvagh. Tins appears to be the one engraved by Vallancey§ who obFig..'* vol. In another the socket is not closed at the end. In Ireland these instruments are much more abundant. as well as one in that at Edinburgh. 236. Fig. then Bishop of Derry. t Vol. Aberdeenshire. 237. Sutherlandshire.— Garvagh.200 SICKLES [chap. iv. 19 i.* Premnay. acorns." and that it was used cut herbs. In Sinclair's " Statistical Account of Scotland"! it is stated that an instrument of this class was found at Ledbeg. In one of those engraved by Wilde (Fig. eitf-il l." In another the blade forms collection of ' ' || 'to f /'roc.S. " j p." p. Catal. Eleven specimens are mentioned by Wilde + as being in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. xvi. v Wilson." vol. x. vii. 406. Scot." pi. VIII. to be a Druidical pruning hook similar to several found in England.R. Soc.. 237 is in the Canon Green well. Perthshire. 4. " Preh. vol. 60. Another more rudely made found at Edengeraeh. Ann. x.. 206.— Near Errol. and there are three in the British Museum. sickle. Eib. pi. Ant. 405) it is more highly ornamented. p. de Reb. 376. This has a single central rib along the blade and no rivethole through the socket Perhaps it is an unfinished casting. county Derry. The blade is fluted somewhat like that of the Tay specimen. misletoe. p. Deny.

Holmes is another example of this type.* Tyrone. about 7 inches ii! ''ii -tli along the outer edge of the Made. but the blade is narrower and more curved and the . p. t Vol. found near Athlone. 108 Horsa . wliicli extends pas! the end of the socket. This still contains a part of the wooden handle. which is engraved from a specimen in the British Museum.socket. p.. 18. and with a concavity on each side at the angle between the blade and the socket so deep as to meet and form a hole. was found in Alderney. w hich lias been secured in its place by two rivets. vol Perales. 238. in his "Collectanea. apparently of bronze. i. i. In the collection of Mr." has figured another. J. socketed sickle. and is engraved in the Archaeological Association Journal. ii. p. double-edged. spear-heads. This may be regarded as a French rather than an English example. In my own collection is another. 237. 9. iii. 201 ii direct continuation of the socket as in Fig.FOUND IN IRELAND. Journ. has also been figured.] With it were found socketed celts. 234." pi. x. more flattened.. A / : Fig. from the Seine at Paris. In general outline this sickle is much like Fig. In the museum a! Amiens 1 * Arch. isg Sue also Dublin Penny Journ. This specimen is among those in the British Museum. found near Ballygawley. and broken swords and daggers. 238. county Westmeath.— Athlone. Another sickle of the same character as Fig. Vallancey.

' ii. though he divides the form without socket into five different varieties. is doubtful but that so primitive an instrument. H Stevens. Inasmuch as the continental forms are as a rule different from the British. Eeft xii. in form closely resembling Fig. 333. They have been found in great abundance in some of the settlements on the lakes of Switzerland and Savoy. " Alt. Tav. li.. Tav. so that this type of instrument appears to be peculiarly our own. iii. is a remarkable instance flint 2nd t : S.|| and others. "Nuovi Cenni. 17. Vorz." p." 1863. 234. " Samml. "Samml.202 sickles [chap. however. 6. tells us distinctly that the Britons gathered in their harvest by cutting off the ears of corn and storing them in subterraneous repositories. 256 . u.C.. ii. p.+ Gastaldi." vol.t Examples from Italy have been given by Strobel. . Whether made use of the tribulum** that " sharp they threshing instrument having teeth. is another sickle. " zu Sigmar. M. 18." 1862. have been engraved in illustration of a paper by myself in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries* Others from Germany. moreover." Taf. 1. xli. Some from Camenz. " || i. The existence of a socket shows that the form does not belong to an early period in the Bronze Age. xli. it will suffice to indicate some few of the works in wdiich descriptions of them will be found. From for threshing these they picked the oldest day by day for their food. L' Age du Bronze. Taf. zu Sigmar Taf. some of which are said to have Roman numerals upon them. " : § Avanzi Prerom. Flint chips. have been figured by Lindenschmit. and the same is to be inferred from the character of the other bronze objects with which the Alderney sickle was found associated. well known. iv. Chantre in his magnificent work.. It has been thought that the Lake-dwellers did not cut off merely the ears of their corn." p. or other stone. and as they are. should have remained in use in some Mediterranean countries until the present day. § Lindenschmit. in Saxony. VIII.57. armed with flakes of ." Diodorus Siculus. Stone Imp.." before Roman times." does not specify this socketed type. ' ' These three are the only instances I can cite of socketed sickles having been found outside the British Isles.. vol. See Evans. otherwise there would not have been the seeds of so many weeds in the corn.. as it also is in Switzerland. who wrote in the first century B. The socketed form appears to be quite unknown in the South of France. Anc.1i but " that the straw was taken with it. but with a loop at the back of the socket. 7.

of the power of survival of ancient customs. . and .FOUND ON THE CONTINENT. their great scarcity in the British Isles affords a conclusive Roman in argument against their being assigned to the period of the occupation. be range of Roman antiquities will be found to contain. among other objects. 203 Such an instance of persistence in a primitive form much reduces the extreme improbability of the use of bronze sickles in Germany having lasted when Roman numerals might appear upon them. the will much enlarged. of which other remains have come down to us such abundance. Andrew's cross and every straight line found upon every ancient instruments is to be regarded as a Roman numeral. XIIIIIXIIIMXIMII Even were it proved that in some part of Europe the use of bronze sickles survived to so late a date as supposed by Dr. a large number of the bronze knives from the Swiss for one of the most common ornaments on Lake-dwellings the backs of these knives consists of a repetition of the pattern their earliest possible date. Lindenschmit. and the objects bearing them are to be referred to Roman times as until a time If St.

may have been and though equally available both for peaceful and warlike uses . KNIVES. rather than in this. It is a question whether. Both hatchets and knives. have been found with interments in barrows but it seems better to include the majority of the latter class of instruments. however.—Wicken Fen. . if in this work strict regard had been paid development of different forms of cutting implements. like the celt or hatchet. which will hatchet or celt it . rather than the to the for when bronze was first employed for cutting was no doubt extremely scarce. or rather knife-daggers. which treats of daggers. the knife ought not to have occupied the first place. Some of these. I have to some extent tried to keep tools and weapons under different headings. as knives does it seem convenient first to describe what regarded appear to be the simpler and older forms. in the next chapter.CHAPTER IX. which appear to occupy an intermediate place between tools and weapons. inasmuch as there are other forms which in all respects except the shape of the blade so closely resemble some of the socketed n\' sickles described in the last chapter. it appears impossible completely to carry out Nor in treating of what I have any such system of arrangement. 239. £ be devoted to what appear to be forms of tools and implements. Fig. ETC. RAZORS. and would therefore purposes hardly have been available for any but the smaller kinds of tools and weapons. thai they seem nlmost neeessiu to follow immediately .

240 shows a knife with two rivet-holes. I have another. xlii. Suffolk. and is engraved in the Another. a spear-head. p.]: It is now in tho British Museum. p. 240. The ordinary form a of socketed knife has straight double-edged blade. in a pit at the foot of the interior slope of the rampart of Highdown Camp.— Thorndon. xxxiv. It is in my own collection. 11.R. X vii. t Vol. viii. pierced by one or two holes. Beach Fen. I am not aware of any other example of this form of knife having been found in the United Kingdom. but sometimes in the same plane with it. holes are usually at right angles to the axis of the blade. and was formerly in the Meyrick Collection. pi. F. though more properly- It was found in Wick en Fen. 301. Glamorganshire.. and is now in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. through which rivets or These pins could pass to secure the haft. vol. Pitt Rivers. the Council of which has kindly permitted me to engrave it as Kg.. § "Anc. Fig. It may possibly have accompanied a funereal deposit. is in the Bateman Collection. 205 shall it The first instrument which sickle. formed part of a hoard of bronze objects found in Reach Fen. Sussex. p. near Burwell. but not quite accurately.§ near Worthing. was found in the Thames. pi. found in Edmonton Marsh. socketed knife of this kind (4i inches) was found by General A. in order. with two rivet-holes in the hilt (14£ inches). It has already been figured. gouge. and the blade more fluted. and an awl. found in Ireland. hammer.SOCKETED KNIVES. -J- A Vol. 22. 240. Armour. and is shown in Fig. 75." Arch. much like Fig. in the Archaeological Journal. together socketed celts. extending from an oval or oblong socket. several of which have been Another (9 inches figured in preceding pages. but with the sides of the socket flat.— Fig. A fine blade of this kind. of which mention has already fre- quently been made. 241. J (U inches long. Pig. xlvii. The blade has shallow flutings parallel with the edp's. long). of much the Archceological Journal. . but a double-edged socketed knife with a curved blade. 239. 241.S. I cite is has sometimes indeed been regarded as a speaking a curved knife.* the rib at the back of the blade being omitted. which was found at Thorndon.^ with ! as same size and general character. 302. was found in the New Forest.

is in Canon Greenwell' s collection. E( at hery Fig. Soc. and numerous other articles.. This was found with a socketed celt.* It is now in the Museum (8J inches). and is now in the British Museum. Ant. at Martlesham. gouge. KNIVES. in my own collection. fragment of a knife of this kind is in the museum at Amiens. chisel. of the oval of the such. vol. Another from the same cave (5| inches) with a plain and rather larger socket is in the collection of Canon Greenwell. Jonrn. [(HAP. spear-heads. and razor : — One from Llandysilio. I have a knife of this character \'\ inches). 269).. Suffolk. Pmc. part of a sword blade.R. I 132. p. 242 is of this kind.§ Another (5f inches). lis. Soc. from the same source. 4. It has a beading at the mouth of the socket. 3o9. but without the small bosses. A knife of this kind was 12. Cornwall in the Archeeologia.. by the Society. and formed part of a hoard found near that town. IX. Two found in the Thames near Wallingford.! Anglesea. - p. and a gouge. ETC. . vol. vol. pi. I Vol. That shown in Fig. One like it was found on Holyhead Mountain. bighshire. 10. ii. found in Dors^ I-'i 2 ' .i . but presents the remarkable feature of hav- ing upon each face of the socket six small projecting bosses simulating rivet-heads. It was found in the Heathery Burn Cave.—KilgrasBurn Cave._>l)l. near Torquay. RAZORS. ! . 243. is engraved of the Society of Antiquaries. six. and also one about midway between the rivet-holes. "Catal. 254. the following may be mentioned One (6£ inches long) found with socketed celts. 2nd S. and in the possession of Captain Brooke. Mus. of Ufford Hall. iv. £ ton. 303. but with the rivet-hole in line with the edges of the blade. t Arch. xv.' p.S. ... l'ertiislm among the relics found above the stalagmite in Kent's Cavern. Ant. Soc. especially in the smaller specimens. vol. p. Den(Fig. Of other specimens. • This cut is Proc. with socketed celts. In some Instances the two rivet-holes run lengthways socket. ii. Ant. F. One A Commonly there is but a single hole through the socket. p. . discovered with other objects at Lanant. p.+ Durham. found with socketed celts and a spear-head. Journ.. xxiv.

Perthshire.i witl * i the blade. from the A North of Ireland. In Canon Greenup IPs collection is nearly similar specimen (10-J. the appearance of being a spear-head. blade and two shorter lateral ribs. F. is formed of yew. A. however. Another. and has been engraved as a spear-head by Professor Daniel Wilson. 240. which assumes the appearance of a hole in the figure. F. and in some respects bus more the appearance of being a spear-head than a knife. of Scot. i. knife of the same kind. xxxvi. know in what part of Ireland it was found. exist in private collections. is made however. Ann. In some instances the junction between the blade and the socket to resemble that between the hilt and blade of some of the bronze swords and daggers.! can hardly. noulph. 243 was found at Kilgraston. near Athleague. I think. there is a slight Haw. Galway. "Catal. The example shown in Fig.. p.S. with the rivet-hole in the same plane as the blade.. Co. found al Balteragh. Many specimens also That shown in Fig. The indented Knes upon it appear to have been produced in the casting. is in the Tours A knife found in a hoard at St.three such knives+ are recorded by Sir W. § I have a specimen of the same character. p . though another form (Fig. As will be observed.. of this kind. is still attached to the original handle. Argyleshire... eit. p.SCOTTISH AM) i K I S 1 1 KNIVES. like many of those of the flint knives found in the Swiss Lake-dwellings. p. The rivet-hole is at the side. as preserved in either the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. 207 In Scotland the socketed form of knife is very ran That shown in Fig. In Ireland the socketed form of knife is more abundant than in England or Scotland. 390. Co. Deny. 330. I do not. with two rivet-holes at the side and the socket some what ornamented by parallel grooves at the mouth and at the juncti . 245 is in my own collection. found in the Bog of Aughrane. I. Ge- :i.* The discovery of a blade having its original handle. 6 inches long. Meath. and not added by any subsequent process. Co.. No less than thirty.. and is in It has a central rib along the the collection of Canon Greenwell. 244 is in the collection of Canon Greenwell. f Op. but in outline more like Fig. and was found at Kells. 291 and 34!>. 35 h. as subsequently mentioned. R.S. Feral | § " Preh. such as Figs. J"Catal.K. Mns. the blade is at the base somewhat wider than the socket. vol. that some of these are rightly regarded as knives. Kells. figured by the same author. was found near Campbelton. however. 402. in which. be Scottish. It has been several times figured. and not on the face." fig. proves." vol.R. 328) has more The curved knife with a socket. Wilde. of five of which he gives figures.. which.inches). Museum.

)!. Several socketed knives with curved blades have been found in the Swiss Lake. Fig. Academy Museum A long blade. IX. through the face of which are two rivet-holes. is in the Amiens Museum. in company with the bronze hilt or pommel shown in Fig. Among the fragments of metal forming part of the deposit of an ancient bronze-founder. 258. like rivet-holes. Jon. vol. The socketed form of lmife is hardly known upon the Continent. 246. 245. rib at each collection. Assoc. I have the fragments of two such I have also a fine and entire specimen. Two objects. Of the others. from the bed of the Seine at There is a transverse end and in the middle of the socket. and one such. about two-thirds have a single rivet-hole on the face. and the other third one on the side. 241. A portion of the original wooden handle is still in the socket.. 245.208 KNIVES. 246. was found between Lurgan and Moira. seems to be a jet or waste piece from a It has. knives. Fig.dwellings. ETC. found with spear-heads in Cambridgeshire. as will have been observed. Ono at Dublin has two on the face. and was found with a * Arch. which pass through the Another knife (6f inches). also apparently of wood. RAZORS. These objects formed part of the Wilshe Collection. of beim. of a fibula. and discovered at Dreuil. Co. found with a hoard of bronze objects at Marden. been regarded as part casting. 247 in my own collection. and are now in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy. though. was also found in the Seine at Paris. xiv. near Amiens.— Ireland. somewhat differing in its details from Fig. will subsequently be mentioned. 9J inches long. but with only one rivet-hole. is That shown in Fig. A piece of bronze of much the same form. of the socketed knives in the rivet-holes [chap. p. however. but instead flat it is curved into a semicircle. Down. secured in its place by two pins. and. $ For a typical example I am obliged to have recourse to a French specimen. . it is stated. somewhat similar to Fig. sharp on both sides. it has occasionally been found in the North of France. found with the sickle already mentioned. near Paris.* in Kent. and is now in my Charenton. There which it blade is is will another form of socketed knife The be well here to mention.

209 anvil (Fig. vol. It seems by no means improbablo that such instruments may have * "Proh. but it has a raised central ridge on the inside. Boss-shire. i. Vroc. viii.V inches). &c. the end of which is bent to a smaller curve. Fiff. viii. singleedged knife. here reproduced by permission of Messrs. t Vol." vol. while it is nearly plain and smooth on the outer side. Calvados. in the Island of Skye. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. p. and is now h 'ins. in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. near Falaise. 400.. — Moira. 310.S other large vessels made from the trunk of the oak. As Professor Daniel Wilson* " in observes. Scot. Invergordon. general appearance it resembles a bent spear-head. The cut U . 247. spear-heads. 310. 249. * Fig. Another instrument of the same kind (4. Macinillun. is engraved in the Proceedings of the - B— Skye. It seems well adapted for working out hollows in wood. and other objects. Ant. 248. with a bronze sword. tanged. 249. 217). at gold torque and bracelet.CURVED KNIVES.^ and is here by their permission reprol>< < duced as Fig.— Fresne la Mere. Soc. — Wester Orel. Ann. p.. The most probable use for which it has been designed would seem to be for scraping out the interior of canoes and It is show ii U. M p. found at Kig. An instrument of much the same character (4 inches) was found.— "YVcstor Old. a bronze Fresno la Mere. With it was found a small.

-. h merely a 1 thu shown \ in h\ this there are tiding . is in the collection oi M Forel..v.a\l. jmont of what «pp< hut with a sv>livl handle. seems to be I tanged curved knife of this kind formed part of the hat . those with sockets and -.. llounsk>w and is now in the \ \ . tuisttlkou for bent spear lu\wls. - it -'•. with « tam.. near Another.tli and ' in • v u OXI in D I oll< v \ r s kind The \ trith a i or s AV - ..: those v tan >0 .ako Settle \... w of Another form which appears to be intermediate between knife. Mo 1 . so rivet s a sing to bind them and bt the blade thorn tirmh :.'. ami an' u>>\\ in the uuimmiiii oi mont of ho l\iw\ Vive*. Museum. was found with gouges and . 1 l> i 11 VI' l\. of that town t I found among tin* j>ilo dwellings near that j>la> w k> one of these ourved knives. KM\I\ ami R\ OKS. at > that thov are OOtquitOSO vaiv &s would present ftmv ' l'w o -nous of the socketed form ha\ P boon found in the I ...- the b\ which would ends he two \ e the ] wood to that d or horn t destined form ho handle.i. aiul not R Socket.

xiv.S.S.„. was a knife li has rather the appearance of 253. with a broad tang and two rivet-holes. ii. were in some instanoes provided with a central in and ridge upon the tang. found in Yorkshire. narrower than the tang. F. Long. horn. with sooketed oelts and numerous other - ) objeots in bronze." 187..U \l\ I.E. /int. Oanon Greenwell.vo been often found '" treland. collection ol late Lord 1 1 1 oited.. blade with a tang for insertion in a hafl must have been a verj early form of metal tool. their handles. 241. ol llu. j "Catal.. as il .i ii could be fastened to o it had been simply driven iiiio handle. sharpened | al broken end so as to form ohisel. The rivets are fast attached to the blade. p. rol. and showing three facets on the blade. with the edges more ogival. vol.S Willi RRO \ l> I \ M. 257. fig 3615 . inohes) of much the samo character. In form they resemble Fig. and the handle through whioh they passed was probably of some porishablo material. was found wiili various other articles al Marden. of the II former in shown is in is in the Scarborough M useum. suoh as wood. f I - • < I 1 . 268. was round in the neighbourhood of Nottingham. Mon< leaf-shaped and sharply pointed probably rather than Knives. Im. 2nd 8. i p. $oo. already more (nan nine with a plain tang. dstoo. from the point of a broken sword. The blade shown in Fig*. of which there are examples in lie the British Museum. 251 was found in the samo hoard ai thai engraved as Fig. The end of a broken sword in Hie Dowris hoard has been oonverted In into 8 knife in n. F. ! I | cases provided with rivets li\ which handle. broader al the base and more like n dnggor in character. Like Fig.J Kent. hoard. has two leaf-shaped blades of copper. Another was in the Dowris inohes) has been figured l»y Wilde. Another. Journ. Ant. with in tangs set • lately in use handles of bone rather longer than the blades..i kind. but nol so broad in the tang. i be part of a tanged knife. 2nd 8. as the edges of the in Fig. from the Heatherj Bum Gave. One daggers in. in others without rivets. In the Reach Fen hoard was a knife I'... wai found In the Thamoi n inches In the British Museum is a knife much Like the figuro. imperfeot knife of the same kind. is the collection of Oanon Greenwoll. 252. Another. 229 i. />. which served to steady then] in ol hers the Bte r tang was left plain. found in the Thames al Kingston. which were not riveted to bandies.. An olass.. 241. shown having been made The blade itself is now tang have been "upset" by hammering. the result probably ol* muoh w©ar and use. In ilnt Isle of Harty hoard.R. < 1 1 1 Braybrooke i is what appears to . A llni. similar manner. p. One Fig. vol. I Proc 8oo. suoh blades were found. j their The knife-blades with broad tangs. in South Babylonia. p. Among the Assyrian relies from Tel 8ifr. or bone Another blade (6 inches).S. 83 | Arch. which wen among the Esquimaux.

[chap. much like that from tho Heathery Burn Cave (Fig. 264. Day. Canon Greenwell has one (6§ inches) from I A i Fig. 252. An/. 255.. — Ileathery Burn Cave. Fig. The knife or dagger with a plain tang and an ornamented blade engraved as Fig. R. is in the collection of Mr. -Irish speci- now be well to mention some of the other mens of this class. 252). Antrim.212 It will KNIVES. * Froc.S. Soc.A. IX.* Co. Another. Tyrone. vol. and there are several in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy and elsewhere. The knives with the projecting rib upon the tang are by no means uncommon. v. —Ireland. It is less round-ended than the Made with a central rib along it and one rivet-hole This is in my own collection. 254 is in the Museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy.—Harty. simply ridged and with a single rivot-hole in the tang. . F.. Co. found at Craigs. p. Antrim. found at Ballyclare. Ballynascreen. Kg. ETC. shown in Fig. Co. RAZORS. 253. 2nd S. and was in the tang.. 269 (woodcut).

Fig..—Ballyelare. is in the British Museum. 387. A.—Ireland. found at Seamer Carr." p. Antrim. found near Ballycastle. ne Bar Tring. which he regarded as arrow-heads. Another example of this form (5£ inches) is in the British Museum. found at Wiffginton.— Bally castle. A Fig. I. Wilde * has figured some other examples of the same kind. from 3 to 4 inches long. is shown in Fig. They appear to me. 257. Yorkshire. Canon Greenwell has a knife of the same form (4f inches). unless possibly it was intended for a lanceThis specimen is also from the Reach Fen in Fig. not only in the Lake-dwellpresent day. but its place of finding is not known. 258). 213 A mould for blades Another form of head. Herts. 258. Before 259 I have engraved a small instrument of this kind. it will be well to notice such few examples as have been found of single-edged blades. however. -Reach Fen. 25G. Another. smaller (3f inches). Co. ^ * Fig. 257. 503. 255. figs.KNIVES "WITH LANCEOLATE BLADES. Mus. with the blade pierced in the centre (Fig. J Fig. Sir W. the bundle of which terminates in the Head <>1 an animal. . of this character will subsequently be mentioned. R. 388. I proceeding to describe some other symmetrical doubleedged blades. knife. but is of 3-ellower metal and differently patinated from the objects found with it. ings of Switzerland. like the ordinary knives of the Abundant as these are. In the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy is yet another variety. It was therefore not intended for insertion into a halt of some other material • " Catal. too large for such a purpose. they are of extremely rare occurrence in the British Isles. but in France and other continental countries. 389. nearly similar blade. is shown hoard. 256.

t Arch. He also figures a socketed knife of much the same size from the collection of Sir John Clerk at Penicuick House. &c. with a thick back and notched tang. p.214 KNIVES. gouges. The specimen here figured has been kindly lent me by Mr. though. . J Professor Daniel Wilson * speaks of it as having been found in Ayrshire. 402. Fig.—Wigginton. form was found with a hoard of bronze objects near Meldreth.f Kent. The only specimen mentioned in the Catalogue of the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland is in all 14 inches long. and is in the British Museum. Knives of this kind were associated with celts.— Isle of Harty. but no doubt more exist. pointed I have another bronze knife. hoard contained socketed celts. In Ireland the form appears to be at present unknown. and shown full size Fig. p. c. 2G1 is shown a knife of a form which is of extremely rare occurrence in this country . Scot. IX. Cant.. 14. am by no means certain. 125. pi. The rude knife found with the Isle of Harty hoard. Cambridgeshire. I cannot help suspecting that these are of foreign origin.. Humphrey Wick ham. of Strood. is the only other English specimen with which I am acquainted. in the hoard * "Preh. 260. In Fig. ETC. fragments of One more crescent-like in swords. 260. as will be seen. which is said to have been found in London . and was found with a hoard of bronze objects The at Allhallows. in which are also some tanged specimens. Hoo. vol. xi. as Fig. 259. a spear-head. rather longer and narrower. i. and with a but of this I tang-. and regards it as a reaping instrument. KAZORS. and the object engraved as Fig." vol. it has frequently been found in France. [CHAP. gouges. Ann. 286. and of this the place of finding is unknown.

I have a knife of this class with a rather large triangular opening in it and two circular loops. 10. pi. xvii. Julien.. Ant. pecidiar and distinct type. If ** "Materiaux. to the Council of the Society. in the collection of M.6. Francisc. 2nd S. Francisc. already mentioned. ii. I have a rough and imperfect blade of somewhat the same character . Chateuil. ix. In some French varieties there are rings at the top of the blade instead of holes through it. " Freder. It has no hole through H || || * Arch." tali. 1827 pi. at Le Puy.* Some knives of this character were found with a hoard of bronze tools and weapons at Questembert. p. but somewhat resembles in character the oblong bronze cutting instrument found at Ploneour.KNIVES OF PECULIAR TYPES. t Parcnfruu. do Mons. Brittany. Brittany. vol. Some of the razors from the Lake-dwellings of Savoy and Switzerland are of much the same character as these knives. viii. 1G0.. ^f Another somewhat different was found at A — A Lavene** (Tarn). Illl xviii. Olds. 4. Nantes.. xiv. It is thinner and flatter than would appear from the figure. \C>. ducerclo Arch. 215 of Notre-Dame d'Or. 262— Cottle. p. xiv. One from the station of Eaux Vives. p.." fig.% In character this knife closely resembles some of those in flint.. vol. now in the museum at Poitiers. Brittany. has the face ornamented at the blunt margin with a vandyke of hatched triangles. " Mati'riaux. XX Lisch. that from Cottle. in the Lake of Geneva. shown full size in Pig. 9. the edge is nearly semicircular. A Mecklenburg knife has three such loops and corded festoons of bronze between. 138. vi. Stone § Imp. A Danish ff knife of this character has five circular loops along the hollowed back. || iii. Journ. Fig. and is engraved in the Archceologia Camhrensis. "Fredcr.. v. found at Bernissart. 20. knife of this 8. "Nord. 304. f One from La Manche is engraved in the Memoirs of the Society xvi. but thinner and more curved. "Materiaux. was found at It is of a Cottle. . ft Worsaae. and there are eight round holes through the blade as well as two rings at the back. The bronze knife or razor. fig." tah. character of rectangular form. and are now in the museum at Yannes. was found with other bronze relics at Ploneour. Hainault. pi. broken one was in the hoard of the Jardin des Plantes. pi. 301." "Ann. X 3rd S." 1857. 480. A Mecklenburg knife or razor figured by Lisch is analogous in form. 262. Soc. am indebti d For the use of this cut §§ /'roc. i. p. vol. 265." vol. In a curious specimen from St. § A kind of triangular knife of the same character was found at Briatexte|| (Tarn). Aymard. each side being brought to an edge. 14." " Anc. Two also were present in the Alderney hoard found near the Pierre da Villain." vol. 1 vol. of Antiquaries of Normandy. Assoc. and is now in the British Museum. §§ near Abingdon.

in his second exhaustive paper on "Ancient British Barrows. This very small example of specimen formed part of the Eeach Fen hoard. A smaller example. diminutive pointed blade which appears to be too small to have been in use as a dagger. 263. has been figured by the late Dr. \ heads. \ The original was found in Lady Low. as being more probably small double-edged knives. but thickens out at one end into a short boat-shaped projection about ^ inch long. this kind of blade.^ Lincolnshire.A. found in an urn at Broughton. and which from the rivet-hole through the tang can hardly have served as an arrow or lance head. [chap. RAZORS. Wilts. 264. Staffordshire.216 it. has been thought to be an arrow-head but I agree with Dr. Thurnam in regarding both it and the small blades described by Hoare as arrow.. F." published in the Arclmologia* from which I have derived much useful information. with a longer and imperforated tang. small blade with the sides more curved is shown in Fig. KNIVES. is shown in Fig. KT< . and now in the British Museum. . Fig 263. IX. from a barrow near Eobin Hood's Ball. It was found near Londonderry.S. which I A A A have copied from Dr. Thurnam' s engraving. Thurnam.

" " British X Barrows.l) I! \ZORS. It has a small rivet-hole through the tang. Thurnam. —Bogart. Its resemblance has been pointed out by Dr. 2G8." p. with an axe-hammer and a whetstone.E-KlH.* I have reproduced it in Fig. Journ. and its edge is described mend a pen... * Arch.— Balblair. 21: at Oxford. c\ Fig. A as sharp blade of of stone much the same kind was found in an urn. but with fewer ribs.. p. Aflat blade." in Whitaker's ed. 152. He has also figured one of nearly the same size. \ Gloucestershire.Dorjil. t Thoresfcy's " Catal. with a somewhat longer tang than :m\' here figured. from a barrow at Priddy. Fig. at Brought on-in-Craven. p. . vol. This also has been regarded as an arroAv-head. 266. ! Canon Greenwell records the finding of an oval knife (2£ inches) \\ iili burnt bones in an urn at Nether Swell. 2G7. almost circular. who records that it was found in an urn with burnt bones and a set of beautifid amber buttons or studs. formed part of the great Bologna hoard. xvi.l. The is Wilts. 440. and now in the Ashmolean Museum to the leaf of rib-wort (Plantago media) original is enough to now in the Bristol Museum.f in 1675. Leod. Somerset. though it is 3 inches long and 1^ inches broad. of " Ducat. 114.

270. || . Soc. but the centre plate is fluted with a slight ridgo along the middle and one on either side. 269. manner upon the small plain oval blade. and Rom. The edges are very thin and sharp. 4. It A was found pronounced. 434. was found in a tumulus at Lieraboll. Sutherland.* Kildonan. vol. is engraved in Gordon's Septentrionale. Barrows. but ornamented with a lozenge is shown in Fig. Andrews. x. Soc.. In Canon Greenwell's Collection is an oval blade (4 inches) with a flat It has no tang. P. 208. Ant. in which country the plainer forms of oval razors also seem to be ex- tremely rare. "Brit. 8 (1726). and with the midrib less of the actual size. pi. 1. Fig. Taunton. them are of rather lamer size.— Wallingford." pi. It was in Baron Clerk's collection. Another blade of the same character. For the use of this cut. Fig. * Proc. apparently more perfect. I Proc. § 11 Vol. vii. % Proc." sickles. See also Pring. vol. Soc.. found in a large cinerary urn at Balblair. 116. f Another. [CHAP.^ I am not aware of any such blades having ever been found in Ireland. finely chequered. Scot. Scot. 267. and ornamented in a different face. p. 95. of Some These instruments are occasionally found in Scotland. Ant. running along it. am indehted to the Society. 271. 476. but central rib. also pattern. as well as figs. KAZORS. It is described as a lance-head in the Archceological Journal." p. p. ETC. f Grcnnwoll. in a tumulus at Rogart. and numerous other objects at Taunton. p.§ Sutherland. which has possibly lost its tang. tapering to a point. 267. p." describes it as "the end of a spear or Hasta Pura of old mixt brass.218 KNIVES. " Brit. and the central rib shown in the section is ornamented with incised lines. 272. The only English example which I can adduce was found with some a torque. is shown full size in Fig. Another. 446. 431. 268. i. Scot. IX. vol. x. and 273. It is of nearly the same size and shape as Fig. Two oval blades were found with burnt bones in urns near St. and with many more lozenges in the " Itinerarium He pattern. xxx vii..— Heathery Burn Cave. Ant. and has been figured.^ Sutherlandshire. and is not ornamented.

3rd S. Arch. 273. rib. vol. there is a rivet-hole through the broad end of the an urn with burnt bones at Killyless.S. t Areh. Antrim. permission of Canon Grreenwell. in which there is neither notch nor perforation.— Ireland. Fig. Jottrn. 7. shown as Fig. xii. vol. 271. xxxii. is. Llangwyllog.. Fig. xxii. xxxii. It is difficult to assign a use for the small hole usually to be seen in * Arch.* Anglesea. p. xliii. 97. 272. C . Another. pi. xliii. Cumb. p. pi. with a socketed knife and other objects.. 71 .— Dunbar. Arch.. 269. Fig. F.E. Co..SCOTCH AND IRISH RAZORS. 274. An example from Wdtshiref in the Stourhead Museum (now at Devizes) is more barbed at the base and rounded at the top. near One of almost identical character was found at Wallinsrford. found in the Thames. 219 It was found in The form most commonly known under the name of razor is that shown in Fig. from the Heathery Burn Cave.— Dunbar.f vol.— Dunbar. vol.. i Fig. without midrib. by the 270. from a specimen in my own collection.

Ant. Soe. p. ETC. Two which were found in a cranno^ej in present in the Dowris hoard. though in most cases the notch in the end of the blade does not extend to the hole. fig. It KNIVES. Dublin. though but rarely occurring on objects of bronze in There is a large razor of this kind in the Museum of Trinity Britain. an ornament of frequent use in early times. and three are mentioned in Wilde's Catalogue f of the Museum of the Royal Fig.— Kiulcith. 410. 272. the county of Monaghan were regarded as bifid arrow-heads.220 these blades. 47. . The midrib ornaments formed which body I am indebted for the use of of the specimen hero shown is decorated with ring of incised concentric circles. x. RAZORS. Razors of this character have been discovered in Scotland. Irish Academy. G49." | p. and 273. near Dunbar. Arch. together with a socketed celt found with them. Several unornamented blades of this character were College. iii. They are all in the Antiquarian Museum.. Three which are believed to have been found together in a tumulus at Bowerhouses. 83. No. to the Council of Fig. P. 433. IX. 275. Journ. One of these (2g inches) is in the British Museum. vol. [chap.. may 271. about 1825. vol. Razors of the class last described have been found in Ireland.. 182. 274. "Catal. are shown in Figs. at Edinburgh. fissure in the blade possibly be by way of precaution against the extending too far. p.* Haddingtonshire. Scot. * t Proe.

. I have a razor of nearly the same form from the Seine at Paris. 84 vol.. Edinburgh. "Age du Br. A German example is in the Museum of the Deutsche Gesellschaft. which has a ring at the external end. pi. v. 76. 221 blade of this kind." No. 276. An instrument with the blade formed of a single crescent was found at the same time. near Nidau. besides being perforated in an artistic manner and having a ring at the end of the handle. at Leipzig. but "with..| on the Lake of Bienne (Fig. ." lore partie. * Jannsen's " Catal. 1844. and has been described and commented on by Dr. de V Quest. was found at Deurne. Taf. § The nearest in character to Fig. and preserved in the museum at Poitiers. 275 is perhaps one found in the hoard of Notre-Dame d'Or. and Dr. vol. In the next chapter I shall treat of those blades which appear to be weapons rather than tools. 441. 275. It affords the only instance of a razor of this shape having been found in the British The form much more nearly apIsles. p. tin 7 03 (with a trace - A of lead). t near Currie. x. Instead of the blade being a single || crescent. The blade.. Mem. and is in the Leyden Museum. Ant. \ See Chantre. 10. Smith has illustrated this by the accompanying figure of a razor from the Steinberg. The only remaining form of razor which has to be noticed is that of which a representation is given of the actual size in Fig. This instrument was found at Kinleith. is of larger dimensions than usual with instruments of this kind. The metal of which it is composed consists of copper 92-97 per cent.CONTINENTAL FORMS. p. 5ter Bericht. den Ant. for the use of this and the following cut. || I am indebted to the Society . xvi. proaches one of not uncommon occurrence on the Continent than any other British example. Scot. p. and a hole at the base of the blade as well as one near the bottom at the notch. and others have been found in various parts of France. John Alexander Smith. de la Soc. % See Keller. Soc. 276). t Proc.—Nidau. 209. them.* Gruelderland. it consists of two penannular concentric blades with a plain midrib connecting Fig. ix. a loop instead of a tang.

and which are unmistakably weapons. and those provided with rivet-holes in the base of the blade. and the daggers to be described in this. arms of offence take a far higher rank than mere tools and implements and on the first introduction of the use of metal . which I purpose mainly to follow this seem to be the most ancient. Possibly. is one for which no hard and fast rule can be laid down. Among all uncivilised. connected with the smaller examples of the first same character. such as some of those described in the last chapter. Nor in treating of daggers can any trustworthy chronological arrangement be adopted. has pointed out that of bronze blades without sockets there are two distinct types. The distinction which can be drawn between knives.CHAPTER DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. that the thin in flat blades are earliest in date. X. the paper already frequently cited. The late Dr. into . I take them possibly they are not the earliest in date. RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. in order. the early form may have served for both but there are other and appapeaceful and warlike purposes rently later forms made for piercing rather than for cutting. as already observed. inasmuch as the tanged blades are most closely are the tanged. though . So far as there are means of judging. any country. is no doubt to a great extent arbitrary. and mainly dependent upon size. a small knife or knife-dagger appears to have been among the earliest objects to which bronze was applied in Britain. though it is probable. classification and. Thurnam. such as some of those to be described in the next chapter. . described in the last chapter. In the same way the distinction between a large dagger and a small sword. These which he regards as perhaps the more modern. like the Highland dirk. if not indeed among all civilised nations. there is great antecedent probability that the primary service to which it was applied Avas for the manufacture of weapons.

." pi. } Mag .R. 3. perhaps a knife. 186. p. p. and towards its base there is a A dagger of this kind was single rivet-hole. 44. Yorkshire. and part of the blade and the tang of some small instrument.§ Wilts. p. (6 inches) from Sherburn A blade by M. xxv. covered with a layer of black powder.. with interments. xxii. 355. Between the bones of the left fore-arm was a bracer. A smaller blade j same shape and Another. " Chantre.inches). It lay near the left hand of a contracted skeleton.. Cazalis of this character (10 inches) was found de Fondouce in the cave of Bounias. 246. has what appears to be a tanged dagger Wold. was found in one of the barrows near Winterslow." vol. 1. Yorkshire. the blade shown in Fig-. Age du Br." Ire partie. looped celt (Fig.* Wilts. p. p. pi. Near the head was a barbed flint arrowhead. of which it is hard to say whether they are knives or daggers.. 491. of nearly the character. are not uncommon in France. xiv. Fig. Another form. Two are engraved in the " Materiaux. with its point towards the feet.|[ Carnarvon. vol. Berks (6 J by If inches).^f near Fonvielle (Bouches associated with instruments of flint. fig. which appears to be a dagger rather than a knife. probably the remains of a wooden sheath and handle. pi. is in the British Museum. vol.. imperfect. fig. Canon Greenwell. 42." pi. ii. Smaller tanged blades.— Rounrlway. 2. Arch. 450. the upper outline of which latter is marked upon the blade. f or armguard. Brit. xxxii. F. from Sutton inches Courtney. Wilts. In this case also there was a stone bracer near the left side of the contracted skeleton. IT . copied- " Wilts." ** I have specimens from Lyons. Another (5£ inches) was found by Mr. 381. hi. Wilts.TANGED KNIVES OH DAGGERS. 449. p. 277 might have been regarded as a knife for ordinary use. 277. iv. xliii. 223 But for its size. from which this cut is vol.. . The original was found in a barrow at Koundway. "Cran. du Ehone). as well as one more tapering in form." " t § || xliii. and also from Brittany. Hoare's "Anc. p. was found at Bryn The doubleCrug. Journ. Cazalis de Fondoun . found with a contracted interment in a barrow near Driffield. vol. of chlorite slate.. 88) was found at the same place. and narrower in the tang. Fenton in a barrow at Mere Down. de la p. 154. and an engraving of it Arch. (5A. Another. ** Vol. Stone Imp. . has the tang nearly as wide as the blade.All- > rouv." I Arch. 3. i. Anc.S. Arch.. 91 rrovence.

A blade like Fig. These may be subdivided into knife-daggers with thin flat blades. Lancashire. p. were discovered by Dr. ii. representing a knife-dagger from a barrow at Butterwick. given in the Arehaologia* from which Fig. 643. explored by Canon Greenwell. J the presumed site of Troy. The end of the handle in this instance was straight.224 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. i. It had a wooden sheath as well as the wooden handle. 12. j Arch. Journ. 217.. which had been fastened to its haft of ox-horn by a single rivet. 278 is reproduced. 4.51 II "Ten fears' Digg. found with amber beads in the Golden Barrow. p. jj With the same interment was an axe-hammer of stone A and a flint tool. Troy and its Remains. knife. was found. xvi. Batcmau's " fatal. ... and not hollowed.. pi. xi.t near "Warrington. 9. What Sir R. C. 99.J A dagger of nearly the same form but having two rivet-holes was found by the late Rev. 8. On the arm of the skeleton was a stone bracer. 29. Assoc." vol. vol. xxv. pi. Soc. 4. is — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. 266. as well as the moulds in which they were cast. and may probably have served as a cutting instrument for all purposes. will give a good idea of * Vol. Tig.'* p.. appears to have been a knife-dagger of || this character. is now generally accepted as being the more ancient of the two. || || The more ordinary form of instrument is that of which the blade was secured to the handle by two or more rivets at its broad base.§§ Wigtonshire. vol. 2nd S. vol. Arch. 279. was found by Canon Greenwell in a barrow at Rudstone. One. was found in the Thames. only 3J inches long." p." p. Journ. 163. Staffordshire. vol. and bones. with a broad tang. pi. Ant. Ant. Another. xx. Schliemaun on Kg. p. p. or possibly spear-heads. One (5§ inches) with a broad tang.** It is now in the British Museum. 278 (3 inches). E. Perb. Wills. p.^ Yorkshire." p. from the sand-hills near Glenluce. ft "Anc.§ Devon. Jill . and much like Fig. " British Barrows. 278 in form. "Vest." p.R. 186.^| near Blore. Daggers.5. 330. and daggers which as a rule have a thick midrib and more or less The former variety ornamentation on the surface of the blade. Derbyshire. 160. p. and not have been intended for a weapon." vol. with a stone axe-hammer. 255. [CHAP. p. One (2£ inches) with a rivethole in its broad tang was found in an urn on Lancaster Moor . p." || Trans. § : vol. 1 inch wide. xxi." p.. iv. XX " ilH " British Barrows. X. lii. has been figured. Hoare terms a lance-head (3 inches). R... 19. through which passes a single rivet.. §§ "Ayr and Wigton Coll. f Arch. Yorkshire. was found in an urn with burnt bones in Moot Low. Another was found with burnt bones in a barrow at Lady Low. 2 Driffield. "Catal. Assoc. Assoc. ft Upton Lovel. ** Proc.3. rather narrower in the tang and abont 4J inches long. Ivirwan in a barrow at Upton Pyne. in an urn within a barrow at Winwick. Devon. Journ. xxxiv.. of which a part is shown. . near Middleton. i. p.

. ill as one 7| inches long and sharply pointed. varying from 2A- H inches I" 6| Laches in length. fig.].. In the same grave were a flat bronze celt (Fig. 2 a flint knife. as having been Fig. and a flint scraper. 2. vol. found during the Bateman excavations.. barrow at Parcelly Hay. 113. At Carder Low a small axe-hammer of basalt. a instance also been of ox-horn. ' (>. Bateman to think that they were attached At End Low. Derbyshire.24. 12.. and a half-nodule a Of the shape of the handles I shall subsea flint lor . vii. The handle had in this In the same grave were a whetstone. and some fluted or ribbed. and some jet buttons.. A . : 11 "Ten Years' Dig. was found in a barrow at Eudstone* Yorkshire.f Berks. 07. and at Thorncliff. though those instruments are not unfrequently more Thia specimen was found with the body of a young acutely pointed. somewhat Y-shaped in form. . blade of nearly the same form as Fig. 1G3." p. " Ten Sears' Dig. with the edges worn hollow by use. The haft had been of of its texture on the ox-horn.— ISuttenviek. 118." pp. was found by the late Mr. Arch." Moor. 160.. unburnt bodies and four with burnt. eighteen^ other blades. GS. § 39. 63.vr.'70. Brit. though leaving marks a >r< >nz< ixidized blade." pp. In some cases. 264. though there were holes in the blade. p. there were no rivets **rn them. Journ." p. 24'J. 119. 22o). 115. wrapped in a skin. 13. vol. 225 the usual form." p. Staffordshire. 34. Its handle apIts owner.KKIFE-DAGGERS WITH THREE RIVETS. Another. Derb. Joum. v." Assoc. "('ran. 282. of pyrites and ring and an ornamental button of jet. 9G "Ton Years. 279.. Bateman in a barrow near Minning Low. xvi. Stone Imp. Dr. Journ. which led Mr. sixteen were found with Warslow.. Staffordshire. vol. however. in some instances very wide and in others This notch is more rarely but narrow. of tlie tanged variety. '. xxii. pears to have been of horn. there was a rudely formed "spearof flint beside the knil'e-<lao-<. 119. Assoc. p.. 284. p. pp. bead" ." pi.34. where quently speak. Another pricker or awl (Fig.. a flat bead of jet. laid had been encase*! in a wooden sheath. found at Lett Low. 113.Dig. and with him was also a flat bronze celt. Q . xviii. man. there was usually a st 'mi-circular or horseshoe-shaped notch. blade of the same character. near Hartiugton. '• : Arch. 6G. 1 • < at their upper part. near Eartington.: British Barrows.^ on CaltOE " a neat instrument of flint. but with only two rivet holes.. •• Dig.... had been buried enveloped in fern-leaves. found in a barrow at LTewbury. 91." p 15 " . 21/ Bateman's " Catal. as v. 125 "Aiic. 61. . had been placed with the hotly. Ten Yi ai Vest. 245 Arch. Ant. also with two rivets. p. Thurnam mentions striking light. :>7. I will only here remark that tiny clasped the blade. Thf same was the case in a. 90. Journ. Arch. but rather narrower in its proportions. cit. vol. Assoc. as well as a knife-dagger of this kind. is preserved in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford." p. which has perished. Some of these were. 21. p.|| near Of these twenty. I >erbyshire.

The body had in this instance been burnt. xxiv. Another knife-dagger. Journ.'|^ already deAnother from Lett Low. 151. 4th S. 29. with castings || |j of palstaves and flanged celts.** Wilts.. Journ.. StrakeleyV'Stonehenge. vi. vol. " n. » Ten Years' Dig.ff near tStourton.||| Staffordscribed. vol." pt.§§ What appear to have been blades of the same kind were found with burnt bones in the barrows near Priddy. 241. xliii. vol.ftf near cited that Wrexham. 21. p. * Prom Derbyshire may be Grccnwcll.S. 323.. was found in a barrow called Jack's Castle." p. f M. 21. 360. p.. 119. . Minutes of Soc. has already been mentioned. vol." vol. with remains of a burnt body. was found in a barrow at Brigmilston. in what was regarded as a cleft and hollowed trunk of a tree. 1G. 7. while there are metal rivets in the others.2'2Q DAGGERS AX1) THEIR HILTS. was found in a barrow near !Stonehenge. 5. Another. xxxiii. . 51.. Inst. pi. Arch.xxxii. Wilts. Salisb. i. apparently the remains of what had formed the attachment to the handle.. in an urn at Tomen-y-Mur. Journ. Ants. (Jamb. Assoc. 115. 452.. xxiv. p. vol. Brit. Archeeol. Pins of wood. i. Wilts.|| was accompanied by two flint 1 "| arrow-heads. and some instruments of stag's-horn. A remarkably small blade. p. some whetstones. I Arch. 1784. Cmiib. 71. i. § Wilts. vol. aud also with two rivet-holes."p." In certain dagger blades with four or more rivet-holes some are devoid of rivets. Harland found. ${ "Ane. iii." was found in a barrow on Bincombe Down. vol. Journ. x. Somerset. f formed like a spearhead. accompanying an unburnt interment. pi. pegs. one of which remained in the perforation when found." vol. XX "Anc. vol. p. in a barrow at East Kennett.* Mr. vol. "It had been fixed to a shaft by means of three wooden p. also accompanied by a stone axe-hammer. 148. 4. Another. p.. cited in Wame's "Celtic Tumuli of Dorset.. 110 " ft Hoarc's Ane. also with burnt bones. Such pins seem to have been commonly employed for securing spearheads to their shafts. may be mentioned one (5£ inches) found with a thinking cup and a perforated stone axe. || § Arch.. at Pdiosnesney.." pp. 185. a needle of wood. Arch. % Arch. fig. Arch. but flat and thin. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. *** Arch. p. xvi.*] as a spear-head. **** \\{ Ibid. [CHAP. ttf Arch.^f^[ Isle of Wight (6 inches). p.|| Another (2J inches) of the same character was found with burnt bones.. « « . in a barrow at Wilsford. p. p. || from Carder Low. in a barrow near Yatesbury. One (7f inches) which shows no rivets was found at Culter. to their handles by ligatures. iii. p. Wilts.. Another (4£ inches) lay with burnt bones. 3rd S. i.45. ix. X.*** Lanarkshire. Salisb. v.§§§ lure.. and Ashey Down.. vol. An unfinished blade without rivet-holes was also found. and a broken flint pebble. protected by a wooden scabbard.. 94. a small bronze knife which still had adhering to it some portions of cord partly charred. as have been others described by BateOne from a barrow at Middleton ***# was regarded by Pegge niau. pi.. fig.^[ near Pestiniog. vol. and one from Brier Low. p. p. was found in a tumulus in Dorsetshire. Journ. Of knife-daggers with three rivet-holes found in our southern counties. more triangular in shape. Barrows. 209. p. xiv. 97. bone. 39. Merionethshire. p. Another (4£ inches). . Illl ^ XXX Archeeol. with two rivet-holes. ** Arch. but on being exposed to the air fell immediately into dust. only 1-i inches long. " An instrument of brass. Ibid. vol. fig. p. 164. or horn were no doubt frequently used instead of metal rivets. Inst. xvii. Arch. |||||| Archeeol. In a barrow in Yorkshire..*'*. vol. xliii.. The latter is tapering in form. Journ. Assoc. 3." vol.

S. vol. cit. and the rivets by which the two plates of horn were bound together are in the position understood they originally occupied along the centre of the haft.— Helperthorpe. and sometimes formed of a pair of similar pieces riveted together. 226.. $ Helperthorpe. % Arch. F. t Op. A separate view and section of the pommel is shown in The original was found by Fig. p. One from Bishop Wilton. at the openAs will be seen. in which the presumed outline of the original ox-horn haft is shown by dotted lines. pi. the haft was often The lower end in inserted a hollow pommel usually of bone. or wood. Fig. with tin 1 rest of the Greenwell Collection. Bateman describes one (4^ inches) with a crescentshaped mark showing the form of the handle. is still visible.—Helperthorpe. 207. to which had been attached a small bone pommel. 206.* Another (6 or 7 inches). 281. hafts appear in nearly all cases to have consisted of ox-horn. and is shown by darker shading. one on of each side of the blade. Thurnam. and not by metal rivets.! had a V-shaped notch in the handle. with a contracted interment in a barrow at Fig. * J lias all Years' Dig. •' "Ten Q 2 . § Yorkshire. rivets to where was secured by two . found with an extended skeleton at Cawthorn." p. 227 From Yorkshire Mr. 6. The mention of this pommel suggests that it is time to consider the manner in which these blades were hafted.. to the British Museum." p. The pommel at the lower end Avas attached by pins of horn or of wood. The outline of the upper part of it this handle. the blade ing of which I was present.R. Canon Greenwell. and of Canon Greenwell The in those of Yorkshire.METHOD OF HAFTING DAGGEKS. 280. leave no doubt. Mortimer. has been engraved by Dr. bone.. xliii. sometimes in a single piece with a notch for receiving the blade. as to which the discoveries of Sir Richard Colt Hoare in the Wiltshire barrows. The nature of the arrangement of the haft when formed of two pieces will be readily on reference to Fig.. from a barrow near Pickering. xxxiii. j belonging to Mr. This specimen has since been presented. 280. 281. British Barrows. i the blade.

. and is also described as a bone button. have been figured by Dr. Bateman as a bone stud perforated with six holes. p. vol." p. 12. It has holes for three pins. A very remarkable amber of a rich red colour and beautiful hilt of a sword or dagger. One from a barrow on Brassington Moor * is described by Mr. Two others in solid bone from barrows at Garton § and Bishop Wilton." p. Ant. 2S3. Yorkshire.. xliii. Fig. was found in a barrow on Hammeldon Down.^ from which Fig. p. is more neatly made..4. Cheshire. 98. 39. "Vest. 4.! the butt end of a dagger handle was recognised in one of these objects. the appearance of having been whetting. being of oval outline with a projecting bead round the base. vol. and having two holes for the pegs by which it was secured to the handle.f near Alstonefield. p. In a barrow subsequently opened by Mr. 226.. vi. Brit. near Scarborough. fig. ** Trans. Thurnam. The former is here by permission reproduced. — RAPIER-SHAPED much worn by BLADES. X. in which the body lay in the hollowed trunk of an oak-tree. That from the well-known Gristhorpe tumulus.— Garton. Another pommel of an ornamental character was found with burnt bones in an urn at Wilmslow. p. and is engraved in the Journal of the British Archceological Association. [CHAP. ii. "Reliquary. 283 is here reproduced." p. v. but their purpose was not known to some of the earlier explorers. formed of and inlaid with pins of gold. 288. 5.228 DAGGERS AND THEIB SILTS." vol. Assoc. Derb. Devon. By the kindness of the Committee of the Plymouth Athenaeum I am enabled to give two views * " Catal. Ruddock near Pickering. It appears as if the mortise had been made by drilling three holes side || by side. Another was found in a barrow at Narrow-dale Hill.. xvi. Ant. pi. 441. 282. $ Arch.-Wilmslow. In both these instances the dagger itself seems to have entirely perished.. . and was thought to have been intended for being sown on to some article of dress or ornament." % I| "Ten " Vest. In this instance the pommel was made of three pieces of bone fastened together by two bronze rivets. "Cran. 1 . Derb.** Devonshire." p.. pi. Years' Dig." 62. 25. The receptacle is so small that the haft to which it was attached probably consisted of but a single piece of ox-horn or wood. use and repeated Bone pommels of the same kind have been frequently met with in barrows. H Vol. p. t "Catal. Is > Fig. 555.

fig. A small knife or scraper. •J J'' Instead of a socket or a section of this unique object in Fig. was found in a barrow at Winterbourn Stoke. one from each side. pi. Arch. xv. at Reach Fen. This pommel seems disproporwas found tionately large for the slightly fluted blade.. 458. apparently the pommel of a diminutive dagger.f The blade is at the side like that of a hatchei Amber was used for inlaying some of the ivory hilts of iron swords at . mounted in a handle formed of two pieces of amber.A. Cambridge. .()! D. Arch. 284. p. as well as two large double-edged knives. ilallstatt. 608. vol. xxv. The bronze object shown full size in Fig. of which a fragment in the same barrow." vol. for pins to attach the pommel to the small part of the pommel which was broken off in old times handle. unpub." vol. secured by two rivets and bound with four strips of gold. B. 201.T INLAID WITH (. or projection. 284. and may be accidental. pi. On each side of this tenon is a small a mortise or hole in the handle. xliii. there is in this instance a tenon. ! . seems to have been united to the main body by a series of minute gold and A has again been severed. The hole through the base is It was found in the board irregular in form.—Hammeldon Down. the * "Ancient Wilts. though the pins round the margin of the fracture remain. i. mortise of the same length. . which entered into mortise. 196. 124.* Wilts. is also preserved at Stourhead.. p. in which were also tli e tip of a scabbard and some fragments of swords. p.MBEK I1II. sliii. but this piece / Fig. and through the tenon have been drilled two small holes. 285 may not improbably be pommel of the hilt of a dagger or sword. rivets or clips. p. A small object of amber. t "Ancient Wilts. i. vol.

5. Thurnam: "It is of the thin broad-bladed The handle is of wood. p. and. X." vol.§ is here reproduced in It is thus Fig. xxiii.. circular part.f What appears to be the hilt of either a sword or dagger was found in a hoard of bronze objects at Allhallows. 2. One of these. and strengthened at the end by an oblong bone pommel fastened with two pegs. From portions of a sword having been found with it. Wickham has regarded it as a kind of pommel. have been the end of a scabbard or a chape. pi. By the kindness of Mr. Kent. pi. was found in one of the Derbyshire barrows. vol. Another.~ Reach Fen. Derb. at Nantes. xix. —Allkallows. if so. The knife." 1827—8. xliii. however. Ant. Mr. Fig. de la Sav. xxxiv. " xi. Cant. Another. 261. i Fig." having exactly the same number of rivets. The most remarkable of all dasfffer handles discovered in the British Isles are those uu obtained by Sir R. Two buttons of polished shale accompanied this interment. taken from the engraving in "Ancient Wiltshire. bone pommel is shown in Fig.. xliii. in addition to the four rivets for securing the blade. xii." p. Arch. p. pi. Arch. and attached to a semicircular end like the half of a grooved The socket itself extends for some distance into this semipulley. Soc.230 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. p. "Ancient Wilts.. Vest. Mortimer. —RAPLER-SHAPED BLADES. 185.. however.^} Yorkshire. held together by thirty rivets of bronze. 286. It consisted originally of a rectangular socketed ferrule with a rivet-hole through it. found at Gresine. p. || t % j || * " Exp. 18. Arch. from Grarton. 3. Another was found in the department of La Manche. in the collection of Mr. It is decorated by dots incised in the surface of the wood. pi. pi. To return. ..* Savoy. 458. xxxiv. Fig. 125. Hoo. " Mem. Bateinan. 287. Humphrey Wickham I am able to engrave it as Fig. It may. 282. 68. Colt Hoare from the barrows of Wiltshire. was found in the same hoard. pi. has been regarded as the tip for a scabbard. 357.. forming a border of double lines and circles between the heads of the He goes on to say that a similar dagger of the broad variety. . variety. rivets. ^ o. c. 462. vol. 2S0. A somewhat similar object is in the Musee de l'Oratoire. from a barrow at Brigniilston." described by the late Dr. should have been described in Chapter XIII." 1878. Norm. has thirty-seven rivets and two strips of bronze at the sides The of the handle. Ant. vol. to undoubted examples. i. 4. [CHAP. J Hoo. 1i Arch.

with a bone pommel of nearly the same character as that froi i Leicester. continuous with the blade. Derby- shire. 288 is engraved I am indebted to Mr. BrigTttilston. however.HILTS AV1TH NUMEROUS RIVETS. Fif?. of somewhat the same character. From the length of the rivets remaining ^ -ss '-tfjsft ji§. which. For the sketch from which Fig. Read. iii tlie blade. does not appear to have been Leicester. In this instance the pommel consists of two pieces of bone riveted on either side of a bronze plate. In the British Museum is a dagger from a barrow at: Standlow. 231 Another dagger.'. was found at and is preserved in the museum of that town. Perhaps the most highly ornamented dagger handle ever discovered is . thicker in the middle than at the sides.\© ^ -A M- . the handle appears to have been somcwli.

however. Stone Imp. These were accompanied by a nearly square spear-head plate of thin gold. J " Anc. both in design and execution.| some articles of bone. The head of the handle. xxvii.. At the shoulders was a Near the right arm was the dagger and celt. so that it is a knife-dagger such as those hitherto described. X. fig. strictly speaking." p. . hammer.'." vol. copied from the engraving in "Ancient Wiltshire. 9. thought to have decorated the sheath of the dagger. the lower part of which. As to the handle. indeed. pi. Colt Hoare in the Bush Barrow. RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. like Fig. 203. xliii. vol. t Arch. with which were some rivets and thin plates of bronze. by thousands of gold rivets smaller than the smallest pin. A drawing of the whole dagger with its handle restored has been published by Dr.l. I may repeat Sir Richard's words: "It exceeds anything we have yet seen. It lay with a skeleton placed north and south. l. which was not. equalled) by the most able workman of modern limes. and could not be surpassed (if.* near Normanton. On the right side of the skeleton was a stone material. 'J89. 7 inches by 6 inches. supposed to be traces of a shield. which was funned. Thurnam. 2. [CHAP. with a projecting flat tongue or hook.f The blade is 10£ inches long and slightly fluted at the sides. xxxv. the edges lapped over a piece of wood. pi. i. though exhibiting * "Ancient Wilts. p. with a labour and exactness almost unaccountable. By the annexed engraving you will immediately recognise the British zig-zag or the modern Vandyke pattern. 1. 289. many small rings of the same and another gold lozenge much smaller than that on the breast." is shown in Fig. TwninHHfffuiifNfliuiiNim Fig-. flanged bronze " " a of bronze. It appears. Over the breast lay another lozenge-shaped plate of gold.. thai which was found by Sir R.— Normanlon.'•2 : j2 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. 202. best to call attention to it in this place.

fig. and with it a bronze dagger which had been "secured by a sheath of wood lined character. and is thus described by Mr. ii.|| on Koke 1 'own. some of which have been already adduced.. we coidd discover what they were. vol. S. It is uncertain whether this refers to the hilt or to the sheath but in several instances remains of sheaths have been found upon the blades of daggers. II Proc. >orsetshire.* is of the same to though produced in a different manner. p. 153. found in a barrow in Dorsetshire. 228." % Op.S. xxxiv. vol. xxxiii. Wilts. 290." in a fire. . So very minute. $ || X.. 98. but fortunately enough remained attached to the wood to enable us to develop the pattern. 1. Arch." p. Arch. however. ginal having unfortunately been destroyed I have. p. In one instance the wood of the sheath was "apparently willow.that our labourers had thrown out thousands of them with their shovels and scattered them in every direction before. As Dr. and the handle. by the necessary aid of a magnifying glass. 207.'I 233 no variety o£ pattern.INLAID AND IVORY HII. nia. Assoc. Thurnam' s § engraving. as perfect and as highly polished as any of more recent date.. vol. 75. It was found in 1845. xliii. ' I ma ' ' \V U a pair of ivory nippers. copied it from Dr. 194.A. which is ivory. i. Shipp ^f " The blade is exquisitely finished. vol. i ke Doy a. "J I am unable to guarantee the accuracy of the representation of a large dagger with its handle given in and an ivory pin accompanied the interment. Jour it. A small lance-head. pi. p.In/. in a barrow near Amesbury. the ornamentation on a thin piece of metal (said have been gilt). t "Anc. the oriwith linen cloth. | . and others will hereafter be mentioned. vol. Sir R. . p. which apparently decorated the hilt of a bronze dagger. Colt Hoare. Soc. near Blandford.. wliich was taken from a drawing by the late Mr. i. 3. in a barrow K. Solly.f found an interment of burnt bones. indeed. 1st S. was also formed by the same kind of studding." Some of the pins are shown in the figure below the hilt. Thurnam has pointed out. p. It was ion in with two small bronze spear-heads at (lie bottom of a cist cut in the chalk. xv. and I : I * D cit.. This dagger is said by Douglas to have been " incisted " into wood. . were these pins.

but from the figure in the Journal of the Archaeological Association. xviii." pi. 291. like that of Fig. Others of nearly the same character are in the British Museum." pi. iv. f Arch. With it were a socketed celt. He has engraved the dagger in his Plate X." vol. 277. Solly f says that with it was a second small blade. Journ. burnt bones and ashes coarsest . xliii. Wilkin- is figured at p. a portion of a dagger was found with part of the handle. which may have been a knife. "Die Bronze schwerter des K. R.. of which but two now remain. A. Ant.J not from the original." p. In the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy is a fine example." In Mr. indeed. "Catal. pi. HIT. Hilts made of bronze. and I believe it to be of Eastern and probably Chinese origin. Another Irish form of hafted dagger has also been frequently published. R. . unburnt and unornamented. 320. p. 4 ainden." p. also of bronze. and has been engraved in the Proceedings of the ' ' A Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Inland** The cut is by The handle is hollow. and the attachment to the blade is by means of three rivets. Possibly the other two were of horn.." vol.. 4oS. \ Hartshorne's Bastian und A. Mus. xi. 100. Mus. % "Celtic Tumuli of Dorset. That said to have been found at Bere Hill. vol. vol. 0.. though of frequent occurrence in Scandinavia.. ii. X." p.§ however. Samuel Shaw.A. 14. Shipp describes the two covered with. Fermanagh." pi.. He also says that it lay beneath a stone more than a ton in weight. and over it was an inverted urn make.3. ii. -llli 8. pi. east in one piece with the blade and with a raised rim round the margin. It has a narrow rapier-like blade and a broad flat hilt of ivory. . 17. and which I have here reproduced as Eig. RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES.Mus. I. ft It is shown in Fig. Co. " HoraFerules. Near Little Wenlock. "Coll. the blade appears to have been originally attached by four pins or rivets. Both blade and handle are highly ornamented. vii. 459. H "Catal. tig. || 151 . Mr." portion of a blade with a bronze hilt still attached was found near Belleek. has informed me that the spear-heads if.231 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. near Andover. has been kindly submitted to me by Mr. 29. bronze dagger from Thebes is in the Berlin beautiful Egyptian Museum... 96. are rarely discovered in England or Scotland. Wilde. In a subsequent communication^ Mr. 13. Voss. [cHAP. p. Shipp's drawing. and Italy. xvi. 23. and makes no mention of iron spear-heads. in form like that of the sword from Lincoln (Fig. and whetstones. both in casting and also by the punch or graver. Mr.the handle expands gradually to the base like the mouth of a trumpet." Tat'. 350).. " No. i. vol..S. 196. 4." vol. . — — A || In Ireland a few daggers have been found with bronze still hilts attached. F. such they were were of bronze and not of iron. iv. p. ft Vallancey. A. which has frequently been published. I. Warne. of the spear-heads as of iron.. The end of the hilt is often hollowed. p. and their kindness here reproduced as Fig. attached by four rivets. 7Salop. 61. Another dagger with a hilt son's " Ancient Egyptians. fig. ** . Vallancey describes this specimen as * Arch. p. ii. some spear-heads. the South of Trance. from the engraving given by Wilde. 331 . " < vii. Grough's " Horse 354 Fer. Assoc. p. Proc. ^f but on the scale of one-half. 292. and studs like rivet-heads in the middle. its owner.

292 -Iielleek. 'JUl.TS OF BRONZE.— Ireland.' Fig. 293. . The hole in the handle. the rivets being either ornamental or intended to stop No doubt these imitation rivets are against the top of the scabbard. nd.HII. i mere "survivals" from those of the daggers. 235 cast in one piece. Fig. I :. the sides of which are left rough. Fig. which were thus fastened to their handles before it was found that it saved trouble to east the u bole in one piece.

"ff but described as a stone celt split in two. Meath. . four barbed flint arrow-heads. p. 463. * A is Arch.\\ I have a dagger of the same kind from in the riveted together.^j It was protected by a Of those with four One The Pig. A. 294.. 239. A Hungary. which may have been used for suspension. Eng." vol.. 521. R. ** p. vol. This blade. 3-5 . return... 3. In this part are two rivet holes for the attachment of the plates of wood or horn to form the handle. fig. [(JHAP. C. A perforated ring and two buttons of jet. is described as niving been gilt.Mas. "Catal.33. and a bronze pin were found with the same skeleton. ii." p. pi. by two sligbtly overlapping plates of wood or born Another* (\4\ inches) was thought to have the " loop-fashioned " handle for suspending the weapon to a thong or the belt. but this can hardly have been the case. There is a good example of this type of dagger Blackmore Museum at SaHsbury.. xxxiv. Wilts. original was found by Sir R. 1863. "Nuovi <Vimi. vol. pivli. Leitrim." p." Stockholm 346. 1874. pi. In one found in Dunshaughlin f crannoge. "Catal." Arch. R. however.236 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. from this digression the liafting of daggers. xliii. to the thin blades or knife-daggers of which I was I must now as to speaking. "An." ii. Tav. Co. ii. 45. 294 —Woodyates. there is a second oval hole at the end of the hilt. "Cong. 161. fig. I think. 74. that when the daggers were in use the handles were to all appearance solid.'. pi. p. vol. was probably filled RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. Gastaldi. 466. of unusually large size is shown in Fig. Some handles of bronze knives found in Scandinavia and Switzerland § are formed with similar openings. A. 5. Thurnam** has tested such brilliantly polished surfaces for gold. 186'.. ed... || "Avanzi rreromani. found near Ballinamore. Keller's "Luke-dwell. Dr. If 7.'. X.. Strobel. Hoare in a barrow at Woodyates. rivets but few can be cited. xli. like many others. I wooden scabbard. ft P. . Journ. 3.. small dagger (7| inches). p. fig. % Wild. blade of this form is engraved in the "Barrow Diggers. Mas. § I. but found no ] traces of that metal. t Wilde.]: Co." Tav. has an extension of the blade in the form of a thin plate with a button at the bottom so as to form the body of the handle. x. I.. Daggers with the blade and handle cast in one piece have been found in the Italian terramare. i.

Arch. fig. near Salisbury. In Fig. 332. X "Vest. » I Fig. In a barrow near Maiden Castle. 158. with an ahnost mirror-like lustre. pi. of Dorset. xliii. Arch. Ant. 297. xliii. p. 461. The example given as Fig. vii. vol. 8. iv. shown in Fig. iv.. 96. d. This blade has two rivets. p. . 296.. 1. xxxiii..KMFK-DAGGERS WITH FIVE OR A.t near Salisbury. and is in the Greenwell Collection in the British Museum.. portion is broken off in which were the rivets. x. " Deux Stations. xxx. t Proc. In one found in Dow Low. p. 296 was found in a barrow at Idmiston. hilt. One of more pointed form. vol. e." pi. and is now preserved in the Blackmore Museum. pi. Ant. was found with an unburnt body Fig-." p. § Dorchester. xvii. 295. vol. opened by Mr.. Occasionally the surface of these thin blades is ornamented by engraved or punched patterns. and with a more V-shaped notch in the in a cairn at North Charlton. One * Gross. 1 SIX RIV i 237 is de Bienne nearly similar blade from Oefeli* (Lac said to bi copper. 329. Sydenham. which is now in the The mark side is still highly pohshed. The decoration usually consists of converging bands of parallel lines. p. from an interment al British Museum. there aro three parallel lines on either side which meet in chevron. ( of the hilt is very distinct upon it. vol. 46 pi. pi." $ p." pt.— Idmiston. 21. Soc. there lay in the midst of the ashes two bronze daggers. J Derbyshire. iii. Arch. The Northumberland. 295 is shown a blade with five rivets. "Celtic Tumuli 161. Derb. >ne Homington. "Horas Ferales. — Homingl-oii. 3.

Preh. vol. The lines seem to have been punched in. Another was found with an interment at Eame J (Hautes Alpes) in narrower company with other articles of bronze. as in Fig. is of this character. flat celts. 298. 289. It has double lines to the chevron and four rivet-holes. like Fig. 322. have been ments in Spain. found in the There is a band of Palatinate. iv. between two The space on each side of others converging to meet it near the point. and now in the museum at Boidogne. . X § Materiaux. 288. inner side of the rib there is a groove. The blade has upon it a On the small low rib on either side running parallel with the edge. t " Matlriaux. beautifully patinated dagger (7J inches) from the Seine at Paris. forming a chevron parallel with the edges. flint arrowheads.238 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. One from another barrow in Dorsetshire * has a treble chevron on the blade and a straight transverse groove between two ridges just above the hilt. The character of some of the other blades is peculiar. A The edge itself is fluted." vol. 296. blade and more of the rapier shape. A dagger much like Fig. [CHAP. de Andalusia. p. to which the blade is attached by six rivets. 296. and in the centre of the blade a chevron with the sides slightly curved inwards formed of two similar bands. vol. A dagger with a pointed blade having two parallel grooves just within each edge was found with other dagger blades. to judge from Mr. and is of nearly the same shape. though rather more sharply pointed. •* "Ant. 106. I have a small thin blade (4f. fig. A. p. with four rivet-holes. xxxiii. the other (oi inches) is described as "curiously wrought. G. five parallel lines running along each edge. p. t Arch.inches). 231. chased. small blade found in an urn at Wilmslow. on the outer side the blade is flat. but with a double row of rivets. Warne's engraving. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. Stations." pi. Journ. " Deux Gross. xv. || 4. Finistere. 296.." p." has a slight projecting rib along the middle of the blade. has six rivet-holes at the base. Knife-daggers of * much the same character as the English have occasionally been found in Scotland. vol. and have been described by appear to be knife-daggers. the central rib appears to be decorated by small circular indentations. now in my own collection. was found in A A A the Marais de Donges § (Loire Inferieure).ssur. some of them witli notches found with inter- Don Gongora y Martinez** as lance-heads. xvi. Rev.f Cheshire. This latter. 97. dagger from a tumulus at Hewelinghen (Pas de Calais). (4 inches) has two lines engraved on it. Arch. xiii. has been found at Mcerigen. X. Arch. in the tumulus of Kerhue-Bras. vol. " 155. It has six rivet-holes.. seems to have a single chevron upon it. 25. What at the side for the reception of rivets. &c." pp.^f It has a plain wooden handle. One of the rivets which remains is f inch long. and gilt.|[ in the Lac de Bienne.. Jni/n/. p. which has four rivet-holes at the base. pi. The mark left by the hilt is like that on Fig. v.

cit. Argyleshire. In Ireland the thin flat blades arc of rare occurrence..|| Fife. Ant. Antrim (4| inches) with three rivet-holes... Crossmichael." Particulars of the finding of several together with a others. for the use of this Ant. Perth (4 A. id. j. A. F. p. are in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. 297. The sheath seems to have been of wood covered with cow-hide. p..KNIFE-DAGGERS FROM SCOTLAND. xii. S.R. lias one from Co. S.* of the original handle is a made with a pointed punch. — Dow Low. xii. and Callachally. the — Collessic. 239 298 was found in a stone Nell. Kirkcudbrightshire. . from Drumlanrick.t Forfarshire. 4. || vol.\ol. xii. Fig. 2! r-irck'd by the gold fillet shown in Fig.. and the following cut . 299. p. Island of Mull. and with a V-shaped notch in the mark of the handle. 84. Another (4J inches) was found in a cairn at Linlathen. was found in a cairn at Collessie. Another. /'. 298. 456. £ in an interesting paper. two rivets).S. There flat ' is a form of blade which appears to be intermediate between the knife-daggers and those to which the name of dagger may more Soc. /'roc. 41'. <>f the Sen iet\ t * J'roc. That shown in Fig. Scot. vol. apparently of the same type. pp.).39. I am indebted to the Council Op. vol. § near Callander. the hairs on the outside. cii. to which the reader is Three others. 4:59. vol. x. Canon Greenwell. Joseph Anderson referred. with interments in sepulchral cairns. Op.— Cleigh. have been given by Fie. handle of which appears to have been enFiff. " drinking cup.. Scot.inches. Mr. p. line of small indentations Loch Along the margin cist in a cairn at Cleiarh. nh. 410. Soc.

148. p. " British f Barrows. xliii. . With it was a beautifully flaked large flint knife. engraved in Arch. J The relation of the dagger to any uncertain. and has a splendid Pig. 243.240 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. It showed traces of both its handle and sheath. which are either considerably thicker at the centre than towards the edges. narrow rounded rib running along the centre of the blade. It was found in a barrow at Musdin. with the central rib much less pronounced. or else have a certain number of strengthening This intermediate form has a single ribs running along the blade. i Fig. p. \ Pig. xxii. fourn. 302. 300 is an example of the short and broad variety of this kind. properly bo applied. in one of the barrows called the Three Tremblers. 801.." p. was found by Canon Greenwell. X. f Yorkshire.h'. is interment A A fig.. and patina. from which my cut is copied. but more pointed and with two paraLLel" lines engraved on each side of the midrib.— Wiutcrboumc Stoke. 300. dagger of this class. f vol. —RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. rivalling malachite in colour. That shown in Fig.S." p. K.— Musdin.* Staffordshire. 461. vol. 359. Arch.. more pointed blade. Bateman's "Ten Years' Diggings. 162. [CHAP.—Plymstock.

pi. was found by Canon Greenwell in a barrow at Aldbourn. Of the English weapons just described some closely resemble in character the much larger blades of which I shall subsequently have to speak. much longer and narrower form. F. from a small barrow near Aldington. and is now in the British Museum. . This latter appears to have had two rivetCirencester. vol. Fig. 122. jl Arch. of somewhat the same character (4-ginches). which were supposed to have appertained to the tips of a bow. pi. § Winterbourn Stoke.f Devon. vol. Franks. The blade is ornamented with parallel lines as usual. R . Gloucestershire. Thurnamll thinks midrib relatively heavier and of more pointed or leaf-like form the rivets also are In such cases the former may. Another. with indentations which were thought to have been The handle is described as having been of box-wood. 241 the notch in the hilt more distinct. § Ihid. other blades (8£ and 8 inches). with a small. and two small pieces of ivory with bronze rivets. 327. For the use xliii. Wilts. North Durham. p. Raine. it not improbable that one of the blades have been a spear-head for use in the chase. 235. W. a chisel. Some of the Italian dagger blades are provided with similar midribs.. xv. 1 have a much smaller blade. + Arch.. in which the central rib is partly the result of two long lateral grooves along the sides of the blade.s. A. the other strengthened by a stout Dr. It accompanied a burnt body. With one of these at the breast of the skeleton were traces of a wooden scabbard. 227). i. p. In writing of may these blades he observes. but it also has a series of fine dotted lines. and which not improbably were those of some form of halberd or battle-axe. p. less highly ornamented. A beautiful example of the form of dagger of which Sir "Richard C.DAGGERS WITH ORNAMENTED BLADES. in company with flanged celts. was found with a skeleton in a cist near Cheswick. % "Anc. p. broken. Assoc. Winterbourn Stoke. 456. is shown in Fig. were found with a skeleton buried in the hollowed trunk of an elm-tree in the King Barrow. 302. but one is light and thin and of greater breadth. . well-defined central midrib and two rivets. and rounded gilt. found in a barrow near Cirencester and one smaller still (4^ inches)."" Northumberland. perhaps. Devon.K.. . On the breast was also a bronze awl with what is said to have been an of Two them ivory handle (Fig. and one straighter at the edges. 34fi of this cut 1 am indehted to Mr. but imperfect at the base. and a tanged spear-head or dagger. vol. which was. an ivory pin and tweezers. The other dagger was at the thigh. 301. Hoare found numerous examples in the AViltshire barrows is shown in It lay with burnt bones in a wooden cist in a barrow near Fig. however. xiv. xxvi. Trans. larger. * " iv. " Where two are found with the same interment they are not exactly of one type. They may more probably have formed part of the hilt of the dagger. Jouni. It has been carefully polished. Wilts. and is now in the Greenwell Collection in the British Museiun." vol. 304. A holes. somewhat like that of a large knife. This was found with two others at Plynistock." p. J With it was another.

** Arch. may more properly be denominated daggers. 164. Thurnam. Op. .. There was a single rivet on either side. he observes. could not have a foot . xix.. 1. as Dr. about at first regarded all these blades two-thirds of the way through his volume. vol. Somerset. |1 -f $ Diad.ff Yattendon. p.* Wilts. observed three rivets had a wooden shaft about only 3 inches long with in length. are figured by Dr. vi. The midrib ends ill a square base.§§ and * Wilts Arch. This latter was found by my friend the late Mr. however. it must not be forgotten that Homer f describes Achilles to his father — from its / . W. the latter the spear. xliii. this seems. p. cit. 218. v. however. — RAriER-SHAPED BLADES. p. One (9 inches) was found in a barrow at Came. pi. p. and West Cranmore. figs.^| is given by Hoare. xvii.|J from Bere Regis. lib.. vol. Dorsetshire. xxxiv. which. worn by the side. 4 xxxv. Cunnington dagger when two blades in a barrow at Roundway. x. 2. F. found at Everley and Lake. i at Rowcroft. Jouri/. Wilts. Others have been found in a barrow at Aldington. Arch. Jo/<r».+ "daily experience convinces me that those implements we supposed to be spear-heads. 211. [CHAP. % P." vol. fig. 'Ek o apa crvpiyyo? irarpwiov . and in an unpublished plate of Hoare. p. vol..\ inches). lo-rrcuraT eyyos. §§ Arch. tt Arch. ilts. . W T and A fine blade A hafted blade of the same kind. he " mentions a " spear-head from a barrow near FovantJ having the greater part of the wooden handle adhering to it." in some cases discriminates between the spear and the Hoare were found and Mr. Jottrn. of this character (!)j inches long).. or in a girdle. Flower. It was found with burnt bones and was accompanied by a a\ Ik -lone. so that the mode From the figure given by which it Avas fastened was clearly seen.GKS.242 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. vol. with three rivets. % "Anc.** near Amesbury.. v. Assoc. X." Further on. inch It is straight at the bottom of the blade. It is not unlike the blade of a halberd. as well as the decoration of the hilt of one of the same form. 322. . 334. Jj Ante. p. was found near Leeds.. Sir Richard be supposed to be the dagger. 233. Thurnam remarks. Though first Sir Richard Colt Hoare as spear-heads. vol. i. Mag. Berks (7. p. and not affixed to long shafts like the modern lance. to have been a dagger rather than a spear. The sheath fact that is many of these blades bore traces of having had a though as drawing the spear which had belonged sheath in favour of their being daggers rather than spear-heads. Other blades of much the same character. 185. from Lake. The one preserved is I inch long. Another. which went only into the handle at the part where the usual semicircular notch was || | formed. been the haft of a dagger. or knives. 387. J.. xxviii. Wilts. in the Archceologia. pi. that a pointed blade. 242. has already been mentioned.

302. § Surrey Arch. 18 i. ii. and G." pi. found with burnt bones and drippings of flint in a barrow at Teddington. 157. 305. xiii...inches) of the Wiltshire type was found in the well-known barrow at Hove. Another (9 inches) formed part of the Arreton Down find. Thurnam's f engravIt is remarkable as haying a kind of ing) is from Camerton. vol. Coll." vol. Join-)/. p. dagger blade of nearly the same kind. "Nfflnia Corn. ± Fig. 803.—Camerton. p.DAGGERS WITH MIDRIBS. 6. of which more will here|| is be said. bronze dagger (5A. 120. lie strengthening of the blade is sometimes effected by forming it with three or more In projecting ribs instead of a single midrib. p. The blade ornamented with delicate flutings and curves. h.. That shown in Fig. Fig. pi. xv. p. of which the blade has much suffered from was decomposition. % II ^ Borlase." pt. 303 (which is copied from Dr. vii. only somewhat mope It has had three rivet-holes. is in the museum al the Hotel Cluny.. 1.. vol.. E. Arch. xiii. 304 is shown a dagger blade in my own collection. fig. vol. and the after midrib ends in a crescent ed hollow exactly opposite to the usual notch in the handle.* however. records exhibited to the Archaeological Institute. Arch. vol. found in the Seine at Paris. x. xliii. pi. Arch. R 2 . Lindenschmit. over with small indentations. xxxvi. An amber stone cup. ix. and on taper. Arch. 453. and a whetstone had also been deposited with the bod}\ In a blade of this class (7 inches). . found not far 'I Cornwall. i. p. but with six rivets. 3. p. J near Brighton. f Arch. I have a dagger (9 inches) much like Fig. Heft xi. in which the interment had A been made in an oak coffin." ** "Alt. p. fig. Somerset. This specimen is now in the British Museum. Vorz. found with a lump of iron pyrites within an urn in a harrow at Angrowse Mullion. 90: Suss. vol. Mr. a perforated axe-hammer. Paris... A * "Celtic Turn.** Finistere. 328. As usual it has but two rivets. vol. Soc.5. u.. 184 . AVarne. xxv. the blade are two bands of four lines parallel with the edge. p. second midrib beyond the parallel grooves which border the first.§ the midrib appears to be formed of three beads. One seems to have the midrib dotted the finding of two at that place. Trans. 'Ji:. Taf. i. 304— Cambrid. 236. "Horas Per. A bronze dagger (6| inches) with three rivets. vol. Journ.^} u> Kg. found in a barrow at Carnoel.

[CHAP. 260. vol. near Kinghorn. It was found with several tanged blades like Fig. was found in a barrow near Torrington. Assoc. some flanged celts. It is shown in Fig. Devon. from * Proc. Arch. which will presently be described..§ Isle of Wight (9 1 inches). Londonderry. from Cambridge. whence this cut § || luts lii't'ii kindly lint. It was found in 1828 upon the farm of Kifrie. 456 Arch. of Sussex. vol. has the blade strengthened by three raised ribs. vol. xliii. 305. It has a haft of oak attached. 104. somewhat larger blade (8£. On either side of the central rib and along the outer margin of the two other ribs are lines of minute punctures by way of ornament.inches). traces of a wooden sheath. 112. Any pins or rivets that may have existed are now lost. accompanied by a necklace of amber beads and some articles folk. copied..* Norhas two deep furrows. 454. 2nd S. Journ. p. 304. t Trans. Coll. p.. as is usually the case. xxxvi. Soc. Arch. Some thin wedges of oak appear to have been used for steadying the blade in the haft. xxv.244 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. p. and this form passes into what have been termed rapier-like blades. Another form of dagger widens out considerably at the base. fig. Ant. 286. Northumberland. but narrower in its It has as usual two proportions. from Little Cressingham. there are two slight ribs about f inch from the edges and parallel to them. 5. X. One of the daggers from the great find at Arreton Down. so as to give the edges an ogival outline. 324. from which the cut Dixon's "Geol. the upper part of which has somewhat suffered from fire." p. vol. and not England. by which it was attached to a wooden handle. A made A dagger with of thin gold plate. and found at Ford. RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. As is the case with the leaf-shaped blades. i. was found at Bracklesham. 307 is from Scotland. 306. Assoc. A very as those hereafter described. with apparently a well-marked central found near Magherafelt. such rib. 328. The blade. The example engraved as Fig. vol. viii. It has three rivets. and apparently two lateral ribs like those on Fig. Arch. There are punctures along the sides of the ribs. some of these latter are so long that it is hard to say whether they ought to be classed as swords or as daggers. and beyond these again two lateral ribs. p. which is a feature of far less common occurrence. iv.. and other objects. the original being in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. A rivets only. X Journ.. plain blade of the same character (7A. I have another (7i inches). ii. pi. of Ireland. which like the handle small dagger or knife. In a blade (9 inches) in Canon Greenwell's collection. showing four facets on the blade.. Possibly some of these weapons may have been halberd blades. Suss.. and the blade showed had perished. 12.inches). p. This was secured to its hilt by six rivets. It was found with a contracted male skeleton.f Devon. three on each side. shows a central ridge upon it. vol. S.|| Sussex. p. one on each side of the broad central midrib. a central rounded midrib. is p. and possibly what were used may have been formed of wood or horn. "Royal His/. but is also ornamented with parallel lines engraved on either side. 2nd . vol. 158. which is thought to be original. vii. J Co. . is shown in Fig. ami Arch. Fifeshire.

p. A. Another of the Fig. p. 307. t Arch. vol. p. 304. (7 J inches) from Waterbeach Fen. i. J. . was found in the Thames at Ditton.§ near Rugby. xix. § J'roc.DAGGERS WITH OGIVAL OUTLINE. 311. 806. and more nearly approaching the rapier form. p.J (9f inches) with two rivets. 3G4. vol. margin Another (13£ inches) with four rivets. Assoc. Cambridge. iv. 50. in Arch.— Arreton Down. S. 24 o of the base. J Fig. New Fig. J same character and another (7 inches) was found in the Thames near Maidenhead.— Kingliorn. 306. Journ. I have seen others from the Cambridge Fens.. Journ. as in Soham Fen the two rivet-holes cut through the Fig... A. and was presented to the British Museum by the Earl of Lovelace.. vol. and the at base forming half a hexagon. \ Fig.* Surrey. 329. 2nd vol. xiv. Hoc. .! One was found same form * \ (8 inches) at Battersea. I have another of nearly the Bilton. Miigherafelt.. Ant.

* p. % Proc.| Westmoreland.— Ireland. 268. xi. ornamented at the base in a similar manner. has at the base a vandyke border and hatched diagonal bands.— Colloony. £ Fig. . 308. Soc. and is now in the museum at Edinburgh. p. It was found in the old castle of Colloony. RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. The blade is slightly ridged but not otherwise ornamented. ii. vol. Journ. It is now in the British Museum.. § Von Siickeu points out that from the shortness of the hilt it is probable that these daggers were held in the same manner as among the Peruvians of . but with a short A Fig. Many blades of daggers from Germany are ornamented. Ant. vol. A blade (7 inches) also ornamented at the base with a vandyke pattern was found at Pitkaithly. G. In some the blade is ornamented by ribs cast in relief and by engravnig good example of tbe kind from tbe collection of Mr. Ant.inches). was found near Vienna. broad tang and one rivet-hole. v..A. + Arch.. 19.. One (oh inches). vii. is shown in Fig. " "Die Punden an der Langen Wand bei Wiener Neustadt/' 1865. 2nd S.. Perthshire. p. and the blade and pommel-plate beautifully ornamented. was found on Helsington Peat Moss." pi. F. Von Racken. found in the Thames. 370. with the hilt complete. 2nd S. 308.f near Richmond (7^%. Soc. 309. "Horse Forales.246 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. [CHAP. One of the most beautiful that I have seen is that in the museum at Laibach. 302). p.S.^ Co. Another ( 1 1 inches). Sligo. Robert Day. $ . vol. 79. One of much the same form as the Wiltshire dagger (Fig. Carniola. X.] Proc.

fig. vol. Fi. between Theale and Thatcham..S. Eapier-shaped blades from 8. In the museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy* is a broad dagger blade at the base. hut stretched along the blade.. Co. .. blade of the same form A Fig.1 inches to 12 \ inches long. 465. 310. and there are notches at the side of the base as if to allow of two others being passed through. Eerthshire. It is provided with two rivets. 309. the blade can have been inserted. Berks." Newchurch. X Arch. F. 403. was found at the foot of "the Castle Tump. 2nd l'J. with the two first fingers not round the hilt. It is rather remarkable that the ornaments should extend to so near the base. vi. in consequence. which is also from Ireland. Soc. In a small English blade (5 inches) of the same character there are no rivet-holes at the base. and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell. 31 2. at Fairholm. and near Ardoch. however. 312 represents a small blade of this character dredged up I'mm the Kennet and Avon Canal. and with two rivetholes.RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. Kilrea. I have a plain blade (14 inches) with merely. Camb. 6f inches long. Dumfries-shire. i (10 inches). Ant. 247 the present day. Fig. An ornamented inches) is more elongated form (16J- engraved on the scale of one-fourth in Fig. the hilt to steady the blade. as they must have been intended to be free of the it would appear that only a small part of liilt. in which. kindly lent me by the Academy. of from the Thames f an ordinary rapier shape is shown on the scale of one- A blade fourth in Fig. 6. and 1 Wilde. which is not I shown in the cut. 347.. S. fig. a central ridge. 311. have extended some distance up the sloping part blade of of the base of the blade. There is a vandyke pattern near the base. found at Auchtermuchty.E." p. " Catal.. 311. J Eadnorshire. v. The sides of the socket in the hilt may. and of much the same form. 310. It was found at Kilrea. vol. Fig. and engraved with a kind of vandyke pattern The ornamented portion is shown full size in Fig. Thames.*. 1 Thatcham. t Proe. are preserved in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. p. but with only two rivet-holes at the base. Fife. p. 4th S. Sligo.

Other rapier-shaped blades (18| inches and 14i. pi. || ** Vol. Journ. 311. has three rivet-holes. pi. A blade of this character from Blair in the museum at Edinburgh. Another of the same character.* Lincolnshire. A weapon of this form (16^ inches). xvi. Op. vol.** Canon Greenwell has two rapier-like blades from the Thames. but broad in the blade (16^ inches).. The rivet arrangements vary. W. One 14f inches long.248 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS.V inches and 15| inches long. Whitaker. Journ." vol. Fisher. from Harlech.Cr.. F. With tho latter was found a leaf-shaped blade (19 inches) with two rivet. as in Fig.S. xvi. is even narrower in the blade than the Coveney example. found in Waterbeach Fen. of Ely. and with two large rivets. lxx. Journ. 2nd S. I'roc. They all have two rivet- blades found at South Kyme. vol. but without these small notches. is House. ft Chuntre. t Arch. but flat in the centre instead of ridged.holes in the base. with loops attached to the blade. Mr. blade. vol.. cit. 160. Such blades are almost long enough to bo regarded as swords. was dredged from the Thames | near Vauxhall. one of them still in situ. was found at Fisherton.. varying in length from 8 inches to 9 inches. iii. § The base of these blades appears sometimes to be disproportionately broad with regard to the blades themselves. and of much the same outline. p. One of them has notches at the sides of the base. Another in the same collection (12£ inches). have been found in the Cambridgeshire Fens. is much || narrower at the base. xix. but it has lost its edges by corrosion. is in the collection of Mr. I have a dagger of the same form (8 inches). Fisher. One found Germain Museum.+f Haute Saone. Cambridge. of which one is formed from a nearly square piece of metal. from tho Thames at Kingston. 2. This widening was no doubt intended to aid in steadying the blade in its hilt. with the blade reduced in thickness towards the edges. was found in the Thames. but with the blade tapering more gradually from a rounded base. Some blades. has four. near Downham Hithe. Journ.^[ near Salisbury. p. and are now in the British Museum. 313. and is shown in Fig. seem to have been of this character. A spear-head. from Maentwrog in the same county. berland. One from Burwell own collection.inches) have been found in the Thames near Kingston. 365. and is now in the British Museum.. from Sandford. p.. p. long blade of this kind (16J inches). occurs in Franco. 83. The type in the St. § II * Arch. p. X. . p. X Arch. about 2 inches wide at A the base and holes. vol. and is preserved at Blair at Drummond Moss was exhibited Drummond Auxonne. 158. of Ely. Arch. xviii. " Alb. CO. [CHAP. me by Mr. was found with them.inches) Another was found A - Another (11^. 17. Merionethshire. and rapier-like in character. Soc. number of blades of this character. but with a more tapering at Corbridge.. Ant.f Northumcompany with a leaf-shaped spear-head. in 1 some of Two inch in the middle of the blade. An example from Coveney. 3G3. Cambridgeshire.inches). from 12^ inches to 15 J inches long. in which are still two of (13|. in Fen. Assoc.. are engraved in the Archceologia. i. which are rivets f inch long. in my the rivets. x. and is in the Blackmore Museum. given RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. p. The two little notches at the side of the base are peculiar. was found in the Thames. 73.

That shown in Fig. is in the Museum at Taunton.t blade from Inchigec- Co. 304. pi.— Coveney.. and also from the neighbour- hood of Amiens. rapier-shaped blades. Some of the f Vol. vol. Blades appear sometimes to have been cast with deep rounded notches in the base to receive the rivets instead of having holes drilled or cast in them. is engraved by Vallancey. with two rivets and two notches in the sides of the base. Somerset. 73.A. Eoach Smith. Canon Greenwell has a of this blade type (8f inches). . nearly the same type but more rounded at the lower part of the wings. is in the British -*=^^£»— Museum. 311— Thames. found near Meth- wold. 9. p. 313. but apparently notched after the Bame fashion.S. 314 is of this character. those of larger si/. rather shorter and broader. C. are ornamented * Rev. seems to be notched in a similar manner.t i Tig. In some cases the rivetholes cut through the margin of the metal as in Fig. was found in the bay of Penhouet* (Loire Inferieure). xxxiii.. I have examples from the Seine at Paris. figured in the Archaeological Journal. Another of different form. iv. and such as seem intermediate between swordsespecially and daggers. and was found in the at London. Norfolk. A la. Cork. One of Thames these of (1G| inches). p. Arch. 231. \ Fig." vol. Others of the same character have also been found in the Thames. 249 Another. xi.RAPIERS WITH NOTCHES AT THE BASE.. x. It was given to me by Mr. F. A specimen of this form (11 inches) from Edington Burtle. "• t Collect.

A portion of another was found near Water* beach. vol. 337.. " t Arch. . One (20 inches long) is in the Museum at Nantes. In the British - $ || * Arch. p. with two very large rivets. A broader blade of the same character (12f inches). found at the bottom of an old canoe. may more properly be regarded as a sword.\ inches long and 2ia8 collection of Mr." vol. this kind. A long Museum. xviii. Surrey. xii. were found at Talaton. 113. RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. What ajrpears to be a part of a blade ^j of the same kind has been regarded as a kind of " steel" for sharpening other blades. J near Crediton. Farnham. but is still I7f inches long. and from 12 inches to 22 inches in length. II Arch. holes at the base appear to have been oast in tho blade. vii. Devon. Cambs. is shown in Fig. " xi. but with perfect rivet-holes. was found at Caesar's Camp. 316 on the scale of one-fourth. Cambs. blade of the same character from Ireland is given by Vallancey.§ fine specimen from the same country (18 inches) is in the British Museum. can only have been intended for stabbing. Journ. tt Viet. Journ.. dc la Gatik. near Thetford. however. and will subsequently be described. 10 vol. 10. vol. 110. A narrower blade (12 inches) with the rivet-holes cutting through the base. Arch. but varying in details. which perhaps ought with greater propriety to have been classed among swords. % Op. Durden. blade (17 inches) was found at Winkleigh. Two from the departments of Aisne and Somme. . Herefordshire. is shown one-quarter size in Fig. projecting ribs between which and again towards the edges it is fluted. X. p. It would appear to have been originally about 20£ The blade in this case has three inches long. at Mawgan. and now in the Boulogne Museum. and is in the It is 23. and is in the same collection. found at Aston Ingham. and not for striking. by a projecting midrib. was found in the Thames at Kingston. with central ridge and slight flutings at the It is in the British edges. xvii. eit." pi. ix. and with the rivet-holes cutting the margin of the base.** Cornwall. It has unfortunately lost its point. iv. 315. and is now in the British as well as strengthened diminished Museum.. p. Blades of this kind are occasionally found in Ireland. p. was found in the fino earthwork of Badbury. j" Some moulds of stone for blades of the same hind were found at Hennock Another in the same county. Collect. inches wide at the base above tho rivet-holes." pi. " Cough's Camden. still longer blade of this character. of Blandford. Blades of this character are also found in France. p.250 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. [CHAP. iv.. Such weapons. and the means A A || A A A of steadying it in its hilt must have been but inadequate. vol. I have another (14 inches) with the midrib not quite so prominent. 23. rapier-shaped blade (21 inches) with two rivet-holes was found. blade of this character from the Thames (21 inches long and 2f inches wide at the base). rapier blade from the Chaussee Brunehault. pi. with socketed celts and a palstave. The imperfect rivetIt was found in the Fiver Ouse. Dorsetshire. Devonshire. as shown in the figure. near Chatteris.. while their weight is A beautiful example of by Hutings along either side.ff have been figured. vol. Another blade of similar form. Hone ** Feralea. between the peat and clay. 193. Journ. xxiv. Arch. all of the rapier character. is almost like a trefoil in outline at the hilt end.. 1S6. Six blades.

. Cavan. and was found near LondonThe method of attachment to the hilt by two rivets fitting into derry. 251 Museum is one (9 inches) with deep notches for the rivets. * lias siiiiii. 448. } Fig. notches at the sides of the base of the blade is the same as in some of the shown in my shorter weapons already mentioned. 315— Chatteris. That Rathkemian Bog. Fig. 317. 310. "Catal.LONG RAPIER-SHAVED BLADES. Tipperary.— Thetford." p. 317 is J Fig.* Co. Co. found at Killeshandra. —Londondei rj in own collection. fig. found in Nearly all the rapier-shaped blades which have still to be noticed may be regarded as probably those of swords rather than of daggers. 326. Fig.. Another (19 inches).tr e Wilde.

Both blade and haft are. 4tli Series. ii. 317. Fig. or rather whalebone. blade (14 inches) found in the Loire. I think there can be no doubt that the material of the hilt is in reality a dark-coloured ox-horn. and had at the time of its discovery the original hilt attached. has side notches of nearly the same character as those in Fig. I have a blade. [CHAP.f South Halland. RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. 89. Sie 8 1 . It is no less than 30| inches long. however. France. so that probably pins of hard wood served to secure it to forming as lasted the the blade. Oise. . and inches) which was bought in that country. their in Some Scandinavian daggers have been found with Kindles of horn still attached. had its leather sheath with a long rectangular end of bronze still preThe length of the sheath is about twice that served. and is only -| inch in width at the centre of the blade. It was found in a bog at Lissane. 319. hut the hase is somewhat differently shaped. notches at the sides. Mr. Wakeman. in his interesting account of the discovery.. Sweden. " > of thc * bkdo of the <HTger. identical in form and character. t " Hallands Fommiones-Forenings Aarskr. near Beauvais. was found in a bog at Galbally. Many of these rapier-shaped blades have been found in Ireland. Wilde's Catalogue. 318. which by the kindness of the Royal Irish Academy I here reproduce from Sir W. One from a barrow 1 Hasslof. which has a strong midrib. On some and Danish blades substance still I have seen the fibrous texture of this shown by the oxide or salt of the metal. Co. but this is uncertain. p. Were it not that the rivets are wanting. The hilt has been engraved in the Proceedings of the Royal Historical and Archceological Society of Ireland* and is here by their kindness reproduced as Fig. There also appear to have been some remains of a scabbard. The finest example of the rapier kind ever found in Ireland is that shown in Fig. with a heavy rounded midrib (22| inches long and If inch broad at the base). and now in the Nantes Museum. Tyrone. but only 2 3 J inches long. Derry. There are no traces of the rivets in the Galbally hilt. now in my own collection. Canon Greenwell has one (27| Scotland." 1869. describes the material of which the hilt is formed as bone. 197. 318 might have been taken from the French instead of the Irish specimen. X. p. it were a cast of its surface. which has outhorn against which it was originally formed.252 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. Another narrow blade. and probably found in A found at Noailles. Co. vol. of Enniskillen.

253 The bronze unknown. found in the Co.. 458. hilt is hollow and is is Wilde. Tipperary." pi. * The fig. . somewhat Catal. as shown in Fig. 320. One hilts for the long rapier-like blades are rare. " which the vii. but not of these blades. 319. in the text copied on a 15. from " Hone larger scale. } attached by metal rivets.— Galbally.* has its hilt still Fig." p.RAPIER WITH OX-HORN HILT. fig. Ferales. 333.

322 is in my own collection." vol. the blade of which is more leaf-shaped. of that town.. 120. Not improbably these and other specimens originally existed in a somewhat different form. was found.A. now open by a though probably. with a bronze hilt of nearly the same form. ii. A long-tanged form. of which it is sometimes difficult to say whether it is a sword.V inches). I have a small specimen of the same kind (6 J inches) from Fordham. hilt of a triangles and circles. which is rati ler broader in its proportions. 406. In another form. That shown in Fig. y. L91 f Proc. pi. p. but with six rivets.f Haute Loire. iii. Journ. S. at the end.V inches). F. That shown in Fig. [cHAP. appear to have been made from broken sword or rapier-like blades. Journ. was originally a sword from which the hilt was broken. Arch. M.inteh. p. " Materiaux. . J Washfield. 1. Cambs..inch from the base.. Arch. Tucker. 321 is only 11 inches long. near Grays ThurSome of the weapons of this kind. Devon. v. is of not unfrequent occurrence in Ireland. is in the museum at Narbonne.* Another nearly similar was found at Cheylounet. The original was found near Ely. vol. a long and 1 inch broad) was found in the Mardyke. with rivet notches at the side of the base. Soc. I have another found near Armagh (cS. A rapier-shaped blade. — RAPIER-SHAPED BLADES. 320. and is in the collection of Mr. xxiv.2'">4 DAGGEES AM) THEIR HILTS. but having been injured at their base were refitted with a tang for attachment to the haft instead of being secured by rivets at the sides like those last mentioned.S. X. .. p. blade more like Fig. vol. are provided with merely a slight tang like that Some Danish daggers of a * " J § modern chisel. like the ordinary bronze sword. 2nd p. Some Egyptian bronze daggers have the hilts formed in the same style. The stud. . 370. as suggested by Mr. but the edge has been removed for about 1A. Eisher. Fossibly this.. originally closed bone much sword in the museum at Tours is joined to the blade in the same fashion. Materiaux. like one from the rock. Ant. x. vol. Fig. with leaf-shaped spear-heads.321 (15]. as Wilde suggests. or a dagger. xxvi. A more leaf-shaped blade (14 inches). at Worth." vol.§ Essex. It has a diagonal row of circular indentations across each side of the blade just above the shoulders. the means of attachment to the haft are merely sHght notches at the sides. —Tii perai A Thames at Kingston (11. showing the portion which presumably was inserted in the hilt. but has a mere indentation instead of the central The body of the hilt is engraved with bands of semicircular notch.

yet this would appear to be the proper place in which to notice it.BAYONET-LIKE BLADES.—North of Ireland. 821. Another form of blade is 255 than of a more of the nature of a bayonet I r Fig. Fig.—Ely. . rapier. 323. Fig. Raphoe. 322.

doubt as to the true character of the knife-daggers. and though there can are intended to serve a double purpose . in whatever manner they were mounted.256 DAGGERS AND THEIR HILTS. The example shown in Fig.R. some which. * Vol. of [CHAP. p. blades. ornamented faces are with parallel engraved lines. must be regarded Among modern weapons we have. The in the Arclwological Journal * seems to be somewhat of the same nature. it is safe to assert that all the dagger-like blades were without hardly exception mounted with short hilts as poniards. and the of the handle. but having the With it was a ferrule. Of the dagger-like period blades. like the sword-bayonet. and that none were provided with straight shafts as pikes. 323 is in the collection F. 3f inches long. It has one rivet-hole through it. X. 33 inches long and nearly square in section. be little The weapons described in this chapter probably range over the The knife-daggers. . or placed transversely on a handle to serve as halberds or battle-axes.. however. It may possibly be the case that some of the other blades described in this chapter have served as the points of spear-like weapons. there can be no doubt that the majority been the blades of daggers or rapiers. almost exclusively been found in barrows. and was found at Raphoe. The section of the blade is nearly square. having four ribs at faces fluted.S. and engraved javelin with loop daggers.D BLADES. and with it was found a f errule of bronze for receiving the end In the Royal Irish Academy Museum is another blade of the same character. Canon Greenwell. Co. the base. though. from the hilts being discovered with so many as having of them. iii. a considerable number belong to an early period. appear to belong to a when socketed celts were already in use. though of rare occurrence in hoards. may be regarded as among while the rapier-shaped the earliest of our bronze antiquities . This specimen was found in a bog near Glenarm. The analogies of the different forms with those found upon the Continent have already from time to time been noted in the preceding pages. Donegal. RAPIER-SHAPF. From the ferrules and general form of the blades it is probable that they were lance or pike heads rather than of the nature of swords or " " found in Monaghan. It ends in a tang with a single hole through it. Antrim. with hollows between. which whole of the Bronze Period of Britain. Co. often associated have with other weapons formed of stone. 47.

be well to notice two sets of weapons which. 326. F. that in the Archceologia* which is taken from a drawing made in 1737 by Sir Charles Frederick. as it was in the hoard found at that place that the largest proportion of such battle-axes or halberds. . may in the one case have served as spear-heads. HALBERDS. The centre of the usually thick and strong. and tapers away from the blade. In one instance a ferrule was found blade is upon the blade. showing a central ridge and having the sides more or less decorated with flutings or lines where the metal is reduced in thickness. xxxvi. Before passing to the leaf-shaped swords. and in the other most probably as the blades of To the first of these two classes the term Arreton Down type has been conventionally applied. Upon the ferrule are a number of raised bosses in imitation of rivets.f Down. " " to weapons occurred and. but have now been found in .R. as will be seen in This figure is copied from Fig.CHAPTER XI. 324. though there is one in the end of the tang of the blade with the rivet still in it. pi. is beginning long and narrow. though in will many respects identical with daggers. xxv. unlike that of the daggers described at the of the last chapter. At its end is a hole for a rivet or pin. Accounts of the discovery of this and other weapons at Arreton in the Isle of Wight. 2. f Arch.S. The tanged blades are still rare. TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS. AND MACES. A. W. and the latter has been At least printed by Mr. until that discovery the type appears have been unknown. p. vol. indeed. OR SPEAR-HEADS. several other places besides the Isle of Wight. Franks. * Vol. near Newport. xxxvi.. were communicated to the Society of Antiquaries in the years 1735 and 1737. The tang. which would seem it naturally to follow in order after the blades last described. but there seems to be no rivet-hole in the ferrule itself.

and four were flanged celts. with several parallel grooves on each side of it engraved or punched on the blade. The parallel flutings on the blade appear to have been produced in the casting. Franks. but varying in size. has a rounded midrib. 306). 325. from Burwell Fen. but the midrib is more ridged. and they are said to have been arranged in a regular order. with a socket two were dagger oo blades. discovered in the River Lea at Stratford-le-Bow. and is ornamented with rows of engraved or punched dots.258 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS. xxv. were found in a marl-pit. pi. I have a blade (10 inches) of the same form and character. 324. and . Cambridge. vi. Of these. of the weapons from* Arreton are of nearly the same description.— Stratfordle-Bow. it in Fig." pi. One of these. ETC. but without any engraved dots upon it. Essex. like Fig.. and not by engraving or punching. 1 . Six specimens from this hoard are now in the sixteen articles . 24. is now in the British Museum. 325. 328) is so dagger-like in character. nine were of this One (Fig. that it is hard to speak with any degree of confidence upon this point. "Horas Ferales. J Down • Arch. present doing such close analogies with the daggers O Oo from the Wiltshire barrows. XI. vol. i Some Down. [CHAP. . in the paper these already mentioned. 8. ' British Museum. but varying in details. The hole in the tang was also made in Fig. regards weapons as spearI heads. One has a double crescent-shaped line of dots punched in at the base of the blade. xxxvi. Franks observed that the type was quite new to him. 328) was provided tanged type. think right in so the blades. and the socketed variety (Fig. tanged is Mr.— Arreton Fig. however. already mentioned (one of which is given in Fig. but since that time several other specimens have been found besides those from Arreton Down. and is shown As will be seen. In 1855 Mr.

but apparently without any fluting.. parish is of Plymstock. and is now in the collection of Mr. in Fig. and It is shown now In Museum. panying articles 326. 327. It ridged along the centre. but any lateral flutings. 190). mering ii|rli:i I Derbyshire. and three dagger blades (see Fig. No." Copenhagen vol.. Devon. but one (9 inches) closely resembling Fig. is in my own S*! One with much broader and deeper grooves on each side of the midrib (10 inches). Robert Day. 349 For the use of this cut I A. xvi.. of were sixteen. 9. p. the accomWere flanged which there Fig. nearly similar blade. was found near Preston. F. and has a groove on each side runis is blade shown 11 1 III ning parallel to the edge. There was also a * Arch. Journ. p.S. \ without in the 327. is in the of the Cambridge An- tiquarian Society. 326.* Berks. such as woidd afford facility for sharpening the edge by hamit out. narrow chisel (Fig. at Arreton in the British this instance. 322.— Plymstock. Arch. as Down. was found near Newbury. f Another of these blades. 1. This specimen is said to have been foimd near Matlock.S. and is said to have been found A 1 I 1 in Italy. vol. 325 was found in the county of AVest Meath. Assoc. Such blades are of extremely rare occurrence in Ireland. is in the museum at Copenhagen. 7' A slightly different variety of in Fig.THE ARRETOX DOWN TYPE. Another weapon (7£ inches) of the same character. It is nowhere less than \ inch in diameter. 324. pi. F. s am indebted to Mr 2 . The end of the tang has been broken off at the hole. Journ. xxvi. and in character similar to Fig. \ Fig. W. found in m J Museum Swaffham Fen. and collection. but with four slight channels on either side instead of one. preh.R. being irregular in form. of Cork.— Matlock. 26. 259 the casting. vol. Franks. % celts like Fig.A. 483.. 301). p. " t Cong.

XT. 328 is copied from the engraving published in the ArchceoAs will be observed. pi. It differs from the socketed knives in the character of the blade. like some of the daggers from the Wiltshire barrows. The margin of this notch is decorated with punctured dots. 349. Edinb. J Vol. I has somewhat the appearance of being a same character was found in a moss near Campbeltown.% made to abut on the blade. p.. without a ferrule. Whether it was itself intended to be a dagger.260 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS. 25. p. The shorter and ornamented with parallel rings and bands of triangles. In the Arreton hoard there was a single example of a this kind which was provided with a socket for the insertion of a handle or shaft. It may. the socket part is logia. Valais. Mus. vi. Catal. ETC. alternately hatched and plain. % same manner as that of Fig. It was. and what may be termed the hilt has a deep half-oval notch in it. Arch. found near Sion. 23. xxxvi. xxxvi. Two specimens from Suffolk (8 inches and 10£ inches). as already suggested. I believe." . 328. p. is now in Canon Greenwell's collection. 390. attempt to determine. § Wilson's "Preh. however. pi. xxvi. which is thicker and more highly ornamented. and I know of no other example. The blade is ornamented some- What weapon of the Fig. 3. with por* Arch.— Arreton Down. Journ. Inst. § Argyleshiro. One of the Arreton Down f specimens. which there can hardly be a doubt is the original from which Sir Charles Frederick made his drawing for the Society of Antiquaries. like that which is common on swords and daggers. p. A very beautiful weapon of this kind is in the museum at Lausanne." vol. or whether will not it was the head of a spear or lance.. xxv. . what in the is socket There appear to be six rivets. Fig. and has cast upon it two bosses in imitation of the heads of rivets ner for securing the blade. i. and are now in the British Museum. together with a bronze sword.y vol. 328. much after the manof a dagger handle. A weapon (8j inches).*" formed part of the collection of the late Mr. Whincopp. pi.. xxv. be merely a socketed knife. t Arch. 3 " Horse Ferales. [CHAP. 328. one of them from Hintlesham. Down weapon of instead of having a tang.. is also much of this type. Ann.

pi. xix." vol. and also with a long narrow celt.— Arup. and not requently unfrequently curved longitudinally. . and with the socket rather shorter than in Eig. An Egyptian * blade. tions of 261 what may have been the ornaments of a sheath. flanged at the upper part.SCANDINAVIAN AND GERMAN HALBERDS. The general resemblance between the Swiss and the English specimens is very remarkable. J The second series of blades of which it is proposed to treat in this chapter are usually from six to sixteen inches long. This * " Miiteriaux. is in the museum at Boulaq. Fig. It is attached to the socket by three rivets. 329. rather broad at the base. with the side edges slightly curved inwards. v. 11. 328.

. 0. ETC." f It was found. showing the great projection of the Fig. l.262 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS. with a separate socket. when the shaft was merely of wood and the transverse blade was secured in it by means of " llura. 2. . Kltnmi.. is in the Berlin Museum. and in b a view from behind the blade.— China. xxxiii. proves that some of these broad blades were not intended for use as daggers and this being admitted. having three rivet-like bosses upon it." p. See also Preusker. as well as their shape and weight. and is regarded by Lisch as a kind of battle-axe. vi." Tat'. :J30. Culturwiss. vii. Alterth. The handle as well as the blade is in bronze. and others have been described by Klemm. In a is given a view of the upper end.'ll. [CHAP. rivet-like knobs. Another. There can be little doubt that this last-men§ tioned weapon is a representative of an earlier form. Vuss. . * x. Oscar Montelius' Sveriges Forntid. which also show the manner in which similar blades were attached to their shafts so as to form a kind of halberd or battle-axe. $ Bastian und A. . near Bucko w. f Taf. 1 Krrales. Good examples of the same kind are in the museums atMalmoe and Kiel. " Blicke." pi." '^who has kindly lent me the In this instance the scale adopted is one-third linear 329. X 44 f. resemble the curved blades in all respects except their curvature. must be regarded as belonging to the same class of weapons.J Two have been found near Neu Euppin. which . Mus. 208. Others are in the Schwerin Museum. at Blengow. seen from above. iii. That which I have selected by way of illustration is one that is engraved " in Dr. 1 " Handb. Another is engraved in Lisch's " Frederico-Francisceum. This specimen was found at Arup. "Die Bronze Schwerter dea K. Fig. with two others. latter circumstance. or possibly as a "commander's staff" or baton of honour." p. What these weapons were may I think be best shown by some examples from Scandinavia and Northern Germany." Taf. block of Fig. XI. it seems to follow that others. der Germ. in Scania. Mecklenburg Schwerin. U2. "Allg. . measure.

The rivets. What appear to be bronze spear-heads and swords are figured in the same work. p." vol. It looks in fact almost like pure copper. ehaft. was found on the Yenissei. and the blade would then be secured in its position by laces or straps passing through the slots at the base of the blade. of which one For the loan of the original of this figure is represented in Fig. "Prim. N. In this case they are about § inch in diameter and f inch between the heads. 331 is termed • by no means uncommon in these blades. 283. Franks. 3. three rivets. is highly ornamented. . As will be readily seen. 2. which are about | inch in diameter and have been carefully hammered into an almost hemispherical form. ix. Another.S. The midrib ends abruptly in a straight line where it abutted on the shaft.E. Taf. The antiquity of such weapons in China it is hard to ascertain. Moseley. Donegal. in Russia.. " Horse Ferales. 62. pi. W. 330. it will be well to commence with the examples from those countries rather than with those from England. viii. Co. Several of them are engraved in a Chinese work on antiquities. appears to be a halberd of much the same kind. x. This coppery appearance is have another specimen of the mi the midrib.* An instance of the use of an analogous form of weapon in another part of the world is afforded by some bronze blades from China. but without the bead at Letterkenny. 11.IRISH HALBERDS. from the Inwa. p." Age. des Ant. F. 14 vol. 232 Chantre. in which the blade fits into a kind of open-work bronze socket for receiving a shaft.|| " "the brass head " of a Tuagh f Materiaux. du Br.E. and are still preserved in the blade. Mus. p." 5 || Col. Warfare. " Von Ledebur. 34.." pi. There is the figure of a kind of antelorje projecting from the socket opposite the blade. 263 An intermediate form. Jine partie. F. xvi.. 1877." vol. fur Ethnol. 15. has the head of an animal in the same position. p. pi. though the central rib is somewhat more ornamented than is generaUy the case." to which Mr. into . "The Golden Study. p. Lane Fox. 331 is represented a fine specimen of a form not unusual in Ireland." Hib. Mem." vol. The metal appears to have a considerably less proportion of tin to copper than is usual with bronze weapons. This form of weapon closely approximates to the Australian "malga" § and to some other wooden weapons in use in New Caledonia. Proc. " Coll.. . vi. like the blade. It was found much like Fig. A bronze weapon of the same kind. I "Zeitsch. 1872—7. iv. H. A specimen by Vallancey. which. are three in number. X Perm. An iron weapon with a socket at right angles to the blade. xi. but they probably date back to a period many centuries remote from the present day.f in Siberia. has kindly called my attention.S. is preserved in the Berlin Museum. A. p. the blade is adapted for being attached at nearly a right angle to a which the flat tang behind the stop-ridge would be inserted. as usual. but with a socket. Konigl. lect. du Nord. xiii. In Fig. I same forin(9£ inches). As it is in Ireland and Scotland that the most characteristic of the halberd blades have been discovered. . A. I am indebted to Mr. 116. from Viatka. 3.

or like " " scythe-shaped swords having been mounted long berds. under the two distinct headings of "Broad scythe-shaped Swords. . and " Battle-axes. and roundabout 12 pointed. Mm K. affixed to handles modern halseems much more reaAs to the shorter and blades. twenty-two of the blades being With the strong blades. Wilde has described. I. of the three. Of the former he mentions - ' seum forty-one specimens in the Muof the Royal Irish Acalatter but two or "* he describes as thick.. ETC. XI. eatha. averaging inches in length by about 2 J inches in breadth at the base demy. he appears to have had no doubt of their being a kind of broader battle-axes. Wilde has inferred from the large Fig." sonable. . The " swords . are quite thin and the flat. and which appearance of been intended for daggers." so that Wilde's other suggestion of the CO like axes.ixe." Sir W. a general name for the war" The large rivets of this weapon show it was mounted on a very strong shaft. he classes some which curved. A. I size of the rivets. in some being 14 inches length and "Catal.264 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS. 381." p. however. having The curved shape is much against their having been attached to staves have more spear-ways . [CHAP. 449. heavy. whether curved or not." the weapons which I have here classed together.—Ireland.

were made of this material. like the celts of And in another that material. 265 nearly 1 inch across the burr or head. it is As I have already had occasion to observe. or indeed none of that metal in them. he says that their antiquity may be gathered from the fact place of many being of copper. disappearance of the handles would be a remarkable circumstance but the large rivets appear rather intended for securing the blades . disappearance of which from ordinary decay In one instance there are 1 large conical washers or broad rings of bronze j inches in diameter beneath the rivet-heads. appears to me to have been the wish to make them A weapon used as a than if they had been of bronze. Sir William Wilde. of which.* the fact that many of the specimens are formed either of red bronze or of pure copper. shown a hollow tube of . while the loss of a blade by its breaking would be irreparable. Wilde appears to me to have fallen into another error with Arguing from respect to the antiquity of this form of weapon. no fragIf this view had been correct.COPPER BLADES LESS BRITTLE THAN BRONZE. the straightening of it might quickly be effected. the exactly what might be expected. 360. however. and should it get bent in an encounter. but because the ductile and malleable copper was found better adapted for certain purposes than the more fragile bronze. the ments have been preserved. lias * P. to is wooden shafts. with but little or no tin in less brittle battle-axe them. he thinks it probable that. in his Fig. form and character of the blades Even were they of pure copper the show them to be derivatives from . 449. the dagger. they are of immense antiquity. when an intermediate piece of metal is required to convey the blows of a hammer to an iron key or other object which would be injured by receiving the blows direct. I have elsewhere contended that the Hungarian perforated doubleended axes (like pickaxes) of copper. as the dagger itself sprang from the simpler knife and the cause for using a less proportion of tin. would not be less deadly from having a somewhat duller cutting edge than if formed of bronze. not because tin was unknown. that they must have been attached to massive metal handles. and these in the case of a metal handle would have been superfluous. In the same manner copper rather than brass sets or punches are in use among engineers at the present day. but the absence of tin in their composi- tion has not as yet been proved. perfectly true that many of these blades have the appearance of being made of copper. the use of which metal invariably preceded that of bronze.

Hill. and is in my own collection. . but near the edges and following the same curve is a minor ridge. From the absence of rivet-holes it seems doubtful whether it was ever mounted on a shaft so as to form a complete weapon. 332. Avith its Fig. 332. is in the British Museum. I specimens of this very broad am not aware of the existence of any other form besides the two now mentioned. A section is given at the side of the figure. The original was found near Cavan. bronze as forming the handle of a wide halberd blade but this Not only juxtaposition of the two objects has been questioned. and closely resembles Fig. treble midrib. being 7f inches long and 8f inches wide at the base. of much the same section as Fig. the sharp base was merely driven into the wood. unless. The blade shown in Fig. The metal appears to have a larger admixture of tin in it than is usual in the scythe-like blades. Tipperary. Co. are the projecting spikes upon the tube somewhat inconsistent . Wexford. use as a handle.266 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS. Co. 332 has but a single midrib. but 15£ inches long and 3-} inches broad at the base. but from a comparison with some similar since discovered there can be no doubt of the presumed objects halberd shaft being in reality a portion of a trumpet. found at the foot of Slieve Kileta It has three stout rivets. XI.— Cavan The blade which is figured in connection with this handle was found near Eoscrea. A curved blade. [cHAP. 332 both in form and size. in which It has a kind of are two rivet-holes and also two notches in the margin. indeed. ETC.

* . * i 884. -Ballygawley. :!:«.— Newtown Limavady.IRISH HALBERDS. Fig. 267 333 seems also to belong The long and narrow blade shown in Fig.

figs. Tyrone. ." pi. eit. ami "Horae Fir. p.E. though the rivet-holes are smaller than usual. The shorter and much more massive blade shown in Fig. and the blade itself thinner. from Stranraer. ETC. 33G. x. The original was found near Newtown Limavady.S. op. and is also straight and not curved. as in that * Conf. I Fig..— Falkland. and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell. There is also occasionally a shoulder between the blade and the part let into the handle.—Stranraer original three rivet-holes have in two cases been partly closed by hammerhas broken away. and was found at Ballygawley.268 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS. It is strengthened by a number of small converging ribs formed in the casting. Wilde. XI. 356 and 357 . In order ing. [CHAP. and have been secured to the shafts by four rivets arranged as in Fig. 335. F. as what appear to have been the to the category of halberds. 336. 334 is also in Canon Greenwell's collection. Co. three fresh holes have been drilled rather farther from the base. instead of by a broad midrib. is'. while in the third the base of the blade to make use of the weapon. Co. in which the rivets are still preserved. Derry.. 6. Fig. iSome of the Irish * blades are more rounded than this at the point.). It has probably seen much service.

} but found near Falkland.— Shropshire. Fifeshire. like that 269 from Ballygawb-v. 1 Syifriv v - 7W ** Fig.SCOTTISH AND ENGLISH HALBERDS. In Fig. 335 is shown another blade much Fig. The metal appears to be nearly . 337— Harbyrnrigge. 338.

p. and weighs 15 oz.. Scot. bequeathed to me a blade of this character (9f by 3h inches) thickened out in the middle like Fig. be fairly secured in its handle by a second rivet in the notch on the left.. and weighs nearly If lbs.G. that the example from Harbyrnrigge..f Bute. though there are notches for the reception of two besides the rivet still left in the blade. F. The only Welsh example which I have to mention was found in the parish of Llansanffraid. vol. and appears to be formed of copper. It was found with broken sword-blades and spear-heads at Stoke Ferry. The is now original of Fig. § || 423. It is in the collection of Canon Green well.§ Crosby Ravens worth. iii. must be looked upon as a halberd rather than as a dagger. I am . and three rivet-holes. p. xi. bevelled edges. shown in Fig. The late Mr. while a third at the back of the midrib would prevent the blade from being driven into its handle by a blow. x. vol. * Proc. . and at Edinburgh. iv.ft may have belonged to a halberd of this class. It was found in Shropshire. and it is doubtful whether it ever had more than one rivethole. ii. p.S. 14. It is now in the Museum of the Cambridge Anti|| quarian Society. and has four rivet-holes arranged in a semiThree others. vol. with a strong midrib and three rivets. A large blade. 2nd " Horae II Arch. The rivets are an inch in length. It is 9 inches long and 4 inches wide. They are described as of reddish bronze... 337. ETC. . 338. p. having a plain midrib.. p.^ Wigtonshire. xviii. [(HAP. Fer. is 11 by 3^ inches. Joum. it must have been a formidable weapon.. 2nd S.'Ant. which is somewhat of a trefoil form. +t "Afbild. vi. vol. In form and character it closely resembles the Irish and Scotch specimens (Figs.. xi. p. were found together at Kingarth. Ant. X Ibid. circle. vol. v. p. some of them curved. W.. vol." pi.* Edinkillie. Another blade of much the same character is shown on the scale of onefourth in Fig. bearing much resemblance to that from Shropshire. Ant. vol. Soc. however. 193 ** Arch.. One from Sluie. Norfolk. iv. 334 and 335). 161 Proc. xii.. Flower. Proc. was found near Manea. 334. 336 in the Antiquarian Museum was found near Stranraer. J.. 258.^[ Cambridgeshire..270 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS. I think. 20 (figured). so that if mounted as a halberd. pure copper. XI. Camb. 403. and engraved by Madsen.S.R. Radnorshire. 187. Another (11£ by 4 inches). S. t Ibid. Westmoreland. It is 12^ inches long and -ik broad. Elginshire.. Soc. Soc. F. p.** Cwm Deuddwr. In England and Wales the blades Avhich can with any degree of confidence be regarded as those of halberds are by no means common. and with three large rivet-holes in the base. Arch. but the exact locality is not known. pi." vol. and has a small rib running down the thickened centre of the blade. vii. In the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh are several of these halberdlike blades. however. from 10 to 13£ It was found with two flat celts. It is provided with four rivets. vol. 414 vol. . 7. It would. Joum. 4th S. found in Zealand. 396. p. inches by^3 inches.. indebted to the Council for the use of this cut.

and was the western countries of Europe. expanded part are the usual three rivets. vi. * Arch.* Suffolk. pi. xlv. Fig. which was brought from The mace to which these dentated rings were attached is thought Italy. 271 I have already mentioned the halberd blades from Scandinavia and North Germany. to lend support to those who maintain that there was some connection between the Iberians and the early inhabitants of Ireland. — there is another form of the mace — many will they have been classed among the antiquities of that period. each about 1 inch in The discovery of a weapon of this type in Spain seems length. 341. 340. The curious similarity of some of the Portuguese forms of flint arrow. Fig.MACES. . p. " Others from Lanarkto have been a kind of morning star Society. 181. but the cuts show the more common forms. vol. vol.— Great Bedwin. It is about 8| inches long. and more found near Ciudad Real. PROBABLY MEDIJEVAL. f Skelton's Meyrick. the blade In this suddenly expanding from 2 inches in width to 5. Journ. £ Fig.. and have seen but one example from any of This is from Spain. These weapons vary considerably in size and weight.— Ireland. In the Meyrick f Collection is one precisely similar. That shown in Fig.and javelin-heads to those of Ireland is also worthy of notice. 339 is in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian and is stated to have been found at Lidgate. T-shaped at the base than any British specimen. " or flail. i.— Lidgate. J Besides the battle-axe or halberd of which it hand-to-hand for though I do not for a moment a few words will be well to say believe that the bronze mace-heads so frequently found in this and other European countries belong to the Bronze Age. yet by weapon for encounters . 339.

and now proceed to the consideration of the leaf-shaped bronze swords. X Arch. Journ. xxv. p. xviii. which are far more closely allied to the arms described in Chapter X.|||| in North Zealand. Journ. varying in length from 2 to 5 inches. vol. vii. xvii. M. from various parts of Germany and Italy. Lisch J J || has also engraved some specimens. Ant. 14. §§ Proc. vol. ETC [CHAP.. longitudinal ribs instead of spikes. shire * are of similar character. vi. p. Soc. than to the objects which have been discussed in the present chapter. at Ely.. Assoc. 2nd S. vol.. Assoc. I have specimens of this kind from Hungary.. Another of the same class. and one (4| inches) with five rows of five I have another from the Seine at Paris (4f inches) with six spikes. p.. Some of these are decorated with spirals in relief. one (4f inches) with three rows of four spikes. " Catal. vol. If A. Taf. One from Tipperary ** (4 inches) is of the same kind. 302. I must apologise to the reader for this digression. h. p. I. || Illl . R. Annalon for Nord. ubi sup. vol.. Heft viii. is in the Museum J of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. u.. Arch. iii. An instrument of this kind. Another form is provided with a socket. 60. p.272 TANGED AND SOCKETED DAGGERS. and is evidently intended for mounting on a straight staff. Mus." Taf. XX "Freder. 160." p. from Hungary. 2. 249.. § and at Stroud. Oldkynd. -111. Taf. I am indebted to the Council for this cut. 12. * Arch. i. Such a discovery seems to me conclusive as to the date to be assigned to this class of weapons. and is now in the British Museum. Soc.f Wilts. \). vol. with a longer socket... 493. There are three such in the Museum of the Academy. some more or less similar to each of^the three figures I have given. Professor Daniel Wilson refers these to the time of the Roman occupation.' 341. Francisc. XT. Vorzeit. I have three heavy rings with four long and eight short spikes each. was found with numerous mediaeval relics in the ruins of S6borg. with eight lateral spikes and a long iron spike coming out from the end. Fisher. 1. Lindenschmit ff has figured seven examples. Journ. 1851. § Arch. fig. v. t Arch. An Irish example from Wilde ^[ is shown in Fig. Ant. Gloucestershire. 111. p. vol. That shown in Fig. ft "Alt. v. Others have been found in London. Journ. 13." vol. ** Proc. and two are in the collection of Mr. i. In the British Museum §§ are some foreign specimens decorated with patterns of a decidedly mediaeval character. 361. 340 was found in a well at Great Bedwin. Journ.

and in both cases there may. of Scot.. p. Calloway. A "sarcophagus with ashes" is said to have been in the cairn. 49. viz. or the connection of the sword with the have been apparent rather than real. and another which lay beside a human skeleton in a cist under Carlochan Cairn. long ago as Canon Greenwell has sn^ested. 44. 394. Aberdeenshire. Neither the one nor the other belong to the earliest period * when bronze first came into general use for weapons and tools. Stirlingshire. iii. But one of these discoveries took place so as 177C. " Preh. Barrows. 67. perhaps the most remarkable both for elegance of form and for the skill displayed in their casting are the leaf-shaped swords." p. of which a considerable number have come down to our times. % t Op. is said to * Conf. p. said to have been found in a cairn at Ballagan. of which many are gracefully proportioned. The only other forms that can vie Avith them in these respects are the spear-heads. is in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. in 1788. " British Greenwell." vol. Scot. It is true that Professor Daniel Wilson + speaks of the frequent discovery of broken swords with sepulchral deposits. and mentions one found alongside of a cinerary urn in a tumulus at Memsie. while the coring of their sockets for the reception of the shafts would do credit to the most skilful Among modern founder. vol.§ Strathblane. portion of a A sword 6^ inches long. ancient weapons of bronze. Another sword.. p. either have been some mistake Oct * as to the manner interment may of finding. App. broken in four pieces. Ann. i. Arch.. that there is no well-authenticated instance t of their occurrence with anv interments in barrows. Carmichael. There is also this remarkable circumstance attaching to the bronze swords.. LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS. § cit. the flat celts and knife-daggers characteristic of that period being as a rule absent from the hoards in which fragments of swords and spear-heads are present. T .CHAPTER XII.

Journ. there is no mention of a barrow. S..Scot. Ant. || . N. is far from satisfactory. xv. but. with a great number of human bones. p. Soc. Ethn. Scot. Ant. was the most ardent advocate of this latter view. " On the True Assignation of thn P>ronz(> Weapons. as already stated in the Introductory Chapter. to mind.. 60. serious dispute has arisen whether the swords themselves are not Roman. bronze swords have not unfrequently and inasmuch as the been found with interments in barrows owners of the bronze swords in Britain were. Proc.. Assoc. but no pottery or other In this case. Trans. the whole weight of the argument is in favour of a pre-Roman origin for these swords in my There was no doubt a time when Western and Northern Europe. 230. bronze swords were in use in Greece and Italy. found at is said to have lain fourteen feet Wetlieringsett. 17. deep in clay. If It seems almost needless for me here to enter further II into this controversy. after death." &c. F.* Another. remains. vol. p. § IT t A. vol. C. to indicate the graves of the bronze swords. ii. as already mentioned in the Introductory Chapter. 7. Trims. has been ably advocated by the late Mr. have been found in a barrow in Breconshire. however. v. Suffolk. p.A. p. Possibly at the time when the swords were in use the practice of erecting mounds over graves had ceased. that the swords belong to a Bronze Age before the use of that metal was superseded by that of iron. 2nd Ed. p. N. f In Scandinavia. p. J. and there are now no . and who have thus " " narrow cells from the hands of escaped disturbance in their external marks upon the ground Avarriors who wielded the or possibly the custom of archaeologists with the dead may at that time have ceased. The Celt. burying weapons But not only has there been a question. and Sir John Lubbock.. Lv. iii. in which. The sword is elsewhere said to have been found in a sandpit. 105. The late Mr. either in a burnt or unburnt condition. Roach Smith. Times. vol.. 176. in all probability interred. "Preh." 4th Ed. A. there appears no reason why in some instances their swords may not have been buried with them. § The contrary view. so far as we can judge from the early iron swords found in the ancient cemetery at Hallstatt and 1 \ TO'. Lond. vol. [CHAP. 80.S.S. though as yet the evidence of these weapons having been found in tumuli. Henry Rhind. however. Roman and Saxon. as to what was the method . and he has been to some extent supported by Mr. and the substitution of iron or steel for bronze. 72. Ethn..274 LEAF-SHAPED SWOKDS. Soc. A. "Catal. treasure-seekers and of interment in vogue among the owners of the bronze swords. Thomas Wright* or at all events of Roman date... Soc. et seqq. XII." p. Arch. p.

33. Lentulus. far as the point. which was better adapted for thrusting than for Even here in Britain. invasion took place. in the case of charcoal iron. cap.* which will cut through an iron nail without their edge being injured. leave the remaining portion more of the nature of steel. 3. of Inventions. During the Second Punic War. as C'eltiberians "Diodorus Siculusf particularly mentions the process by which the prepared their iron for the purpose of manufacturing swords so tempered that neither shield. by the time when the Roman striking." How far their process of burying iron underground unti) a part of it had rusted away would. Indeed. is said to be prepared in a similar manner from iron long buried underground. Macrobius§ expressly says that it was a sword that Lentulus was wearing when Cicero made long the inquiry. ]>ls. ii. Perhaps the amount of manipulation in charcoal necessary to restore the rusted plates to a serviceable condition may have produced this effect of converting the iron into mild steel. straight almost as but slightly tapering. Most of the bronze sw ords are shorter than those of the present day. but the Roman sword would. T 2 . v. xv. Rhind has pointed they were formed. 275 elsewhere.THE ROMAN SWORD. § t lib. B. but the form of what is known as the Late-Celtic* sword was no longer leaf-shaped. with the edges nearly Among the Romans it the material would seem that more than one change was made hi the form of their swords after the introduction of iron as As Mr. in the time of Julius. nor bone could resist them." vol. 225. helmet. or "sine mucrono. for Tacitus speaks of them as Inive 'ingentes" and "enormes. been longer than ours. p. which immediately succeeded the from which battle of Telamon. "History xiv.C. however small in person he may have been. not only were swords made of iron in use." They were also bluntly pointed. ii. appear to T in-law. the material of which Romans adopted the Spanish sword. and xviii. as made not only to " thrust but to give a falling stroke with singular effect.. c.. however. Otherwise Cicero's joke about his sonwould have but little point." the we have no difficulty in definitely ascertaining. Who has tied my son-in-law to a sword ? The swords in use among the Britons at a somewhat later period appear to have been of great size. I am unable to say. The steel of the sabres made in Japan.." Such a description is entirely inconsistent with . "Saturn. 328. * See "Horse Ferales." X Beckman. Polybius speaks of the swords wielded by the soldiers of yEmilius at the battle of Telamon. out. involved little if any alteration in the form anil character of the weapon." lib.

Times. which are 3 feet in length." Lubbock. Times. [CHAP. was intended to rest between the fourth and the little finger. that our bronze weapons cannot be referred to Roman times. and its inhabitants were thus for the first time brought in contact with Roman weapons. The handles are always very small. own hand is none of My the smallest. of Denmark. XII. + I must confess that I regard this view of the smallness of the hilts as being somewhat exaggerated. Sir John Lubbock* has already spoken and he has also summarized the reasons which convince him. and not to be beyond it as a In the case of some of the short dagger-like weapons it guard. p. "Preh." p. I will only repeat one of the arguments. though it might well refer to some of the iron blades of the Late-Celtic Period. of which perhaps not .276 LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS. iron had been so long in use for swords in Italy that the term for the weapon was " ferrum. t " t Worsaae's Trim." p. "Preh. . and thus to assist in its being grasped firmly when in use as a stabbing weapon. The part of the hilt where it expands to embrace the base of the blade was. probably intended to be within the grasp of the hand. as they do me." Another feature in bronze swords. Others are. is the comparatively small " size of the hilt. 32. which. I think. as we shall subsequently see. it is hard to realise what was the exact form of the we must not assume * hilt but it is quite evident that that because the bare bronze does not fill the . countries never occupied by the Romans. seems possible that the projecting rim. Ant." t "The handles of the bronze swords are very short and could not have been held comfortably by hands as large as ours a characteristic much relied on by those who attribute sufficient use Caesar — the introduction of bronze into Europe to a people of Asiatic origin. which has been frequently commented on by archaeological writers. once covered the hilt portion of the sword. 29. and yet where the bronze hilts of the Danish and Hungarian swords have been preserved I have no difficulty in finding room to clasp them. It is that at the time when Julius was invading Britain. however. shorter. has been made. a fact which tends to prove that the men who used these swords were but of moderate stature. When the plates of horn or wood. Of the comparative rarity of bronze swords in Italy. the form and size of our bronze swords. have perished. which forms a kind of pommel at the end of the hilt. 22. and of their abundance in Scandinavia and Ireland.

Brist. Professor Rolleston* has well said. moreover. if drawn on the scale of one-fourth. and short sword blades . skeletons the there can be no doubt that in this country the Bronze Period belonged to much larger and stronger and taller did the skeletons of the Long Barrow In some parts of England stone-using folk who preceded them. though not universally. So closely is this kind of proportion preserved. such as the saws and chisels of the present day. This relative proportion between the length and size of a blade and its handle is by no means restricted to the swords of the Bronze Period. which also possibly projected beyond the sides. There is. while the orifice in the handle of a small keyhole-saw will not admit more than a couple of fingers. Arch. question which will be more safely determined on osteological than but. the contrast in this matter of size between the men of the Bronze men than and those of the Stone Age is as great the Maori and the O gentle Hindoo. a proportion between the length of the blade and the length of the hilt-plate long sword blades having as a rule long hilt-plates. we should soon find ourselves in difficulties. owing to the remarkable absence of archaeological evidence bronze swords from the interments in our barrows. time before a sword and the bones of the hand that wielded it are found in juxtaposition. the same was the case when it had a plate of some other material on each face. The handle of an ordinary hand-saw is sufficiently hand of any one short of a giant. one peculiarity about the hilt-plates of these swords which I have often pointed out by word of mouth. it may be some . there is generally. If. but It is that which I think has not as yet been noticed in print. short hilt-plates. "I am not quite clear that tli is bronze sword.HILTS PROPORTION* AL TO BLADES. Soc." as that now existing between * Trans. This fact suffices to incul- cate caution in arguing from the hilt-plates of the bronze swords It is a as to the size of the hands of those who used them. for instance. and the handles of saws of intermediate large to admit the size range between these two extremes. that the outline of a large sword on the scale of one-sixth would in some cases almost absolutely correspond with that of one which was two-thirds of its length. 277 hand so as to give it a good grip. leaf-shaped or other. but prevails also among various tools. and Glouc. we were to argue from the saw-handles in a carpenter's shop as to the size of the hands of the carpenters. . has always a very small hilt." "At any of rate.

and the bones of the hands were proportional to those of the bodies but. though many of the interments were of the Bronze Age. there being apparently no transverse guard. and is now in my own collection. the object being probably to save the hand of the warrior from being cut should the sword be drawn 1 . riveted on each side of the In rare instances the outer part of the hilt-plate. as the covering material was attached. but they are occasionally as long as 30 inches. bone. usually consisted of plates of horn. Their total length is generally about 24 inches. I have another sword. The blades are in most cases uniformly rounded. The hilt-plate expands into a kind of fish-tail termination. or wood. Its length is 25£ inches. though sometimes not more than 16 inches. XII. of which the hilt was made. or other material. which was probably enclosed in a pommel-like end formed by the plates of horn. though at the top of the hilt it is 2f inches in breadth. and the blade is 2 £ inches broad in its broadest part. and in derably the number and arrangement of the rivets by which latter. but with the part next the edge slightly drawn down so as to form a shallow fluting. to them I shall subsequently The sword shown in Fig 342 was found about the year 1864 in the Thames. about 21 inches in length. . Just above this point the edge of the blade has been removed so as to form two broad notches. In some instances. will This subsequently be seen. The hilt has been attached by rivets or pins passing through three longitudinal slots. however. which was found in the year 1851 near the circular encampment . They differ consiin the form of the plate for the hilt. no bronze swords accompanied them.278 LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS stature of several of the [('HAP. The usual form of sword to which the term " leafshaped" has been applied is that shown in Fig. examined by Canon Greenwell. which have been produced in the casting. The men interred in the Yorkshire barrows. unfortunately. there is a more or less bold rounded central rib. hilt was of bronze. and not subsequently drilled or made. or even more. near Battersea Bridge. or else projecting ridges running along the greater part of the blade near the edges. was not less than five feet nine inches. Of the scabbards of such swords and the chapes attached speak. back in his hand. 342.

in which the long slot in the hilt-plate is combined with ten small rivet-holes. but in a (28.V inches) from the Thames. vol. v. was found at Washswords ingborough. found in broken condition. and N.. iii. 5. (23J inches). p. 230. found with a leaf-shaped spear-head near Weymouth. was of this type. Xt Arch. 23. p. II. vol. The type occurs also in France. 9. The central ridge on the blade is well pronounced. is in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. xv. 3. spearheads. IV. Arch.. p. 348. Assoc. — p. near the Pierre du Villain. This blade is figured in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries* Another sword (22 inches) of the same character.. § Dorset. Another was found near Argenteuil.. a sickle. pi. iii. xxiv. 23. from Aldreth.f Lincolnshire. Another. on the south-eastern border of Buckingham's^ The hilt-plate is of the same character as that of shire. 56.** near Cambridge. N. 70. F. as will be seen by Fig. sword (24 inches) with two rivets was found between Woodlands and Gussage St. pi.ff Seine et Oise. xi. 1. ft A'"'. . \ Somerset. Journ.inches) from Barrow. The central slot is sometimes accompanied by two or more A rivet-holes in the projectiug wings of the hilt-plate. p. 279 at Ilawridffe. 215. $ Arch. and the upper ones Fig. is a remarkably fine sword (27A. Another. || IT ** Op. found vrere found near the same spot. I have seen a bronze sword from Spain. socketed celts. Proc. also with the three slots..WITH CENTRAL SLOTS IN HILT. from Albert. hut the lower slot is longer In the latter were found the bronze rivets for shorter. vol. 342.^ there five rivet-holes in the centre of the plate in lieu of the and four in each of the wings thirteen in all. 343. Jonrn. near Vauxhall. and other objects. has a long rectangular slot and four rivets. || One (24^ inches) from the Thames.S. has the central slot nearly rectangular. x xii.^ at Battersea. vol. p.. Arch. Cambs. pi. pi. * 1st S. iii. on a small scale fastening on the hilt. Alderney . pi. I have an example. Suffolk. 263 vol. Two other leaf-shaped Another (24 inches). near Amiens. Barrow. xiv. '. Soc. I have one (18f inches). near Midsummer Norton.. In the collection of Canon Greenwell. vol. 220. on Fulbourn Common.E. i\-. xix.. with fragments of others. | Somerset Arch.. 60. ii. The number sword are slot. vol. Assoc. •"). Journ.S. with a slot and four rivets. of rivets is here larger than usual . In another (23i inches) from the same locality there are eleven. vol. cit. Op. p. 328. with three pointed oval slots for the rivets. One of two (24 inches). p. Assoc. Michael. and now in the Bateman Collection. The blunted part of the blade near the hilt is engraved or milled diagonally. (it. with a spear-head and two ferrules. pi.. iv. originally 26 inches long. broken. vol. vol. . xv. was found. t Arch.

but with ten rivet-holes.. In the British Museum is another remarkably fine sword from the Thames. p. The lower part of the hilt has been united to the blade by a subsequent process of burning on. vol. Sussex (29|. from Battle. In the British Museum is another sword (27-f inches) of much the same form at the hilt.. op.inches). as will shortly be mentioned.f near London. In the Rouen This prolongation of the hilt-plate is not singular. was found in the Thames* in 1856. The blade is drawn down towards the edges. xiv. three spear-heads. in the Bateman Collection. Worcester. of which four are in the centre. iii.. Assoc. 343. and also with || A preserved. with plain blade and thirteen rivetholes. have the rivets arranged in the same manner. has ten rivets. Ant. 2. t p. has eleven rivets. which is somewhat hollowed on either side of it. More commonly the rivet-holes are fewer in number. The hilt-plate has the central slot and four rivet-holes. Keller. ornamented in a similar manner. Soc. The blade is 24^ inches long and from If inch to 2f inches wide. which is prolonged beyond the fishtail-bke expansion in the form of a flat tang. 2nd S. has five small rivets still in situ. One (24£ inches) in Canon Greenwell's Collection. thus raising the presumption that it was covered by some kind of pommel. and is left quite rough. ii. and is in the British Museum. which expands from 1 J inch plate and four in each wing. from Broadway Tower. XII. and one from Ebberston. 2nd S. The same exists in a Swiss Lake J sword. three in the hilt-plate. has nine rivet-holes. Broadway. Arch. vol. 1 inch by f inch. One from the Thames at Battersea § (2G inches). three in each wing and four in the central plate. It has no less than fifteen rivet-holes for the hilt. xxii. but with a slot in the hilt-plate and three rivet-holes in each wing.. sword from the Roach Smith Collection (20f inches) has a wellmarked midrib to the blade. Northumberland. p.. in which two rivets remain. ix. vol." pi. in three groups of five each. The lower end shows where the runner was broken off after it was cast. 329. Another sword from the Thames (23 inches) has five holes in the hiltThe blade. is 31 J inches long and If inch wide at the broadest part. * See f X § || l'roc. Journ. at Upnor Reach. p. Soc. 429. Arch. Museum is a sword with thirteen rivets which exhibits this peculiarity. Another (28£ inches) with ten rivet-holes. v. vol. three in the tang and three in each wing. as has one which was found near Whittingham. four in the hilt-plate and three in each wing. . and is not uncommon in swords A found in Italy. It was found in the Lea. cit. with another sword subsequently to be described. 91. Five rivets are still sword from the Medway. 161. p. Proc. One (27 inches) from the Thames. in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries. is ornamented with a single engraved line skirting the edge. Taf. near the hilt to 2£ inches at two-thirds of its length. One from the Thames (28 1 inches). vol.. Ant.. 8ter Bericht. p. which is in form much like that of Fig. "Horas For. 1. xix. three in each wing and five in the centre. Jour». 60 . Another. Yorkshire. 244.280 LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS [CHAP.

but in this grailed. I have one (19 inches) with eight rivet-holes. 344. 344 is shown a fine example of a sword with seven rivet-holes. with raised ridges parallel to the edges. xxxiii. A The seems to have been burnt on. Specimens of each. was found in the Medway at Chatham Reach.R.S.WITH MANY RIVET-HOLES. from the department of " Seine et Oise. The hilt has been fastened by seven rivets. has been broken into three pieces. It was found in the Thames. but with a plain blade and only five small rivet-holes. In Fig. both with a central slot combined with rivets and with rivets only. both 21. and has a semicircular notch at the base. and is now in the same collection. In some the as if a punch had been used as a riveting tool. sword of the same form (23J inches). is of nearly the same form as Fig. in the British Museum. Some French swords present the same at St. See Fig. '_31. four in the The centre and two in each wing. and there is no midrib running down it.\ indies long. 344. and has a bead or rib just within the edges. Arch. so as to leave a small stud projecting in the middle of each surrounded by a deep hollow ring. like that of the sword case transversely. Nazaire-sur-Loire A peculiarity. which is beautifully patinated. Two * with seven rivet-holes were found (Loire Inferieure). has retained five of its pins.. On either side of the central ridge of the blade there is a pair of engraved lines parallel to the edges and at about J inch distant from them." One with a slot and four rivets is in the 281 museum at Nantes. Their ends have conical depressions in them. which fit tightly in the holes and are nearly all in position.—Newcastle. A second (24J inches). are by no means uncommon. has a rounded end to the hilt-plate and holes for six very small pins or rivets at the base and for one large one. but the end of the hilt-plate has no notch. near Newcastle. The hilt-plate is provided with slight flanges for retaining the horn or wood that formed the hilt. vol. possibly for the reception of a rivet. i . It is 28 inches in length. sword of this form (2o^ inches). and now in the collection of Canon Greenwell. The base of the blade next the expansion for the hilt has been neatly serrated or enfrom Barrow. rivets have been closed by a hollow punch. found in the Tyne. a more usual number for the rivet-holes than any of these higher numbers. 356. sword from the Thames near Battersea (28 f inches). Unfortunately this blade. indeed. p. French swords of this class. The hilt-plate has been much hammered. F. but the hilt A * Rev. holes appear to have been either made or enlarged by a punch having been driven through them. the rough burr being left on. almost identical in every respect. are figured in the Dictionnaire Archeologique de la Gaule. There are two swords in the Norwich Museum. which is somewhat exaggerated in the figure. Seven is. found near Cambridge. each of them with seven rivet-holes.

Suffolk. of which kind a good example is shown in Fig. sword with six rivet-holes (23 inches) was found near Cranbourne. Arch. 67. pi. .. Armour.]: at Icklingham. in the Thames. other (23J inches). a hole in which has been stopped with a rivet. had its rivets arranged as in Fig. found near Thornhill.** near Gray's Thurrock. Assoc.. 2nd S. p. Journ. One of them appears to have been a defective casting. which has in old times had a new hilt-plate cast on the original blade in this manner. ** Proc. §§ Another variety of the sword has a strong central rounded rib along the blade. xix. F. vol. Killina. iii. vol..'" Cambridge. " + § Bury and Wist Huff. 9. p. one found at Woolpit. Other swords with seven rivet-holes arranged as in Fig. xxiii. The blade is somewhat fluted between the central Anridge and has smaller ridges running parallel to the edges. pi.. Salop. vol.|||| Suffolk. "A. which were found with spear-heads. The rivet-holes are two in the middle and two in each Dorset. for which I am indebted to the Earl of Enniskillen. V. p. Robert Fitch. §§ Lindenschmit. and is said to have had remains of a wooden hilt and scabbard attached Human bones are also reported to have been found to it when found.. the hilt broken off. t^ "Horse Fer. 344. xxiii. § || Suffolk.." vol.! is of the same character. iii. This has been subsequently supplied by a second hilt-plate having been cast over the broken end of the original plate. xlvii.. 162. I have Lincoln. Staffordshire. h. |J near the mouth of the Wandle. It is now in the British Museum. 406. was found with a bronze spear-head. || 7. 229. xi. Soc. Taf. with engraved lines on the hilt.A. A leaf-shaped sword. a halberd. p. 230. Fisher. p. pi. XII. i. found in Glamorganshire. 254.S. xix. A wing. vol. p. p.. This is not an unique instance of mending by burning on additional metal. but with four rivets and a slot. %\ Arch.^f Another of the same length was dug up at Stifford. Ant. 219. 2. . pi.inches long. 191.. It is 25£ inches long." vol. p. Mr. vol. Arch. xv. has a sword of the samo character (25 inches). Another like this was found in the bed of the Lark. and has only two rivet-holes besides the central square-ended slot. Another (20^ inches) was found in the Severn jf at Euildwas. and the other at Windsor.. 344 has been found in Rhenish Hesse. 344 have been found near Alton Castle. II Arch. * " Skclton's Mcyrick's Anc. 1'roc. The original is in the collection of Mr. 431. They are unfortunately broken. I have a small leaf-shaped sword (17« inches). near it. iii. 480.282 LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS [CHAP. who lias kindly It was found at ~Wetheringsett." pi. aud at Billinghay. No. which has been partly covered over by the metal of the second casting. Journ. t Arch. xxvi. Heft iii. iii. One of the swords found at Fulbourn. 5. Assoc. lent it to me for engraving. 5. xv. ix. 4. but the blade still 22-i." pi. and other objects at Stoke Ferry.. Journ. a palstave. Reliquary. Arch. i. of Ely. p. ix. Co. vol.. Journ. and a long pin. Arch. Illl Arch. u. two swords (about 23 inches) with seven rivet-holes. iv. A sword with the hilt-plate like that of Fig. p. Norfolk. xliii. found in the Fens near Ely. p. Essex. Cavan. p. iii. Journ. vol. BG. p. and to have wanted a portion of its hilt-plate. 14. 345. A fragment of what appears to have been a sword of the same character.. 24. vol.

WITH CENTRAL RIB ON BLADE. 3G3. of Gr. Italy. by 3| inches. xvi. Another fragment.shaped sword with a along the centre of the blade. as is also one found under Beachy Head. near Amiens.C. but with two rivet-holes instead of the central slot. specimen of this coin is in the British Museum.. The type from the Seine little way from the point. p. v t Arch. Journ. already mentioned may 6 1 inches is an Italian oblong bronze coin or quincussis.. Ital.f It has two rivet-holes in each wing. and weighing about 3 J lbs. xli.. vol. the sides of the curved. the inner pair meeting also occurs in France. I have a specimen with the hilt and lower part almost identical with Fig. These pieces were no doubt cast in Umbria. probably in the third century B. descript. + and bears A upon the reverse the figure of a scabbard with Another parallel sides. Coins in Brit.. Mas." pi. but the blade does not expand in the same manner. p. Yot. 345. 349. and not drilled.. vol. the inference may be drawn either that * Arch. < p. at Paris. latal. and a nearly circular chape. 846. upon the weapon has the appearance of a Roman sword of iron. fact. Essex. 283 and gold armlets. Fig. lumps of copper. and on the other that of a leaf-shaped sword ade being is parallel. From the two varieties of sword appearing on coins of the same type. engraved by Carelli. the outer continued to nearly the end of the blade. Assoc. With this fragment were found palstaves. but the sword on the obverse scabbard or 1)1 is is not at either represented as being in its all leaf-shaped.§ has a nearly similar scabbard on the reverse. and the one coin. I have fragments of a sword of similar character from the hoard found at on the rib some Dreuil. I have a fragment of a blade of this kind in the Reach Fen hoard. is in the British Museum. The In hilt is also there a cross-guard. The fragment from Beachy Head possibly be of Gaulish origin. was found with socketed celts and spear-heads at Biltong' Yorkshire. 345. of bronze. | § "Numm.—Wei ingM tt II v- v . from Ghrishall. and three considerably larger in the centre. and has two lines engraved on each side of the central rib. and in On raised rib general character much like Fig. the representation of a leaf. They appear to be cast. 28. coin of the same type. but their attribution to Ariminum is at best doubtful. socketed celts..

Ant. 327. v. It was found in the Thames at Kingston. found in the Thames about a mile west from Barking Creek. No. 230. from rivet-holes thus arranged. one on each It was found at Sandside of the hilt-plate. 91.f near Kingston (16£ inches) with the I have another. xxxiv. or that the type originally being superseded by those of iron referred to some sacred weapon of bronze such as is represented on the coin in the British Museum. vol. || \6m blade.. p. 301. iv.284 at the time LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS. p. a pair on each side of the continuation of the central rib along the hilt-plate. which. copied from the Archceological AssoThis sword was found at Tiverciation Journal* ton. f Arch. bronze swords were in Umbria . Leaf-shaped swords of the ordinary type also occasionally had their hilts attached in the same manner. Another apparently of this type was found in Lincolnshire. xix. when they were cast. In the British Museum is a blade of the same kind (19f inches).. Fig. Ant. p. 846. % which has had four rivet-holes arranged in the same manner. 44. the Hugo Collection (18 inches). p. however. Fig. as will be seen by Fig.. Journ. it will be well to give references to * Vol. vol.. i. near Oxford.. together with a rapier-shaped ford. i. 347 shows a blade from the A A Thames. 83. iii. Soc. p. has only two rivet-holes. was found in the Thames at Greenwich. I Kingston. The sword with a central rib was sometimes attached to the hilt in a different manner from any of the blades hitherto described.^ Before proceeding to the consideration of the swords with more perfect hilts and pommels found in England. 14. though the margins are now broken away. 847. Another from the Thames (21 inches) has the two upper holes perfect. p. 334. vol. t § If Fig. and it is provided with four rivets. Soc. Anth. but was subsequently made more conventional so as to represent the sword in ordinary use at the period. p. vol.. vol. vol. . Arch. Inst. 2nd S. holes in the median line. [chap. Human remains and stag's-horns are said to have been found near it.. Journ. Journ. XII. near Bath. A blade of this kind. Journ. Proc. which is in Mr.. Arch. so that only traces of the holes remain. 147 . Layton's Collection. § In Canon Greenwell's Collection is a leaf-shaped blade of the same character (15f inches). iii. Another variety has a narrower tang and rivet Tiverton. 346. with semicircular notches for the four rivets. p. and is engraved in the Archceological Journal. Proc. 2nd || S. vol.

Westmoreland. xv.. "It. which was also accompanied by two rings. These rings may in some manner have served to attach the . vol. were found. 243.** and also at St. with a celt and about one hundred and fifty fragments of spear-heads. Cur.. § Stukeley. spear-heads. Camb. x.. and lumps of metal. p. J J in company with forty-one socketed celts and sixteen spear-heacls and two broad swords. and in the sea-dike bank between Fleet and G-edney.. vol. 353. Tyne. 3. Fragments of three swords were found. ferrules. Xtt . if If re h. p.|| Yorkshire. vol.^ Northamptonshire. 3rd S. 90. p. some fragments of human bones. Jourtl. which consisted principally of spear-heads and ferrules. one with the chape of the scabbard. p. Joitrti.^ Cardiganshire. p. Some fragments of swords. xxvi. in that county. Hilary.. were found at Ebberston. Ant.H. There were also some fragments in the Broadward find. iv. p. 14. and a socketed celt were found Ambleside. Jourtt. p.. ** IT Arch. p. They appear to have had six rivets. Durham. in 1824. 214. and were found with two rings near Tosson. Journ.tff Montgomeryshire. || || . ]>. t Arch. A fragment of a sword was found. Another. 482 (said to have had a hone or wooden hilt when found). v. p. 321.V inches) Arch. %\ 4rch. xxi. xxvi.. looped palstaves. vol. at Lanant. and other relics were discovered Near them are said to have been at Shenstone. celts.. Two swords. wii.. Several have been found in the Thames * besides those already mentioned. §§ about 1741. one sharp-pointed sword. xvii. Arch.. 91. ^f^f Shropshire. a chape. Assoc. with spear-heads." vol. Two were found at Ewart Park. of which more hereafter. JEliana. vol. ff Shropshire. vol.§ Lincolnshire. Arch. p.. i. and a ferrule. 3rd S. a '' " in a bundle at together spear-point. in company with numerous bronze and bone instruments and a gold armlet and penannular hollow bead. ft Arch.. 118. 221. 11. with a bronze sheath-end. some spear-heads. || A |||| . vol. vol. and other objects. Assoc. 285 some of the other instances of leaf-shaped swords found in this country and in AVales.56. vol. ttt Proc. North Wales. p. No less than twenty are reported to have been discovered about the year 1726 near Alnwick Castle. 158 (24. p. Most of these objects are now in the collection of Canon Greenwell. Two.. vol. one of which is in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on. Soc. i. §§ Arch. Arch. xviii.. Jbttrtl. vol. near Ghiilsfield. Occasionally a considerable number of swords are said to have been found together. x. 250. Cornwall. Camb.. pi. p. Northumberland. celts. 2nd S. 548. 464. vol. p. J Arch. Journ.. 3. 4th S.^} near Wooler. Two swords and a fragment of a third were found in the Heathery Burn Cave.LOCALITIES WHERE FOUND.. ii. 115. * Arch. v. parish of Rothbury. Others have been discovered in the Isle of Portland f at Brixworth. Camb.. Arch. Assoc. vol. be. Some swords are reported to have been found in a marsh on the Wrekin Tenement. vol. Arch. at Glancych. p. p.. vol. Arch. vol.. with lance-heads. Northumberland. F. ii.S. p. Three swords were found at Branton. iii. were found near Medomsley. Engravings of some leaf-shaped swords are said to exist on a rock between Barmouth*** and Dolgellau.R. Most of the swords found in Wales appear to be in a fragmentary condition. and are now in the Alnwick Museum where are also two which had pommels of lead. regarded as being of copper. swords to a belt. vol. about the year 1802.. xxi. *** Arch. Staffordshire. 113.

or both. Fisher. with the hilts. 4 inches the that into would i a large hand. but Id I inches long. selected for illustration has the side edges so straight that it hardly belongs to the class usually known as i 11 is leaf-shaped. They of so fit are upin hilt wards length. Fig. which Avas found in the Fens. the hilt which.286 LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS [cHAr. near Ely. It was found in the River A . In was lent me for some Danish examples the high flanges of the hiltplates are covered by thin of gold. or horn did plates not project. of Ely. The hilt-plate peculiar in having well- developed side flanges which expand at the base so as to form an oval The hilt has as pommel. English swords. are not of common occurrence. 318. small but very interesting sword with a perfect bronze hilt and pommel is shown in Fig. XII. 849. Fig. wood. usual been formed of two plates of bone or wood. M. or pommels. and no doubt in this instance also the side flanges were left visible and not in any way covered. which have been secured to the hilt-plate by six rivets. This sword. its engraving (as Fig. formed of The first which I have bronze. 349. has unfortuis still nately lost It point. of bono. beyond of course. 348) by Mr.— Ely.— River Cherwell.

Son. Ant. which is cast in a separate piece and attached to the wings by two rivets. retaining a portion of the hilt. . near Wicken.S. are attached the one to the other.. Arch. ix. It has three raised bands on the hilt.. "Alb." pi. veil. Cantal.•WITH HILTS OF BRONZE.. Cambs. Rev.* and is now in the Museum at Oxford. though found so far north as Lincoln. ornamented on each side with five parallel engraved lines. f The hilt has had ribs round it at intervals of about half an inch apart.. The original is in the museum of the Duke of Northumberland. vol. 204. 3." pi. and other objects now in the British Museum. 350. The blade appears to be engraved with parallel lines on either side of the midrib. for the use of which I am indebted to the Council of the Society of Antiquaries. Lincoln. xiv. Diet. The hilt has the appearance of having been cast upon the blade.r Far. the whole taking the place of the pommel.. remarkably fine sword. X Proc. is not improbably of foreign origin. ]». In the British Museum is a sword blade with slight ribs inside the edges.§ common Kg. but no pin between the spirals. 3. Anthrop. pi. It was found in the Fen. It is said to have been found in the Thames. 287 lent It was kindly Cherwell. Several such have been found in France. at Alnwick. castings I am of opinion that the same process of attaching the hilt to the blade by casting the one upon the other was in use in Scandinavia and Germany. Inst. and this sword.. xxiv. p. || t § " Hor. bis. me by Professor Rolleston for the purpose of engraving. vol. 162. dt la Gaule. is shown in Fig. p. 350.^ below Lincoln. Hi. !>. One with the spirals but a different form of hilt was found at Alios. found in the Eiver Witham. 880.. xxv. the upper margin of the hilt is marked out by a raised and engrailed line of the same form as the upper end of the hilt of Fig. but now in at Kennes. N. has a nearly similar hilt and pommel. L99. It presents the peculiarity of having two spirals attached to the base of the hilt with a projecting pin between them. Chantre. and seems to be formed of bronze of the same There are no rivets visible by which the two character. A bronze museum * Journ. the sword found in the Rhone at Lyons.|| Brittany. On a fragment of a sword blade. Some of the swords from the Swiss Lake-dwellings have similar hilts."> already fixed. Arch. ii. of which is for a decidedly large . in 1826. with a part of a scabbard end. occupy about adapted inches. The which the pommel and hilt. spear-heads. Some of the bronze daggers from Italy seem also to have had their hilts cast upon the blades in which the rivets were total length of the weapon is 21 inches. hand. These spirals are of far more 1 A occurrence on the Continent than in Britain.

352. Ant. ** "Atlas for Nord. 136. * Taf. 2. a spear-head with lunate openings in the blade (Fig... 4 . 351— WhitJ Fig. p..." pi.^: Another was found near Stettin. pi.. 35 . The pommel end of the hilt is in this instance a distinct casting.|| Magdeburg..." pi. Desor and Favre. B. Oscar Montelius on forms of hilts of bronze swords and daggers is published in the Stockholm volume of the Congress for the different Prehistoric Archseology. U "Bull. iii." pi." figs. Northumberland. The same form was also found at Hallstatt." anno ii.. .. 11. 135. v. and is very remarkable on account of the two curved horns ex418). " Horse ..f f The spirals are sometimes found detached. xxiv. A perfect example is in the Royal Armoury at Turing There are several swords with this kind of hilt in the Museum of Northern Anti** some of which cpiities at Copenhagen. Brechin. With it was found another sword already mentioned. Fig. vi. v. 882. "Habit. fiir Ethn. " Grabf. Hallst.. iii. XII. 7tcr B. pi. Lacust.* in the Lake of Neuchatel. 9. ++ P. Soc. Taf. "Nord. di Palet. . v. 2nd S. Keller. are figured by Madsen. ix. ii. iv." vol. Olds. heads. p.. § Another from Erxleben. x. ii. "Zeitsch. 40—42 Worsaae. vii. Oldk. v. tingham.§§ in the parish of Whittingham. ix.. 161. Br. and in the Lac de Luissel. shown in Fig. 7ter Bericht. and is in the collection of Lord Eavensworth. The hilt of a sword with spirals and a central pin was found in the great Bologna hoard." vol. t Keller.288 LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS [CHAP. | Yon Sacken. 10.JJ The remarkable sword with a somewhat analogous termination to the hilt. was found at Thrunton Farm. 3. V. 351." pi. p. J §§ Proc. || 1. fig. § Lindenschmit. Ital. They have been found at Concise. v. "A. A highly interesting paper by Dr. " Le Bel Age dn 10. h. Taf." Heft i.. and arranged in a circle. Styria. Taf. Taf. 429 Fer. ft " Afbild. is in the Brunswick Museum. Troyon. u. and some smaller leaf-shaped spearThey are said to have been all found sticking in a moss with the points downwards. 26.t Another of the same kind is in the Johanneum at Gratz. vol." 3ter Bericht.

ii. p. Caithness (25 inches). xvii. In peat. and is now in the collection of Canon Greenwell. the hilts of which are said to have been formed of wood.f near Edinburgh. || PI. Journ. 2. Armour. and ' ' || part of the blade is prolonged part of the way down the hilt-plate as in Another sword. Fig. I. Aberdeenshire. A bronze scabbard tip. each with six rivet-holes in the wings and two or three in the hilt... ft Ayr and Wigton Coll. Ixi. vi. p. found in Duddingston Loch. •• P. atlochdar. Wilson's "Preh. but show seven rivets in one and three in the other. Soc. 210. fig. Assoc. on Arthur's Seat. vol. bear. vol. Grose has also engraved two. Gordon makes no doiibt that these swords are Roman. Edinburgh.^[ Latheron. F." vol. such as will subsequently he described. 252 U . t * t Op. 118. Argyleshire. ^o'. as well as the hilt-plate of another. JJ South Uist. Another was found in Wigtonshire.FOUND IN SCOTLAND. i. 102. p. pi. Brechin.ft In the Antiquarian Museum are specimens from the following counties Aherdeen.! two other swords were found during the construction of the Queen's Drive. Ant. Mas ''Treatise on Anc. 352. have been found in Lanarkshire. as is also one (26 inches) found in Graham's Dyke near Carinn.. vol. 289 tending from it. Scot. { Arch. now in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh.. Fife.* has the same peculiar end to the hilt-plate. with a projecting cone in the centre of each. 11. Almost directly ahove Duddingston Loch. 33. Two (23$ inches and 20J inches) of the usual character. 1.. Angus. but still 26J inches long. find from Brechin is mentioned further on. A. sword with four rivet-holes. Ayr. Proc. Ant. pi. Scot.plate. with two spear-heads and a pin. 52.S. 344. with one rivet-hole in each wing and two in the centre of the hilt-plate. and engraved by Grose. p. as has one with five rivets from Methlick. 10. They are 26 J inches and 24 £ inches long. 3. which is said to be in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh." pi. Argyle. Some fragments of swords from this loch are in the Antiquarian A A : Stirling. was found on the same farm. A leather sheath is also reported to have been present. § In Gordon's Itinerarium Septentrionale" a sword (24i inches) found near Irvine. Ixi. broken at the hilt. Its length is 26^ inches. p. 2. . li. 342. 354. like those from Arthur's Seat. 352 was found in a moss at Leuchland. a?. Other specimens have been found at Forse. p. as Id Scotland a number of bronze swords have been found which might have been anticipated. The figures do not seem accurate. which are somewhat trumpet-mouthed. H Vroc. near the Point of Sleat. with nine rivets and hilts much like Fig. and the six rivets for attaching the hilt are still in the hilt-plate. Soc. is engraved. 3. found near Peebles. Ann. A rib from the thicker in Museum at Edinburgh. Forfar. with slots in the wings and a slot and rivet-hole in the tang. S. were found two swords like Hail from Arthur's Seat.E. in outline like Fig. iii. S. found on the borders between England and Scotland. Kincardine. vol... xx. That shown in Fig.. a close resemblance to those from England. ii. p. which is doubly hooked at the end. 14.** Isle of Skye (22£ inches).

* Forfarshire and in CorsbieMoss. of bronze. vol. ii. Soc. Another sword. . who has de- " been cast in scribed this find. xliv. thirteen or fourteen more. p. a scabbard. t Proc. That shown in Fig." pi. with four bronze swords (about 24 inches) and a large spear-head. || . 5^ inches. iii. Some of these British Museum by remaining. and ring. \ Vol. A sword with a large pommel (24 inches). but so much corroded as to fall in pieces on removal. been added to the hilt-plate by a subThe pomsequent process of casting. Soc. with large circular flat heads. including a round hollow pommel. at Tarves. 321. the handle. Journ. 203. was found in Skye. xiii. 161. vol. the blade 22 inches long. their swords with pommels to have been found in Scotland. This also may have been of leather stained by the metal..J Aberdeen1 . it is said. and is in " Pennant's It shows engraved Tour. Joseph Anderson. vol. 334. is now in the Antiquarian Museum at The hilt appears to have Edinburgh. Two others which have been examined . were presented to the the Earl of Aberdeen. 353. Scot. and a It kind of annular button. Mr. other of the swords (241 inches) has the hilt-plate pierced for six rivets. mel has been cast over a core of clay.290 i I AF-SHAPED SWOB DS [chat. % "Horse Fer. was found. Scot. near Brechin.f Legerwood. 4. a scabbard end. xiii. p. Proc. a bronze sword and spear-head were found. p. 353. found. 121. together with two other sword blades (one 25 inches with slots). with.. Ant. Anwhich it still retains within it. the former having. Ant. a pin. so that the hilt was probably formed as usual of horn or wood and not of bronze. points out that this hilt must have a matrix modelled from a sword which had the grip made up of * Proc. 181. pp. Arrh.. i. Soc. closely resembling Fig. it is said. Ant. arc imperfect. — Edinburgh. Berwick. pi.. There is a recess on the hilt-plate for the reception of the horn or bone of the hilt."§ four rivet-holes arranged like those in the sword from Arthur's Seat. p. 224. XII. vol.big. ix. apparently of metal. p. 353 was found in liilts II A few other Edinburgh. and two bronze pins.. which was fastened by three rivets still shire.

" p. would leave holes such as these. and in the wings at the base of the blade. and are slightly fluted along the edges. Co. and vary The blades are in length from about eighteen to thirty inches.. either perfect or fragmentary. usually rounded on the faces. The nine rivet-holes seem to have been cast and not drilled. produce blow-holes in the metal in casting. In a fragment of a haps with the view of steadying the hilt. of which nearly or — quite a hundred. into which studs of wood. though they may have been slightly counter-sunk various. 4o4. a socketed dagger. already mentioned. A common type of Irish sword is shown in Fig. In general appearance they closely resemble the swords from the sister countries. and thinks that they may have been caused by wooden pins used to hold the clay core in position. I. doubtful as to the accuracy of this theory. and in fact. bone. ranging The hilt-plate is slightly fluted. t Op. V 2 . are preserved in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy.FOUMD IX [RELAND. have been clay projections from the inner core which however. per subsequently to the casting. as such pins would. Anderson's paper. The form bevelling known. the reader is referred thirty to Mr. to forty bronze swords in Scotland. from such a sword their ends covered by a hollow pommel" He also observes that the as that from Tarves. is sometimes bounded by a raised ridge. in 1870. in which occasionally there is a deep V-shaped The most common termination notch. The number of rivet-holes Fig. or several smaller notches.'" whose Catalogue may consult with advantage. with a rounded rib along the middle of the blade is almost unThere is considerable variation in the form of the end of the hilt-plate. cit. sword found with spear-heads. is that like a fish-tail as seen in 3 5 4. R. holes in the hilt are not rivet-holes. They have been found in most parts of the kingdom. is slots t in the hilt-plate There are occasionally from four to eleven. I think. I am rather for the handle as well as the pommel is hollow. have been treated of at some length by the the reader late Sir William Wilde. or horn might afterwards be inserted by way of ornament and to For details of the finding of from add firmness to the grip. and a fragment * "Catal. Mus. 354 from a specimen found at Newtown Limavady. The bronze leaf-shaped swords from Ireland. Deny.. p. A. 291 two convex plates attached on either side of the handle plate. or have a faintly marked median This fluting or ridge. One wing of the fish-tail termination is wanting and has been restored in the sketch. 439. There may.

354.— Ireland.— Newtown Limavady. Fig. { 355— Ireland. :So6. 1 Fig. Enniskillen. \ . hammer on Bo Island. there are five deep flutings Fig.— Ireland. 357. i Fig. XIT.292 of a LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS [CHAP.

183. inappropriate to a metal of the character In the British Museum is a sword of this type with nine rivet-holes 25J inches).** Cote d'Or.. iii. F. found in a bog at Cullen. Some of the bronze swords found in Ireland attracted the attention of Governor Pownall described two antiquaries upwards of a century ago.S. Another with seven rivets was found in a dolmen at Miers. iii. Peine. 2. One found holes. Germain. in which there are four rivet- two on each side. There were several swords. Arch. the English examples already mentioned. f Diet. now in the Museum at Le Puy. ii. Rev. \ De " Essai sur les Bonstetten. Arch. 23. In the small Irish blade of much the same type (Fig. N. pi. 356 (26£ inches).. VallanceyJ has also figured one (22 inches) with eight rivets. pi. on each side of the 293 As is the case with some of hilt-plate.* Co. 352. Robert Day. Dolm." 1865. ** Rev. They had a rivet-hole in each" wing and two or three in the hilt-plate. Fig. found near Aghadoe. Haute Loire. {J two swords have been found in Ireland still retaining the of bone which formed their hilts. though a depression on each face marks the spot where the hole was intended to be. with a central rib extending down the hilt-plate. however. A bronze || at Alise Ste. From among those in the Museum of the Poyal Irish Academy I have selected two for engraving. 356. X Vol. Heft %X Lindenschmit.eArchceologia. i." vol. § Lot. Haute Loire. xiii. h. Alb. Another with six rivets from the Department of Jura is in the museum at St. The term four rivet-holes in Sir ' " welding of bronze. . has six small rivets. 50. N. has its hilt-plate like that of Fig. 162. tt Von Sacken. Fig. 1. p. plates By the kindness of Mr. p. p." pi. xiii. in the great Dowris hoard. and in Germany. sword from Polignac. Tipperary. xix. xvi. this hilt-plate has been One of the joined to the blade by some process of burning on.\ They are 26^ inches and 27 inches long. pi. vol. 7. I am able to reproduce full-sized figures of least * At "Horae Ferales. 355) there are only three rivet-holes. 6. William Wilde has noticed that several of the leaf-shaped swords under his charge had been broken and subsequently "welded" both by fusion and by the addition of a collar of the metal which encircles the extremities of the fragments. Kerry. pi. ii. iv. 355. t Vol. iii. ix. but has only four rivets. vii. Fig. pi. v. The type also occurred at Hallstatt. The first.. p. has four rivets only. Another from near Besanqon. a fourth having from some cause been filled up with the metal. " A. de la GauU. || D... is a short blade about 19£ inches long.FOUND IN IRELAND AND FRANCE. The second.A. iv.. which have been cast in the blade. vol.S." 1. 357.S. has had its hilt attached by a number of very small pins instead of rivets of the usual size. and one of them is of the same form as the Scotch sword. mostly broken.^ Doubs. Taf. Tuf. Arch.. 2. which are engraved in th. " Chantre. is. V. it has been partially closed by the operation. v.

350. —Muckno. which have already appeared in the Journal of the Royal . mm i Fig. XII. \ 359. 858.294 LEAF-SHAPEU SWORDS [CHAP. both sides of one of the most perfect specimens. as Figs.— Muckno. 358 and Tig.

" vol. i.— Muckno.—Mullylagan. shown on a small 3rd 8. Lisletrin 65 p.'>G0. 2nd S 72. Fig.—Mullylagau '. 23. . scale in Fig vol. 861. Historical 295 and Archaeological Association of Ireland* The sword Fig-.WITH HILTS OF BONK. vi. p. vol. was found in x.. itself.. 360. f 162. " Reliquary. . p.

to the Council for the use of the cuts. &. [CHAP.SHAPED SWORDS. In this instance the bone projects beyond the sides 362. 363. of Monaghan. midrib running along the blade.. 50. 363. p. Fig. The whole In this bog about twenty bronze 3 ozs. 322.5. 365.. Co. fig. which were cast with the blade. Denmark. § Arch. 257. which is preof the hilt-plate. in each of which was laid a thin bit of fine copper. I am indebted Royal Hist. 364." p. t with six rivets. XII. A.§ Tipperary. p. is shown in 361. As the whole fragment is only 44/ inches long.. lb.. weighing upwards of 12 dwts. vol. " vol. 15. and not of a * Jour. of Ireland.." 1871. p. Knight Young. found near Kallundborg. a blade which Wilde ** considers to be that of a is decorated with raised lines and circles in relief.* Co. Assoc. 3 dwts. It will be observed that at the wings of the hilt-plate the bone projects somewhat beyond the The same peculiarity may be observed in the bone hilt metal. which has some- what the appearance of having been carved at the end next the It is shown full-size in blade into a pair of rude volutes. Monaghan. p. 1 1 grs. it may have formed part of a socketed knife or some other instrument. for Nord. Aarbbger % H lb. Armagh. t Op. had a plate of at the end gold on one side which covered the hilt was a small object like a pommel of a sword. A. p. A portion of it is shown in Fig. ii. and probably cetacean. || ** "Catal. 4th S. 4th S. . besides about forty pieces of hiltplates in which the rivets stood. so that they resembled four II . of a sword found at Mullylagan. was a thin piece of gold Another sword. with four channels cut in it. I. with 'land.296 LEAF. on a small scale. It Bog. weighed swords were found at intervals. I have not seen the specimen. cit. Scandinavia. R. iii. In one swordU there was a recess near the blade." A fragment of sword. The sword itself.. to As is the case with several of the bronze swords discovered in some of those found in Ireland seem have been decorated with gold upon their hilts. Arch. figures of 1. i. Mub. Oldk. On one of the rivets of a sword found in a bog near Cullen. found near the same place in 1751. A bronze sword had the hilt served in the collection of Mr. Muckno. with a thick The plates of bone which are attached have been pronounced by Professor Owen to be mammalian.. vol. three links of a chain hanging from it. still is 24^ inches long. in which was "a piece of pewter which just fitted it. here by permission reproduced. 446.. iX^-X^ inch. Fig. p.* formed of wood.

Tav. De Ferry. tang." lere ptie. f. xxx. In others central slot or line of rivets. with gold. in each side of which are two semicircular notches for the In some Italian and French swords the blade is drawn out rivets. 2. l'Epee de Rorzano. " || Aarbog. and many have a slender tang at the hilt. pp. inlaid along the middle of the blade between two slightly projecting ribs. xxxix. . sometimes with two rivet-holes forming loops at the side of the tang. Several with ornamented hilts have already been pointed out. xv. so that its edges present a ogival curve. sword. One has a hemihave been figured by Chantref and others. viii." 1878. with a France. horn or wood. iv.. seq. so as to form a broad shoulder * Arch. The bronze swords of Italy § present several varieties not found in Britain. somewhat II A fragment of a very remarkable Greek sword from Thera has a series of small broad-edged axes of gold. passim. Oldk. sometimes with one rivetIn some the blade narrows somewhat for the hole in its centre. pi. pi. like those of the swords from the South of In some instances the hilt-plate has side flanges. The bronze swords from the Swiss Lake-dwellings + have fre- quently bronze hilts. was in the hoard found Kent. bis.' " " § See Gastaldi. 303. Iconografia. some hilts cast in bronze there is a recess for receiving a piece of The blades have frequently delicate raised ribs. with a series of ring ornaments at engraved on the blade.. and rivets in the wings. 282.* Haynes Hill. : Alb. 281. Sepolchreto Preromano. to a long tapering point. The double-edged bronze swords found by Dr. Tav. p. . I Keller. t "AgeduBr. Schliemann^f at Mycenae are tanged and often provided with pommels made of The hilts and scabbards are in some cases decorated alabaster. The blades are usually long and narrow. There is considerable general resemblance between the bronze swords found in the British Islands and those of the continental The similarities with those from France countries of Europe. vol. in shape like conventional battle-axes.. " Macon pivh." 1876. The sides of the blades are more nearly parallel.. Journ. spherical pommel and a varied design on the hilt. though some widen considerably at the hilt-end.. Nord. f "Mycense und Tiryns. Pellegrini. In the broad tang forming the hilt has two or three rivet-holes.. iii. running along them.CONTINENTAL TYPES. &e. p. 105^ pi. sometimes six on each face. Gozzadini. i. 297 A part of a spear-head." " Mors de Cheval et 1878." 1879." 1869.

and much like that of Fig. Voss. and its sides are more parallel than in mine from Kantara. 500. Iii. " Nord. und A. Oldk." ii.. [CHAP. xv. is in the museum at Berlin. preh. The blade. Mus. P. except that it has no hook to an octagonal bar.. Montelius§ and Mr. "Cong. In my own collection. in Macedonia. and are generally ornamented below. with a tang and two rivet-holes at the base of the blade.. The total length of the sword pieces which clasped the tang. On a very large proportion the hilt formed of bronze (or of some more perishable The material alternating with bronze plates) has been preserved. the tang.. " || Cong. but more uniform in width. 360. p. t Lisch. Worsaae. Some of the swords found in Sweden and Denmark have been as of foreig'n regarded by Dr. however. LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS." Tab. It has an engraved line down each side of the blade. already mentioned. 114 Francisc. pommels are usually formed of oval or rhomboidal plates with a central boss.inch square. closely resembles mine from Egypt.. does not belong to the valley of the Rhine.298 to the tang. and have the edges straighter than those from the United Kingdom. vol. t "Atlas for Nord. The hilt must have been formed of two are two rivet-holes. probably down to a point.. 238. like Fig. i.. . Bronze swords have but rarely been found in Egypt. preh. * Bastian to 137. presumably from Lower Egypt." figs. At the base of the blade for suspending the sword at the belt. p. iv. is about f inch in diameter. zn Berlin. 56. xiv." Buda Pest vol. Some blades have a simple tang. deB K. . I have from the point to the top never seen another similar example.* reported to have been found at Pella." Stockholm p. 6 the construction of the Suez Canal. which has been drawn and then turned back to form a hook. " Fredi i r. The bronze swords found . in the Berlin There appear to be doubts whether the beautiful bronze sword Museum. but a bronze sword blade.." 1878. The hilt is broken off. Olds. is one which was found at Great Kantara during long. Instead of having a hilt-plate it is drawn down This again expands into to a small tang about ~.. 348. of the hook is 22-| inches. in Denmark f and Northern Germany + have often side flanges to the hilt-plate. about 17 inches leaf-shaped. "Die Bronze Schwerter pi. XII. occasionbut the blades are generally more uniform ally plated with gold in width. Swords appear to have heen much rarer on the pre- sumed site of Troy. A German sword from the Magdeburg district. Worsaae || origin.

eight rivet-holes has been In Germany f the bronze swords present types which more Denmark than those of the nearly resemble those of France and A Those with a flanged hilt-plate are found. Franks.. ii. Britain have been described an exhaustive paper in the Archceologia." |s7s. 251. v. h.n Berlin. pommel is wanting. as well as in Italy. . now in possibly ivory. Vorz. and in the spaces between them a In this instance a threefold wavy line punched in or engraved. on the blade of which are two small raised beads on either side of the central rib. both in Northern and Southern Germany. and having three bronze rivets still in it. in the Berlin Museum. In a spheroidal pommel. A magnificent iron sword from Hallstatt. j . I have a broken iron sword from this cemeteiy with the hilt-plate perfect. Voas. and provided with In others the rivets exactly like those of the bronze swords. however. has British Isles. u. Hallst." vol. " Die Bronze Schwcrter des K. v. tang has passed through the hilt. p. but a large disc-like proportion are provided with bronze hilts. 345. The by . bronze swords from the same In one instance the hilt in another the bronze pommel alone the hilt-plate of iron being flat. "Cong. as on some of the French some Iron swords of the same general character as those of bronze have been found in the ancient cemeterv at Hallstatt and elseThose from Hallstatt + are identical in character with the where. xlv.S. pieces of horn or wood. in in A. These hilts conceal the form and one from spirals at the end of the hilt. usually with of the tangs. Taf. Mus. . v. Several iron swords have been found in * France with tl. inlaid with amber." Taf. W. in .Mr.EARLY IRON SWORDS. of the bronze hilts there are recesses for the reception of and Swiss swords... " Grabf + Von hilt- f See Bastian und A. Heft i. "Alt. 299 bronze sword from Finland with a flanged hilt-plate and * figured..R. late Celtic iron swords found F. p. The blade has a central rounded rib along it like Fig. that was formed of alternate blocks of bronze and of some substance that has now perished. Sacken. I have a beautiful bronze sword from the same locality.§ in which also the reader will find many interesting particulars of analogous swords found in continental countries. and pommel of an iron sword are . Brandenburg. 449. Lindenschmit." Copenhagen vol. but with a small bead on either side. Vol. has the hilt and pommel formed of ivory locality.. as already mentioned. Austria and Hungary.. Others have long and narrow tangs. the Vienna Museum. preh. and the holes for two others at the pommel end. Some few have pommels.

Magny Lambert. . however. vol. He adduces. also. N. but the varieties in their may ribs types testify to a lengthened use before they began to be superseded by those of iron. Ain There can be but little doubt that M. and at Gedinne. and elsewhere in the department of Cote d'Or.. p. XII. I must.. is right in assigning the French examples to the fourth or fifth century B.300 LEAF-SHAPED SWORDS.S. How far back in time the use of bronze swords in Gaul have extended it is difficult to say. pure and simple. and fabricated from the metal then recently introduced into the West. Arch.. describe the sheaths by which these * Rev. the remarkable fragment of an iron sword with a bronze hilt found in the Lac de Bienne. plates bronze swords. now blades were protected. of those in bronze. exactly of the same character as those of the Nine have been discovered in tumuli at Cosne. as an additional proof that these early iron swords are the reproductions. in Others have been found at Cormoz. xxvi. Alexandre Bertrand * Belgium. 321. [CHAP. which is in exact imitation of a bronze sword with on the blade. and in regarding them as direct descendants from rivets .C. and the bronze swords of ordinary type.

which... 3. ii." vol.. as at first sight might be inferred from their size. " X Madsen. h. Vor/. however. to daggers. 135. belonged to swords. 10S Linden" A. Age du Br. Lindensehmit. Ribe. vii. u. This scabbard is longer In fact. which are usually from 8 to 12 inches long. p.CHAPTER XIII SCABBARDS AND CHAPES. u. . cit.+ VamIt drup. 1. In France some much longer bronze sheaths have been found The most noteworthy is that from with the swords still in them. . t Chantre. Heft i." pi. p. now in the Musee d'Artillerie. Hoft i.* Gard." lere ptie. at a portion of a sword blade has been discovered within a surrounding sheath of bronze . Taf. Denmark. by some inches than the blade it contains. op. is decorated with transverse beaded lines alter- nating with ornaments of concentric rings. at Paris. Another sheath found at Cormoz (Ain)t is in the museum at Lyons. iii. and not.. yet in many instances some portion and to the of the scabbard and its fittings was made of bronze the sheaths which described in .. . viii. does not extend the full length of the blade. Chnnhv. was found with a body in a tree-coffin * "Horae '' Ferales. ii." vol. pi." vol. In a few instances the wooden sheaths of bronze swords have been found entire. V. protected the daggers and swords the preceding chapters consisted probably for the most part of wood or leather. schmit. Afb. the upper part of the scabbard having least This discovery proves that the probably been formed of wood. Taf. in no instance does the point of the sword appear to have reached so far as the end of the sheath.. " Alt. h. The finest is that from the Kongshoi. have been found in company with the blades but in one instance . ii. 7. Although description of these objects it seems desirable to devote a separate It is rarely that the metallic portions of the sheaths chapter. which the neighbourhood of Uze's.. short bronze sheaths.

and are made of Fig. Ant. Layton.. No doubt many of the British sheaths were made inner. were tipped with bronze. 251. vol. 2nd S. Franks t has pointed out. pi. 437. || * " Madsen. i sheet bronze. Journ.. &c. and. and is in the collection of Mr. A scabbard end of much the same form (13£ inches) It was found with fifteen others. 364. || 3. near Guilsfield. some is shown in Fig. t "Horae Ferales. vol. [chap. Camh. 301. 259. thus giving an opportunity of securing the metal end to the wooden or leather scabbard at a place where the blade woidd not interfere with the passage of a pin or rivet.. p. with the scabbard end still in position. v. probably extends at least 6 inches beyond the end of the sword. In Fig. x. ii. vol... This scabbard end lias a central rib T. 214. 159. whence this cut is taken. 404.S. nut. or the leather. m part of the bronze receptacle available for a blade even The discovery an ordinary dagger. the presence of this rivet-hole would have been sufficient to show that these objects are not dagger sheaths. This sheath is about a fifth longer than the blade of the sword. fig.. v. Franks. 3rd S. It has been lined with skin. iii. vol. Another. vol. F. There is no metal mounting at either Another scabbard found in the Treenhoi* is likewise of wood. for the rivet leaves too small a through the metal. SCARHATins AND CHAPES.. op. broken. and not cast in a single piece. if that material was used. by a small rivet which passed diagonally As Mr." p.302 of oak. Its chape also is formed of some hard wood. as some have thought. p. cit. spear-heads. which was found in the Thames near Isleworth.. together with looped palstaves. Montgom. though partly made of that material. Soc. of wood alone. though more highly decorated on what must have been the outer face. p. as will be seen from the figure. It has a small rivet-hole somewhat straighter about half-way along it. by permission of Mr. Others." vol. xxxiv. 365. the metal being secured to the wood. Coll. See also Arch. the hair towards the blade of the sword. x.§ Montgomeryshire.^: and two other slight ribs along each margin in order to give it strength. than on the end. 364 is shown a portion of a sword blade. 2nd S. § Proc. Isleworth. p.A.. p. already The bronze sheaths of the iron swords and daggers' as long as that of of the Late Celtic Period are of a different character from those I am about to describe. Soc. and is carved on both faces. mentioned places this question beyond doubt. This sheath is about an eighth longer than the blade of the sword. . p.. Arch. Arch. Journ. Ant. X Proc.

365. X Proc. but merely a projecting ridgo. rivet. Smith." pi. p. 118.— River Isis. 366. 10 to 14.l inches) was in the collection of Mr. chester. Arch. J Fig. iii. Ant.* is shown in Fig. ix." vol. . 367. 201.. from the Thames atTeddington (10 inches). has a small end plate secured by a central rivet.. which has a very slightly projecting midrib. This straight form of scabbard end has been very rarely found in Ireland. p. of the same A Fig. also from the Thames (7f inches). imperfect. edges. the end plate has been cast with the sheath. third. % In another. 366. and C.—Ireland. p. 118 t Arch. 298. vol. iii. has a hole for a diagonal rivet. vol. with ribs along ment the middle and. \ Fig. xxvii. . In some there is no rib down the middle. xii. found with a bronze buckler in the River Isis near DorIt is now in the British Museum. Ant. diagonal * Proc. The only specimen mentioned by Wilde is by permission here reproduced as Fig. This has traces of either leather or wood inside. and retains a fragof wood inside. Journ. There is a small rivet-hole passing transversely through it. vol. R. Another (o. 72. Ant. Several f other sheath ends of the same kind are preserved in the same collection.— Guilsfield.ENDS OF SWORD-SHEATHS. and in others no rivet-holes are visible. One. from the Thames at Chelsea. "Coll. Soc. \ character (lOf inches). p. Oxon. of Enniskillen. No. as does also another from the Thames at London. Soc.. iii. p. Wakeman. See " Horse Ferales. 303 (12£ inches). 367. near Dorchester.. and there is a wooden lining secured by a The opening is nearly flat..

Arch. Ed. 368.. 203. long. 24. J Fig. 221. \ together with broken swords. Somme.. though rarely. It was found at Grogar Burn. 370. xnr. scabbard end of [chap. Aberdeenshire. X Arch. 369. whence the figure is copied. t Proc. The straight form of scabbard end has been discovered. Inst. A Scotch specimen from the farm of Ythsie. gouges. Stogursey. A fragment of another. near Grlancych. Arch..* with palstaves. \ Fxg. together with a sword and a Fig." p. 181 . more like Fig. has been found near Compiegne (Oise). \ penannular brooch of bronze and a small penannular ornament of gold. Somerset. Scabbard ends occur also in Scotland. a7u. 3rd S. 365. at Cauldhame. . spear-heads. p. Soc. vol.—Pant-y-maen. Soc. f They are now in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh.— Stogursey. 369. near Edinburgh. at Wick Park. near Brechin. Forfarshire. Another scabbard tip in the same museum is rather shorter. but shorter and broader. is engraved in the Dictionnaire Archeologique de la Gaule.. socketed celts. Tarves. Cumh. Ant.. xiii. A still shorter form is shown in Fig.304 SCABBARDS AXD CHAPES. A much the same general character as that from It was found Guilsfield. and fragments of swords. in Northern France. The scabbard is by permission of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland here shown as Fig. for one nearly similar to these last (5f inches) was found with four leaf-shaped swords and a large spearhead.. * Proc. p. Ant. vol. vol. Cardiganshire. as well as some small rings. i.— Brechin. and is 5| inches in the British Museum. the original of which was found at Pant-y-maen. is shown in Fig. " Catal. v. spear-heads. p. together with jets from castings and rough metal. p.. vol. and ferrules. Somerset. One from Caix. x. 2nd S. Mus. Jowrn. is It is like that from Brechin. 427. all of bronze. Scot. 368.

. like Fig. 503.heads. Mus. .CHAPES FROM ENGLAND AND IRELAND. however. • English form. Exp. 373." 1878. Co. A Fig. 461. I believe.— Stoke Ferry. produced apparently by means of punches. at Stoke Ferry.. which is.— Reach Fen. shows a chape found at Cloonmore. 373. Journ. near Templemore. Kent. de la Sav. fig. 371 formed part chape." p. It has. 372. This nail is shown above the chape in the figure. but more like Fig. has occasionally been found. which comprised also some fragments of swords. kindly lent by the Royal Irish Academy. and one more nearly approaching the modern That shown as Fig. and some other objects. Fig. was found at Haines Hill. p. Cambridgeshire. Fig. on the face. Fig. Tipperary. It is of especial interest.. A. * Arch. 354. instead of being. •305 still more simple form. t and in the Swiss Lake-dwellings. pi. "Catal. It is ornamented with a neat fluting. 372. + (i An t Wilde. with several broken swords and spear. 336. 280. of the hoard found in Reach Fen. xxx. I.jThis form seems to be of very rare occurrence in Ireland. been found in Savoy. near Hythe. as usual. —Cloonmore. as yet unique. The rivet-holes are at the sides. as the small bronze nail which served to fasten it to the wooden scabbard was found with it. xii. 372 in form. Arch. R. Norfolk. vol. } Another chape of the same kind. is shown in Fig It was found. 356. 371.* with a perforated disc of bronze.

and A. Co. of that town. XIII. Assoc. The of the socket is much greater objection to this view is that the breadth than usual with these chapes. As Sir W. the indentations at the top mark the overlapping of the wooden portion of the scabbard. Syer Cumingf has remarked. 374. Journ. and the raised rib round the semi-circular notch is delicately engrailed or "milled.* in tbe barony of Iverk. and not for that of a hilt. which was found in the neighbourhood of Mildenhall. Such projections * Journ.ioo. Suffolk. Simeon Fenton. and is in the collection of Mr. Fig. that while the point of the blade is as sharp as a needle. but this can only be determined by future discoveries. described it seems possible that it formed part of a sheath. % A. Another Irish form is shown in Fig. as to which Mr. which was fastened to the bronze by two slender rivets. 186. Fig. 375 shows an English scabbard tip of the same class. R. 286 maybe intended for the end of a scabbard. and is in the Eoyal Irish Academy. vol. 4th S." There is a single minute hole for a pin or rivet on one face only. " Catal. as those . this English example closely resembles that from Ireland shown in the previous figure.306 SCABBARDS AND CHAPES. vol. appear to be inconvenient H. Kilkenny. As. 374. iv. of Ireland. 375—Mildenhall. The surface of this chape is beautifully finished. . Ireland. p. in the Shannon. The zig-zag and other ornamentation upon it is described as having been engraved with a fine point after the object was cast. Mus. 322. t Arch. the original of which was found at Keelogue Ford. found near Piltown. It is rectangular in section and expanding at the base which But from its analogy with some of the scabbard ends lately is closed. The form is not unlike that of the end of the scabbard of some modern African leaf-shaped swords of iron.. In this instance the chape has assumed a kind of boat dike form with pointed ends. has been regarded as the haft of a dagger.— Keelogiie Ford. As will be seen. Wilde| has observed.. xvi'i. curious socketed object in bronze. li." p. It is possible that A Fig. so that the ends projected about an inch on each side. though differing in details. to whom I am indebted for permission to engrave it. The lower face is not ornamented. the base of its receptacle measures nearly 3 inches across. the object engraved asFig. [chap.. p. on the chapes of this form would but in another variety the projecting I. 461.



ends shoot out into regular spikes, the ends of which are tipped by a small button. In some cases the length from point to point is not less than 8 inches. There are several in the museum of
Sir W. Wilde considered that the Royal Irish Academy. sword was suspended high up on the thigh and not allowed bronze to trail on the ground, so that these projections would be less in the way of the wearer than might at first sight appear. The lengthening of these points may have been the result of a kind of prehistoric dandyism, analogous to that which led to the


lengthening of the points of boots and shoes in England at the beginning of the fifteenth century.* Specimens of these still exist in

which the points extend G inches beyond the




has been

Fig. 376.— Thames.


asserted that they had to be chained to the knees of the wearers to give them a chance of walking with freedom.

Though chiefly found in Ireland, this elongated form of soabbard has Fig. 376 represents a specimen occasionally been discovered in England. from the Thames, now preserved in the British Museum.
Another example, but slightly more curved, was found with a bronze sword at Ebberston, Yorkshire, and is in the Bateman Collection. f It has been figured. The rivets for attaching it to the wooden scabbard are still
in position.

This type of scabbard end has also been found in France. In the of Bourges is an example about 5£ inches long, much like Fig. 376. but rather more V-shaped. Another, more like the figure, was found with a bronze sword, near MarsanneJ (Drome), and a third in the tumulus of Baresia § (Jura). Another was found at the end of an iron sword in a tumulus at Mons (Auvergne).



* Fairholt's "



England," p. 382.
p. 321, pi. 30, fig. 2. Rev. Arch., N.S., vol. ptie. p. 136.

t Arch. 4.880C. Jonm., vol. xvii. " t Chantre, Ago du Br.," lero § Dirt. Arch, de la (iitule.

xxxix. p. 306.

"Materiaux," vol. xiii. p. 64. Soc. Ant. de Franco, 1873, p. 56.

" Mater.,"

See also a paper by M. Alex. Bcrtrand, in the Bull. vol. xv" p. 162.

x 2





It is to be observed tbat the ends of some of the knife sheaths of the * Early Iron Period expand in somewhat the same manner, so as to assume an anchor-like appearance. A bronze bonterolle or scabbard tip of a very peculiar type, the sides

being elongated and flattened out so as to form two sickle-shaped wings curving upwards, was exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries in 1867 f as having been found in Britain. A figure of it was to have appeared in the Archceologia, but has not yet been published. Perhaps there was room to doubt its English origin. Certainly the description, with the exception of the sickle-shaped wings curving upwards, agrees with a form of which several examples have been found in Germany and in France. Some of these are sharp at the end bke a socketed celt, with two expanding sickle-Uke wings, but their purpose as chapes has not always been recognised. One from Hallstatt is described by Von Sacken § as a cutting tool to be attached to a thin shaft. There are two in the Museum at Prague, found at Korno and Brasy. One from Oberwald-behrungen is in the Museum at "YVurzburg. Another is at Hanover. The fact that traces of wooden sheaths to daggers have been found in the Wiltshire and other barrows has already been mentioned, but no

Fig. 377.— Isle of Harty.


There are, however, some fittings have been found with them. objects which may have served either as the mouth-pieces of sheaths for daggers or small knives, or as ferrules for their hilts. One of these from the Harty hoard is shown full size in Fig. 377. Another of identically the same character, but rather shorter, was found, with a bronze knife or dagger and numerous other articles, at Marden, Kent. It was regarded by Mr. Beale Poste as the mounting of the top of a dagger sheath formed of leather. Another was found with various other relics near Abergele, ^[ Denbighbronze


Some elongated loops formed of jet are of a shape that would have served for the mouth-pieces of sword scabbards, but whether so fragile a substance was used for such a purpose may well be questioned. They may have been merely ornamental. One about 3 inches long, found in Scotland,** has been regarded as a clasp for a belt. Possibly these objects in bronze may, after all, be of the nature of slides or clasps. Another loop, more rounded at the ends, found in the peat at Newbury, \\
De Bonstetten, "Rec. d'Ant. Suisses," Supp., pi. xxi. 1 Von Sacken, "Grabf. v. Hallstatt," Taf. vi. 11. ev Arch., N.S., vol. xxxix. p. 305. t Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 518. % von Hallstatt," p. 155, pi. xix. fi»;. 10. § "Das Grabfeld Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xiv. p. 257, pi. xiii. 6 Wilson, " Preh. Ann.," vol. i. p. 441,






fig. 82.


Scot., vol.

tt Arch.
p. 521.

i. Arch., vol. p. 393. Assoc. Journ., vol. xvi. p. 323, pi. xxvi. 5


xliii. p.

556, pi. xxxvii. 3. Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iv.



Berks, has been described as a slider for securing some portion of the dress, or for passing over a belt. Not improbably this is their true interSome other slides are described at p. 404. pretation. Some bronze objects of nearly similar form, but about 3 inches in length, found with late Celtic remains, have been regarded as the cross* of or knives.

guards daggers In my own collection


a fine bronze sword from

Denmark with broad

side flanges to the hilt plate, on the blade of which is a bronze loop about £ inch wide, rebated for the reception of wood, but without any rivetEach face presents four parallel headings. For some time, in holes. common with some Danish antiquaries, I regarded this loop as the mouthpiece of a scabbard, for which it appears well adapted but I now find that such a view is erroneous, and that this loop is the ferrule for receiving the ends of the plates of wood or horn which formed the hilt. For in


the barrow of Lydshoi,| near Blidstrup, Frederiksborg, was a bronze sword with a similar ferrule upon it, and the remains of the plates of horn beneath it still in position. One of these Danish ferrules is of gold.^: sheath § from a barrow at Hvidegaard, made of birch wood with an outer and inner casing of leather, has a leather band for the mouthpiece, and a leather eye for receiving the belt. Some small sheaths for bronze knives and for a flint dagger found at the same time are simply of leather.
* Arch. Inst., York vol. p. 33 Arch., vol. xiv. pi. xx. 6. " Atlas for Nord. t Oldk.," pi. B ii. 2; Worsaae, "Nord. Olds.," fig. 115 Madsen, "Afbild.," vol. ii. pi. xi. 1. % Boye, "Oplys. Fortegnelse over det K. M.," p. 31. §"Annalen for Oldk.," 1848, p. 336; "Atlas for Nord. Oldk." pi. B. ii. 7 ; Worsaae, "Nord. Olds.," fig. 119; Madsen, "Afbild.," vol. ii. p. 9. pi. iv. 8.
; ;



Spear-heads, Lance-heads, etc.

There can be but
in earliest use


doubt that one of the weapons of offence
of the nature of a

a straight stick or staff, probably pointed and to a certain spear extent hardened in the fire. The idea of giving to such a staff a still harder and sharper point by attaching to it a head of bone or
of stone, such as

among mankind must have been




among many savage

would come next. And, lastly, these heads or points would be formed of metal, when its use for cutting tools and weapons had become general, and means had been discovered for
In the earlier rendering it available for this particular purpose. part of the Bronze Age, when bronze was already in use for knife-daggers and even for daggers, it would appear that the spears


darts, if

any such were

in use,

were in this country

How long

this practice continued


still tipped impossible to

say, and it is even doubtful whether any bronze spear-heads were in use before the time when the founders had discovered the art


of cores placed within the moulds. however, not impossible that some of the blades found in the Wiltshire barrows, and the tanged weapons which have already been described in Chapter XL, may have been the heads of spears

making sockets by means

but even at the period to rather than the blades of daggers which they belong the art of making cores must have been known,
as the ferrule found at Arreton
testify, as well as

Down, and shown in Fig. 324, will the hollow socket of Fig. 328. In the South-east of Europe and in Western Asia, as in Cyprus

and atHissarlik, tanged and not socketed spear- heads have been found in considerable numbers but such a form is of very rare occurrence in Europe, and is unknown in Britain, unless possibly some
of the blades already described as knives or daggers, such as Fig. 277, were attached to long rather than short handles, and



should, therefore, have been treated of in this chapter rather than If spears were deposited in in that in which I have placed them. the graves with the dead, the shafts must in all probability have been

broken, for as a rule the graves for bodies buried in the contracted position are not long enough to receive a spear of ordinary length. In the case of some few ancient socketed tools of bronze, the socket has not been formed by casting over a core, but a Avide

form a socket

plate of metal has been hammered over a conical mandril so as to like that of many chisels of the present day, and of

I am not aware of any the iron spear-heads of earlier times. bronze instruments with the sockets formed in this manner ever In all cases the sockets have having been found in this country.

been produced by cores in the casting, and in man}'- spear-heads the adjustment of the core has been effected with such nicety that a conical hollow extends almost to the tip, with the metal around it of uniform substance, and often very thin in proportion to the
size of the

of arrows, bolts, darts, javelins, lances,

The heads

and spears so

nearly resemble one another in character, that

it is

draw any absolute

of distinction between



larger varieties must, however, have served for weapons retained in the hand as spears, while those of small and moderate size may

have been


weapons thrown as

bolts or arrows.

lances, or possibly discharged as In length these instruments vary from about

2 inches to as



36 inches.


varieties, as follows:

has divided the Irish spear-heads into four

leaf-shaped, either long and narrow, or broad, with holes in the socket through which to pass the rivets to fix

The simple


to the shaft.

The looped, with eyes on each side of the socket below and on the same plane with the blade. These are generally of the
long, narrow, straight-edged kind. »3. Those with loops in the angles

between the edge of the

blade and the socket.

To these

Those with side apertures and perforations through the blade. four classes may be added Those in which the base of each side of the blade projects at

right angles to the socket, or form barbs.


prolonged downwards so as to
p. -195.

*' Catal. Mus.

It. I.







first class is


specimen of a broad leaf-shaped spear-head of The original was found in the in Fig. 378.

Fig. 37:).— Lough Gur. J

Fig. 378.— Thames, London, i

Fig. 380.— Lough Our.


Fig. 381.— Heathery

Burn Cave,


London, and still contains a portion of the wooden shaft and carefully pointed. The wood is, I think, ash smoothly




supported by that of Mr. Thiselton Dyer, F.R.S., the shaft for me. There are no traces of the pin or rivet, which in the spear-heads of this character appears to have been formed of wood, horn, or bone, rather than of metal, probably with the view of the head being more readily I have, detached from the shaft, in case the latter was broken.





who has kindly examined

however, a leaf-shaped bronze spear-head of this class, found in It is the Seine at Paris, in which a metallic rivet is still present. formed of a square rod of bronze, which at each end has been

of the

into a spheroidal button, of at least twice the diameter Portions of the hole through which the rivet passes. wooden shaft are still adhering to the rivet. The wood in this

instance also appears to be ash.
I have a rather narrower spear-head of the same type as Pig. 378 (lOf sword near Weymouth and another identical Thames, hut only 9 inches long, found in the county of Dublin. Others of nearly the same form (12f inches and 8f inches) were found with a bronze sword in an ancient entrenchment at Worth,* in the parish
inches), found with a bronze in type with that from the

of Washfield,

the British

from the Thames f (13£ inches) is in and 10 inches long). A remarkably fine bronze spear-head, found in Lough Grur, Co. Limerick, with the lower part of the socket ornamented with gold, is of much the same form as Fig. 378, and is shown on the scale of one-fourth in Fig. 379. The ornamented part is shown on the scale of one-half in It is in the collection of General A. Pitt Eivers, F.E.S., who Fig. 380. has thus described the socket.;}: Around it, " at top and bottom, are two ferrules of very thin gold, each § inch in width. Each ferrule is ornamented with three bands scored with from four to seven transverse lines, and separated from each other by two bands scored with incised longitudinal The two ferrules are separated by a band about lines. inch in width, in which longitudinal hues of gold have been let into grooves in the bronze, leaving an intervening line between each of the gold lines." Most of
this type

Devon. Another spear-head of


as are others (13 inches


these gold strips have, however, now disappeared. The shaft of this spear is of bog oak 4 feet 8h inches long, but though its authenticity has been accepted by many good judges, I must confess that I do not regard it as the original. Some other spear-heads ornamented with engraved lines, but not with inlaid gold, will be mentioned further on. I may incidentally recall the fact that the gold ring or ferrule around the spear-bead of



more than once mentioned by Homer. §

irdpoiOe oe Xd/jLTrero Sovpos
Aiyjxr) YaAKei77 Trepl 8e xpucreos See iropKr]';.

Another fine specimen of a spear-head with a long oval leaf-shaped blade in Canon (ireenwelTs Collection is shown in Fig. 381. It was
* Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 120. J Journ. Ethnol. Hoc, 1868, N.S., vol.

p. 30.

§ Iliad, vi. v.

t "Horse Fer.," pi. vi. 29. 319 viii. v. 494.



[chap. XIV.

found with several others varying in length from 6§ inches to 11 J inches, and numerous other articles of bronze and bone, in the Heathery Burn As will be seen, the blade is continued as a slight Cave,* Durham. narrow projection along the socket as far as the rivet-hole. The edges



spear-head of nearly the same form (10^ inches) was found in a peat moss near the Camp Graves,} Another was found in a Bewcastle, Cumberland. hoard at Bilton, Yorkshire, t


A very fine example (about 15 inches), as well as a smaller one of the same type (about 8 inches), and one with lunate openings in the blade (Fig. 418), were found with two swords (see Fig. 351) near
Whittingham, § Northumberland. I have others (9 inches to 11 inches) found with broken swords at Stoke Ferry, Norfolk, and from the Beach Fen hoard. The same form occurs in IreI have a fine specimen (8| inches) from land. Athlone. Another (13 J inches) is engraved by Wilde as his Fig. 362. A very narrow spear-head, 14f inches long, and only If inch wide, said to have been found in a barrow near Headford, Co. Galway, is in the





spear-head of this character from the Thames (16f inches), not fluted at the edges and quite plain, The blade is only 2| is in the British Museum.
inches wide.


An Irish specimen (10 inches) is burn, Scotland. devoid of rivet-holes. Another spear-hdad of nearly the same type, but of It was smaller dimensions, is given in Fig. 382. found, with some other spear-heads (Fig. 410), socketed celts (Figs. 155 and 157), palstaves (Fig 83), and a ferrule, to be subsequently mentioned, at Nettleham,|| near Lincoln, in 1860. They are now in the

One from Stan wick, Yorkshire (8 inches), is in the Museum, as is one (11 inches) from Bannock-


(8 in Herts.^ff

same type have been found at Winmarleigh^[ and Cuerdale,** Lancashire, at WardNettlcham. i low, ff Derbyshire, Little Wenlock,^; Staffordshire inches), near Windsor §§ (7 inches), at Bottisham,|||| Cambridge, and

Others of the

Fig. 882.

* Dawkins, Cave Hunting," p. 143, fig. 34. t Arch. Joum., vol. xi. p. 231. % Arch. Assoc. Joum., vol. v. p. 349. 2nd S., vol. v. p. 429, pi. iv. § Froc. Soc. Ant.,


indebted to Mr. Franks for jbe use of this Arch. Jouru., vol. xviii. p. 159. block. H Arch. Assoc. Joum., vol. xv. p. 235, pi. xxiv. 3. tt Op. cit., vol. xv. p. 235, pi. xxiv. 4 Op. cit., vol. viii. p. 332. " Salop. Ant.," p 96. §§ Stukeley's "It. Cur.," pi. 96, vol. ii. X Ilartshorne's Arch. Assoc. Joum., vol. xiv. p. 351. " "il'll Skelton's Meyrick's Anc. Arm.," pi. xlvii. 1U






I have one from the River Lea* at St. Margaret's, Herts, and others from Reach Fen, Cambridge. Others were in the Guilsfield hoard,f and in that of Pant-y-maen,+ or One from the latter hoard is about 1 1 inches long. the Glancych hoard. Another, more like Fig. 386, about 4 inches. With them were found fragments of swords, a scabbard tip, some rings and ferrules. Others (9 inches and 5 inches) were found, with a socketed celt and knife, a tanged chisel, and other objects, at Ty Mawr,§ on Holyhead Mountain. Five were found in the hoard near Stanhope, Durham, with socketed celts, a gouge, &c. Of Scottish specimens the following may be noticed one from Lanark ^f (5f- inches), which has been figured; two (7f inches) rather long in the socket, found with a bronze sword and a long pin on the Point of Sleat,** one (6 inches) from Balmaclellan,f-|- New Isle of Skye Galloway. One (5£ inches) from Duddingston Loch,



Edinburgh, is in the British Museum. Leaf-shaped spear-heads such as Fig. 382 are of
occurrence in various parts of




number were found at Atise Ste. Reine|| (Cote d'Or), several of them ornamented with rings round the

They also are found in the Lake-dwellings of Switzerland §| and Savoy. Many of them have parallel rings round the mouth of the socket by way of ornament. and Denmark.^ One They also occur in Germany from Northern Germany, still containing a part of its wooden shaft, has been engraved by Von Estorff.*'**

Those from Italy and Greece have very frequently facets running along the midrib which contains the socket.
In Fig. 383 is shown a variety (1H inches) with a projecting fillet running down to the rivet-holes as in Fig. 383. Fig. 381, which, however, in this case forms the termiAchtertyre. nation of small beads running along the sides of the There is also a beading running along the midrib. The central rib. original was found, with another spear-head, plain, a socketed celt, some bronze rings, and fragments of tin, at Achtertyre,fj-f Morayshire. Mr. It. Day, F.S.A., has a nearly similar spear-head (5 inches), found in Dublin.
* Proc. Soc. Ant., vol. iv. p. 279. t Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 251 X Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. x. p. 221.


Coll.," vol.


p. 437.

Arch. JEliana, vol. i. p. 13, pi. i. ** Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iii. p. 102.

XX Rev. Arch., N.S.,
\\ Keller, passim.

vol. iv. pi. xiii. 2

— 14.

Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 254. If Arch. Assoc. Journ., vol. xvii. 110. ]>. ft Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iv. p 117.

keile," Taf.

" Alt Deutschen Grabmiiler " " Schreiber, Die ehern. Streit19; Liseh, "Fred. Francisc," Taf. viii. *** "Heidnisch. HH Worsaae, "Nord. Olds.," fig. 190. Alterth.," Taf. viii. Ii ttt P- S. A. S., vol. ix. p. 435. The cut has been kindly Lent by the Society.

Von Braunmuhl,





elongated form, with the projecting part socket considerably shorter, is shown in Fig. 384, from a specimen found in the North of Ireland. spear-head (20 inches) of the same

A more


form of outline, but with a slight ridge running the whole length of the socket from its mouth to the point, was found at Ditton,* Surrey. It is now in the British Museum, having been presented by
the Earl of Lovelace.

Another (14f inches) in the same collection, found River Thames, f near the mouth of the Wandle, retains a portion of the original wood in It was found in company with a bronze its socket. sword, a palstave, and a long pin (Fig. 454). One of much the same form as the figure (11 inches) was found at Teigngrace,^: Devon. It has a delicate bead running down each side of the midrib, and continued as a square projection below the blade. Canon Greenwell has a long spear-head ( from Quy Fen, with grooves running up the
in the

blade at the side of the socket. The ends of the blade are truncated so as to leave projections on the sides of the socket above the rivet-hole. These are slightly ornamented. I have seen another spear-head (1U inches) with the base of the blade slightly truncated in a similar manner. It was found near Eastbourne. This elongated form is of common occurrence in Denmark and Northern Germany, § the necks being
usually ornamented possibly engraving.



punch-marking or

A broader variety, with the socket considerably enlarged in the part extending below the blade,
shown in Fig. 385. The original was found in company with other spear-heads like Fig. 382 from




5-§ inches to 10| inches long, two socketed celts with three vertical lines on the face like Fig. 125, and


two somewhat conical plates with central holes, near Newark, and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.E.S. A spear-head (Gh inches) not quite so broad in its proportions, said to have been found in a tumulus, near Lewes, Sussex, is in the British Museum, as is another (6A inches) found near Bakewell, Derby||


* Arch. Journ., vol. xix.
p. 364.

t A. J., vol. ix. p. 8. It is there erroneously stated to be 26 inches long. Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd X Trans. Devon. Assoc, vol. vii. p. 199

S., vol. vii. p. 40.

Worsaae, "Nord.

Olds.," figs.

185, 186


" Atlas for Nord.




pi. vi. 28.

384— North



"Horaj Fer.,"

386.— Ireland.— Newark.or lance-head from the Eeach Fen hoard is shown in Fig. 2nd S. $ Fig. and the socket itself appears large in proportion to the A scabbard width of the blade. and may have boen the head of a dart or I have an example of nearly the same javelin rather than of a spoar. Soc. was found with others. 367. vol. Fig. found at Walthamstow. 3S7. fragments of swords and of a quadrangular tube (qy. ix. Essex. 387 is here by permission reproduced from Wilde's Catalogue. * Troc. Fig. p. A spear-head from Unter-Uhldingenf exhibits the same narrowness of blade in proportion to the size of the socket. Fig. form and size from Co. a knife.— Reach Fen. 31 \ spear-head of the same general outline as Fig. . 34. 6terBericht. Ant.* It is often the case that the sides of the upper part of the blade are nearly straight. as well as with 1 6 socketed celts. near Nottingham. 385. 385. but with the sides of the socket straighter. as well as one of a shorter and broader form (5 inches) with a large Fig. 332.. In some cases the blade and socket are of nearly equal length. i. Taf. Dublin. though the mouth of the socket is J inch in diameter. t Keller. a ?) and a long ferrule.. J socket extending only an inch below the blade. I have several others from the Fen districts.VARIETIES OF LEAF-SHAPED SPEAR-HEADS. One in the British Museum is only 2 inches long. 3S6. Such a spear. It is only 3£ inchos long.

vol. 281.. 389. Du Noyer on the classification of bronze arrow-heads in vol. Arch. i. vol. vol. ETC. vii. bronze arrow-head is said to have been found in the Isle of Portland. also from "Wilde (Fig. xiii. 328. than those now under consideration. vol. Proc. Fig. Ant. Arch. Coll. the total length of which is The blade is ^ inch wide. 00. It will now be well to speak of some of the spear-heads of xi. This ogival outline is of frequent occurrence among the bronze spear- A heads from Hungary.. Soc. 27. which latter is common in devised by . Greece. The socket also appears to be quadrangular rather than round. Journ. Many of the bronze arrow-heads found on the Continent appear to belong to the Early Iron Age. p. in external diameter. iii. % Suss. . Journ. Coll. Froc. vol.. 187 || Arch. has the blade of a trapezoid rather than of a leaf-shaped form. || of bronze are mentioned as having but in point of fact these were "razors" like the period In this country . Assoc. 107. p. p. " Ann. One 4 inches long is said to have been found in Yorkshire. Some spear-heads appear to have had the form of their point somewhat modified by grinding.| Sussex. p. 68. Fig. Stone •: See Imp. LANCE-HEADS. 433. but few of the inhabitproduced ants would have been able each to contribute his bronze arrowhead. p. xxii. p. 397." p. shown in Fig. vol. 2nd S. flint still served as the material from which arrow-heads Such a method of taking the census as that were usually made. hut with the blade shorter in proportion and narrower. v. XIV. 368). viii. Some of these very small weapons may possibly have served to point arrows. as if from time to time they became blunted by use kind of ogival outline such as is and required to be re-sharpened. 388 appears. ** Arch. was found near Pyecombe. § Some double-pointed arrow-heads been found in Ireland. during when bronze was in use for cutting tools and the larger weapons. [CHAP. vol. p.." vol. 20. xxi.. Ant. and not improbably in others.. and in general character more nearly approaches the looped variety. the Scythian king Ariantas would in Britain have but small results at all events. 387. Scot. 3^ inches.H however. \ 205. and the socket is only § inch only 1\ } inch. 269.* but particulars are not given. and only 3£ inches long. iii. The lance-head shown in Fig. but it is mainly in southern countries that they have been found. In the Norwich Museum is a head like Fig. Soc. 47. was found at Llan- A y-mvnech Hill. There is an article by Mr. 274. vol. xx.f Montgomeryshire. Journ. t " Montgom. . 222. in form rather like Fig. p.. pp. The oi iginal was found in the North of Ireland... however. Another small point. p. this * Arch. vol.. to have been intentional. In Egypt** and Arabia they have occurred of the leaf-shaped as well as of the three-edged form. p. Another. Journ.318 SPEAR-HEADS. 386..

389. with short vertical lines above the A small lance-head of this type (4-i inches). vol. 4th S. iii. Fig. . each of four parallel lines around the socket. . Another in the same collection from Thames Ditton (6£ inches has three sets of three rings each. by engraving In Fig. 390 is shown a spear-head from the Reach Fen hoard. Fig. 204). «WJ Fig. and an awl (Fig.. p. North of Ireland. class 319 which have either their sockets or their blades ornamented or punching. found at Ingham. 388. 391. shown in Fig. 240). vi. a knife (Fig. upper ring. a gouge (Fig. 300. * Arch. Norfolk. vol. 224). but that the lines have been punched in with a chisel-like punch. Journ." pi. x.. Camb. Another from the Broadward hoard ( Shropshire)! has two bands of four. 391. the whole of which are now in the British Museum. Thorndon. 3. with socketed celts. This example was found at Thorndon.* in company with a hammer (Fig. For. has one band of four parallel lines round the sockel It is now in the Mayer Collection at Liverpool. The five bands. Suffolk. & Fig. % The short transverse dotted lines have probably been made with a serrated is punch. and one of two rings. t Arch. Hor. have the appearance of being engraved but I think that this is not actually the case. Eeach Fen. Another spear-head. 27. Ireland. the nature of the ornamentation on which -will be seen from the cut. " .. 351. p.. 210). with ornamentation of a nearly similar character.ORNAMENTED ON THE SOCKETS.

Cam( On each side of the central rib bridge. shown in Fig. || . It is Fig. fragment of a blade from the ILoynes Hill hoard. pi." p. broken spear-head from the Liroadward J find has the blade ornamented in the same way. Galis shown by the Royal way. 351. vol. iii. 4th S. That from Culham. A spear-head (6^ inches) in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh.320 SPEAR-HEADS. As has already been observed. Journ. xix. of the socket. 382 in "Wilde's Catalogue. in the Taunton Museum. i specimens.. 4..1 inches). XIV.. p. the set of parallel lines in each point between the plain triangles being alternately to the right and to the left.! with other spear-heads. vol. and the blade is ornamented with a single row of the same kind on each side of the central rib. 11. 393. I have a spear-head from Lakenheath. and Rom. fragments of swords. ETC.. second in the same hoard of the socket. spear-head from the hoard found at Beddington. has a band of hatched triangles above three bands of parallel lines with transverse lines between. iii. 282. has three sets of four rings and one of two. 56. p. LANCE-HEADS. X Arch. pi. and by skilful manipulation these short Lines were made to join so as to form a continuous the latter close to the mouth A shows eight rings near the mouth A ring. as well as some vertical dotted lines above the upper ring. It was found with a gouge. [CHAP. kindly lent me Irish Academy. 392. 393. similar decoration is found on English Fig.. The chevron ornament and the alternate direction of teristic of A Fig-. The sockets of some Irish spear-heads are highly decorated. One from Edington Burtle. iv.. is ornamented with two bands of three parallel lines round the socket. One found at Bilton. socketed celts. Co. 349. shire. in Fig. t Arch. found near Forfar. 392. vol. 5. Camb. Assoc. p. § Kent. a portion of celt mould. p. in which also some other examples are engraved. York- Culham. Suffolk (5| inches). but it occasionally happens that the whole blade is ornamented by minute ribs and flutings. has ring ornaments engraved along each side of the midrib. Athenry.. and socketed celts. That of a long leafshaped specimen from Athenry. and a line running down each side of the midrib prolonged below the blade as far as the rivet-hole which it encloses. Arch. the edges of this class of spear-heads are not unfrequcntly tinted. Somerset (4. has round the socket three bands of triangles alternately hatched and plain.* is ornamented in nearly the same manner. v. || * Anderson's " Croydon Preh. Journ. near Croydon. In this case the bands seem to have been punched in with a serrated punch which produced four short Lines at each stroke. the hatching are highly characthe style of the Bronze Period. vol. with a small raised band cast on the socket just below the rivet-hole. affords an example of this kind. row of plain triangles is left on each side of the midrib. The spear-head A A A 1 0£ inches) found with two swords and two ferrules at Fulbourn. &c. near Abingdon. § Arch. xxx. while the rest of the blade is hatched.

404. 2nd 8. vol.. another found at (fringley. so that the section near the point is almost square. p. To judge from the engraving. || . and many others might no doubt be added to the list the Thames. 8. vol. and with the blade of nearly the same form as those of the spear-heads of the first class. at Beacon Hill.. XX Arch. iv. 4th S.— Thotford. Ant. Camb. Nottinghamshire. || § f Proc. and swords) Vronheulog. vol. vol. near : Batterseaf (16f inches). and may have been arranged in some chevron-like pattern with which these lozenges coincided. I I HP. Merionethshire. S. p. viii. The spear-heads classes into of the second of the which they are here divided with loops at the side of the projecting socket. so as to reduce the projection of the the flattened beyond the socket often wrought into a lozenge form. and then the fluting which tonus the edge. 9. is shown in The upper part of the midrib containing the socket is ridged. part The strings which passed through these loops were probably secured to some stop Fig.^ and Longy Common. xxxiii. xxvii. specimen exhibiting these lozenges. S3. ft Arch. Arch. iii.. nexi fluting. A. celts . but with only a single large loop. The socket is slightly fluted round the mouth. 321 containing the socket are two sharp ridges one below the other.* must also have been fluted in a somewhat similar comes a hollow manner. vol..WITH LOOPS AT THE SIDES. i. iv. p. vol. vol. Journ. found A A * Arch. p. spear-head of the same type. j§ Arch. 1 % P.S. Fig. 10-5. Others were discovered near Yarlet. 304. is this class. ** Plot's " Stafford. 210. 394. and Kingston § (6£ and 7-/ inches) two (7f inches and 6 inches) were found near Tod. S. Charnwood Forest. Assoc.. Suffolk. 2 /'. pi. £ or collar on the shaft. p. then a ridge. lxiv. though they probably served a similar purpose. The original was found at Thotford. that of securing the metallic head to the wooden handle. pi. vol. These loops are usually more elongated than those on socketed are those and palstaves. Soc. Alderney §§ (one with blade ornamented). The discovery of other leaf-shaped spear-heads with rivet-holes through the sockets is recorded to have been made at the following places. p. vol. Staffordshire ** near Alnwick Castle ft (sixteen with . 280. p. 3G1. xvi. 323..^ two dington. v. Leicestershire..i.. p. Beds (7£ inches and 6J inches) were found with a socketed celt and gouge.... There are usually no rivet-holes in the spear-heads of loops . celts The metal of which the loops are formed has frequently been flattened by hammering.. . A. p. 2nd S." p. iv.. near Wallingford J (7J inches). 1 13.

a peculiarity I have noticed in other specimens. vol. viii. i. 94. from Ashdown. 395. Berks. Coll. 208. Salisb. 394. || tt Wilde. ** Arch. the side loops do not appear to be flattened. with even a smaller and shorter in Fig. Arch. There is a diminutive variety of this class of weapon with two loops. fig. vol. 363. 5 inches long. Berks. Thurnam j % in his valuable memoir in the Archceologia. p. "Catal. A. from the Thames. from Cumberland. These are now in the British Museum. is engraved in the Archceologia* but it seems probable that the figure is somewhat inaccurate. IT Arch. lance-head with a more leaf-shaped blade (G| inches) is said to have been found in a tumulus at Craigton. found near Nottingham.322 in SPEAR-HEADS. xii.. The form is of not unfrequent occurrence in Ireland. p. \ Forest is engraved in the Archceologia. Glen Kenns. near Canterbury. like Fig. §§ A A 1 1 A * Vol. like that from Lakenheath shown I have another. . Proc. 397. Scot. One. 4£ inches. 447 Wilts. iii. xl. 4| inches. Inst. near Abingdon. Lockerbie. and in the same case with the dagger blades. vol. 168.. R. p. p. iii. 269. xvi. rather more elongated than Fig. I have one (6 \ inches) from Fyfield. x. small example of this type (about 3£ inches) is in the collection formed by Sir R. Dumfriesshire. xliii. and another like Fig. I. vol. In one from Beckhampton. together with a bronze bridle-bit. as usual. A small specimen (5 \ inches) from Fairholme. 453. It has been figured by the late Dr.. Coll. 348. Colt Hoare at Stourhead. p. though.. Assoc. Fisher has a specimen from the Fens at Ely (5f inches). ++ $§ Arch." p. The loops have a diamond engraved or punched upon them.. few coins of gold and silver are said to have been found at the same time. pi.inches) with two loops was found at Hangleton Down. was Another from Shirewood found at Trefeglwys. . pi. Ant. Montgom. Mr. One from Hagbourn Hill. 396. 480. vi. ix." vol.§ It has a slightly ogival outline on each side. LA2SCE-HEADS. Journ. M. fragment of another of very small dimensions was found at Furl y Heath. p. and vol.. An example given in the same plate seems to have lost the flat part of the blade. Galloway. Soc. in which the blade is extremely narrow. It has a small ridge or bead along the mid-feather. p. is reported to have been found with a socketed celt. 1. in the same plane as the blade.. is in the British Museum. It has three parallel grooves round the socket mouth. pi. a pin like Fig. Montgomeryshire. is in the British Museum. Another (5^. 432. near Chiltern. is more common. 25. and is now in the British Museum. Suffolk.. 458. 334. vol. p.f Another (5 \ inches). with the midrib ridged like Fig. 15. " Hor. p. [CHAP." vol. 110. is in the British Museum." " Anc. ETC.^} A One. XIV. " % t Sussex Arch. Surrey. 496. p. xi. vol. In one instance (13£ inches) tf the loops upon the socket are not opposite each other. p. pi. § Vol. though perhaps that with the raised ribs on the blade.. and some portions of buckles || like those of the late Celtic Period. Fer.. blade. and now at Devizes. Wilts** (4f inches). and is thought by him to have been found in a grave with burnt bones in one of the "Wilsford barrows near Stonehenge. 5. xvii. Canon Green well has one only 3 inches long. near Kinross. One (6 inches) was found at Chartham.

and was probably intended to strengthen as well as to decorate the blade. 895. In some cases there is a ridge running along the whole or a great part of the midrib on the blade so as to make the section near the point almost cruciform. near the mouth of the socket. kind from the neighbourhood of CamIn this case the side loops are unusually r 1 Fig. vol.l indies). Canon Greenwell has an example of this type (<>. Ire] m<l. 396. p. with a longer socket. Fig. 379. 323 An Irish example. found in the North of Ireland. The blade is carried down Arch. vii. Y 2 . 167. i Near Cambridge ' . 397 shows a spear-head with these ridges. Fig. Journ. 397. Lincolnshire. the cavity of which extends aboul half-way along the blade. p.. North of Fig. and xviii. has been regarded as an arrow-head.WITH LOOPS. and the loops . 282.>out half-way along it.* It has probably been broken and repointed. from Langton. Lakenheath. This ribbing along the midrib is of frequent occurrence on Trish spearheads. Tipperary. and comparatively broad in proportion to its length. The projecting ribs on the flat part of the blade were also probably added for the same purpose. 395 is engraved by Wilde as his Fig. FROM IRELAND. An example of this bridge is shown in Fig. It was found al Clonmel. 2| inches long. An example much like Fig. 396.

I have a shorter example (5£ inches) from Old Kilpatrick. An example is given in Another is Fig. ETC.324 SPEAR-HEADS. Tyrone. Dumbartonshire.j in There are others figured the " Horse FeThis type * Vol. 397 in engraved " Horse Ferales. 17. X "Coll. ii. 12." vol. one from Termon. 899." f small broad-bladed A of very common in Ireland. form is occurrence engraved by Wilde Fig. as [chap.. diagonal ribs on each ( side of the blade instead of only one. in which the blade between the socket and the ribs is so thin that two long holes have been eaten or worn ] through it. An much Irish like specimen is Fig. 398. xi. Hib. XIV. t PL vi. 187. the outer faces of which are expanded into lozenges. LANCE-HEADS. $ PI. slight a projection along the socket until it meets the side loops. 13. rather A more pointed form is given by Vallancey. rales. Some have two 369). v. pi. is engraved in the Archaeological Jour- nal* In some the blade is iroportionally wider and I have one shorter. giving it the appearance of belonging to to the perforated class be subsecpaently de- scribed. vi. Scotland . from near Enniskillen (7£ inches).—Thames . iv." § is of rare p. Tip. Co.

and formed part of the Eoach Smith Collection. as well as in the angles between the blade and the socket. the socket. The socket margin is decorated with a fillet of five elevations. there are lines of small oval punched indentations apparently effected by the hand. and kind. dotted circles and British Museum. Mu*. by the kindness of Mr.DECORATED ON THE BLADE. Derbyshire. the midrib being is. R. who thus describes it J "A long narrow spear with concave or recurved sides. now in the It is shown in Fig. plain spear-head (7 inches) another of the same length. + ' '. as in the Arreton Down specimen (Fig. xv. Assoc. is in the has two knol>s mi each side of the soukel simulating Arch. these loops with the base of the blade. long lozenge-shaped loops on at Museum A very : each side of the socket.» li. and the blade itself has ridges running nearly parallel to the edges. 399. blade. 325 occurrence in England. Ant. Journ. —V ! i 101. where the circular form of that portion of the weapon becomes Narrow lateral ridges connect angular. F.. A. on each side of which. remarkable specimen in the Eoyal Irish Academy is engraved as Fig.—Near Ballymena. ii. and ploughed up at Heage. vol. I. 400. Day. 328). were found at Edington Burtle.. shown in Fig. As will be seen." \>. with parallel headings upon the blade. and a double linear engraved or punched ornament forming a triangular pattern like that seen in some A sharp ridge until pie gold ornaments. Journ. Assoc. and.. which has hollow bevelled edges. The socket part is made to appear somewhat like a haft to the blade. and is as sharp as the day it came from the mould. 286.* in the parish another (4| inches) was found near Lincoln. 398 was of Duifield. but wider and flatter. t Arch.. and are now in the its A Taunton. of much the same form. A beautiful example from Ireland (t<\ Inches). An example of this kind from Ballymena almost scpiare in section. " Catal. and appears to be unique of British Museum. 401. I . Somerset. but one (4£ inches?) much like Fig." In one of the looped forms both the blade and the socket are often highly ornamented. and external faces of the loops arc all ornamented with engraved and punctured lines.. f A gracefully shaped spear-head. and having very flat loops with pointed oval faces on the socket. extends along the middle of the socket from the Loops to the point. was found in the Thames.A. vol. Drrl>." \ . 280. and also ornamented with rivets. It has already been figured on a small scale by Wilde. It lines extending down the blade. p.S. and a single ring near the base. " Vest. the socket engraved with a double ring of chevrons near the middle. p.

with three bands of parallel lines * J . Fig. was obtained r. Journ.. p. also kindly lent by the Royal Irish Academy (Wilde. An unornamented lance-head of this type (5 inches) was found at Peel. f The original of It has "a central circular stud opposite the Fig. Forfarshire. vol. $ Fig. 404. A. Fig.* and two of his figures are. here reproduced as Figs. at Douglas. [CHAP. beneath which there are a series of minute continuous lines margined on both sides by a row of elevated dots. LANCE-HEADS." The socket and the outer surface of the loops are also highly decorated. ETC. \i. 403. base of the blade.. Arch. vol. p. Lanarkshire. Fig. " Horse Ferales.— Ireland.|| in tin. pi." pp. 5| inches.. 402 is 5 inches long. 402. i. 402 and 403." of this kind is given in j from the Dean Water. 502. l| "Catal. Journ. Mus. p.326 SPEAR-HEADS. Fig. Assoc.— Ireland. 403 is 7 J inches long. . 404. Other varieties with the midrib more rounded are given by Wilde. xvii. 498. is in the Antiquarian (5£ inches) Museum at Edinburgh. XIV. 111. Figs. in. and is also artistically ornamented. Another. shows a smaller and a plainer type.. 187. ii. Arch. The blade is ornamented by incised lines and An example One punctulations. round the socket. 378). R. Fig. 385 and 386. PL vi.— Ireland. 501. Isle of Man. § t [bid. by the kindness of the Council of the Royal Irish Academy.

•105. in 1803. 329. Another of nearly the same form. tiyj. and perfectly central in the blade. and is a remarkably fine casting. which are curved inwards from the base of the blade until they join the socket. left as a plain tube." vol. 405. probably from the Thames. which includes some the most elegant forms of these ancient The reason for adopting this parweapons. is loops somewhat wider. . but rather heavier in proportion to its size. and is in the possession of Mr. A The third class of spear-heads consists of those with loops at the base of the blade conThere are many necting it with the socket. less were. The wood has been thought to be ash Another similar. Northumberland. vol.E. Boynton. h. £ reception of the shaft being no less than 12} inches in length. A good example of this formation of the loop is shown in Fig. Assoc. Cambridge.WITH LOOPS AT THE BASE OF THE BLADE. highly ornamented spear-head from Hungary. t Arch. but without the ribs on the blade. Heft iv. xiv.S. pi. I have another spear-head of the same type (18 inches). of ticular kind of loop appears to be that they to the blade.* preserved in the Museum at Buda-Pest.. * i. was found near Lowthorpe. when thus attached liable to they be broken off or damaged than when formed isolated projections from the The spear-heads were also more readily polished and furbished when the socket was socket. are very frequently formed by the continuation of two ribs along the margin of The loops the blade.R. howone from the Seine at Paris (6} inches).. Vorz. varieties of this class. Yorkshire. 327 at the side of the sockets are In my own collection. almost identical in form with Tig. of Ulrome Grange. 3. and aow in the Bateman Collection. has small semicircular loops at the sides of the socket. but with the lozenge-shaped plates forming the almost ever. 394. Lindenschmit. Taf..— Elford. F. There are traces of wood in the socket. The original was found at Elford. but originally about 20 inches long. The very graceful spear-head shown in Pig. E. 406 was found at Isleham Pen. as is also the case in another of tho same form(14i inches) dredged from the Thames at Battersea. 9. T. p. was found in the | " Alt. and is in the collection of Canon Greenwell. the cavity for the Fig. xxiv. almost as well cast. u. Journ. The spear-heads of this class with loops unknown out of the British Islands. ii.

but I cannot say in what part of In land it was found. having never been finished by hammering and grinding. j shown upon the blade are less distinct. pi. In the specimen from Stibbard.SPEAR-HEADS. (8£ inches). Germain. Nicholas..ii . Franks thinks that the mould was in four pieces hesides the core.». Holmes. Edmunds original length Wadsford. found at Morle}'. iv. is said to have been found in the Roman villa at (16f inches. An Irish in Fig. the ribs example by Vallancey. " Hor. in the col- Thames near Runnymode. The blade of one (llf inches) without the socket was found at Stanwick. Fiar. vol. [chap. vol.S. Assoc.. Norwich vol. near Bury St. Fisher). in the Museum at Taunton. One (15 J inches) from Bottisham bridge. 22. xxvi. Lode. at Thames in the British Museum. Another from lust. Camanother (14} Pentonville. and another in that at St. xvi.§ of this form lias been engraved This type is rare in France. A " p. 407." pi. } Arch. . Fer. Jour. 30. Its must have been about 18 inches. Arch. 406. I have seen a specimen in the collection of Mr.. p™. Combe St. but on this point I am rather doubtful. 6. J. but a specimen is in the Museum at Carcassonne (Aude). In some spear-heads of nearly the same form there is a raised bead running down the midrib as in This beautifully finished weapon was Fig. This spear-head was found with nine others and about seventy palstaves about 1806. near Antrim. ETC. and the loops are widened out so as to show a lozenge form when the edge of the blade is seen. 322. vi. . f Another. The partly iinished base and the unfinished point were found together. bought in Lublin. LANCE-HEADS.. 17 inches long. tins hoard is in the Brit Mus. * and another Another (13 J inches) from the Thames Litton is lection of General A.3. j I Arch. Pitt Rivers. 408. which had evidently broken in the operation. One (13^ inches) was found with three rapiershaped blades near Maentwrog. smaller and broader specimen (7 inches) in my collection was found at Clough. Norfolk.— Tsi. and is in the state in which it left the mould. F. though the core has been extracted. p. p.. r inst. xvi.R. pi. lxx.. Vol. broken. and from Woolpit. was found at Hampton Court. xi. near Chard. and is in the same collection. in which the hammering process had been applied to a part only of the blade. 3. XIV. Mr. and is now in the British Museum. near Leeds. Yorkshire. is in the British Museum as is inches) from the New River Works. I have seen others from Coveney Fen Mr. Merionethshire..

presents the same pi uliarity as Fig. p. 329 I have another (10J inches) from the north of Ireland in which the midrib half-way along the blade expands to form an edge almost as sharp as that at the sides.— Lakenheath Fen . on the river i .Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of London.Fig.— Stibbard. Near the point the section is cruciform. Some ancient bronze spear-heads from China* arc provided with i A * Arch. 409.OF CRUCIFORM SECTION KEAK THE F01M. Fig. 415. spear-head found near Hay..— IreLn. 39G. Fig. as in n n I ' : Fig. and nmv in the . . xi. Jowrn. 408. 107. 408. vol.

p. 1)70. vi. p. or with only a shallow channel along the sides of the midrib. p. A. Linnow in the British Museum. inches) from Edington Burtle. tit. A very large specimen of this kind from Lakenheath Fen is shown on the scale of J inch in Fig. Mus. A specimen in the British Museum (15f inches) has an ornament of hatched chevrons round the base of the socket. Mus." Arch. same kind on the blades. One of nearly the same character (22| inches).ff Another (10A. is. The The midrib point is unfortunately lost. and the lozenge-shaped flanges are also ornamented with hatched open mascles. 18. J| appears to have been of this type.31 •• : Allies. Assoc.. near Peterborough. Joiini. xvi. § has been figured by Wilde. 3." p.* now in the British Museum. Op.. [CHAP. lvi. shown in Fig." pi. . iii." pi. I have one nearly similar (9£ inches) from Edmonton Marsh.inches) from the Severn at Kempsey. inches) was found with palstaves at Sherford. and the socket with bands and a chevron pattern. Co. pi. Taunton. with the faces of the loops lozenge-shaped. and the outer faces of the loops expand into the diamond form. Berks ^f (7 inches). central ridges of tlie and that socket. Londonderry. found in the Thames at Datchet. found at Maghera.. pi. no less than 26f inches long. has been engraved by Artis.. § || If ** "Catal. 3'22. I. 110. 410. vi. iii. but is restored in the engraving. xi. 496. 83. Journ. xviii. Hunts. 4. by the kindcolnshire. vol. as are others from the same river || I Fig. and the blade nearly flat." p. Somerset. " Brit." fig. and Rom. 410. 20. " Hor. xxvi. R. is of the same character. ETC. 406. One (Si- A * '• t Pring. LANCE-HEADS..f near Taunton. A spear-head of the same form (15£ inches) from Ireland J has the ridge decorated with lines of dots. They have but one loop. No. varying in length from 9 to 15f inches. " florae Fer. xvii. 409. spear-head of this character (10£ inches).330 SPEAR-HEADS. Worcester.** Another (9 inches) from Horsey.. forms part of the Roach Smith Another (11 J Collection. Lanarkshire. Catal. containing the socket is ridged. vol. 60. as is one (8£ inches) from Crawford. In others the midrib is conical. . 366. One such from the find at Nettleham. 3. vol. XIV. I have seen others from the Cambridge Fens. Ant.. Franks. is on the face. One from Speen. A plain specimen.. Lond. was found with two looped palstaves and a chisel Nettleham. Worcestershire. p. One (7£ inches) from the Thames at Lambeth is in the British Museum. pi. Fer.." p. " Durobrivse. Journ. 3. ness of Mr. 160. Arch. is in the Taunton Museum. and there is a deep notch at the mouth of the The long blades are often more leaf-shaped and less truncated at the base than that shown in Fig. vol. ft X\ Arch.

It is now in the collection of Sir P. Journ. Roxburghshire. 197) at Broxton. i . or possibly for diminishing weierht Of the former kind appear to be those which have merely two small slits in the lower * x\yr and Wlgton Coll... — IVLlockaUS. ii. Scot.! In Fig. p. and of having. The form is common in Ireland.E. 13. 4 1 1 is shown a remarkably fine spear-head in the tion of collec- which Grreenwell. 331 Wigtonshire have been figured.. X Arch. Two from IN THE BLADE. a rivet-hole through the socket. vol. It was found at Knockans. in addition. vol. Ant. G-. vol. may again be sub- The fourth divided into those in which the openings appear to have served as loops for attaching the blade to the shaft. Spear-heads of this character are occasionally found in Scot* land. Egerton. p. An I?:ish spear-head ( 14f inches) with loops at the lower end of the blade.J class of spearheads. l'ln r - 411.WITH OPENINGS about (Fig. v.. those with openings in the blade. exhibits the peculiarity of Canon having the loops formed by the prolongation of small ribs on each side of the midrib. Co. was exhibited to the Archaeological Institute in 1856.. p. F. xiii. Soc. '290.S. Antrim. and the socket pierced for a rivet. A spear-head (6£ inches) with small projecting loops at side of the blade each was found near Hawick. 214. t Proc. Bart. twelve miles south of Chester. de M. and those in which these apertures seem to have been mainly intended for ornament. I have one 12 inches long from one of the northern counties. who has kindly shown it to me.

— Lurgan. . 412. 418.—Ireland. Morayshire. LANCE-HEADS. Fer." pi. A spear-head of the same form (19^ inches) was found on the hill of Rosele. xiii.! and Fig. and 3 J inches in Fig. These holes are usually protected byprojections rising from the blade on the outer side of the holes. 2nd S. [chap.. such as would seem adapted for the insertion of a cord. " + Arch. but after the blade had penetrated seventeen inches into the human body such an use of poison would probably be superfluous. reception of poison. p. 412. An Irish friend lias suggested that they were for the forated. The openings are about 17 inches from the point. . vi. Hoc. extreme breadth. Journ. 65. tins block. \ Proc. I am indebted to the Council for the use of p.332 SPEAR-HEADS. Co. XIV part of the blade.. * \ Fig. ii. Armagh. A fine spear-head in my own collection thus per- found near Lnrgan. 114. 21. ETC. Duffus. vol. Ant. \ Fig. 413 Hor.* is shown in It is 24 inches in length. — Antrim. vol...

and a ferrule. the original of which was found in the county of blade I \ in and is now in Canon Grcenw ell's collecAntrim. sissor.—Naworth Castle Thames. as well as the holes in the blade This is also in the still ii 1 Dublin Museum.—Thames. xvi. 414.. j Arch. ' A lish remarkably Engexample of the same fine class is shown in Fig. 415. v. bracelets. $ This specimen was found in the Fig. Fig.. * was found with a rapier-shaped blade at Corbridge. p. broken. vol. 416.! A spear-head (10 inches) with small openings in the blade was found. Journ. rapiers. 250. p. in which the holes in the blade appear to be ..WITH FLANGES AT THE SIDE OF THE is 01' KM 333 now in the Elgin Museum. One (9 inches) with two holes at the base of the leaf above the ferrule was found near Speen. 49. Northumberland A broken specimen was found in the Isle of Portland. Another.. p. vol. and another broader is shown in my Fig. xix. Northumberland. with palstaves. The is Arch. tion. This has a rivet-hole on the front of the socket. hut still 10| inches long. xxv. and form circular discs w hen seen with the edge of the spear-head towards the spoctator. and in the British small projecting flanges at the side of the holes in the blade are very strongly marked. An "eyed" spear-head 22 inches long was found near in the Thames Datchet. 363. The simplest of the forms. p. In some instances the is very much shorter to the proportion length of the socket. R'J. Jonrn. § broader form (13^ inches) from Ireland is A engraved by Wilde (Fig. 413. t Ibid.. vol. 365). { Ibid. at AVallington. vol. . now Museum.^ but whether it was of this or some other type I cannot say. 415. Berks. as will be seen in Fig. socketed celts. and is in the possession of Sir Charles Trevelyan.

— Blakehope. however. is that in which there are two circular or oval holes through the blade. 417 there is no trace of a rivet-hole in the socket. 417. Castle. the end of which. This well. » In general form it resembles the type. 418. In the spear-head shown in Fig. Fig. LANCE-HEADS. one on either side of the midrib containing The spear-head shown in Fig. . It is provided with a rivet-hole through the socket. 416 was found near Naworth the socket.334 SrEAK-HKADS. and the two oval orifices in the blade are placed one somewhat below the other.— Whittingham. ETC [chap. J Fig. 381. Cumberland. XIV for ornament rather than nse. but nearer the base. and is in the collection of Canon Green- Fig. is broken. Some Italian spear-heads have two circular holes in the blade. in 1870.

p. to reappear in the The more middle of the blade. t Arch. vol. Lancashire. about 8 inches Boucher de Perthes Collection 419. collection. at Winmarleigh. and the socket by bands of parallel lines. % Grose's "Treat." 1786. 158. 2nd S. vol. as it were..! the curators of the Warrington Museum I am enabled to give it as Fig. together with a plain leaf-shaped spear-head and five socketed celts. p. vol. It is 19^ inches long. pi. A long. Journ. is * Proc. § || Vallancey. xviii.. but only 15 J inches long. v. Some fragments racter of spear-heads of this cha- were found with other bronze antiquities in Duddingston Loch. which thus is made. Journ. The original of Fig. is in the at Abbeville." . Armour. 429. 418 was found about 1847. Ant.. spear-head of this type. Arch. near By the kindness of Garstang.. " Coll. King's County. Assoc. but of the A spear-head smaller than Fig. and is now in the possession of Lord Ravensworth. xi.* in company with some other spear-heads and two swords. IN THE BLADE. 5. so that these openings must be regarded as ornamental. near Whittingham. Yorkshire. iv. p. 16. 234. 7. || Museum. "Horae Fer. A rather longer specimen was found.. truly characteristic spear-heads of this class have two crescent-shaped or lunate openings. and was found 335 at Blakehope. There are small ridges by the side of the midrib and round the margin of the openings. or else as intended to diminish the weight of the weapon. one on each side of the midrib containing the socket. j The same form has occurred in Ireland. vi. pi. Edinburgh. Another like it. same general character. 419. § A fine example (14 inches) from a hoard at is in the British Dowris. Hib." vol. Northumberland. The surface of the blade is ornamented by being worked into steps or terraces.. pi. xv. lxi. Soc.WITH LUNATE OPENINGS specimen is in Canon Greenwell's Northumberland. There is usually a rivet-hole in the projecting part of the socket below the blade. on Anc. was found with a socketed celt near Middleham.

154. in the Broadsize. Staffordshire. The socket extends to within 1 J inches of the point. Mem. Another. Proc. There was a fragment of another. Montgomeryshire. [ in Fig. vol... has been figured by Worsaae. projection is carried down along the socket from the blade. Camb. A small lance-head from Jelabugy.* in 1862. 3rd S. Another was in the hoard at Little "Wenlock..! but does not appear to have been ornamented. scabbards. gouges. p. Around the crescentshaped opening the beading is grained or milled transversely. 420.. ltli S. || Fig. In the Antiquarian btirgh Museum at Edin- are some spear-heads of this character. f \ with comparatively large Russia. 8. vol.—Burwell Fen. p. Boss-shire. Ant. Ant. was found with celts. with the smaller. at Guilsfield. Hartshorne'e "Salop. One was found in the bottom of a cairn at Highfield. § found in Roxburghshire and Stirlingshire. The cut for Fig. plain. iii. ii. \iv. 251. x. Urray. ciivr. Arch. p. 1872 — 7. 420. was found at the same time. Camb.. A very fine specimen given by Wilde (Fig. so as to allow the rivet-hole to be made in it. 421 is kindly lent me by the Society of Antiquaries of fig. . near Others woo Dingwall. 352. about 1869. 37-1) has several moiddings with a kind of cable Others have cirpattern upon them. but ward I find. Fig. ('ambridge." p. 2ti<1 S. It was found in Burwell Feu. !)fi. vol. crescent-shaped openings in the blade. With the openings on the blade rather longer in proportion. { Arch. ETC. swords. p. Proc. vertical lines (Wilde.du Nord. 372). Ant. Some which have been found of the spear-heads of this type in Ireland are highly ornamented. broken. desAnt. vol.. § p. palstaves. cular perforations in addition to the and in one instance lunate openings the socket is decorated with bands and . and the blade is in two steps or terraces. spear-head of nearly the same shown A A openings somewhat ornamented in a similar manner. There is a double bead along each side of the midrib.. Soc. ii. Scot. 217. LANCE-HEADS. Soc. &c..336 SPEAR-HEADS. 115.

ii.. those here are placed which are barbed at the base of the blade. Forfarshire. at 337 The original. " Catal. Inst. Joum. "Arch. Joum. vi. Inst. p. p. vol. there are ten circular holes. Assoc. Allies. be- sides cents. 26 . t Proc.)." pi. 4. was found in the Severn. X - Wore. dupois.. Arch. * Wilson's "Preh. 322. 2nd S. 23. v. ..* and has unfortunately been somewhat broken. v. pi. 4. Another of the same near Worcester. 11." vol. p. which was inserted in the mould to strengthen this unusually large weapon . p. Berks. but what seemed to Dr. vol. pi. In the into last class which are these weapons divided. Ann. vol. . but lighter(8 ozs." p." Arch. 187.. 30.BARBED AT THE BASE. " Horae Fer. xvi.. Ant. 422." pi. vi. avoir- Fig. 421. As will be seen. Scotland.— Denhead.^: size. Ed. was found with a bronze sword Denhead. vol. iii. two long cres- said The socket is Professor by Daniel Wilson to contain a thin rod or core of iron. i Bpeen. from an original found at Speen. 391. 404. " Horse Fer. or more than £ lb." York vol.. or in very rare instances are part. f is Oj It very heavy. pi. iii. Cupar-Angus.. xxvi. .. troy.. p. 354. 1 9 inches long. p. weighing llf ozs. 23 Arch. Soc. square at that A good typical example (10-iV inches) is shown in Fig:. Wilson to be an iron rod is really a piece serted of wood that in- has been recently when the spear- head was mended. Mus. i.

LANCE-HEADS. Some broken barbed spear-heads of larger size (about 14 inches). Mention has already been made of having been frequently * Proc. and would have made sad havoc even of a forty-pound salmon. mostly retaining their bronze rivets. If. possesses an example much like that from Speen (lOf inches) found in Yorkshire." South Brent. Curiously enough this long rivet appears to be a speciality of this class of weapons.. has the base of the blade at right angles to the socket. Glamorganshire. vol. t Arch. vol. Comb. Several bronze ferrules were included "What appears to have been a discovery of nearly the same character took place in a bog on a farm called the Wrekin Tenement. and having rivets of bronze through the sockets. pp. These are now in the British Museum. and not sloping downwards.. iii. also in Shropshire. as would probably be the case. p. raises a presumption that they were intended some special purpose. || Arch. xxvi. 339. If they were used for the chase at all. about 6 inches type. Soc. has a wanting. inches). p. p. is in the British Museum. 2nd S. Canon Greenwell. || It lias certainly common for been suggested that these weapons were fishing spears. p. the shafts encumbering the animal in its flight.^: has an oval socket pierced on one side for a rivet. long and 3 inches broad.. 160. and that the weapons were left in the wound. 84 .R. Ant. found in the Plaistow Marshes. that such weapons are too clumsy to have been used for the capture of fish of any ordinary size.* and in one of them was the bronze rivet. vol. found at Pendoylan. were found with bronze ferrules at a spot called " Bloody Pool. a small number of swords. 4th S. § Arch. Journ. xii. XIV. which... Essex. near Cardiff. Some of this type. 347. and would again serve to retain a ferrules new one. vol. I have not met with the type in Scotland or Ireland. 161. p. . ETC. near the river Humber. and their barbed form.. p. In the Broadward find § (Shropshire) were several spear-heads of this One of them. It appears to me. these got broken by the animal.338 Another (lOf SPEAR-HEADS. and about one hundred and fifty fragments of spear-heads were found.S. were found in the Thames at Kingston. X Ibid. also with the rivets still in position. They are described as being for the most part about 8 inches in length. it is more probable that they were intended for attacking large four-footed game. in the hoard. f Another (7 inches). xviii. 464. the long rivets were well adapted for being removed so as to allow of the broken shaft being taken out. such as wild oxen. vol. F. 357. xviii. so distinct from that of the more spear-heads. vol. vol. however.. and now rivet of bronze 2f inches in length still in the rivet-hole.. [CHAP. either by thrusting or darting. i. xiv. where a celt. 125. as it already has done to others. together with some fragments twisted and adhering together as if partially molten. Devon. however.

§ Canon Greenwell has a specimen from Antrim (9i inches). x.. vol. and from tip the this lias. vol. It has a portion of the wooden shaft inside. Montgomeryshire. " *>% The original of Fig. Tip. 339 company with ordinary spear-heads size . Four such (about 7 inches) were found. with spear-heads. They about 16 inches down to 8 inches. discovered in fact. is usually a small hole nearer this end than the other to allow of a pin or rivet being inserted to keep the ferrule on the shaft. 422. 128. at Guilsfield. Journ. p. The hole for the pin is still visible in the wood. § Cainb. vol. xviii. p. Ant. the inference with much probability. Devon. with eleven others. p. and is now in the British Museum. but the pin has It may have been made of horn.. They are of metal turned not made from a flat piece over. near Notting- ham. especored.. and the and character of the ferrules." very carefully and there cially near the mouth.. Franks for the use of this vol. 2nd S.1 inches). It has a single rivet-hole. bluntly pointed at the in the Thames. 423 (8\. z 2 .heads. i . been drawn that they served to ends of the shafts of spears and lances. 84. iii. which appears to be of beech. Fig. and is now in the British Museum. lower The illustrations given in Figs." vol. One was found IF articles. 211 X Proc. p. Gufisfleld.* 14 inches long. 3rd S.FEltUULKS FOll SPEAR-SHAFTS. but are cast in one piece. is very thin. Jotirn. with &c.. I i as if by trailing on the ground. South Brent. Arch. It was found in the bed of the Loire. 424 is on the scale of one-fourth. vol. the It was found original being 14 inches long. I am 250 437 indebted to Mr. . cut. A very long ferrule of this kind (14.inches) was found with spear-heads and other articles at Nettleham. perished. xii. * Arch. and are vary in show length from about § inch or less in diameter. t Proc. near London. i. Soc. Nettleham.. 332. at Bloody Pool. and with spear-heads and other base. varying in length from 10 to 16 inches. 124. but with a small disc at the base.]: spear. the end of which is worn oblicpiely. having been The metal. v.. p. f Another ferrule (9£ inches) was found. p. p. &c. near Lincoln. 2nd S.. 423 and 424 will serve to the usual character of these objects. "Montgom.. lf>0. Arch. vol. socketed celts. Coll. Soc. ii. is in the Museum at Nantes. Ant.

*** kind of pointed ferrule of a nearly square section.. . Many of these have ornaments of a late Celtic XXX Others §§§ appear to have been made from plates character upon them." Norwich vol.. the diameter did not exceed J inch. *** 1IH Vol.. 153 lib. cit. vol. iv. small ferrule of this kind was in the hoard found at Beddington. * " Arch. '• Hi Wilde. xlvii. Journ. pi. x. or trumpet. p. the spears. 3. Pointures de Vases. X Anderson's Arch. 77. 15. v. 11. Mas.. 12. which was found near Windsor. iii. Hereford. B 1.** || a-avpoiTtjp of Homer ff appears to have been more susceptible of being driven into the ground. not improbably belongs to a later date than the Bronze Period. 191 "Atlas for Nord. 5. Margaret's Park.£ and part of one in that of Wickham Park. xiii. . [CHAP.. was found at St. is described in Gordon's Septen" trionale § as "a Roman tuba. The socket tapers to a point 1|. iii. Olds. which were regarded by Dr. $J§ Ov. 25." tome ii. Nord. at Pant-y-maen." figs... near Croydon. Illl . is shown in Fig. Cornwall.. sup.. was found.340 SPEAR-HEADS." lib. &c. p. Syer Cuming \l has pointed out. 443. 517. |||| A A * Arch... xv. " Worsaae. and not to have been cast hollow. together with three others. A. 22. varying in length from 6 to Some were so small that 2 inches. x." Another of these expanded ferrules is in the Museum of the Cambridge A A Anticpiarian Society. " Croydon Preh. none more than 4| inches Fig." p. p. was found with other bronze objects at Lanant. || . Catal. 391. vol.inches from the extremity. p... In the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy are several ferrules. 118. pi. " ** Arch. pi. He points out that similar feet for The oupt'ayos or spears may be seen represented on Greek vases. ubi Millin. p. shorter form. Arm. have a chisel. Skelton's Meyrick's Anc. of which one only was of this type. near Glancych. apparently for the end of spear shafts. t Ibid. more spherical at the base. Another form. vol. copied from the Archaeological Journal. but more widely expanded " Itinerariuni at the end. LANCE-HEADS. §§ Cong. &c. 10. is shown in This. and Kom.. vol. p. with several others. xii. This point at the base was sometimes used for fighting when the spear-head proper was broken. 235. I. Comb.. viii... 23. 4th S. XIV. pi.. Some Danish ferrules present the same peculiarity of being chisellike at the base. p.53. 390. xi. fff and is now in the British Museum. Journ. p. XX Arch. some of which are said to have been found with spear-heads. 221. . 116. ttt Arch. " I'reli. § P. like Fig. 425. 7. vol. 96. Among the African tribes on the shores of the Gambia." pi.* In the Broadward find f were six tubes.." fig. with spear-heads. What appears to be a ferrule of this kind. with the faces hollowed. turned over and soldered. 1." pi. Old. 3rd S. 56. " ft Iliad. p. 55. ETC.or celt-like ferrule at the base of their shafts and this fashion extends all across Africa to Madagascar. long. p. Assoc. xv.. vol. as Mr. somewhat expanding towards the base. Both of these kinds are of more recent date than the Bronze Age. R. nearly similar ferrule. xix. The latter is now in the British Museum. vol. §§ and recurs in Borneo. 425. 427. but with a slight cylindrical projection beyond the spherical part. Clarke as having been the feet of two spears. Arch. ^^ The original. In the Fulbourn find ^f there were two ferrules expanding at the base to about 2 inches in diameter. 11.

. pi. near Lincoln. 425.CONTINENTAL TYPES. appear. t .* ferrule. iv. £ Fig. is in tbat of Narbonne.J A Fig. Arch. with openings in the blade. some of them very short. and is figured in the Archeeologia.% Padre Garrucci regards this spear as neither Greek. with loops to the sockets. and the differences they exhibit from the ordinary continental types are more marked than in any other class of bronze described. .to a barbed javelin of Roman age. " Mat6riaux. and a pointed iron ferrule.—Hereford. 341 Tapering ferrules of bronze occur in Italy. indeed. ferrule was found with a bronze spear-head. xiii.— Glancych. more conical. Another. to have been evolved in Britain or in [reland. weir found with bronze spear-heads at Alise Ste. 383. yel for the most part those of the other types. 426. Although the simple leaf-shaped spear-heads from the British Isles present close analogies with those from the other parts of Europe. Ant. with parallel lines engraved round it. but Celtic. —Fulboorn. N. or of \\\c barbed class last Several of these present peculiarities of their own. is in the Museum at Clermont F errand. nor Etruscan. Soc. nor A Latin. between 23 and 24 inches long. iv. was found in the river Witham. 211. formed part of the great Bologna hoard. about 3 inches long.. Several ferrules. p. Vol. pi. v. vol. vol.S. types : J ltcv." vol.f Some with expanded button-like ends have been found in tbe Lake-dwellings of Savoy. in the Alban Necropolis. Proe.. | Others. -i:>. xlv. some of them ornamented. probably belonging. Heine (Cote d'Or). p. h Fig. 427. ii.

XIV weapons. But. unlike the iron plays the highest skill in the smiths. and more especially in Ireland. In later times the sockets of the iron spear-heads palstaves were left with an open slit along them. a method of manufacture which produced an equally serviceable weapon. it is probable that it is towards the close rather than Not only are spear-heads almost. [CHAP. abundant.342 SPEAR-HEADS. in whatever way it is to be accounted for. and but very The spear-heads with the small apertures rarely even in Gaul. and involved far less trouble. absent from our barrows. never having been discovered in Italy. hardly any rare abroad. but the skill involved in producing implements so thin and so truly cored could only have The objects to be been acquired after long practice in casting. and socketed celts. examples of looped spear-heads from foreign countries can be cited. in the blade appear also to be of an indigenous type. so far as I am aware. they are very Tins fact. none of the spear-heads are provided with a loop. not quite. . yet looped palstaves are comparatively At the same time. while in Britain. ETC. as will have been seen. As to the position in time which spear-heads occupy in the Bronze Age. affords a most conclusive argument against assigning a Roman weapons a looped spear-head. Some of the iron spear-heads from Hallstatt and elsewhere have been made in imitation of those in bronze. if the beginning of that period. and have been welded along the whole length of their sockets in a manner which disorigin for our bronze . considered in the next chapter are also of comparatively late date. LANCE-HEADS. Though loops are such a common adjunct to the socketed celts of other countries.

which appear to have a better claim to a place in these pages are of a circular form. p.. "The Banow Diggers." pi. p. that have been found associated with the iron swords of what Mr. . . Assoc. vol. xiv. Berks.lames Parker & Co. xxii. Ant.." pi. . and has already been figured in the Archceologia. AND HELMETS. Arm. ii. like those of many savage tribes of the present day and it can only have . SHIELDS. of Denm. They would appear. xv.CHAPTER iv. Oxon. Skelton's "Meyrick'a Anc. Franks has termed the Late Celtic Period. I am indebted to Messrs. xxiii. in which red enamel plays a part. ed. Proc. near Little Wittenham." pi. indeed." pi. 298. not far from the Dyke Hills. such as wicker-work. Arch. vol. 7." Eng. been after a long acquaintance Avith the use of bronze that plates could have been produced of such size as those with which some of the ancient shields and bucklers found in this country were covered. It was dredged up from what appears to have been the ancient bed of the river Isis. vol.. near Dorchester. That which I have shown in Fig.xxvii. or hide. it will be well to early examine the arms of defence fabricated from the same metal. wood. xiv. . however. t "Horse Fer. for the use of this bloek. f with decorations upon them... 428 is now in the British Museum..+ and described by Mr. p. 144 . to belong to quite the close of the Bronze Age. Worsaae. 32. p. Journ. BUCKLERS. xlvii. p.. There are. 7:'. ±yol. and presumably of the same or nearly the same age. " Prim. such as those from the river Witharn* and from the Thames. Gage. in Having now The shields first in use in Britain were probably formed of perishable materials. Ant. several bronze coverings of shields of elongated form. 97. not quite circular in form. described the various weapons of offence of which times bronze formed the material. Arch. p. if not to the transitional period when iron was coming into use. therefore. though * "Horae Fer. 1. 330. Soc... Those. It is about 13| inches diameter.

several other examples. 11. iv. vol. or many rivet or pin holes would have been necessary for securing the metal to it. spear. 428. In general the metal is so thin that without some lining these bucklers would have afforded but a poor defence against the stroke of a sword. and two others serve as the rivets or pivots for two small straps or buttons of Such buttons occur on bronze on the inner side of the buckler. and possibly in some Avay Such a lining can hardly have / .— Little Witteuham. either in or out of use. AND HELMETS. p. in the metal with the exception of four. XV. II. shield. 488. or arrow. Another view is that these buttons fastened a strap for carrying the shield * when Journ. . 4th S. been of wood. Feet Fig. but it is difficult to determine the exact purpose which they served. The raised bosses have all been probably intended so to be. and possibly in some others. From the pains taken in this instance to conceal the heads of these pivots on the outside. of Ireland.344 SHIELDS. two of which "wrought form the rivets for the handle across the umbo.. It may be that a lining of hide was moulded while wet to the form of the shield. [CHAP. In one case* it is said that some fibrous particles resembling leather still remain attached to the inside of the shield. Assoc. In this Little Wittenham example. and A. it would appear that they were necessary adjuncts of the connected with a lining for it. it is probable that the shield itself was larger than the bronze plate. and that these buttons served to keep it in place when dry. BUCKLER?. by making them take the form and place of bosses.

I67i pi. is stated to have been found with a large bronze spear-head at Athenry.f near Eynsham Bridge. . p. There is at least one hole through the shield which may have resulted from a spear thrust.." cit. in Lord Londesborough's collection. by a circle of smaller bosses between two raised ribs. p. Ant . In some the decoration consists of a series of concentric ribs or 1m 'ads..* Co. of the Soc.. whence the cut La copied [or. 4. bosses. This shield appears to have had two buttons. t Op. or centre of rivets for securing the handle. no doubt. In the outer ring of bosses two are missing at the places w here. vii. " vol. of 167. Journ . with two circles of small bosses divided by a raised hand.— Harlech. 77. and the same number of A A Fig. 167. is in the Museum It has a slightly conical boss. j a\ hieh is shown in Fig. shield in the British Museum (21 inches). There is a marginal riin about an inch beyond the outer ring. xi. One of these loops remains secured by a large-headed rivet matching the bosses. pi.. surrounded of the Society of Antiquaries. There is also a raised rib round the margin formed by turning over the metal towards the outer face. The rivets which secure the handle have heads made in imitation of raised rings. 1 " Catal. Its diameter is 22 inches. The heads of the four rivets Eor I * Arch. xi. The inner set of bosses abuts on the umbo." p. a buckler. about an inch in diameter. only 94. presumably found in the Isis. Two of the bosses of the inner circle are the heads of much smaller buckler. p. xi. 14 inches in diameter.SHIELDS WITH CONCENTRIC RIBS. Galway. has four rows of bosses. &c. 429.. as in that found in a peat moss near Iarlech. 187. 1 . vol. were formerly the rivets of the buttons or loop^. xiii. found in the Thames. 17. which as usual are nearly in a line with one of the rivets which fasten the handle. 3 Ants. Joan/. inches in diameter (also with two rings of bosses). p. . "Horse Fer." p. 315 Another buckler. pi. J Arih. 429. Fer..

f The ornament in this instance is of a very peculiar character. Camb.— Coveney. and appears to represent two snakes. 430. that in this case have been regarded as two outermost ribs. The metal of which it is formed has been found on analysis to contain Copper Tin Nickel . Ant. . XV. vol. 3. handle are visible. Soc. rivets for holding the * " Hor. ii. — 87-55 11-72 0-40 99-67 The presence which of the nickel is probably due to impurities in the ore the copper was extracted. Camb. 12. 430. are continuous. vol. in Coveney Fen. The pattern.346 SHIELDS. Misc. BUCKLERS. Trans.. ii. twisted about into a symmetrical They are of the amphisbama kind. t Copied from 1'ubt. Ant." p. one long and the other short. 430. Soc. 167. pi.. [chap. AXD HELMETS. For.. J The second Coveney shield is shown in Fig. The one of them at the margin.. holding the handle and the two buttons are in this case visible in the spaces between the ribs.* near Ely. from Fig. as are also three on either side connected with the inner buttons. with a head at each end. p. Another of the same pattern was discovered in company with that shown in Fig. and is now in the Museum of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society..

432. is that hav mg a Fig. that they might be intended to prevent a thong which passed beneath the buttons from slipping away from them. } . 431. of which the largest number has been found in the British Isles. as will be seen by Fig.SHIELDS WITH CONCENTRIC RINGS OF KNOBS.— Covene The type of shield. 347 The buttons have a small loops by which the shield was suspended. Fig. Goodwin thought hardly be determined.— BHtli. 431. In front of each is a pair of small conical studs. hole through them. of which the purpose can now Mr.

H7.(7. Preh. series of concentric rings. XV. and Wigt. figure of the shield has been given by Professor Daniel "Wilson. BUCKLERS. 433.ive described this shield. i. there is little doubt thai this is the shield found about the year 1780 in a peat moss on a farm called Luggtonrigge. vol.. of Scot. Though there is some discrepancy as to measurement.-Bcith. AND HELMETS. 66. 3. " Mus. Soc Ant. and 434. § I ." p. Ant. 267 I " Minute Book of Soc.§ who was informed * "Catal. from about twelve to thirty in and between them circles of small studs.. p.* and is shown on the scale of one-sixth. f See Ayr. and presented to the Society of Antiquaries by J >r. p.. { but the illustrations here given will convoy a much more accurate ! A impression of its character and details.. Ann. h. xxiv.348 SHIELDS. for the use of which I am indebted to the Council of the Ayrshire anil Wigtonshire Archaeological Association. in Figs. of the Society of Antiquaries of London. where " 2nd ed. together with some of its details on a larger scale. 433. number.." vol. 16. .. i." 1st ed. 432. Coll. A Fig. p. in the parish of 1'eith. [('HAP. Ferris. very fine example of this kind of shield is preserved in the Museum. Ayrshire. p." vol.

and at the same time strengthened. 4th S. 393.* of some of whose references I have here made use. These figures give so complete an idea of the It is. Scot. have been two rivets.— Beith. Ant. and has twenty-four In the centre of each is a hollow circular rings of both knobs and ribs. have likewise been found in Scotland. umbo and that of the shield. and the handle across the inner side of the boss on the scale of one-half in Fig. on the scale of one-sixth. portion of the margin is shown full size in Fig. howoriginal that it seems needless to enter into further details.. almost identical in character. Hist. It was found in 1837. vol. Ant. See also Tr. 435. t Proc. The rivet-hole for the other has been closed by a short rivet. is shown in Fig.. viii. 434. iv. by its sides being doubled It is secured to the over. Scot. One of these Yetholm shields is 2 3 A. 434. 487. which Fig. one of which. J Other shields. T. well to call attention to the fact that the handle of the buckler. Roxburghshire. v. A together with another. with a handle riveted across it.5. Another shield of the same character was found at Yetholm f in 1870. p. * Proc. on the scale of one-fourth. 1G. vol. is rendered more convenient to grasp. of which at present only one remains. p. Soc. and Arch. P. About midway between the edge of the shield by a rivet at each end. portion of the margin of the shield is shown of the full size in Fig. ever. These shields have been described in a paper by the late Mr. AstOt . W. 349 that four or five others of the same kind were discovered at the same time.. umbo 4 inches in diameter. by the kindness of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 433. Tn land. vol. in a marshy field near Yetholm. near the place where the two others were discovered. A is made from a flat piece of bronze. p. and thus made to present a rounded edge. and the interior of the umbo in Fig. and has thirty concentric rings of convex knobs alternating with projecting circular ribs or beads the other measures 24 inches across.SHIELDS i'(HXI) IN SCOTLAND.inches in diameter. but placed so that one of the rivets of the handle is in the same line and midway between them. It is 22j inches in . each fastening a short button like those on the Coveney Fen shield. 437. 436. Soc. M'Culloch.

Fig.— Yetholm. 436.350 SHIELDS. Fig. J . diameter. [CHAP.— Yetholm. with twenty-nine concentric rings alternating with the usual small knobs. The boss is 3£ inches in diameter. XV. 435—Yetholm. AND HELMETS. BUCKLERS. 437. \ Fig.

and is now in the It was found in a peat moss at Moel Sinbod. wishing to gratify all his friends. with twenty concentric circles of knobs and ribs between. ubi sup. Arm. vol. with twenty-seven concentric rings. It has one of the usual loops and the Capel Curig. 80. pi. p. . 157. is in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle- Another now in the possession of Sir Edward Blackett. possibly in imitation || * Arch. of shield might be slung round the body." by Skelton. p. They were originally about 20 inches in diameter. Liverpool. It has had the usual buttons. and is in all respects like those just It was found about 1804 in a turbary near Aberystwith. and has eleven rings of the small bosses upon it separated by concentric ribs. convex.. Fer.Collection at It has been marked with the hammer. There is also a third hole of the same kind.. Cardiganshire. from the bed of the Than us off AVoolwich in 1830. and is now in the British Meyrick Collection Museum. lioach Smith. has pointed out that there is little room beneath the tongues for a strap of any kind. leaving triangular holes. xxiii. This specimen is 21 J inches in diameter. Carnarvonshire. vol. 4. near British Museum. Scotland.SHIELDS FOUND IN ENGLAND AND WALES. J i. 168. was dredged up.S. " Anc. This may be the shield found at Broomyholme. a fragment on-Tyne. A thin bronze plate from the Thames. together with a leaf-shaped bronze sword. C. which have been supposed to serve for the attachment of a leather strap by which the Mr.. "Catal. p. In England and Wales several such have been found. such as might have been made by a sword. about midway between the centre and the rim. 351 At the back of each of these shields. in the parish of Stamfordham.. Ant. are the usual small movable tongues of bronze. The plate of bronze has been turned over on to the face. vol. 19 inches in diameter. is in the Miyn. cut up like a cake. Journ. was found near Corbridge. and with small knobs round the margin. curious feature in this shield is that the places to which the usual little buttons were attached have been neatly cut out. too Jedburgh. One was in the * at Goodrich Court. Jeffrey.A. Northumberland. xxiii.. t Arch. Fragments j of two other shields of the same character were also found in Northumberland. F. described. Close by this hole is a clean cut. xviii. A circular shield. Bart." p. Chester-le-Street. which the owner. of which rivet of the other. with twenty-six concentric rings of studs. Roach Smith. and sent to each a slice. dug up near Newcastle-on-Tyne. so as to form the outer rim." pi. of Lond. who described this third shield.. It is about 26^ inches in diameter. Durham. vol. and like so many others were discovered during draining operations. || Arch.. Sir Samuel Meyrick had heard of another shield. § "Hor. xlvii. ix. was also in the Meyrick Collection. 92. and passed into the British Museum with the Roach Smith Collection. C. Another buckler of the same character was found in the Thames § at London. In one place also there is a hole through the shield. one of which remains. about two miles north of the Roman wall. such as might have been produced by the thrust of A a bronze spear. So far as at present known these are the only instances of bucklers of this kind having been discovered in Scotland. 95. at Ingoe. Another example f of the kind (25J inches).

is 26 inches in diameter. iv. One (27f inches in diameter) was found in a bog near Ballynamona. p. Journ. ii. it has the two movable loops or buttons There is a little patch of bronze over a small irregular at the back. [chap. and is now in the collection of Mr. Proc. U Vol.. ** " Anc. Jour. 771. X Arch. 363 t Proc.3j2 of basket-work. in Shropshire. of the head " several brass rivets intermixed with wood. 2nd S. 2nd S. Limerick. another of these circular bucklers was found. having thirteen concentric circles of small bosses and raised rings between. 118. vol. 277§ Arch. p. and helmets. that they are the mouldered remains Near the shoulders lay a Hanged bronze celt like Fig. Norfolk. was found at Toome Bar. and in their Proceedings ^f is stated to have been found in Lough Cur. . and what Sir Richard calls a spear-head of the same metal. in his examination of the Bush Barrow. Dec. and vol. Soc. iii. iv... Assoc. In one place there is a square hole. 4th S. 2u0. Roy. p. Ant. and not a shield. SeeArc/i. vol. and has twenty-six concentric circles. found on Burringham Common. including the umbo. and some thin bits of These articles covered a space of twelve inches brass nearly decomposed.|| Co. p. Soc. vol. || . x. This is 23 inches in diameter." A large dagger of bronze.| Lincolnshire. p. Ant. probably intended for the centre of a wooden buckler. XV. It is now in the Museum of shield is conical rather than hemispherical. Another buckler. This shield is now in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. with an umbo of 4 inches.. '-'ml S. Soe. p. to N. vol. 200. p. William Cray. Shields like Fig. 487.. with an umbo of A.. 203. Wilts. i. was found at Sutton St. 1864. Sir R. 518. p. § In the collection of Canon Greenwell is the bronze boss of a shield nearly 5 inches in diameter. As usual. Ant. shields. p. 1874. but which was probably a dagger. Assoc. * Troc. vol. Northumberland. ]>. having twelve concentric raised rings with the usual knobs between them.** found a skeleton lying from S. are rare. Proc. Michael's. It the bottom of a caldron. p. It has the usual holes for the rivets of the small buttons. Gent.. A shield of this kind 20£ inches in diameter. may be Another. such as an arrow or a javelin would make. Co. iii. Lough Neagh.f about five miles from Ellesmere. 155. in September. of Belfast. It has three small holes for nails or rivets in the rim. v. 289). with several concentric rings alternating with small knobs. and about eighteen inches S. hole in the shield. therefore. 26 inches in diameter.. apparently made by a thrust from a spear." vol. This boss was found at Harwood. xliii. Colt Hoare. The central portion of a bronze shield.. A somewhat doubtful instance has been recorded of the remains of a bronze shield having been found with an interment in a barrow. iii. and has been mended in one place in ancient times. of a shield. but this must be an error. In draining a meadow at Bagley. and only nineteen The boss of this concentric circles with intermediate rings of knobs. bucklejrs. p. 480. Assoc. but by no means unknown in Ireland. but which I imagine must be some more fusible alloy of copper. is also said to have been found in the Thames* between Hampton and Walton. or more it is probable. in 1843. of Ireland. vol. the Royal Irish Academy. 1865..\ inches. with the same rings of knobs between them as on the other examples. xxxvi. Irish Acad. 435. and -Ink. vol. Journ.. Limerick. Mag. the inlaid hilt (Fig. It is soldered on with a metal which is stated to be bronze.. . p. Royal Hist. 165. 9. Normanton. 395. and has been figured..

The other two are less . They seem certainly intended for a strap to pass through them. though the shields probably belong to the close of the Bronze Period. and some plates of gold accompanied this interment.* Somersetshire.. vol. "Cong. prch.. The whole Period. Madscn. Scot. B. "Afhild. and 5. of Den. no doubt remained in use until a considerably later date. xviii." vol. much to be regretted that more is not known of the real character of the object with the rivets. u. 353 a stone hammer. 31. vol.. The Italian shields mentioned by Mr.. Mr. ii. I am not aware of any portions of them having been found in the hoards of metal in which fragments of swords frequently occur. There are two small bowed handles secured with two rivets. 294. though of course there or is no evidence of the two having been lost however.. H about 15^ inches has merely four raised concentric ribs. however. The umbo of a Late-Celtic shield was among the objects found at Polden It is Hill. Woi IViin. each in about the same position as the usual button. p. Oldk." Bologna f Lindenschmit. from Italy. but their presence shows that it could not have been a shield such as those here described. character. h." Thorns' Kn- vd." pi. t See Arch. Vorzeit. but it seems probable that some other materia] than a thin plate of bronze was used for their manufac* j -J ' Arch. of the ornamentation and workmanship is. Some wooden bucklers have been found both in Scotland t and Ireland. . || One found near Bingen. about 27 inches in diameter. 1." p. p. One in the British Museum (34 inches in diameter) has a very slight boss. are arranged in such a manner as to leave a star of eight rays of smooth metal radiating from the boss. A fine with swan-like figures ujdou it. As has already been observed. i. has five concentric ribs round the boss and ten sets of knobs these.. vol. xvii. v. vol. but it is hard to determine their age. Eeft xi. "Hor. p. Taf.. " Atlas for Nord. shield in the Stockholm Museum. A A . has been thought to have been imported in diameter. in which the only rivets are those securing the handle and the movable buttons.THE DATE OF CIRCULAR BUCKLEK>.. or targets. Franks are of a different type. "Alt. like the British in character. on the Rhine. however." pi. 166. -J 1 7 Per. and is ornamented with concentric bands of sphinxes and other designs. it is somewhat hard to judge of the date of these bucklers. . Franks J has already remarked that bronze shields are of far less common occurrence on the Continent than in the British Isles. Still in the case of the shield dredged off Woolwich the sword which up accompanied it was of bronze. There are. 00. p. more in accordance with the Bronze Age than with the Late Celtic or Early Iron deposited together. pi.. He cites three from the Copenhagen Museum. two other rivets in the shield to which movable buttons may possibly have been attached. || Ant. t. § one of which. v. xiv. Circular bucklers. I think.

i. x. AND HELMETS. " De Bell. these.C. the horseman Somewhat larger proportions. Civ.. 187. Hesych. rather than buried as accessories for the dead." 36. Cetra. Journ. Ann. v.). " || Agric.S.354 ture. Cunobeline. or. This buckler in use II sine mucrone et brevibus cetris. [CHAI\ XV. whatever shields may have been in use in this country at the time of the Roman invasion. I am inclined to refer these circular bucklers to a somewhat earlier date. as already in Caesar's time iron was fully in use for swords and for cutting purposes and. the shields borne by the warriors are either long and double-pointed. t Num. from The skill requisite for the production of such bucklers must * "Preh. 48. so far as can be 14).." and Tacitus mentions the Britons as armed " ingentibus gladiis ing rim. One of these shields shows four somewhat smaller bosses." i.. vol. II See Smith's "Diet. among the latter people sometimes of that of the elephant. As is the case with bronze swords. which. Professor Daniel Wilson* remarks that on the gold coins of Tasciovanus. + probably of the second century B.. such bucklers are never found with interments. 398.f recently published. coin. xiii. large and disked. Chron. 7 and 8. BUCKLERS. are carried by the horsemen on certain Spanish coins. SHIELDS. the shields with generally which the early iron swords are found are of a different form . if round. On two small gold coins of Verica. which was among usually made of hide. and of very different construction from the Luggton- On one coin of Cunobeline. N.. and others of our native rulers contem- porary with the first intercourse with Rome." It does not appear that the ever carried the cetra. however (Evans. pi. of Ant." 2nd ed. pi. p." s. the horseman bears a circular buckler. . arranged in carries a target of smaller circular bucklers boss . as has already been observed. xvii. of Scot. the people of Spain and Mauretania.. which has been by Livy compared to the pelta of the Greeks and Macedonians. vol. p. 39. xii. § X See Arch. judged from so diminutive a representation as that given on the rigge shield. or Csetra (h-curpea. vol. or hidden in bogs. and those discovered seem to have been lost in the water. and to have been held on the arm only. «|I The clipeus appears to ha-A e been larger in and not by the handle Bfirt Romans size. would be about 2 feet in diameter. Csesar§ speaks of the "cetratse Hispanioe cohortes.. cruciform order around the central another seems to be plain except the umbo and a project- is no doubt the Cetra.

brass-founders the shields. pi. and probably most and moreover there is no appearance on ancient.+ have rims and even ridges for crests. t Lindenschrait. u. still While upon the subject of defensive armour it will be well to say a few words about bronze helmets." p. re- Heft xi. zu Ilallst. Indeed the known bronze helmets in some other countries. Others. and the appliances at command by no means The whole of the work is repousse and wrought contemptible.. 14. according to Herodian. the Britons. h.C. 355 have been great. by Hiero. i. appear to belong to a time when iron was already in use in those countries. "the ancient inhabitants of Brixen upon it." Taf. Tyrant of Syracuse. 168. In the Salzburg Museum is a fine helmet without a rim.§ between Innsbruck and Brixen. and yet so thin. A A 2 . i. Vorzeit. "A. Tib. || iii. for an inscription upon it jn-oves that was offered in the Temple of Zeus at Elis. 5. large a casting of such even substance. which took place in B. though they wore an iron round the neck and an iron belt round the body. Those which have been found in Styria and Germanyf are in some cases half ovals in form. collar * " Horae Ferales. and not improbably the original sheet of bronze from which a shield was made was considerably less in diameter To produce so and also much thicker than the finished shield. It is of simple form it with a brim around it. though there is good reason to believe that in this country at all events such objects do earliest not belong to the Bronze Age properly so-called." to Even in the time of Severus. from the spoils of the Etruscans after the naval battle of Cumoe. X Von Sacken. § Proc.ll made no use of helmets or cuirasses. 1. 1.THE DATE OF BRONZE HELMETS. vol. of the metal having been cast in the form in which . and garded them as ornaments and signs of wealth. 167. sometimes with a knob at the top. with twelve others now at Vienna. According came from Etruria. Ant. would I think be beyond the skill of most modern. such as those from Assyria and Etruria. It was found." vol. it now appears. without any rims round the opening. Taf. xii. "Grabf. like those from Hallstatt. viii. with the hammer. c.. at Mattrey. but with a certain number of small holes for the attachment of cheek- These may belong to a true pieces or appendages of other kinds. One of these bears an Etruscan inscription Pliny. 6. Bronze Period. p. but with an ornamented ridge and cheek-pieces. 474. The date of an Etrus- can helmet of bronze preserved in the British Museum* can be determined with precision. Soc.

This was found in Moorgate Street. 146. of bronze [CHAP. AND HELMETS. H Chantre. 342.. xxxvi. pierced (1. bis.spherical form tapering to a projection. A Remote Ages. 553. Waring's 10. 2nd S.) Another. Ant. xvi. Cote d'Or. and with a semicircular plate at (3. . locality unknown.|| Another was found with various bronze antiquities at Theil ^f (Loir et Cher). appear to be of much later date. more conical in form... 362.. * Proc. Ant. § Arch... pi. p. 2nd S. Some Etruscan helmets also bear horns. Soc. vol..* in the Thames.! near Waterloo Bridge. London. p. 518.) A helmet of above to receive a crest or ornament. vol. the extreme height being about 8£ inches. may just hemi. v. and is now in the British Museum. Soc. "Age du Br.) One found horns and ornamented with scroll-work and red enamel. pi. vol. the back.356 SHIELDS. XV- The following English and French helmets be mentioned." lere ptie. p. p. " || Album. with projecting (2. " Ornaments of t Proc. Ant. but probably from a river. The helmets found on Ogmore Down. This is undoubtedly of the Late Celtic Period. vol. Soc. j This was in the Meyrick Collection. has been figured by Chantre." pi. BUCKLERS. p.. but more curved in form than those on this helmet from the Thames.. and the diameter at the base nearly the same. iii. xliii. iii. xci.§ Glamorganshire." + Proc. 2nd S. helmet from Auxonne.

3(30. Wilde. One of these is shown in A similar straight tube. to which the reader is referred. p. has devoted several pages to a detailed description of the trumpets found in Ireland. those in which the aperture for blowing is at the end. 438." or 1 P. . rather than to part that of Bronze . those which are Fig. in his Catalogue* of the Museum of the Royal Academy. distinct varieties of the instrument. It is very doubtful whether the greater especially in Ireland. of which numerous examples in bronze have been found. viz. and those which are formed of sheet-metal There are also two turned over and riveted to form the tube. There are two distinct classes of these instruments. 492. so far as the process of their manufacture is concerned.CHAPTER XVI TRUMPETS AND BELLS. straight tubes which irregular sweep. 438. viz. borrowed from his Catalogue. Sir W. Irish Those which he figures are others to \\<re all curved. as the portions of a " commander's a more Some of the handle of a halberd. and it is possible that others are of even earlier date. they could be passed over without notice in hardly these pages. and those in which it is at the side. but without sufficient cause. but as it seems probable that some at least belong to a transitional period. (23 et seqq. staff. though not strictly speaking an arm either of offence or defence. J cast in one piece. Another instrument probably connected with warfare. i t Fig. is the trumpet.—Limerick. of them do not belong to the Early Iron Age.! Fig. found in company with several curved horns he has regarded. some almost to a semicircle.

In 1750 thirteen or fourteen more curved bronze horns Tyrone. 3. xiv. is As Mr." vol. 422. so as to be adapted for the reception of mouth-pieces.f Co. 270. and bell-shaped mouth is 4 inches in diameter. 1. but in some other cases It is it on the inner curve of the trumpet. there are rivet-holes at the wide ends of two of the horns. 439.. and described by* is. its taken along the external curve. The trumpet shown in Fig. Cork. Co. at the side. concerning Danish Mounds. p. that recorded by Sir in 1725. pi. iii. 440. 440 is made of two pieces which fit The exactly into each other. length will of this instrument. It be seen that at the mouths. xiii. Co. 4. vol. xx. . pi..—Tralee. xxviii. and that the end of the other is closed. " Fer. Robert Day. while in the more bell-mouthed examples no such rivet-holes are present.cs. Nevill described eight bronze trumpets found at I)ungannon. F. 5 Gough's Camden. ii.. [CHAP. as if for securing some more widely expanding end. 439. The known instance of the discovery of such instruments Thomas Molyneux. vol. Day has observed.. . which was then regarded as of Danish origin. and in other positions on these .) TRUMPETS AND BELLS. But so early as 1713 Mr. were discovered between Cork and Mallow. three of which are " described and figured in the Vetusta Monumenta. &o. $ 4th S. In this there is a lateral opening to which to apply the mouth. is now in earliest the British Museum.A. Tralee. is 50 inches. p. Trans. I and am w.358 (2 3 1 inches." pi. X Vol. Kerry." " Hor. in the Journal of the Royal Historical kindness 441. found with trumpets at Dunmanway. Archaeological Association of Ireland. F.S. according to Wilde.^ By his able here to reproduce his cuts as Figs. XVI."+ There is a remarkable resemblance between these trumpets and three of those found near Chute Hall. iv. and It will be observed that in two of them the ends are open. of a "short side-mouthed trumpet" being found with others in a mound near Carrickfergus. Fig. one of them being nearly straight. * "Discourse t Phil.

440 and 441. also kindly lent by Mr. . like Fig. To return to the trumpets from Cork described in the " Vetusta Monumenta. and are open at the end. of Fiji have also lateral openings. sented by Figs. of two pieces. 359 three trumpets. 439. 444. which are made from elephants' tusks. Day. Day has suggested the possibility of these added to give effect to blows with the trumpets in case it being became necessary to use them as weapons of offence. 439 and 440 have been found associated with bronze weapons. like Fig. 442. 440. One of these is shown in The conch-shell trumpets As will subsequently be seen. He has also pointed out the remarkable resemblance between the horns with the lateral openings and the war trumpets in use in Central Africa. Figs.TRUMPETS WITH LATERAL OPENINGS. there are small conical projections or spikes always in groups of four.— Africa. 442." Two of these are formed. but has a large orifice at the side like the Portglenone Both are provided specimen Fig. which may have been provided with some kind of mouth-piece. piece and is The other. trumpets of the two types repre- Fig.— Tralee. Fig. Mr. is cast in a single closed at the small end.

237. being broken across the mouth-piece. 439." from which a number manner.See also Proc. 443./. he says that " it is not possible by any yet discovered method of placing the lips to this mouthhole to produce a musical sound but. vol. trumpets. "Die Br. like Fig. . Kupf. t Wilde. pp. : Copper Tin . 96.392. Journ. 1087 911 99-32 One of Mr. fig. vol. Kerry. 79-34 Lead * P. the average. broken across the middle and mended in a similar " Dowris find. in the Dublin Penny Journal. kindly lent by the Council of the K. 529. . Wilde aperture at the . A'.. . [CHAP.-leg. straight tubes have a sliding ferrule upon them also furnished with a ring. that it requires a great exertion even to produce a dull sound with this As to those with lateral apertures 2 inches long on instrument. as if for holding the lips. \ Von Bibra.+ and others are in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. A trumpet. observes of a horn about 24 inches long with the end slightly everted. and one of them has similar small spikes in other positions. 282. vol. these instruments might have been used as speakingSir W. Petrie { Arch. to convey the voice to a great distance as well as render it much louder. Day's trumpets is also patched. A. ii. u. which were The horn with the side aperture also decorated in a similar manner. 423. like Fig. The metal of which most of the articles in this hoard are formed has a peculiar golden lustre which is thought to arise from the admixture of a A horn analyzed by Donovan § gave certain proportion of lead. formed part of the of specimens are preserved in the British Museum. With them were found some pieces of straight tubing. /. Some of the is provided with a ring for suspension. I. XVI. and 1 J inches wide.. tion is "" menpreviously The mended porshown in Fig. . Co. with a number of conical projections by way of ornament round the mouth." p. it has been repaired by a process of burningtogether. There is an article on Irish trumpets by Dr. 430. p. trumpet was found at Derrynane. like that adopted in broken the case of /f\ swords tioned. xii." In one instance of a trumpet. 140.f This borrowed from Wilde.. . p. iv.360 TRUMPETS AND BELLS. as conjectured by Walker in 1786.

Derry. Killarney . another consists of a nearly straight tube." ]». Co. "| Three others and a portion of a straighl tube vrere tunnel in the county of Limerick Others have been found neai § in 1787. 9 inches long./. rough metal. . 4. of Arch. expanding at each end. —Portglenone.. 172. of those I am about to cite have already been mentioned by Wilde. llib. Most. A detached portion of loops opposite each other above and below. iii. Some of these Do wris trumpets to the and one of them belonging are engraved in the " Horae Ferales. 3. razors. and here with his permission reproduced. Day. viii. Seo also Ulster Town. 1860. . and some rubbing There may have been other stones for grinding and polishing." p. Co. Tow. p. Antrim.'. broken swords. A line specimen. 444. xiii. II. The association of of the hoard now in the British Museum. 1. -•/. 5. a socketed knife. like Fig. but those here mentioned are represented in the portion articles. spear-heads both leaf-:shaped dagger and with openings in the blade. and Wilde's "Catal. /. Another slightly differing example with the opening at the side is also It figured by Mr. Co. Killeshandra xiii. DiaCrookstown and Duiunanway. a casting for a hammer-head. Cavan Kilraughts. . and comprised. 422 et seqq. some rattles or crotals. besides trumpets and socketed King's County. p. 9. 444. vol. iv. " Horaj Ferales." vol. 2. E. <>W ." * Earl of Eosse is peculiar as having two Fig. vii. such as will shortly be mentioned. »/' Ireland.. ii. iv. PL f § Vol. | " Coll. /. . a pin with a hook somewhat like a crochet-needle. was found at Portglenone. 361 in place at Downs. tanged knives.. A. Co. R. Trans. vessels of thin bronze. || 4th S.. 2. /:. -I. The other finds of trumpets have been for the most part isolated. a formed from a part of a sword. || mond " Hill. celts. The find took a broad rapier-shaped dagger-blade.. Cork. pi. G2I it seqq. with such a series raises the presumption that some of trumpets them at least belong to the close of the Bronze Age proper. Mus. 99. pi. and measures 24 i inches along the convex margin. Cornaeonway. vol. near Parsonstown. is figured by Vallanceyf and in Gough's "Camden's Britannia. G.THE DOWRIS HOARD. vol.

xii. " Tour through Britain. 565. It is.. ness of the Council of the Association. 445. but is of Coilsfield. p. in the parish of Tarbolton. not unlike a modern riveted hose pipe of leather. 74 . This strip of bronze is only half an inch in width. W.. In what manner such an ingenious and complicated piece of riveting could have been effected is." vol. the rivets being placed Their circular heads are on alternately. that there are no less than 638 of them along the seam. Wilde remarks. and by Defoe J This horn is 25 inches in length.362 TRUMPETS AND BELLS. and so minute are rivet-holes the rivets. has at the end a disc Ih inches in diameter. vol. — The Cupiingtou Horn. J Vol. According to Mr. § Proe. known as the Caprington horn. Soc. as Sir W. It was found reproduced as Fig. a subject for speculation. vi." vol. and having the abutting edges riveted to a long strip of metal extending along the interior of the tube. and consists of two portions made of sheet bronze. some time before 1G54. and is the only specimen recorded to have been found in Scotland. R. 630 ct seqq. and now in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. As the riveted variety of trumpet appears from its ornamentation to * belong to the Late Celtic Period. Scot. .S.! and is here. by the kindAyrshire. 445. p. One found near Armagh. and the cast-bronze variety is extremely scarce. the inside of the tube. t " Collections. A fine and perfect specimen found at Caprington. on the estate in Kyle. These riveted trumpets appear to be unknown in Britain. i. and has two rows of minute in it. XVI. A The metal * of which it is Stevenson Macadam. 50. F. a short mention of it will suffice. iv. embossed with the peculiar Another scroll patterns characteristic of that period. p. is no less than 8 feet 5 inches along the convex margin. and consists of Wilde. each turned over to form a tube. [chap.A. formed has been analyzed by Professor — p. 130. indeed. Ant. it has been described by Sir Robert Gordon in Blaeuw's Atlas + Fig. Cochran- Patrick. has been engraved for the Ayrshire and Wigtonshire Archaeological Association.

xiii. 30. In form crest like a mane along the exterior curve. Francisc. 1 10. lxxxvi. c. curving upwards near It has an the end into an irregularly. . v. pi. Another. xviii. 363 Copper Tin Loss . iii. " Nord." Tab. in the river Witham. is said to have been found at Battle. The curved bronze horns or " hirer. Lincolnshire.f and which also appears on some Roman coins and monuments com- ornament or it is memorative of Gallic and British victories." pi. . &o. No. p. . have usually broad bossed flanges at the wide end. .. and pi. v. and most resemble the Irish Late Celtic trumpets. xi. 199— 201. The continuance of the in use for cavalry t Evans. " Fred. "Atlas for Nord. . Oldk. ii. has been figured in the Philosophical Transactions* and is nearly straight for the One found greater part of its length (about 28 inches). 2 Arch. found in Grose. vol. Armour. • • . B." pi. 29. p. lib." pi.. v. 11. " Lib. 37 and 39. § || * Vol. ." vol.901 "13 .. and Diodorus Siculus ** says of the Gauls that they have barbaric trumpets of a special nature which emit a hoarse sound well suited to the din of battle. Jown. the end of which latter was in some cases made to resemble a fanciful head of an animal.shaped expanding mouth. Franks and others. 10000 English trumpets of bronze are of extremely rare occurrence. and has been engraved by A bronze horn about 3 feet 7 inches long.. and the tube was formed from a hammered It not improbably belongs to a sheet and soldered with tin. period not far removed from that of the Roman invasion of this country. and passages from them have been cited by Mr. tin 12. xiii. British Coins. IT Lib. Lisch. Sussex.90-20 • . iv. No. c. . X "Anc. " Anc. . . . Gough's "Camden. " Horce 1796. Worsaae." pi. vii.TRUMPETS FOUND IN ENGLAND. 10. 231. See also Livv. Olds. The metal on analysis gave copper 88. with two joints and a perfect mouth-piece. The use of war trumpets among the Celtic population of Western Europe has been more than once mentioned by classical writers. Fer. The Roman III mis II seems to have been of much the same shape as the carnyx.* MecklenburgJ is not unlike the Scotch horn in character." ti~s. 3. not unlike the carnyx which is brandished by the horseman on the coins of the British princes Eppillus and Tasciovanus. Polybius^[ speaks of the innumerable trumpeters in the army of the Celts. though smaller at the wide end." found in Denmark. ix.

Wilde. formed of a hollow egg-shaped or pear-shaped piece or piece of metal inside by way of clapper. was in two halves. some appearance of the sides having been brazed together. some may not more probably be placed in a period of transition from Bronze to Iron. T [CHAP. if. I. 237. a number of them may have been hung together. whence this cut is reproduced. if not indeed deserving to be classed as a musical instrument. and the advanced art shown in producing such castings as the trumpets from Dowris and elsewhere. indeed. pp. The sound emitted by these bells is dull and feeble. 446. Like the modern horse bells. vol. In the perfect examples at the British Museum. with a pebble or rattle. and not improbably employed in a similar attract the attention both of the eye and ear. I.364 TKUMPETS A> D BELLS. E.. Mas. the metal appears to have been poured into the mould by an aperture at the side. the sides of the holes by which the core was extracted have been hammered together so as in some cases —Dowris.. ' manner to fig. R./. In one instance there is to be almost closed." p.* seum of the Royal Irish Academy. See also Proc. . 523. The only examples which I am able to adduce are those which formed part of the Dowris hoard. "Catal. 423. Another form of instrument intended for producing sound. 612. and the rings and staples at the ends were cast together. Fig. is the bell. With the latter is a smaller plain bell of the same character and two unfinished castings. through which the core of clay that contained The mould the metal clapper was broken up. . and four in the British Museum. of bronze. XVI. Wilde observes that in casting. iv. go to prove that they must belong to the close of the Bronze Period. one of which is represented in There are three such in the MuFig. 446. same character of instrument into the Early Iron Age. A. Sir W.

indeed. is shown in Fig. 31. 15. perhaps. it is often difficult to cases. or the Late Celtic or Heatherj Early Iron Period. ii. as well as one which has had its end hammered flat. In other bronze pins. it will. and are or of brass have remained in use the same manner. to assign a date with any degree of confiever since their first dence to such objects when found by themselves.. say whether certainly of great antiquity. of which one. so as to * Greenwell. often absolutely impossible. and pins of extremely common occurrence with not unknown at the present day. all from this cave. Soc. for the use of this cut. f 3| inches long. t I'roc. awls. 130. and is. with flat heads. such as have already been described in Chapter VII. and then turned over into a loop. I m r -n In describing the objects ol this class. 2nd S. therefore. " British Barrows. be best to take first such examples as have been found in the exploration of tumuli or in direct association with bronze of small or imperfect pins there difficulty in distinguishing them from case is considerable xi • i • i • weapons or instruments." pp. 447. pins of bronze the same material are of Roman it introduction during the Bronze Period. Canon Greenwell has eleven others from 3 inches to 5 1 inches long. vol. and. p. Tins for the purpose of fastening the dress or the hair seem to have been in use from very early times. Burn. In remains. by no means easy. are to be assigned to the Bronze Period properly so called.CHAPTER PINS. were a large number of bronze pins.* they have been found associated with polished stone implements. XVII. Ant.. I am indebted to the Council of the Soi ietj . Among the numerous relics found in the Heathery Burn Cave. and not in association with other remains of which the In the antiquity can be more readily determined. Made of bone. Durham.

and long ribbed beads of pottery. in each of which is another ring (Fig." p. as Canon Greenwell has . mentary." p. X Arch. in a barrow near Wilsford. a small dagger of bronze. p. dagger. The references to the plate are somewhat confused or confusing. H Arch. with a sickle.. Ant. What is termed part of a bronze pin. p. jet. flint.! Yorkshire.. 194. Four imperfect bronze pins. Journ. smooth pin of the same character and nearly the same size. XX Op. p. 366. ** " Anc. 259. xxiv. two bronze daggers. cit. xxiii.. vol. vol. tt Op. p. vol. in a barrow at Abury. from the enThe graving. Derb. this cave form the head. vi. p..^ Wilts. i. Journ. were found in the hoard at Marden..ff A very fine one in a barrow at Lake. 449. xv. Barrows. was found in a barrow at Norman ton. p. J! which. 199. and a pipe of bone. and amber beads. The bronze pins recorded to have been found in a barrow at Bulford.. a small urn. four jet beads. Colt Hoare. pi. and some gold ornaments at Upton Lovel. 227.. and two whetstones.pp. was probably an awl. pi." p. § " Brit. 206—208. the longest 3| inches long. vol. In a barrow at Brigrnilston ^j^f an interment of burnt bones was accom- panied by a pin of twisted bronze. .|||| Wilts. ix.. XVII.f Another. but broken. were found in the barrow called Matlow Hill. xliii. p. vol. cit. 34 "Ten Years' Dig. with two rings at the head. likewise seem to come under this category. Everley. and other objects. is described as having been found with glass. 319. 6 inches long. or dagger. i Fig. was found with a flake of calcined." vol. p. 449). §§ tH "Anc. [chap. || pointed out. the head perforated (Fig. together with burnt bones. Wilts. xxii. ii." vol. also fragCambridgeshire. as also other pins men" fine tioned Sir E. Colt Hoare in a barrow near * Arch. The curious pin. Assoc. and burnt bones in a barrow on Wykeham Moor. may have been of the same character. 467. " Vest. t Arch. Arch. 207. Others are mentioned by Bateman § but in all these cases. p. See also rch. without heads. Wilts. 448).. 247.** A brass pin " by Fig.. Wilts. a whetstone. The little pin found with a lance-head. " Anc.. 90. by Canon Greenwell. 129. Journ.*** in company with burnt bones. Journ. Wilts. some chipped flints. || A |||| A . the presumed pins may have been awls or prickers. in the form of a crutch. p. p. xiv.366 PINS. 448. 210. was found by Sir R. i. here copied. 130. Brigrnilston." vol.§§ may also have been a tool of that kind.* Kent. long pin with a handle found with a bronze celt and lance-head." vol. A socketed knife and many other objects from have been described in previous pages. i. *** "Anc.

* near Carnarvon. and Rom. I am indebted to the Institute for the use of t Arch. p." pi. Journ. 94. 367 The interment seems to have been in the hollowed trunk of a but the bones were burnt. is shown in Fig. and this instrument. tree. ii. 451.— Taunton Fig. Journ. xxv.. this cut. vol. with a bi-lobed head and three perforations. was found with a two-looped palstave and a knife with an interment at Bryn Crug.PINS WITH VXNULAR HEADS. Pins with large rings for their heads have occasionally been found. 452. f 7f inches. which is described as having been in a sheath Its purpose is difficult to determine. 450— Biyn Criig. xxxvii. "With them was a dagger with three rivets. vol. 451. "Brit. One such from Taunton. of wood lined with cloth. Fig. 450.. Everley. p. 246. \ Fig. . It is shown in full size in Fig. It was found * Arch. Taunton. { Another pin (4£ inches). Tring.— Chilton Bustle.

* Somersetshire. ix. 348. a small cross. indeed. 2eme Mem. was found in a barrow between Lewes and Brighton.! with a long pin. to belong more That shown in truly to the Bronze Period. 7. j is in the collection at Stourheacl. which. Franks for the use of this . River Wandle. 453. " Album. from Wilde. Fig. to be subsequently mentioned. was of this type. § 1. G. in the Thames at the mouth of the river Wandlo. and was presented to me by Mr. Another with a straight pin was found at Chilton Bustle. XVII. It is 7f inches in length. p. xi. 454. pi. The point. C. vol. vol. inches. A pin of the same character from the Lake-dwellings of Savoy has been figured by Rabut. pi. xvi. p. 12 A Laches long. p. || Arch. Journ. attached to the front of the ring. Fig. ix. Journ. vol. One of the two pins reported to have been found with bronze bridles and buckles of Late " Celtic character. ii. vol. iv. found with a bronze sword. formed of It was found five knobs. ut tt Arch. The part forming the pin is bent." ** Allies. it would appear intentionally. 454 was. 452. but for what purpose it is difficult to guess. p. Another pin. 482.. probably from a Wiltshire barrow. at Hagbourn HilL^f Berks. a socketed celt. 469. 265. 149.E.. i "Wore. [chap. Edwards. Coll. H Arch. He regards the pin as having been intended to adorn the hair or fasten the dress.. rings. was purposely curved.. with palstaves. t Suss. and is flat and thin.368 PINS. The annular part is divided in the middle. I am indebted to Mr. of much the same fashion." || ' ' . and a pair of looped bronze bracelets. Mr. and the bidging portion in the centre is pierced probably for some means of attachment. and the pin beneath is usually curved. It has.** Worcestershire. and there is a small loop on ' Fig . 17. A much larger form its of pin appears. if not indeed to the " Late Celtic. but with the ring larger (being oval and 4£ inches by 3 inches) and with the pin part shorter. also has the point curved. Franks thinks.. 106. like Fig. and other objects. spear-head. These Another (6 are now in the museum at Alnwick Castle. p. Arch." p. The other had a flat head.§ Another form has a smaller ring at the top. pi.. and is now in the British Museum. 452. Fig. however. The bulging portion is in this instance nearer the head. as well as with a bronze lance-head and socketed celt. vol. moreover. The pins of this character seem to belong to quite the close of the Bronze Period. has a piece of amber set in it. 8. X Arch. I have a pin of the same kind (4J inches) found at Holt.jf Surrey. It is shown full size in Fig. and palstave. with ring 2 inches in diameter). xliii. shows an example of this kind. from style of ornamentation. in the bed of the Severn. Another object of a similar character.

vol. Tho head and upper part of the stem are decorated with parallel rings and oblique hatching. Fig. though there was probably a time when both stiletto and bodkin served a double purpose. the next cut. " p. Thurnam. vol. The long pin already mentioned as found in a barrow near Lewes f has an expanded head with a boss upon it. 11 Dr. 48. ubi sup. Thurnam. 369 part. Somerset. F. 4G9. Large pins of the same character have been found in the Lake-dwellings of France. Arch. Soc. with a double perforation. Cull. X Proc. Museum is.. as in Fig. In character this pin much resembles some of those from the Swiss Lake-dwellings. vol.. Arch. engraved in his unpublished plate. Ant.^] Sussex.A. Scratchbury. p. Smaller pins. as may be seen in Fig. iii.S. Soc. 260. . Ant. (Ilorslield. It Another from a barrow at Canierton. 456. fine pin. but no " his one at the present day would quietus make with a bare bodkin ' . pi.. of the late Celtic A Period. p. The upper part of the pin is ornamented with groups A |j A A * Arch. and Italy. J is large bronze pin." vol. 456. Lowes. i. have not unfrequently been found. | 8it88. has also been figured by Dr. Mantell. 457.§ in his memoir so often quoted. the side of the pin. nearly 12 inches long.PINS WITH SPHEROIDAL HEADS. 455. as occasion might require. xii.i| is here reproduced as Fig. and were used. very similar pin was obtained from a barrow near Firle. Sum. for this -1"). Colt Hoare in a barrow at Scratchbury. found on Salisbury Plain. described as having a flattened head. am viii. has a hollow spheroidal head. Switzerland. ornamented on one side with a This which is now in the British pattern. p. an ornamented lozenge-shaped plate. iii. xliii. and Proc. 408. ii. either as weapons or as tools. ornamented at the blunt end. by Dr. instead of a hole through the bulging This specimen was found in a mine near the river Fowey. || 2nd S. with a head of this shape. vol. when a new work was begun for Bearching after tin ore. $ Arch. however. It is by no means impossible ihat these larger and heavier pins may at times have served as piercing-tools and The stiletto sureven as weapons. 13£ inches long. fragment of one discovered by Sir P. was found near Enniskillen. and about 4 inches below.. i: I. and Camertou. vol. is Fip. li. indebti d to the <ouncil of the Soc.. pi. vives as a ladies' piercing-tool. 12). I p. beneath which is a small loop for attachment.* at a depth of ten fathoms from the surface. 455. 414. 8..

Journ. J North of Ireland. xv. 461. Ireland. 457. i ings. In the spaces between are bands of parallel dotted lines. The pins with spherical heads. with concentric circles round them.and left-handed. xxxiv. I have. forming threaded screws alternately right. with concentric circles around them.. pi. ornamented by circular holes. p. $ Fig. are as yet unknown in Britain. Assoc. 1 Sec.+ of * t Arch.370 of five small headings PINS. Cambridge. nevertheless.). however. H. t of which the lower part is twisted into a spiral. much like that of a modern many screw." pi. a portion what appears to be the large spherical head of a pin. near Amiens. " vol. which formed Instead of holes. Ireland. p. 458. 1 round it. [chap. it has bosses at intervals. Fig. J Like Keller. J Pig. Ireland. part of the hoard found at Dreuil. and between these are spiral ribs. . xxxiv. Luke-dwellings. so common in the Swiss Lake-dwell- Fig. . 459. of Ireland. 460. Hist. vol. Fig. 394. 97. Arch. has a head with a notch in it. 2. v.* A long pin from Galway. XVII.

p. and is preserved in the museum of that town. 463. Some German pins * are provided with side loops in the same manner. from Wdde. 5. squares. AVith it were socketed celts. casionally the head seems disproportionately large to the pin. and llf inches long. £ Fig. of which the head is shown in Fig. with the head !* inches in The diameter. A large pin." Tab.—Ireland. § xxiv. found at Keelogue Ford.\ inches long. 371 Swiss pins have knobs of tin. Journ. 460.. quent occurrence. —Keelog-ue Ford. Assoc. sometimes of large size. Fig. Similar pins with flat heads have been found in the Lake-dwellings of Savoy and Switzerland. [>. 461 is from a specimen of my own found in the North of Ireland. Fig.. Fig. This cut and Figs. face of the disc has five concentric circles upon it. with triangles. j shows a small pin of the same kind. Arch. are of not unfrePins with flat heads. 462. § is only 5. One with a plain flat head. A. inlaid with An Irish example with a small loop at the side is shown in Fig. L94. a sickle. and 465. i. Wilde. are kindly lent by the Eoyal Irish Academy. and tho pin lOf. fitf. 462. with the upper part beaded. grand pin of this kind from Ireland. The large flat heads are often highly ornamented. 458. 459. B B 2 . The pin from Ireland. U7. in Fig. iii<. Lisch. Mus. R.inches long.PINS WITH FLATTENED HEADS. from a specimen in my own collection. vol. was in the hoard found near Amiens.." fig. t " Catal. found near Cambridge. but without any loop and with a more ornamental head. and with a small side loop.. are more frequently turned over so as to be in the same plane as the pins and be visible when stuck into a garment. 448. 457. 462. "Freder. and even red stones inlaid in the perforations. The ornamental expanded heads. J Op. while the head itself is 2} inches in diameter. of 2nd S. 8£ inches. A pin of the same general form. is 13|. 449. Scot. and an English example. 453. 446).inches long. of which the highly ornamented head is shown in Fig. or some other metal than bronze. 558. 6. 463. t one-third of the actual size. is shown in Fig. Frandsc. fit. &c. It has apparently at some time been longer. I. so that not improbably those which now show merely holes in the metal Some of the may have been horn or some perishable material. 463. < )> That A and ring ornaments between them. is figured by Wilde (Fig. which usually have a conical projection in the centre. and appear to belong to the Bronze Age. also from Ireland.. is in tho British Museum.

Olds. borrowed from Wilde. Skye. p. vol. of the large gold clasps.. XVII." p. Caithness.— Edinburgh.". iii. A. 558. Another form of pin has a cup-shaped head. Altogether the subject of pins to the Bronze Age in the British Islands is one of belonging * Journ. but they nearly all belong to a later period than that of which I am treating. This discovery seems to prove that the pins of this type belong to quite the latter part of the Bronze Period. Pins with flat heads turned over so as to lie parallel with their stems are of common occurrence in Denmark.inch deep. Arch. 217. || "Catal.. engraved in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Scot.. 465. and the heads are sometimes plated with gold. Another of the same type from Ireland * is said to have had the cone originally gilt." fig. [chap. 2nd S. Assoc. Scot. of Ireland.S. Aberdeenshire. not unlike the termination Tig. t Proc. vol. which was found with a number of bronze swords at Edinburgh. Hoc. Eig.^ is also of later date. The head of another. 10£ inches long. am indebted fig.— Ireland. with the cup-shaped head £ inch in diameter and A. 450. For the loan § 11 of this block I I. 194. Ant.^ They are usually ornamented with concentric ribs. 464. so frequently found in Ireland. || Sir W. The stems are also often decorated. J Worsaae. is in the same collection. 239.. Another pin of this type. be. A Scottish specimen of the same character as Fig. with a small cone projecting in the bottom of the cup. 465. i. R. 462 (9 inches). The head is If inches in diameter. vol.! is shown in Fig. p. p. was found with a bronze sword and two spear-heads in peat near the Point of Sleat. p. . One of these is shown in Fig. That from a brooch at Bowermadden. Mus. " Nord. together with bronze swords. 464. Vol. like drawer-handles. Wilde has given figures of numerous other types of pins. 1'rov Hoc. found at Tarves. § An example of this kind was found in the Heathery Burn Cave. N. 102.372 PINS. to the Council of the Society. i. Ant. 322.

and it is to be observed that no pins decorated with gold have as yet been found with bronze weapons in Britain. so few of the more highly developed types having been found in actual association with other bronze relics. . suited the native taste better than decorations manufactured from the same metal as that which served for tools and weapons and that when metal was used gold had the preference. amber. though they have occurred in other countries. such as some kinds of pins. In England especially the rarity of bronze pins. for useful articles.THEIR DATE DIFFICULT TO DETERMINE. as compared. for instance. nearly as great a scarcity of bracelets and of some other ornaIt may be that for personal decorations the jet and ments. well have served. in the present state of our knowledge. At the same bronze may time. which during our Bronze Age were so much in fashion for ornaments. 373 which. there is Europe. is very striking. . it is difficult to treat satisfactorily. with their abundance in the Lake-dwellings of Southern As will subsequently be seen.

13. HI). as they had intended. AND PERSONAL ORNAMENTS. must. will be Manlius. 4. " Med. Although some of the pins described in the last chapter were destined for ornament rather than for use.C. Among the ancient Gauls gold torques appear to have been abundant.f having in found in the Archaeological Journal. and to have formed an important part of the spoils acquired from them by their Roman conquerors. though now. . to which the present chapter is to be devoted. be considered as essentially ornaments. p. 3G1 slain a gigantic Gaul in single comwhose torque he took from the dead body after cutting off the head.* when Flaminius Nepos gained his victory over the Gauls on the Addua. c. or tore.. soldiers to their bat.." X Cohen. $ Vol.CHAPTER XVIII. T.i family of the Manlia Gens. BRACELETS. lib. iii. pi. Two interesting papers "On the Tore of the Celts. 5. Samuel Birch. The name of the Torquati. and placed it around his own neck. little better than an ornament. a torque made from the spoils of the Roman god of war. The torque. § Although these gold torques * in many instances undoubtedly Florus. Flaminius erected to Jupiter a golden trophy made from the Gaulish torques. t Aulus Gellius. they cannot as a class be regarded as purely ornamental. ii. though possibly in some cases The modern epaulette affording protection to the neck and arms. This word torques was applied to a twisted collar of gold or other metal worn around the neck. . RINGS. vol. Cons. c. ii. xxvi.C. was derived from their ancestor. The collars and armlets. EAR-RINGS. 27. I think. ix. p. B. About 223 B. as a rule. TORQUES. it is related that instead of the Gauls dedicating. On some of the denarii of the Manlia family $ the torque forms a circle round the head of Rome on the obverse. takes its name from the Latin torques." by Dr. was originally intended for the protection of the shoulder. which again is derived a torquendo. 368 .

p. 466.. p. p. but smaller gold torque was found near Boyton. they are sufficiently well known to antiquaries to render it needless for me here to enter into any minute The commonest form presents a cruciform description of them. 464. and at end there is a plain.. nearly cylindrical bar. turned back so I have a fine example of this kind of as to form a kind of hook.— Wedmore. section. Op.* which is said to have had the extremities secured together by two small penannular rings of gold. belong to the Bronze Period. eit. 9G. p. 217) and other bronze torque. Suffolk. so that the twist is that of a four-threaded screw. One 42 inches long was found on Cader Idris . xxi. found with a bronze anvil (Fig. either Fig. Staffordshire . xx vi.:. eit. ' Some line examples of these funicular f Arch.t others in Glamorganshire + at PattLagham. vol. § X Arch.§ and in several . vol. ::. embracing the two terminal hooks. Op. '>'>'.. 471. £ A similar instruments and weapons at Fresne la Mere. xiv. vol. . vol. xxvi. Calvados.TORQUES OF GOLD.. other parts of Britain.

v. in the parish of Wedmore. 81. $ as funicular. This latter. ETC. pi. The weight of * See Wilde's " Catal. vol. and " Vetusta. RINGS. -f inch broad." vol.. sounds doubtful. thicker and bulkier in their proportions than those of gold. 466. torques of gold. hut of smaller size. 466 and 467. —Wedmore." p. to me. 467 ribbon of metal. 4? copied that known The original was found with two others at "Wedmore.. . 70.:]: it appears that they were found near Heath House. t Vol. BRACELETS. as a rule. xxi. The form most frequently discovered in the British Islands is Fig. p. They are never provided with the projecting cylindrical ends already mentioned.376 TORQUES. et seqq. . as the wire is probably a later addition. XVIII. are in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy at Dublin. X Arch. from the Archaeological Association Journal. xxix. 467. xii. twisted. 469. * The torques formed of bronze are. [CHAP. and that with them were two celts and a few amber beads strung on a wire. One of these is of the same type. and not qiiite so and the other is made of a flat closely twisted. as shown in Fig. pi. as well as of other varieties of the same kind of ornament. vi. From another account of these torques. EAR-RINGS. Journ.. . one of which is shown in Fig. and the ends are usually left straight or but slightly hooked over so as to interlock. as shown in Fig. Monum. Somersetshire. which is copied from the same plate as Figs. 2.

was found with a bracelet. A. || J Op..f Edington Burtle.34. vii. vol. of Lake House. and of the smallest 1^ ounce. about 9 inches in diameter. 468. Duke. vol. Fig. 46S.. Two others found with armillpe in Dorsetshire are now in the British. and Nat. 77. are two fine torques of this kind. * Arch. some rings. and a two-looped palstave. and about 71 inclirs in The smaller is thicker. p. 489. Arch. E..xxiii. Sanford. Two very fine torques. 8f inches in diameter. p. Ant. somewhat imperfect. 466. 481.. near Salisbury. of the second 2 ounces. like Fig. and shows a coarser twist. xxxvii.FUNICULAR TORQUES. Soc. tit. but of slender make. one large and heavy. xiv. were also found in Somersetshire on the Quantock Hills. 468. which were found near Amesbury. vol. 91. 1S. p. 234. Museum. Troc. and another. and the other smaller and more slender. was found at Pen the same county. 107. Somersetshire. Troc. 37: the largest is said to be i pound. . portion of another torque. 27. like Fig. Journ. § Arch. about 6f inches in diameter. Fig. § in 1794. In the collection of the Rev. v. near Pits. The larger of these is closely twisted. p. whence this cut is lent by the Council. The weight of one of the torques is reported to have been nearly 2 pounds. The armilla) are penannular and of rlimn- them || boidal section. 94. Another torque of the character of Fig. and four palstaves. f Som. and is diameter. pi. at West Buckland.* and is in the collection of Mr. Within each of A m Fig.]: With the latter was a portion of a ribbon torque like Fig.—West Buckl uid. vol. is said to have been placed a looped palstave. two bracelets. Soc. W. 87. vol. With them were several spiral rings closely resembling Fig. Hist. i. p. It is shown on the scale of one-third in Fig. 469.

211. some bronze rings or bracelets. $ Arch. p.— Wedmore.. Coll. vi. The palstave. [CHAP. vol. and in the former metal has often been found in Scotland. Assoc. and vary somewhat in weight. with four looped armlets and a palstave without loop. Dorset. vol.-'1 Two spiral rings were found with tliem. RINGS. p. are several specimens found at Spetisbury. Journ.. pi. It is of a type which occurs more frequently in gold than in bronze. which resemble Fig. Journ. 372. vol. but unfortunatel} broken. j near Brighton. 232. Hants. at Blandford. { Arch. which also was broken across the middle. Aberii. ETC. which is broken in the middle. On each extremity was a spiral ring of 7 Fig. 88. At regular intervals round it lay the four bracelets. vol. t Arch. Suss.. Journ. p. Elginshire. and a thinl ring is shown in the published drawing.. Arch. Others have been found at Culter. xvii. BRACELETS. The third of the torques already mentioned as found at Wedmore is shown in Fig. vol. found in Burwell Fen. lay within the circle of the torque. * Arch. In some instances the plain ends of the torque are left without hooks. considerably larger than the rod forming the torque. which is now in the British Museum. 267. vol.378 TORQUES. 469. Lanarkshire . $ bronze. 469. . XVIII.. Durden. Two small torques. Journ. 2. § Belhelvie. xxi. 482. and a palstave are recorded to have been dug up in Woolmer Forest. Assoc. v. Assoc. p. Cambridgeshire. EAR-RINGS. Such is the case with the fine collar found. at Hollingbury Hill. xxix. f I have a thin torque about 6J inches in diameter. xxi. apparently on purpose.. Arch. p. 323. In the collection of Mr. Several such were discovered under a large stone at Urquhart.

71. Some of these are in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh.* King's County. I. although socketed celts are rarely if ever found with them. There are three or four such in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. A gold torque of this class found at Clonmacnoise. has oval balls at each end instead of hooks. G03. So far as at present known.— Yarnton. and the derivatives from it in which the spirals sented by solid cast plates with volutes upon them. fig. and the nearest analogues to the English torques with which we are acquainted ar< to be seen among those from Northern Germany and Denmark. . with broad expanding ends terminating in are represpirals. 470. as tin • is also that with the twist alternately to the right and to * left. Ross-shire. rare in the North of France. Mua. 11. these twisted neck. and were introduced into Britain from the Continent. The inference is that. Rannoch. the funicular torques of bronze more abundant in the southern and western counties than in other parts of England. J Scotland and Ireland. are tin i They appear to be unknown both in Fig. The form is.RIBBON TORQ1 I 5. 379 deenshire. A. "Catal." p. and elsewhere.. Wilde. Perthshire. Little Loehbrooni. are nevertheless unknown in Britain. however. Danish form. Tin.rings belong to the close of the Bronze Period. though torques of Late Celtic patterns occur in those countries.

iv. Ant. if not indeed to the Late Celtic or Early Iron Age. 247. —Mon1f?omcrysliire. xi. but with the lines much closer together. Aberdeenshire. was found near Winslow. 471. in Britain [CHAP. p. Fig. 467. Montgomeryshire. Bucks. made of a simple wire. EAR-RINGS. 419 . 3. The ends are ornamented by hammer marking." vol. t Proc. 471. The form probably belongs to the close of the Bronze Period. a type which is also common among bracelets both in bronze and gold. 2nd S. "Montgom. is shown in Fig. xix. ETC.380 TORQUES. BRACELETS. Another form of bronze torque found a plain piece of wire. That shown in Fig. Eolleston when visiting the place.. vol. found at Lumphanan. * Arch. each nearly quadrangular. Several of them were too small to have served as torques for the neck.. with the ends turned back so as to form hooks.. 470 lay near the head of a contracted skeleton at Yarnton. vol. Coll. 429. described as of copper. four miles from Oxford. p. p. plate. . XVIII.. and were most probably bracelets or anklets. hammered out at is made from end into a broad. A torque about 5 inches in diameter. kindly lent by the Council of the Society of Antiquaries. pi. RINGS. | One of them is said to have had pendants upon it. A torque of this kind. * and may also be Late Celtic. at a spot which seems to have been a I obtained it through the kindness of Professor prehistoric cemetery. To these penannular ornaments I shall have to refer further on. iii. a fesse gules Two in the same manner. Soc. Another form of torque is made from a stout wire expanding into small fiat discs at the end. iv. vol. A herald would engrave azure. These objects were found with seven others in the parish of Llanrhaiadaryn-Mochnant. together with a bracelet. torques of the same character. In a line with the wire forming the torque is a slightly raised the expanding parts above and below flat band perpendicularly fluted " " are fluted horizontally. . p. are in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. and on each a lenticular button of metal.

. p.. 14S. vol. p. Ant.. vol. 2f inches by 2 inches inside. entirely of bronze. \Arch. t Arch. 100. with pins to form the joint. 521. p. 1 ozs. One found. Possibly. perhaps. 595. ii. p. 3. weighing no less than 3 lbs. The ornamental beads are natter. dowelled together with iron pins. one part resembling a row of beads.. and was found at Embsay. Rochdale. p. § A torque.. It is described as appearing to have been adorned with precious stones. with leaf-shaped projections upon them.. vol.. Kent. p. 258. . . Some others were also found there. like some other objects of Late Celtic manufacture. They are frequently made in two halves. xiii. 517. p. with various other bronze relics. xxiii Arch. Two such. xxv. x. j This was in halves. is made in two pieces. they are less common in bronze than in the more precious Bracelets of the Fig.. near "Worcester. xxiv. avoirdupois. xi. vol. ff with the torques already mentioned.^| is of this kind. tapering towards the ends. pi. Arch. p. ''<p. so that a brief notice of them will suffice. pi. || p. Somerset. metal. Mow-road.** expands at one end and tapers at the other.* About one-third of it is formed by a solid piece of bronze of flat section. and between them are smaller pulley-like beads. This also is in halves. Arch. were found in Dorsetshire. collar found in Lochar Moss. and are often decorated with a series of ornamental beads. vol. The rest consists of fluted melon-like The belong to the A beads with pulley-shaped collars between them. xviii. on Holyhead Mountain. 1'roc. In somo instances the section of the metal. was in the Heathery Burn Cave hoard.LATE-CELTIC TORQUES. p. xxxi. p. Assoc. Lancashire. near Skipton. iii. i. the inner side of the ring is natter than the outer. 307 11 . vol. Journ. the other engraved like a closely plaited cord. 234. formed in was found at much the same fashion as that from Lochar Moss. vol. Jour)/. p. ft Proc. . Dumfries-shire. pi.. xiv. Yorkshire. This latter is too small for an adult person. Journ. gold. is nearly square. it may have been inlaid with enamel of different colours. 2. ** Arch. As is often the case. vol. xxx. 554. was found in the parish of Wraxall. Arch. at Ty Mawr. * Arch. 167. A portion of another collar found at Perdeswell. They appear to have been strung on an iron wire. vol. Ant. vol.f Claines. xxxiv. One found with the hoard at Marden.. One. vol.. 83. Journ. || same type as the torque and bracelet shown in 471 have not unfrequently been found in Britain. Arch. 381 other varieties of torques found in Britain seem decidedly to Late Celtic rather than to the Bronze Period. xxx. is now in the British Museum.. Hoc.\ol. and are now in the British Museum. has the iron wire still preserved. Soc. having the face ornamented with a peculiar wavy pattern and the outer rim with cabled lines. They are sometimes slightly hollowed at the expanding ends. xxxii. Another. though. S Arch. Another plain penannular bracelet tapers off at the ends instead of expanding. expanding at each end. hinged or dowelled together. instead of being rounded. 251. Another.

J /'. —Achtertyre. Premnay. slightly thickened at the exin a peat moss at Conage. A. Fig. 472. the one slender and the other thick. iv. 6'. another spear-head. tremities. S. 473— Redhill. Northumberland. one of which is shown as Fig. ix. Soc.382 TORQUES. vol. f Other penannular armlets. This very simple penannular form of bracelet is found all over the world. were found at Achtertyre. Two such bracelets. . 472. Morayshire. J found with socketed celts at Eedhill. i. J and are now in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh as is another found with burnt bones near Preston Tower. Several have been found in Scotland. of other bracelets tin. RINGS. 138... p. * Proc. p. Banffshire. 8. and of { and some fragments full-size in Fig. a spear-head. . East Lothian. 388. inches in greatest diameter. One of these is shown Another. and is indeed the form of necessity adopted wherever it became It was common the fashion to wear thick metal wire round the arm. 435. were 2£- was found Fig. vol. XVIII. BRACELETS. EAR-RINGS.* in company with a socketed celt. Fig.. Ant. Three plain penannular bracelets were in the hoard of palstaves and socketed celts found at Wallington. [CHAP. 473. A. Scot. vol. Aberdeenshire. t P. ETC. 377- S. p.

two small torques and a celt are said to have been found with them. and such as are countries." p. vol. but plain.. Four plain armilla? of bronze found with the spiral ring. Bateman. l'roc. Though the two ends are brought more closely together than usual in continental examples. and broader. Fig. . vol. Anc. are also in the Bateman Collection. 2nd S. &c. ii Boi . p. Assoc. i." p. Jowrn. hammered copper bracelets of North America* are usually penannular. and ornamented with punctured markings. " N. 475. more massive. and engraved with parallel lines...i Corn. 162. p.. J by the late Mr. 88. \i.." vol. § As already mentioned. also found at Liss. 167. vol. v. chevrons. pp. " 92. 474. 22. shghtly oval in section. 9G . were found with an agate bead and a spindle-whorl in a tumulus near Peninnis Head.i-ni. J "Ten Years' Digg. 1 7. Soc. p. Froc. Hampshire.-Scilly Fig. t Arch. 204. Jowrn.. common in most continental In the British Museum are two bracelets.. Ant. Soc. p. together with the remains * Schoolcraft. in "Woolmer Forest.— Liss. the ancient Assyrians. formed of rounded bronze fully inch in diameter. and several bronze bracelets of this form The Sifr. and with a palstave. are in the British Museum. in South Babylonia.. Ornamented bracelets. are scarce in Britain. 489. An imperfect armlet of thick bronze wire was found in a barrow at Wetton..s:. Miss. and weighing about 12 each.*' p. among. 122 . in from Tel < the Stilly Isles.". "Ethn. vol. as will be seen by Fig. 474. They were found at Liss. such as have been found || in abundance in the Fig. ii. Squier and Davis. Swiss Lake-dwellings. The patina upon them closely resembles that on the celt Fig. so they were probably deposited together. Mon. f One of these is shown in Fig.PENANNULAR BRACELETS. Two very massive penannular armlets. 47'). Ant. the general character of these bracelets is much like that of some French and German specimens. p. was found with another armlet of smaller diameter. ix. Res. 83. Arch. I "Catal. Hants. Vail." 10G. A curious penannular armlet with flat broad ends..

. Fig. and is possibly Saxon. One of the bracelets from the find at Camenz.. 477. [CHAP. x. vol. 200. were found in I have an Dorsetshire. Assoc. is of nearly the same type. p. at Winterhay Green. under which was a small stones. 2nd 8. A bronze spear-head is stated to have been found with it. Soc. . v.— Stobo Castle.384 TORQUES. vol. and is represented in Fig.§ in Saxony. It is now in the British of a skeleton. p. Soc. xx." p. found with a palstave. Ant. EAR-RINGS. bent into a circular form. p. xii. 8. 477. The Council of the Institute have kindly li-iit this figure. at Stoke Prior. ii. one with the ends slightly apart. Journ. BRACELETS. p. burnt and with apparently calcined bones (3 inches) of the among them. Another armlet same type was found with an urn Fig. beneath a flat stone. shows another form of armlet. 332. another of the same kind. RINGS. " || Uanow Diggers. Ant. a later period than that of which I am treating-.. i The original. one in the parish of Milton.. 2. 277. Scot. t Proc. XVIII. 77. vol. were found near Stobo Castle. It may belong. Journ. p. kindly lent by the Council of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.* "Worcestershire. ETC. Somerset. imperfect armlet of this kind. collection of and lying on a large boulder. vol. Museum. Ill. pi. f Peebles-shire.].. || * Arch. } containing burnt bones in a cairn in the parish of Lanark. lo. vol. X Arch. xvii. Ihninster. pi. 476— Stoke Prior. iii. S Proe. made from a bar of nearly semi- Fig. 14. Two circular armlets. together with circular section.

1854. and Eoman date were found in the same cave. but narrower. xxxv. 479. xliii. though from information kindly furnished to me by the Eev. vol. with chevrons at the end. Wilts. Some plain penannidar bracelets from that district are in the same collection. Lukis. T § Hoare's "Anc. vol.. was found with an interment in a barrow at Castern. pi. W. C. was found in Thor's Cave. vi. 167. '*>Ten Years' Dig. Wilts. p. somewhat different and more elegantly ornamented armlet from Cornwall f is shown in Fig. was found near Lake. made from a flat ribbon of metal. 480. Another. 91. with a jet armlet. and Xat. Duke. An armlet of nearly the same character. vol.. of which some of tin.^ bracelet of bronze. Staffordshire. 129.^: near Wetton. p. i. \ inch broad. Ant. Assoc. ornamented with four parallel bands of vertical lines. was found in a barrow at Normanton." vol. p." p. Another. 478. fluted bracelet was found with rings and other objects at Edington Burtle. v. 469. Derbyshire.. In this example the ends overlap. F. — Cornwall. Ant. 481. Arch. C C . 478. it appears to be one-half.BEADED AND FLUTED BRACELETS.S. Stone Arch. The scale has been said to be one-third. iii. Celtic Eemains of of Late Fig. 417. about \\ inch wide.. pp.A. II Som. . Hist. for the use of this cut. Fig.fragments are represented in Fig. 172. cut) . xx. 247 Imp. Soc. 479." p. debted to the Council of the Soc. A A A bronze armilla. Lukis. E. t Proc. 385 penannular armlet of bronze. 430. and Fig. and is shown in Fig.. encircling the arm of a skeleton. % Bateman.. 211. Proc. ornamented outside with a neatly engraved lozengy pattern. "Cave Hunting.. in the cromlech of La Roche qui sonne* in Guernsey. fig.|| near Wetton. " Reliquary. Somersetshire. 406. 2nd S. v. F. —Guernsey. Arch. 480. Tvith compressed oval knobs at the extremities. 344 (I am indebted to the Council for the use of this " Anc. was found with a bronze torque and a two-looped palstave A A * Arch." p. p. 1 Dawkins. vol. || am in- . p. with a series of small longitudinal beads or mouldings upon it. Soc.§ Wilts. p." vol.. was found by Mr. and is in the collection of the Eev. and is shown in Fig. vol.— Nm-iiianton. Join-)/. C. 160.

Dickinson. xxxvii.— Heathery Bum. Ant. t Arch.* Somersetshire. BRACELETS. One from the Heathery Burn Cave. p. were found at Hollingbury Hill. p. the two ends of the bar being bent over to form a hook. much eut. * shown in the figure was formerly in the collection of the late Sir Walter Trevelyan. Journ.— West Buckland. forming two pairs. vol.. RINGS. vol. in a moss at Ham Cross. That Fig. vol. Sussex. They I have seen two others of the same are now in the British Museum. which engages in the central loop. Bracelets constructed on the same principle are sometimes formed of thinner wire. is shown in Fig. v. p. though subsequently the more delicate work was added by means of punches or gravers. near Crawley. . Arch. * Arch. 260. XVIII. doubled over so as to leave a broad loop in the middle. Journ.. vol. p.§ already so often mentioned. as already described.. 481. I am indebted to the Institute for the use of this Suss. so that the ornaments appear to have been cast in a moidd. [CHAP. neatly placed round a torque. EAR-RTNGS.386 TORQUES. 131. See Figs. the edges are in some parts minutely serrated. kind which were found at Pyecombe. bone pattern. Four others. Another was found in a barrow near Brighton. It consists of a long bar of bronze. and then curved round so as to form the bracelet. Assoc. at "West Buckland. 483. § . Soc. p.f near Brighton. and is now in the British Museum. vol. 483. J with the long pin already mentioned. ETC. Coll... 107.— H Fig. 482. ii. For the use of this cut I am indebted to the Council of the Society. and is now at Alnwick Castle. 482. of Hurstpierpoint. The original was discovered with two others.. 323. It is flat on the inside. They are in the collection Fig. ii. and a ring of the same metal. probably of earlier date than some of those represented in the previous figures. % Arch. Another form of bracelet. Sussex. i. 148 Proc. either circular or sub quadrangular in section. 468 and 87. 2nd S. As will be seen. is of the type shown in Fig. This was slightly ornamented with a kind of herringof Mrs. Journ.

479." Op. Co.— Co. Mus. I have another of the same type.E. so as to form an almost invisible joint. a button. and is penannular. for a bracelet in the Lac du Bourget.. and unornamented. p. § "British Barrows. p. 485. xliii. in the same county. p. 498. It was found by Canon Greenwell. § Yorkshire. have been not unfrequently found in Ireland.. like some large Irish rings which will subsequently be described. on the right arm of a female skeleton in a barrow at Cowlam. fitting into a socket at the other." p. xii. and is shown in Fig. 486. and is similar to some found at Arras. was found with a bronze razor. Fig. that.LATE-CELTIC BRACELETS. " Etude." pi. 210. 570. which is certainly Late Celtic. c c 2 . in the bed of a stream near Llangwyllog Church. they are not actually bracelets. B 4 Arch.— Cowlam. 484.." pi. 74. ait. . t Perrin. vol. It encircled the right arm of a skeleton. Greenwell' s "British Barrows. One engraved by Wilde J described as of pure red copper. but made of even thinner wire. t " Catal.f clasping in the same manner was found Penannular bracelets. pr£h. A. 6. " oval in section. 473. with the ends slightly expanding. Journ. Cavan is shown in Fig." || * Arch.. and other antiquities. The type is not confined to Britain. Fig. 474.* Anglesea. It appears possible is Fig.. 484. xviii. || If " Cran. Another bronze armlet of the same period was found in a barrow in the parish of Crosby Garrett. was found with a fibula.S. 3& Another of the same size and character. The other armillai engraved by Wilde appear to be of later date than the Bronze Period. p. The same may be said of the elegant bracelet shown full size in Fig. sur la Sav. vol. 485. They much resemble the manillas or ring-money in use on the West Coast of Africa. I. These objects are now in the British Museum. xxii. R. One from Co.** Westmoreland. Another somewhat plainer bracelet.. but much smaller and lighter. Antrim." p. 386. but are more cup-shaped at the ends. from Ballymoney. F.. In many there are large cup-shaped ends at about right angles to each other. Cavan. like Fig. on the skeleton of an aged woman in another of the Cowlam ^f barrows. with a short dowel at one eud. 209. fig. Brit. except in having a series of notches along both edges.

p. vol. xxviii. probably cast in moulds. 136. Scot. vol.. XVIII. pi. and do not for the most part seem to require any illustrations. 2).. 435). They are usually plain and of circular section. p. BRACELETS. p." vol. iii. 2. Perthshire. 74 ..f Yorkshire. . while on others a repousse pattern has been worked upon a Such bracelets hardly come within the scope of plate of thin bronze. Strathdon. Fig. Ant. there were six perfect bronze In the Heathery Burn rings. p. \ Among hoards of bronze antiquities belonging to the latter part of the Bronze Period. 194. EAR-RINGS. Ant. and extremely Scotland. 236). and varying in thickness from | inch to 1 A inch in diameter. pi.58. Ann. massive. One. Alvah. iii. RINGS. Soc... Some also are lozenge-shaped in section. Soc. 486. 1). Wilson's " Preh. p. vol." * Arch. Assoc. Cave were numerous rings of -circular section.. the present work. 2£ inches in diameter. Aberdeenshire {Proc. Scot. In the hoard found at Marden. but a few references to engravings of them are subjoined : — Aboyne. vol. " Several stout rings. t Arch.S. Banffshire {Proc. as if formed of a piece of cylindrical wire. Soc.R. Many of these are now in the collection of Canon Greenwell.388 TORQUES. iii. Joum. 59. xvi. and may have been an armlet. now in the British Museum [Arch. Aberdeenshire {Arch. about 1 inch in diameter. vol. 139). of Scot. rings of various sizes are of not unfrequent occurrence. Many bracelets of Late Celtic date have been found at various times in Some of these are of very ornate design. vol. Proc. Ant. pp. ETC. Assoc. vol. ii.. 11. Joum. iii. p.— Cowlara. Joum.* Kent. p. xiv. Plunton Castle. p. xxii. vi. vol. Kirkcudbright {Arch.. 13. [CHAP. varying in diameter from 1£ to If inch. Muthill. F. Scot. vi. Joum.. though actually cast solid. was in the hoard found at Westow.

vol. I. R. 3rd S. vol. 573. 39. xiv. 8 Wilde. p. and in the other near Eothbury. There were also three small rings in the great hoard found at Fant-y-maen. 74. i. of Ireland. A. Somersetshire. were found i. in company with a bronze sword. vol. 224. 570. fig. Tyrone. but this appears to me very doubtful. p. from Ireland mentioned. Mus. near Montacute. Journ." p. and a number of rings of various sizes. p.t Anglesea. Co. With these objects a socketed celt and a bronze hammer were found. p. and four smaller. 4£ inches in diameter. Antrim. from £ inch to li inch in diameter. in one case near Medomsley." vol. A hollow ring. 294. * Arch. xxi. Mus. from the great Clare find. Such rings may have served various purposes. vol. borrowed from Wilde. those from the cemetery at Hallstatt are of this kind. with rings of 1£ inches diameter upon it. I have an almost identical example of the form from Ballymoney. || .^} Cambridgeshire. and Arch." p. A. " Catal. I. appear to be of Late Celtic date. were found in the deposit at Llangwyllog.. 389 were found with various other antiquities in bronze at Ty Mawr* Holyhead. and made from a strip of bronze. xi. Fig.— Ireland. Hist.i the hoard at Taunton.. ** Journ. 487. Wilde was inclined to regard it as a bangle with two rings by which to suspend it. 490. J Arch. Northumberland. Arch. fig. XX "Catal. §§ . 480. and Rom. vol. 3rd S. lig. Assoc.. however. "The Brit." p. 256 t Arch. xxiv. That shown in Fig. with a single small ring playing He states that it. I. 46. A. some of lozenge-shaped section and of delicate workmanship.HOLLOW KINGS.J Glancych. Nearly six hundred bronze rings are in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. vol. vol.. xxii.. 487. 164. These latter appear to be hollow. A upon gold ring. and with it two large rings about Scinches in diameter. f Arch. on the Site of Taunton. iv. Durham.. a gouge. If inch in diameter.. § with the pin and other objects already mentioned.** Co. It. The rings found with remains of chariots at Hamden Hill. . \ Pring. p. Canon Greenwell has called my attention to two separate instances of two rings being found together. Arch. 578. was found with a socketed celt. fashioned into a tube and left open on the inner side. §$ "Catal. 50. Journ. Some of the Irish rings are cast in pairs. wrought from a thin Some hollow rings plate of metal. p. is figured by Wilde. Sir W. 483. and to be hollow. about 2 inches. and other objects of bronze. at Mel|| Many of bourn. xxvi. will subsequently be Near Trillick.. Several rings. R. a pin passing transversely through the body of two rings (see Fig.. with probably a clay core inside. Mus. but were probably used as means of connection between different straps or accoutrements.." p.|J is 4J inches in diameter. pi. x. Journ. Camb. " tt Vallancey.. 496) was found. p. like a figure of 8-ft Others of large size have smaller rings cast upon them.

[CHAP. RINGS. but plain and of about four coils each.. vol Sup.. " similar articles are occasionally observed sculptured upon the breasts of the statues of ancient Roman generals. BRACELETS. Mr. p. p." to be have from time to time been found associated with other objects of the same metal. t " Catal. EAR-RINGS. Sussex. Froc. the small ring being attached to the dress. It will be remembered that three spiral rings of the same kind. p. ii. 323. but the ends may possibly have been pinched together since it actually was found. 22. has been formed from a small quadrangular bar of metal. as already mentioned. and subsequently coiled into a spiral ring. 488. A ring of a single coil. XVIII. in which also were fragments + of torques. Soc. Mr. p. Arch. v. With it was also another twisted bronze ring of the same kind. 83. 2nd S„ vol. but are all too small for the finger or for ear-rings. Ant. strung like beads upon it. The cut + is kindly lent by the Council. I am not aware that any of the rings were ever upon the torque. such as armlets. Soc. vol. Fig. Some rings of this kind were found with torques near Amesbury.. It appears doubtful whether these rings were not more of the nature of ornamental beads.* Hants. though I have reason to believe they were found with it. were found on the Fig.— Woolmer Forest. . Aude.§ Saxony. They were considerably too large to fit on the torque. extremities of the torque discovered at Hollingbury Hill. &c. Town. p. Ant. One found with the armlets and palstaves is shown in Fig. 4S9." $ * Froc. Franks has recently presented to the British Museum a gold torque from Lincolnshire. but made from a twisted bar like that in the figure. Bateman f describes it as a finger ring. One of them is indeed too small to pass over the re-curved end of the torque. and were regarded as intended in some way to fasten the garment. which has three banded rings of gold. was in the hoard found at Camenz. iii. but of only one coil. twisted after the manner of an ordinary torque. finsfer rings. They are of different sizes and weights. which have been thought as already mentioned.390 TORQUES.. 332. 378 . Some few bronze ornaments.— Dumbarton.. 488. ETC. in Woolmer It Forest. I have three small twisted penannular rings of gold which were found with a small torque of the same metal near Carcassonne. cylindrical at the ends. torques.

Soc. Journ. British Barrows.ff " touching the temporal bones.. t Arch. .. female skeletons were found accompanied by such orna- known ments. p. They have. What may have been a It is finger ring was also found in the Heathery Burn Cave. seem also to be of the nature of beads or possibly clasps. They . have frequently been found associated with armlets. vol. p. R. This pin had been passed through the lobe of the ear and then bent round. 91. may after all be of the nature of beads. the only fragment of metal brought to bght during nearly a month's excavations by Mr. 426. . They occur also in Ireland. Arch. " Catal. In a perished ura with burnt bones.RINGS FOUND WITH TORQUES. been regarded as ear-rings. and other materials have similar notches through them.* Others. in the cemetery at Stanlake. This exceptional ring is penannular. vol.! and in other places.. p. The large hollow penannular ornaments made of thin gold. 1854. appears to have been in Britain during the Bronze Period. Straps passed through the narrow notch would require some trouble to take out but still such beads could be dislodged from their The ornament shown in Fig. 81.J. 36. • " Catal. p. shown whence this cut is * Proc. Akerman and Mr. the ends expanding. have been found in Anglesea. Bronze finger rings seem to have been in occasional use. I. Thus the ear-ring must have been permanently fixed stained green in the ear. The form is not unlike that of the gold ring engraved by Wilde ** . explored by Canon Greenwell." One of these rings is. one containing a barbed flint arrow-head. iii. Arch.A. string without its ends being unfastened. Mus. p.|| Durham. and tt " S. there was a spiral bronze finger ring of the plainest form.. Soc. J § || borrowed. F. which were by the contact. 609. 489 was found near Dumbarton. xiii. were several small rings such as could have served for finger rings. Mus. In two of the barrows on the Yorkshire Wolds. 391 Some small penannular rings found on a gold torque at Boyton have already been mentioned. v.Nat. Ant.§ Oxfordshire. found with several others.R. R." p. ivory. the ear-ring. In the hoard of bronze antiquities found near Edington Burtle. as his Fig. 223. near Alnwick. Some Egyptian rings of carnelian. similar.. Proc.. The penannular rings so often found in Ireland. vol. Another form of ornament. A. and slightly overlapping each other. vol. and nearly triangular in section. Proc. by Canon Greenwell's kindness. formed of stout wire. 295. Stone. They have been made by beating the one end of a piece of bronze flat. and commonly called ring money. Ant.. however. Heathery Burn Cave.^} Somerbut with one exception they are hardly setshire. Scot. vol.. v. 24. p. Hist.S. the other and flat end being bent over it. 368. In a barrow at Cowlam. and fluted externally like the bracelet found with it in the same hoard. and is £ inch in diameter. and forming the other end into a pin-shaped termination. 2nd I." Soc. were two ear-rings of bronze. xxx vii." p. f Som.

892 TORQUES. Barrows. 491 I am indebted to the Delegates of the . Fig. 490. ETC." p. 490. case there was a bronze awl. a female skeleton. RINGS. 492. t "Ten Years' Dig.— Cowlam. .— Orton. and its fellow. EAR-RINGS. have formed a perfect circle when whole.— Goodmanham.. Fig. For Fig. 491. 324. Mr. of the two is somelay under the left shoulder. BRACELETS. [CHAP. behind the head the ear-ring here figured was at the right ear. 80. and may. The better preserved what imperfect. in a more broken condition." *"Brit." p. 491. Bateman records finding in a barrow called Stakor Hill. or drill. XVIll. J Burton. f near Fig. In the latter as Fig. I think. "the mastoid bones of which were dyed green from contact with two small pieces of thin bronze bent in the middle With the skeleton just sufficiently to clasp the edge or lobe of the ear. as is one from Goodinankam.* in Fig. Clarendon Press.

Mus. Thurnam^j describes a tubular bronze bead. Ant. I.. One of them is coiled up. but rather shorter. Wilts. and not beadlike ornaments. * It seems possible that a lunette or diadem of gold was buried with these ear-rings. however. smaller. p. pointed at each end. t Arch. Hallst." p. viii. By way of illustration. part. In the Laibach Museum are some bronze ear-rings of the Early Iron Age. are not uncommon in Ireland and Britain.. 470. and which may have been ear-rings. vol. bracelets. Colt Hoare as found in a barrow near Fovant** may have been the spheroidal head of the bronze * Proc. xliii.." Taf. vol. X Op. and with one end pointed which fits into a socket at the other end. and now in Mr. however. cit. Wilts. p. Plain doublepointed penannular ear-rings in bronze are also found. p. " Catal. made from a thin plate. spear-heads. I have. 393 flint "javelin head.. Journ. Each is ornamented with some parallel lines stamped in across the broader Several small hollow and some solid rings. xix. They are in the collection of the Rev. were in the same hoard. Other ear-rings of from the same cemetery." vol. with a beaded ring on each and a smaller disc above. about 2 inches in diameter. 490. xvii. || Some few objects of bead-like character have from time to time been found in barrows and with other bronze objects. 492 was found with another in a stone cist at Orton. E. v. Duke. J Rings of nearly the same kind are still in use in Northern Africa. but I am uncertain as to the period to which they should be assigned. i. which. 30. circular. and have A been regarded as ear-rings. and flattened in section. Gold penannular rings of torque-like patterns. near Amiens.. § I have a pair of ear-rings of circular form from Hallstatt.EAR-RINGS. 4." and Mr. in form like Fig. Some appear to be of Saxon date. Arch. They are two in number. 243. were found in a tumulus near Lake. part is at present flat. A. Scot. fragments of swords. of hollow bronze. 1{. have a small ring encircling them. " Grabf. That shown in Fig. t Wilde. and the other has the broad part nearly flat. a much longer form of trough-shaped ear-ring may be adduced. pair of circular embossed plates. 492. He thinks the bead mentioned by Sir R. much like those from Goodmanham. 38.inch long. § || fig. vol. Durden's collection. Dr. p. though the metal in this instance is gold and not bronze. In the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy f is another gold ornament It is. specimens found with a hoard of bronze socketed celts. 40. C. but broader. ** " Anc. was a to Morayshire. p. Bateman considered the interment be the oldest he had met with in which metal was present. Ear-rings of the Bronze Period appear to be almost unknown in France. Soc. found in a barrow in Dorset. and the lower of the same form as Fig. 570. three small spherical bells are attached. Von Sacken. and a variety of other objects at Dreuil. in one instance. semicircular. about 1872. to bronze.. 88. . li.

and some conical buttons of bone or ivory. vol. though. and their presence in these graves certainly affords an argument for assigning them to a comparatively late period. or diadem-like bandlets. the Danish and North German has already been mentioned lunette.. Suffolk. p. A bead of burnt clay has also been found in a Westmoreland " Brit.394 TORQUES.. Some beads of amber and A notched head of tin. perhaps. 525. like a number of small beads strung together. accompanied a little pin of copper or bronze. A blue glass bead. and frequently with bronze instruments in others of the Wiltshire barrows. their forms are but few and their number small in the British Islands. " minds " of the Irish antiquaries may represent the same class of Spirals formed by coiling long tapering pieces of wire. || . with burnt bones in a barrow at Eddertoun. Glass beads with the same spiral ornamentation have been found in the || cemetery at Hallstatt.]. Among the objects found at Exning. with three yellow spirals on it." Small beads. 495. vol. p. for instance. Barrows. jet were. or more probably drum-shaped buttons of gold. 103. as. 66. with others formed of burnt clay. cit. 3. XVIII. Hoare says that " it is the only article of that metal we bave ever found in a barrow. xliii. ETC. vol. were found in a barrow near Winterbourn Stoke. X Op. pi. p. was found with the point of a bronze blade in a cist Such beads. Soc." vol. * " Anc. and this circumstance affords an argument against there having been any direct intercourse in very early days between this country and Etruria. as well as a necklace formed of the shells of dentalium. the crescent-shaped gold plates . barrow. are also never found in this or country.. 313. where such spiral ornaments abounded. 114. but they appear to belong to a later date. most probably an awl. Arch. EAR-RINGS. in a barrow on Sutton Verney Down. t Arch.. v. Ross-shire. Scot. i. pin with which it was found.. have been used as charms for diseased cattle and other evils. ** Arch.f have also been found in the Wiltshire barrows. Beads formed of joints of encrinites. BRACELETS. p. discovered with it. Proc. Glass beads of the notched form have been found with burnt interments. Journ. § See Tkurnam. or at all events to a time when commerce with the Continent was well estabhshed. are also unknown. Besides this absence of spirals formed of solid metal. as suggested by Dr.** are some "curious " bullae with clay cores." p. xliii. such as are common in Scandinavia and throughout Germany. As will be seen from the list of personal ornaments described in the preceding pages.^ or serpent stones. xxi. the engraved ornaments. RINGS. as compared with those of analogous Scanobjects found in some continental countries. Thurnam. The absence of several forms of torques dinavia and Switzerland. vol. x. p. [CHAP. known as Clachan Nathaireach. § Other beads have spiral ornaments in white upon a blue ground.. Ant. If Ibid. Wilts.* in which there had been deposited a burnt body. however.

The such as are so common in the Swiss Lake-habitations. highly artistic. as a rule. The nearest approach to it is the ring ornament formed of concentric circles. the serviceable qualities of bronze were more highly appreciated than its decorative lustre. like those which are found in Switzerland and the South of France. Decorated pendants. at all events. are also wanting. bracelets formed of cylindrical coils of wire are also unknown.ABSENCE OF CONTINENTAL FORMS. 395 in some countries is characteristic of the spiral ornament which Bronze Period may be said to be absolutely unknown in Britain. . as well as those of hollowed bronze with discoidal ends. Altogether the bronze ornaments of Britain are neither abundant nor. and it would appear that here.

unlike complicated dentists' Instruments. some of them not . consisting of a tube with a slight collar at each end. With it was . XIX. will probably be given up in despair. found with a number of socketed celts. and other articles in the hoard at Eeach Fen. BUTTONS. future antiquaries. AND MISCELLANEOUS There still remain to be noticed a number of objects in bronze. those of the present day must be pardoned for occasionally being at fault as to the destination of some ancient instrument or ornament.CHAPTER CLASPS. knives. already often mentioned. is intended to treat of miscellaneous articles. To judge from what may be seen on the dray-horses and waggon-horses of the present day. in examining the relics of the nineteenth century. or was what to this comprehensive class of trappings while a number of curious instruments of brass and other alloys. 493 is shown full-size a mysterious object. It has occasionally been observed of antiquaries that when at a loss to explain the use or destination of some object of bronze or brass. their usual refuge is in the suggestion that it formed some portion is termed a horse-trapping. will have some justification in assigning a vast number of forms of ornamental pendants and tongueless buckles of harness. and on the other an elongated It was oval opening. like the some of which the present. and they may even be forgiven for making suggestions as to probable uses of such objects. though now antiquaries. OBJECTS. precise nature and use are now hardly susand of others but so few examples ceptible of being determined are known that they are best placed in a chapter which. much less as facts. having on one side a long narrow loop of solid metal sub-quadrangular in section. BUCKLES. provided they do not insist upon possibilities being regarded as strong probabilities. In Fig. of . cognised by the adept cases from in most cases susceptible of being reas destined to extract cartridges or their If these puzzles await future breech-loading guns. Cambridge. a part of the side of which has been broken away.

in 1826. found at Broadward. } mers at Hoseberry Topping. ccc. broken swords. iv. but the loop is longer and flatter. iv. and beneath it the tube has a long oval opening with a lip around it.* Yorkshire. Mliana. and ham. This. vii. 494. at Melbourn. socketed celts. vol. p. Arch. iii. looped tubes found with spear-heads.— Reach Fen. t Arch. p. The mouth of the oval opening is rough. as in the other case and within the tube I have a broken specimen found at Malton. 494.. 4th S. } Fig. iii. gouges. the section of which in this case is circular.. I am not sure where this object was found. except for a central hole about £ inch in diameter. and not at the side opposite the One end of the tube loop.. gouge. Alderney. 397 also another smaller object of the same kind. Assoc. but with the loop round in section. and has no lip to it. vol. &c. p. Arch. a hollow There were two of these ring. 493 was found with socketed celts. I Scot. The loop also has a deep groove on its inner side extending its whole length. 55.— Reach Feu. vol. § Shropshire. however. shown in Fig. xi. near La Pierre du Villain. and with staples for attachment at the corners. 294. and both shorter and stouter. am indebted to the Council of the Cambrian . ii. With them was a flat quadrangular whetstone (?) and fragments of a flat plate of bronze. vol. Journ.f Cambridge. I have another specimen much like Fig. has the orifice in the front.LOOPED SOCKETS. near Cambridge. J Longy. vol. p. pi. 493. is plugged up with a bronze rivet. the ends hollowed and with crescent-shaped openings or lunettes in them. of the same character as Kg. X Arch.. 354. was a short object of this kind about \\ inch Long. -Uroadward. Fig. but there is little doubt of its being English. so * Arch. there are remains of wood. Camb. 495. An object like Fig. The end of the tube is cast with a flat plate closing the aperture. 493. p. There are three rivet-holes on the convex side of the lunettes. 10. pi. Assoc. &c. § Arch. . for the use of this cut. with the loop as large in diameter as the tube and extending the whole length. In the great hoard of bronze spear-heads. 213. Jottrn. Another object of the same kind was found with a socketed celt. Fig. as well as a somewhat shorter opening on the opposite side of the tube.. 493.

but somewhat broken. Thispurpose has already beensuggestedbyMr. inch long. while a corresponding loop at the other end was inserted into the oval mouth-piece.Soc. Whatever purpose been permathey served. or through the metal loop and was sewn passed fastened to the strap so as to form a loop of leather.xvii. XIX. in the Journal He there * whence thecutisborrowed.Korm. 0' Gorman. i. Those with a loop seem to me possibly intended as one end of which clasps for leather straps or belts. in some manner suggestion is that they were loops attached to wooden or leather scabbards of swords.398 CLASPS. appear also to have been made for attachment at will to leather or Fig. making whole length of the oval cross-tube thus formed has two parallel nearly 1 £ inch. Each mouth-piece beads running round it. Association of Ireland. 164. with mouth-pieces the standing out on each side of the tube. and is now in the museum of that town. 496.Ant. BUTTONS. Another (2f inches).. so that a pin passed down inside the tube would go through it and secure need not have been of metal. with small flanges end and through the middle of it is an oval opening about 1 inch by £ inch. as in no instance nently have any rivet-holes been observed in them. Another seems to £ have been found at the same time. cloth by means of a pin passing through the crosswhich at once converted the rings into brooches or buckles of a holes. 495.— Trillick. now in the Poitiers Museum. in the deposit of Notre-Dame d'Or. Manche. ETC.1827— 8.T. t 3rdS. almost identical with Fig.] of the Royal Historical and Archceological Mem. A at any time be detached by withdrawing a pin that passed down the tube. this instance about 3 inches long.. which appears to belong to the same class as the tubes lately The tube is in described. The objection to this view is that the side orifice in the tube is not in all cases opposite to the loop. like Fig. vol. which could peculiar kind. though without any loop. 493. they do not appear to have attached to any other article. An was found in a hoard with other objects near Amiens. Some of the hollow rings found in Ireland with transverse perforations through them. 493.* I have an object from the Seine at Paris. Another of much the same kind was found at La I am at a loss to assign a at each . This specimen is shown in Fig. but second in one instance at least at right angles to it. The orifice of the loop is only as to give it the form of the letter D. fragment of another was in the collection of the o A late Lord Braybrooke. [CHAP.p. BUCKLES. . This pin some more perishable material. was example. but of it. purpose to it.

3rd Evans. I think.|| engraved " Ancient Coins of Cities and Princes. § Anglesea. there is a portion of a strap of bronze left. shortly after the time of Julius Caesar. in one of which there is a cross-pin with a small ring at each end. perforated ring was in the hoard found at Llangwyllog. Type of 74 Arch. p. 2f inches in diameter. appear to be of later date and to have had bands of chain-mail attached. Mus." p. 9. There is. vol. S. Brit. 496." pi. as suggested by Mr. numismatic evidence that among the Ancient Britons. In some of the plain rings. Camb. haunches there are rings to which these straps are joined. of which many have been found in Ireland. t Vol. however. which Sir W. somewhat like a horse's bit. own collection. fig. already mentioned." p. Arch. 494. borrowed from Wilde. these perforated made. R. I need not stay to examine. however. xxii. of which he thinks that coats of mail were i d' Under any circumstances. and the warrior's saddle is shown to be secured by four girths. One of these is shown in Fig.. Whether it was used for fastening a cloak or tunic. 579. ii. . such as those described in the last chapter. and a bronze hammer. and about the size to receive a common pencil. as will be seen in Fig. i A also Large rings. and with central bosses secured by pins. or for some other purpose.| Others. and. 399 describes a bronze pin with two thick bronze rings upon it. 576 et seqq. in what appears to have been a sepulchre near Trillick. On on the title-page of Akerman's a gold coin of Verica.. O'Gorman. vol. Co. "Anc. . 97. xiv. may have served as connections for bands or straps. pi. 497." and now in my a warrior on horseback. p. which was found with two large rings of bronze. * I have one of precisely the same character. and from each of these rings another strap runs down to pass below * "Catal. four rings of about the same size as those on the pin. with a cross perforation through the two projecting mouth-pieces. to which the looped tubes already described may also be referred.. Tyrone.. Joto-n.. there is on the reverse The engraving of the die is exquisitely minute. a large socketed celt. Vallancey f has figured others. indeed. slightly oval. xii. § || I.RINGS WTTH TRANSVERSE PERFORATIONS. rings were employed as connecting links between the different straps forming the harness of war-horses. with numerous small loops round the circumference. that the discovery of the pin and perforated rings in juxtaposition throws some light upon the character of other rings with cross perforations. or occasionally with cross arms within them. iv. Wilde regards as having served to connect the ringig 49 chains. A. % See Wilde's "Catal. and by straps running from it round the chest and the On the shoulder and the hind-quarters to keep it in position. Coins. These objects are now all in my own collection. rings seem to come under the category of fastenings or clasps. there can be no doubt of an efficient form of double buckle being presented by the pin and rings.

Barrows. 74 Arch. Arch. together with two remarkable buckles formed of penannular rings. in a barrow in the parish of Cowlam. 1 " British * Arch. I think. 4!)9. vol. the body of the horse. and the third downwards. vol. % xxii.* Of brooches proper. . XTX. which itself. p. found in the Thames. 3rd S." vol. [chap.400 CLASPS. That shown in Fig. which can with be assigned to an safety earlier period than the Late Britain Celtic.. are in the British Museum. . is cast in one piece with the button In Fig. as well as one of longer form and with a larger disc. 209. These were described by the late Mr. Camb. 97. which had replaced the original of bronze. on the body of an aged woman. another backwards. Thomas Wright j (who has figured them) as undoubtedly Roman. Austell. Journ. vol. Cornwall. which was found in a barrow near Bridlington. therefore. Fig. Anglesea. p. xxxvi.— CowLam. Each ring. and near Avebury. together with an armlet (Fig. near St. || . i. The pin was of iron. 498 was found by Canon Green- Another article in use for fastening or attach- dress is the button. are not identical in the two.R. I have a somewhat similar brooch from Eedmore. f p. 486) and a necklace of glass beads. though similar. collection. Journ. xii.. + their faces which suggests their having been finished by some process of turningor rotary grinding. 110. F. Eings with three loops for straps attached occur among Etruscan Antiquities. in which of the a V-shaped perforation in the body of the button afforded the means of fastening it to the dress. none are. ETC. Essays on Arch. and secured by a hasp or catch. known in secured to it. BUTTONS." Other brooches of the same character as the figure.. London. "Wilts.. 407. I have elsewhere § described some made of stone and jet.. or it might have been thought that hey were cast in ametalmould. p.f Yorkshire. In the bronze buttons a legitimate loop or shank is found. 25. has three straps one running forwards. which ing parts claims a high antiquity. with a pin attached by a spring or hinge. Sub. but their character is decidedly " Late Celtic." p. Assoc. 499 are shown three full-size views of one of two bronze buttons from tlie Reach Fen hoard in my own Kg. BUCKLES. " Anc.|| One of the same character. 493." p. well. There is a sharpness and smoothness about Reach Fen. A button of almost the same size and pattern was found with a razor and other objects at Llangwyllog.. Stone " $ Imp. Four others were found at the same time. The centre and raised bands.S.



but of larger size (If- inch), was found with a gouge, socketed celts, &c, at Kensington.* It has a central boss and two raised ridges. Both these buttons are now in the British Museum. In the Heathery Burn Cave, Durham, was a small button, £ inch in diameter, with one loop at the back; and another larger (1£ inch), with five loops at the back, one in the centre, and the four others at equal This larger button distances around it forming four sides of an octagon. has a series of concentric rings or grooves on the face the small one has a central pointed boss with one groove around it. Some curious buttons, bike half barrels in shape, were found with a hoard of bronze objects at St. Genouph (Indre et Loire), and are preserved in the Museum at Tours. Numerous buttons of circular form have been found in other parts of France. Buttons of various sizes and shapes have also been found in abundance in the Swiss Lake-dwellings. A clay movdd, apparently for buttons of this kind, is in the Museo

Civico at Modena. In the cemetery at Hallstatt
objects have

immense numbers of small button-like been found, some of the warriors' coats having been completely

Fig. 500.— Edinburgh.


studded with them. Some of these are not more than £ inch in diameter, nearly hemispherical, and with a small bar cast across them inside. A peculiar annular button with two loops at the back, found with bronze swords (see Fig. 353) and a flat-headed pin (Fig. 464) at Edinburgh,! i s represented in Fig. 500. The original is now in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. It has been thought to be the mounting of a belt. Bronze discs of larger size than any ordinary buttons or clasps are One such, 3^ inches in diameter, with three conoccasionally found. centric circles engraved on one of its faces, was discovered at Castell y Bere, Merionethshire, j Another was found at Wolsonbury Hill,§ Sussex. A third, about 5 inches in diameter, with raised concentric rings upon it, is in the Scarborough Museum. One found at Inis Kaitra,|| Lough Derg, between Clare and Galway, has been figured. It has a hollow conical projection like the umbo of a shield, surrounded by five concentric raised rings, the interval between the second and third being about double that between any other pair. The inner side has grooves corresponding with the
* Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd
S., vol.

p. 232.

t Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., N.S., vol. X Arch. Journ., vol. xi. p. 179.

p. 322,


this cut


is borrowed. Arch. Journ., vol. ix.

p. 200.




[chat. XIX.

external ridges, and across the inside of the hollow
of metal.



a small bar

British tutuli of the Scandinavian antiquaries, not been found in the British Islands.

The diameter of this ornament is 4f inches. It is now in the Museum. In many respects such discs resemble the so-called
though the long-pointed form has


irregularly rounded flat plate of bronze, about 5 inches by 5£, inch thick, apparently hammered out, was found with leaf-shaped 1

Fig. 501.— Heathery

Bum Cave.


Worth,* Devon. I have a round flat plate, about 6£ inches in diameter and i inch thick, found near Clough, Co. Antrim, which bears deep hammer marks in sets of parallel grooves on both faces. Perhaps such plates were destined to be still further drawn out into sheets for the manufacture of caldrons or other vessels. In the Heathery Burn Cave, already so often mentioned, were about ten convex plates, with a raised rim round their edge, a small hole in the One of these is shown in middle, and four loops cast on at the back. Fig. 501.1 With them were found about the same number of broad hoops, of which an example is given in Fig. 502. These are dexterously cast in one piece, with a

spear-heads and a sword

groove inside corresponding with the raised Their diacentral ridge on the outside. meter is only about 4-jj- inches, while that of the discs is about 5 ^- inches. It is diffi-

any connection between the two forms, though from the correspondence in their numbers a connection at first sight seems probable. The hoops have been spoken of as armlets, but I can hardly regard them as such. Most of the specimens are in the collection of Canon Greenwell, F.R.S., though thanks to his kindness I have an example of each and two hoops and a disc are in the British Museum. Canon Greenwell has two other discs of a somewhat similar character, found with spear-heads and socketed celts near Newark. They are 5^ inches in diameter, with a raised rib round the margin and a central
cult to see
Fig. 502.-Heathery

Bum Cave,



* Arch. Journ., vol. xxiv. p. 120. t Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 236. me by the Council of the Society.

This and the following cut are kindly lent



The surface, instead of being regularly convex, rises more rapidly towards the centre, so as to make a kind of cone with hollowed sides. There are no loops nor any means of attachment on the interior. It may be that a shank was riveted through the central hole, as was the case with some analogous conical objects from Hallstatt. Without expressing any definite opinion on the subject, I may call attention to a certain analogy that exists between these hoops and discs, and the hoops and axle ends of Gaulish chariots of the Early Iron Age. The naves of the'wheels of the chariot found in the tomb of la Gorge Heillet* (Marne) had bronze hoops on either side of the naves, and an ornamented The hoops, however, are made of plates plate at each end of the axle. riveted together, and were not cast in one piece, and the centre of the plates is open, though crossed by an iron pin. Fragments of what may have been discs of the same kind, with a hole in the centre and four small bosses at intervals around it, were found in the hoard at Stanhope, t Durham, which comprised spear-heads, celts, &c, much like those in the Heathery Burn Cave. Similar large discs with concentric circles upon them, and having loops at the back, have been found in various parts
of France, Switzerland,

and Italy .J

Another and smaller

having a short Fig. 503. This is only the rough casting and at one time I thought it was merely a waste piece or jet from the foundry, as it was discovered with moulds, celts, &c, in the Isle of Harty hoard. Another disc of the same kind was, however, found with the hoard of bronze at Yattendon, § Berks, which shows so much finish all over that it would seem to have been Fig~503^Harty. i adapted for some special purpose, and not to have been merely a piece of waste metal. Another disc of the same kind was found in the hoard at Haynes Hill, Kent, and was regarded as part of an utensil. Mr. Franks informs me that an example with a rather longer tube has been found in Brittany. In the Yattendon hoard were also some fragments of thin bronze plate very highly planished on one face, and a hollowed conical piece of bronze, not unlike an extinguisher; but the purpose for which either of these was intended is a mystery. Eeturning to bronze objects which appear to be in some manner connected with straps, I may cite some loops or slides of which an example

disc with a central hole, collar round it, is shown in

is given in The original is not in this case English, having Fig. 504. formed part of the hoard found at Dreuil, near Amiens. But a specimen is of the same size and shape, though rather more convex on the faces, in Lord Braybrooke's collection at Audley End, and was, I believe, found with other bronze objects, including a hollow ring, in Essex. At first sight such objects might appear to be intended for mouth-pieces of scabbards, but on trial I find that the opening is not wide enough to allow of the passage of a sword blade, much less to admit of a thickness of



"Double Sep. Gaul.,"

1878, pi. v.



t Arch. AVliana, vol. i. p. 13, pi. ii. 11. X See Chantre, "Age du Br.," lere ptie., p. 156. § Proc. iS'oc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. vii. p. 485. Arch. Journ., vol. xxx. p. 282, fig. 3 Anthrop.


lust. Jouni., vol. in. p. 230.





[chap. XIX.

leather or wood in addition. They seem more probably to be slides, such as might haA^e served for receiving the two ends of a leather belt. In the Dreuil hoard was also a flat kind of ferrule, about 2 J inches wide and closed at the end, which may have served as a sort of tag or end to a broad strap. There were also socketed celts and knives. In the same hoard was a loop fluted on one face, like Fig. 505, but with four divisions instead of three, and 2J inches wide. The loops

shown in Figs. 505 and 506 formed part of a large hoard found near Abergele,* Denbighshire, and described in the Archceologia, whence my cuts are copied. There were present in the hoard forty -two loops or slides of this kind, though of various widths, as well as eighteen buttons, a reelshaped object like Fig. 377, and numerous rings, some of them almost like

Fig. 505.— Abergele.

Fig. 504.— Dreuil, Amiens.


Fig. 506.— Abergele.

Fig. 507.— Abergele.

buckles in shape. There were also several double rings fitting the one within the other, the inner about \\ inch in diameter and the outer about 2£ inches. They are cast hollow, and on the inner ring is a loop which fits into a hole in the outer ring. In the same hoard was the remarkable object shown half-size in Fig. 507. It consists of three pairs of irregular Mr. oval plates with loops, through which is passed a bar of bronze. " the Franks, who has described the hoard, says that loops show marks of wear, and the whole was probably a jingling ornament to be attached to horse-harness. Objects of the same nature have been found with
bridle-bits, and are engraved in Madsen, Afbildninger,\ and in Worsaae's Nordiske Oldsager, Fig. 266." These examples, however, do not present such close analogies with the
Arch., vol. xliii. p. 556, pi. xxxvii. figs. S and 11. xl. 16; Samlede Fund, pi. xvi. 12.

t PI.



Welsh specimen as do some interlinked rings with flat pendants found at Ploneour,* Brittany, with looped palstaves and a flat quadrangular knife. Some other analogous objects are mentioned by M. Chantre,f who has also described several ststrum-like instruments, to which M. de Mortillet $ is inclined to assign an Eastern origin. add that Mr. Franks regards Eeverting to the Abergele hoard, I may it as belonging to the close of the Bronze Period, and conjectures that most of the objects which it comprised formed part of the trappings of a

Bronze bridle-bits, such as have been found in various parts of the Continent, § have very rarely been found in Britain, though occasionally discovered in Ireland. In the British Isles they appear for the most part, if not in all cases, to belong to the Late Celtic Period. Another form of bronze objects of uncertain use is shown in Fig. 508, which is taken from a French and not an English original. This formed as in so many respects the articles compart of the Dreuil hoard and with those found in England, it prised in this deposit present analogies worth while to call attention to this particular object. It is a appeared kind of semicircular flap, with a hole running through the beaded cylinder at What was its purpose I cannot top. of say, though I have a thin gold plate the same form, but decorated with ring ornaments, that was found at Hallstatt. It may be merely a pendant. Among other miscellaneous objects

of bronze may be mentioned an article of twisted bronze already cited at p. 51. It has a flat tang for insertion into a handle, in which are four rivet-holes.

Beyond the handle project two twisted Fig s'us -Dreuil. horns, which seem to have nearly or In the centre quite met, so as to form a somewhat heart-shaped ring. a chain of three circular rings opposite the tang is a long slot with The whole covers a space of about 6£ inches in length by 4£ attached. With Sir E. Colt Hoare, "Heave to my learned inches in breadth. brother antiquaries to ascertain" what was the ancient use of this a stone singular article, which was found in a barrow at Wilsford,|| with hammer, a flanged bronze celt, and other objects in company with an unburnt body.
Portions of three sickle-like objects, with a kind of square tang, through which is a large hole, were found with a palstave and a flat celt and many other bronze antiquities, near Battlefield, Salop. ^f These measure about 7 inches by 7] inches, and their purpose is as much veiled in mystery as that of the Wilsford relic, with which they present

a slight analogy. The flat annular and horseshoe-shaped plates the one 13 inches in diameter, and the other 2 feet 1 inch long found with an oblong cup-

* Arch. t "Age du Bronze," lfere ptie., p. 188. Camb., 3rd S., vol. vi. p. 137. X Rev. Anthrop., 187-5, tome iv. p. 650. § See Chantre, "Age du Br.," Ire ptie., p. 152. II 1'roc. Soe. Ant., 2nd S., vol. ii. p. 252. "Anc. Wilts," vol. i. p. 209.




shaped boss on the hill of Benibhrese,* probably Late Celtic.

Lochaber, appear to




Some of the curious spoon-like articles f of bronze occasionally found in all parts of the United Kingdom may also belong to the Late Celtic Period, and most of them probably to quite the close of that period, if
not to a later date.
8 inches long, with small figures found near Ballymoney, ! County Antrim, is probably of later date than the Bronze Period as are also the curious figures of boars and other animals found near Hounslow.§

The remarkable bronze

rod. about

of birds

and pendent rings upon



In concluding this chapter, it may be observed that although have attempted to give in it some notice of various forms of bronze relics of many of which the use is uncertain, yet that I do not pretend that the list here given comprises all such objects as In several hoards of bronze have been discovered in Britain. there have been found portions of thin plates and fragments of and I have thought it objects the purpose of which is unknown best not to encumber my pages with notices of mere fragments about which even less is known than about the mysterious articles

to the description of which, perhaps, too


space has already



* Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vi. p. 46. t See Arch. Journ., vol. xxvi. pp. 35 and 52; Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. v. p. Ill; " Catal. London C. R. Smith's Ant.," p. 82 Arch. Camb., 3rd S., vol. viii. p. 208 vol. x. p. 57; "Hor. Fer.," p. 184. Trans. Kilkenny Arch. Soc, vol. iii. p. 65. Annaler for Oldk., 1836, p. 175. X \ Proc. Soc. Ant., 2nd S., vol. iii. p. 90.
; ;



the various forms of



which were in use

at the

as daggers and other weapons formed of bronze, it not the place here to speak. Much has already been written

same period


the subject, not only in various memoirs which have appeared in the proceedings of our different Antiquarian and Archaeological For Societies, but also in several standard archaeological works.

the pottery found in the tumuli of this country I would more " British Barrows," and to particularly refer to Canon Green well's Dr. Thurnam's "Paper on the Barrows of Wiltshire," published

Both these authors agree that none of the from the barrows has been made upon the wheel. The pottery of the fictile ware with which we are acquainted was used greater part for sepulchral purposes, and there appears good reason for supposing that much of it was manufactured expressly for the dead, and not
in the Archceologia*
for the living. Still there are a certain number of examples known of what has been termed culinary pottery, some of which have been found in barrows, and some in the remains of dwellings of the Bronze Period. This pottery, unlike the sepulchral, is devoid of and is well burnt, " plain, strong, and useful," but it ornament, is also made by hand. Some of the pottery from the Swiss Lakedwellings is, however, ornamented in various ways, but the And yet, in potter's wheel does not seem to have been in use. t more than one instance, there have been found in barrows in the South of England weapons of bronze, accompanied by vessels of amber and of shale, which have all the appearance of having been turned in a lathe. Of some of these vessels I have given figures in my "Ancient Stone Implements," + and also stated the particulars of the discoveries. I have also mentioned the discovery of a gold cup in a barrow at Rillaton, Cornwall, which was accom* Vol.

f Lubbock, "Preh. Times," 4th ed.,

p. 223.

% P. 399

el a$qq.




As this panied by what appears to have been a bronze dagger.* as Fig. 509. vessel is of metal, I have here reproduced the cut It seems to me probable that the same kind of vessel which was made in the nobler metal may also prove to have been made in
bronze, although as yet

no examples have been discovered.


Bottom of cup.
Fig. 509.— Golden Cup:

Height, 3\ inches.

hanging cups of bronze of which many have been found in Scandinavia, and at least one example in Switzerland, are at present not known to have been discovered within the British Isles. It was probably not until nearly the close of the Bronze Period that the art was discovered of hammering' out bronze into sufficiently large and thin laminse for the manufacture of cups and


Erroneously called a celt by Mr. Kirwan. this cut is borrowed.

See Arch. Jonrn.,

vol. xxiv.





It would be impossible to cast the metal so thin as even that employed for shields, and before ingots or flat plates, like those already mentioned at page 402, could be thus drawn out, an

acquaintance with some process of annealing must have been It is a remarkable fact that the same process which has gained. the effect of hardening steel has exactly the contrary effect on
Steel when heated to copper, and to some extent on bronze. redness and then dipped in cold water becomes so intensely hard,

that tools treated in this

manner have

to be

somewhat tempered,

softened by heat, before they can safely be used; while to soften copper the usual method adopted is to make it red-hot

and dip it in cold water. In whatever way the metal was drawn out, some of the large vessels of the transitional period between Bronze and Iron, such as those from Hallstatt, are wonderful
examples of skill in working bronze. Almost the only bronze vessel found in a barrow in England had an iron handle to it, showing that it could not belong to the It is, indeed, somewhat doubtful Bronze Age properly so called. In the centre of a low whether it accompanied an interment. mound near Wetton,* Staffordshire, about a foot below the surface, Mr. Bateman found " two very curious vessels," one about four inches high, and of rather globular form, carved in sandstone, and at the distance of a foot from it the other, "a bronze pan or kettle four
like a

inches high and six inches in diameter, with a slender iron bow bucket handle. It has been first cast and then hammered,
is very slightly marked with horizontal ridges." It was There appear inverted, and above it were traces of decayed wood. to have been some remains of burnt bones near the surface of the


This bronze vessel is somewhat like the lower part of ground. an ordinary flower-pot in form. In Mr. Bateman's Catalogue f
a note to the effect that this object British," but I have thought it best to cite
is is


probably Romano-

Several caldrons made of thin bronze plates riveted together have been found in Scotland, in some instances in company with

bronze weapons.
In Duddingston Loch,| near Edinburgh, together with swords and spear-heads, were some bronze rings and staples similar in character to those attached to the rim of a large bronze caldron found at Farney,§ Ulster, hut there is no record of any caldrons. Others of these rings are in

"Ten Years' Dig.," p. 173. % Wilson, "Preh. Ann.," vol. i. pp. 350, 408. $ Shirley's "Dominion of Farney ;" Arch. Joitru., vol.

t P. 21.





[cHAP. XX.

the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh, two of which were found with the large caldron here figured (Fig. 510) in the Moss of Kincardine,* near In this case no weapons appear to have been Stirling, in the year 1768. found. At the side is a broad band embossed with circles. This vessel is of large size, being 16 inches high, 16 inches across the mouth, and 25 inches in extreme diameter. An imperfect caldron, with handles of the same kind, was found at Kilkerran, Ayrshire, with socketed celts and fragments of swords. Others of these caldrons, but Httle differing in form from those found with bronze relics, have been accompanied by various tools formed of and iron, as, for instance, those found at Cockburnspath, Berwickshire

in Carlinwark Loch, Kelton, Kirkcudbright.

There can, indeed, be


Fig. 510.

— Kincardine Moss.

doubt that such vessels,

if belonging to the Bronze Age, are to be assigned to the close rather than to the beginning or even middle of that

Several such caldrons have been discovered in Ireland.

That shown in Fig. 511 is about 2 1 inches in diameter and 1 2 inches high.f It is composed of a number of pieces of thin bronze, each averaging " These 3£ inches broad and decreasing in length near the bottom. bear the marks of hammering, and are joined at the seams with plates rivets averaging about half an inch asunder. These rivets have sharp
conical heads externally, and some were evidently ornamental, as they exist in places where there are no joinings, and in the circular bottom portion they are large and plain. The upper margin of this vessel is " Its outside 2£ inches broad," and corrugated. edge next the solid hoop has a double line of perforations in it." It was in a vessel of this kind that part of the great Dowris hoard of bronze antiquities was deposited. The metal is said by Mr. McAdam, in a paper on " Brazen Caldrons,"






p. 409.



indebted to Messrs. Macmillan


Co. for the

use of this cut. " t Wilde, Catal. Mus. R. Council of the Academy.

A.," p. 529,


This cut has been lent

me by


24 16 Height . A specimen from Farney has been already mentioned. Another ring was found with a hoard at Meldreth. . 18 inches. The rings are about f inch wide and of this section Fig.CALDRONS FOUND IN ENGLAND. 2|- Width . about £ inch in diameter. are in the British Museum. * Vol. in this country. Although no such vessels have been found in barrows in Eng- land. is also in the same collection. It is formed of two tiers of plates above the concave bottom. .. The bottom of another caldron. 1880. of about the same The metal is remarkably thin. which combines great strength with economy of metal. Antrim. . . was dredged up in the Thames near Battersea. remains. F. 511. . they are not entirely unknown A very fine caldron of this character. . From these brackets two strips of thin brass run down about 3 inches. U. Co. p. about 21 inches in extreme diameter and about 16 inches in height. one of which. about 5 inches in diameter. — Ireland. The rings are of this section f-|-. is in the collection of the Earl of Eosse. of this section |-« found near Ipswich. in June. . It resembles Fig. . 511. . . 511. closely resembling Fig. . size. more nearly hemispherical. also with two rings. Another caldron from Dowris. each ornamented with a fern-leaf pattern.S. 411 •* to be thinner than anypublished in the Ulster Journal of Archeeology thing of the kind used in our modern cooking vessels. Cambs. while the surfaces are almost as even and level as that of modern sheet brass. dimensions : — Diameter at top of rim Extreme diameter . and has had two rings at the mouth. . from Walthamstow. 4£ „ J-j*. 82. The two rings of such a caldron.. Eobinson. The rivet-heads are pierced so as to leave a saltire ornament in each. is a remarkably fine and perfect caldron. . The expanding rim of the mouth is supported on four small brackets. v. Outside diameter of rings . found in the parish The following are its of Ballyscullion.. and is now in the British Museum.i(l<<| brackets through which they pass and a part of the rim are still attached.A. In the collection of Mr. W. . T. The semi-cylindrical br. „ . b\ inches. .

9 ozs. which has been patched in more than one place. Another vessel of the same character was found in a tumulus in Brittany. WilKani Gray.. U.. 326. In some vessels very large sheets of bronze have been used. Robinson. It several places. where there are There are five rivets in it. In the collection of Canon Greenwell. — Height Diameter of mouth Diameter at shoulder Diameter at bottom . who kindly allowed me to engrave it as Fig. A. . are as follows . . 512.. in the British The form is almost identical with some of the bronze urns from the cemetery at Hallstatt.S. . . [chap...412 VESSELS. and the ring has concentric ribs upon it. It " It originally stood on six feet. f and contained burnt bones.. ... xxvi. one for the circular bottom and two vessel. 7| Some holes which have' fully riveted together. but was formed of three for the remainder of the plates only. . t Rev. tudinally. of which several appear to be of Etruscan fabric. except at the junction with the arms. near Armoy. p.. It formerly belonged to Mr.. I. The weight is 5 lbs. T. .E. . Mua. . is composed of 88 7l Copper 9-46 Tin has suffered — Lead Iron . .. being nearly 17£ inches high and about 16 inches in diameter at the shoulder the neck contracts to 13 inches. The arms are ribbed longiFig. F. was found with numerous other bronze objects in the Heathery Burn Cave. also from Wilde.S. . . 531. . found in Capecastle Bog. 17^ inches.. 409. 512. already so often mentioned. but of rather broader proportions. This vessel. one in the centre and four in the cross-ribs. and has been carefully patched in The metal is very tough and of a rich golden colour.. F. N." much from wear.. - . rather more than 9 inches in diameter. fig. 513. 512. At the neck is a stout bronze ring. It has the usual two massive handles and at the bottom is a flat ring with arms across it like a fourspoked wheel. p. each forming an inverted cup. 15A . The plates of which it is formed are care- .* is 181 inches deep. vol.. 16 inches high.. XX. ETC..A. is a vessel of hammered bronze of the same character as the figure. l 66 Trace - 99-83 Among three bronze vessels from the Dowris find now Museum is one of the form of Fig. A remarkably fine specimen of a vase of this character. . R. of Its dimensions Belfast. Arch. Antrim.— Ireland... ring opposite each end of the arms. That shown in Fig. CALDRONS.S.. and are of large size. over which the plates are turned. 13 . . is in the collection of Mr.. Co. * Catal. W.

One of the upright vases found at Hallstatt t has animal figures upon it almost undoubtedly of Etruscan work. be little doubt that the conical form originated among the whose commerce Etruscans. as shown in the lower figure. That some of them Hermann Genthe. Alexandre Bertrand and some other antiquaries are inclined to commerce with the East along the valley of The finding of vessels of the same form in Ireland seems to point to a more western believe in a more direct the Danube or Dnieper. fur Anthrop. will " * A paper on Etruscan Commerce with the North. vi. On the other hand. All the upper apparently been worn by use have is decorated by small raised bosses propart of the vessel above the shoulder duced by means of a punch applied on the inside of the vessel. t Von Sacken. I think. v. 237. however. and course of trade. The rings for suspension are solid. England. The bottom of the vessel is se- cured by a ring and cross piece of bronze forming a kind of fourspoked wheel. and though not uncommon on urns formed of burnt clay. p." by Dr. 413 been carefully patched. been before observed on those made of bronze. * and Ireland Fig. conical vessels These are probably the spheroidal caldrons. and below the shoulder is a series of triangles embossed in a similar manner forming a kind of Vandyke collar round the vessel. vol. I think. though showing some signs of Eastern influence in their style. there is much analogy between this Irish vessel and that from the Heathery Burn Cave last described. Whether either were actually earlier in date than manufactured in Britain is an interesting There can.. and hang towards the inside of the vessel. Hallst." Taf. and bronze helmets bearing Etruscan inscriptions have been found in Styria. 513. question. As will be seen..CALDRONS FOUND IN IRELAND. 1. . M. always assuming that these objects were imported. xxi. extended to the certainly northern side of the Alps. is without ornament.— Capecastle Bog. be found in the Archiv. has not. The latter. This character of ornamentation is very characteristic of the Bronze Period. Brittany. " Das Grabf.

in all probaof indigenous manufacture. XX. the handles of these British and Irish vessels by rings. but it also — — .414 VESSELS. affords . while those of the vessels from southern The countries are loops like the handles of pails or buckets. ETC. The careful manner in which some of the vessels are mended to be unknown on the an argument that such utensils were rare and valuable shows that the native workmen understood how to make thin plates unless these were portions of other vessels and at all events how to rivet plates together. bility. [CHAP. indigenous character exhibit an amount of dexterity in producing thin plates of bronze quite sufficient for the manufacture of such vessels. But whether there were no bronzesmiths in the British Isles capable of imitating such products of The bronze shields which are of essentially skill is doubtful. importatum of Caesar may refer to a con- tinuance of such a trade. may have come from abroad Not impossibly the ces appears in the highest degree probable. are formed Moreover. CALDRONS. caldrons are also of a form and character which appears spheroidal Continent. and are therefore.

and one remarkable are in use at the present day gun-metal is that the admixture with copper of the much feature in bronze softer metal tin. and the various processes by which they were produced it will Some of these processes. as it is now more commonly called. therefore distinct Many varieties of bronze or. 1879. METAL. no-7fi -^ ) — most common use and tin* Copper. as already stated. in varying proportions. and from brass. such a result of the mixture scopes. so much harder that.7o . following table reprinted in Martineau gives compiled from a paper in Design and Work. of which this chapter will noticed. ornaments. a priori. used for cannon. ( Gun-metal proper. and vessels belonging to the Bronze Period of this country. of Copper. Having now passed be well to consider the nature of the metal of which they are formed.'-' alloys some of the now in : purposes to Tin. and need be but cursorily The main process. . and Smith's Haydvare Trade Jonyiud. tools. for bearings of machinery. AND THE METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. indeed. Used j ( April 30. and finished ready for use. which they are applied Ter cent. produces an alloy in most and when the tin if not all cases harder than the original copper as in the metal used for the specula of teleis much in excess. which is an alloy of copper and zinc. Bronze. in review the various forms of weapons. is an alloy of copper and tin. as for instance of the cutting-edges of tools and weapons. MOULDS.CHAPTER XXI. . The of two soft metals would have been thought impossible. have already been mentioned. 11 ino 11 11 99 qc _ = _ common metal for cannon and machine brasses. and the hammering out the production of ornamental designs by means of the hammer and punch. frequently called gun-metal. used also for bronze statues. « 90 «n. treat is that of casting. — — .

. (76-69 68-57 ofi. * p. probable that the method of treatment of the metal it appears may some- what cast M. [CHAP. Very hard. i. the constituents of which A A Copper Tin .. . therefore." t Comptes Hindus de I Ac. or 68 21 per cent. . vol. The addition of tin. used for culinary vessels. Trescat found that a gun-metal Messieurs Laveissiere. contain an appreciable admixture of tin. 1861). des Sc.. in casting specula. not malleable. and indeed often do. can only be recognised by analysis. lxxvi. p. (1873). BeU . AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. preferred using copper and tin in their atomic proportions. 11 11 11 11 11 72 60 44 48 36) = = = = = of Copper. . What appear. In small proportions it but little affects the colour of the copper.. to be copper instruments may. 36^75-00 24 . of copper and 31-79 of tin. however. Zinc Lead . 474 (ed.. Per cent. Very white. except from - that of increased hardness. Tin. . 100100" vol. . 86-75 84*50 80-00 81*35 Bather harder. . while increasing the hardness of copper.* and it is difficult to recognise its presence from the physical characters of the copper. sometimes used for specula with some other slight admixture. Percy's Metallurgy. 1232. MOULDS. sonorous. Used for cymbals and Chinese gongs. also renders it more fusible. ) -r.416 METAL.. Harder. XXI.. very hard. — • Copper Tin Zinc 89-47 978 0-66 Lead was superior in were as follows : 009 all the phosphor-bronze — or respects to either the common gun-metal B cast at Bourges. Besides the superiority of one alloy over another.Rfi 12 11 . j f ( Lord Rosse. Copper. consisting of by affect its properties. however.metaL Yellowish. which.

T. Pearson* gun-metal. the tin being sometimes upwards 18 per cent. In the following table in 1796 as being only approximative. iv. and even spear-heads. of In others. Soc. also contain a considerable proportion of this metal.. in order to produce a tough and hard though not brittle metal. Irish." vol. there is great variation in the proportions of the principal ingredients even in cutting tools of the same general character. is found to the extent of from 20 to 30 per cent. vol. much as 28*50 and even 32"50 per cent. as Dr. Some of the bronze ornaments of the Early Iron Period Pelligott found as lead. there was from 8 to 16 per cent. 1796. Sullivan has pointed out J there arc two . exists in but very minute quantity whereas in the socketed celts and swords. Although some such proportion as 9 to 1 appears to have been aimed at.. E E . which are probably Ireland. if present at all. 395. lxxxvi. t (Jhantre. for instance. It will be seen. which.. p. that certain forms of bronze weapons ments and utensils are of later date than others. with only li per cent. and sometimes less than 5 per cent.LEAD ABSENT IN EARLY BRONZE. 62. of the whole. appear to be and nine parts of copper to one part of tin maynearly the same be regarded as the constituents of the most serviceable bronze or The results of both ancient proportions in . that in the flat and flanged celts. lead. Phillips." lrro ptie. . of lead. p. p. vol. <>f This variation was no doubt partly due to occasional scarcity of tin but. p. and occurs in several especially in those from cases in considerable pro- This prevalence of lead is very remarkable in some of the small socketed celts found in very large numbers in Brittany. Chem. with a large per-centage of tin. W. later forms. A. i. K. I have arranged them so far as practicable in accordance with the different forms of the objects analyzed . the palstaves. § O'Curry's "Mann. . "L'Age du Br./. this metal portions. 417 and modern experience as to the which copper and tin should be mixed. or a small trace of tin. of the Anc. and Cust. X . I have given the results of some of the more recent analyses of bronze antiquities found in the United Kingdom. and have omitted the early analyses of Dr. which from their diminutive size have been regarded as "votive" rather In some of these Professor than as destined for actual use. ccccxx. and one feature which is thus brought out tends strongly to confirm the conclusion which has been arrived at from other and other instrupremises. Tram. * Phil. Q. 266. in the early Roman as + and its parts.

de la Soc. see Prof. and in general through Western Europe. p. Wiberg. — . 37. Ant. et du cuivre." p. vol. 23 Wibel." R. tin. F. " Monuments de l'Ant. p. Bertrand." " in Sitz. second. Annals of Scotland. Bronze legirungen. Howorth. 1850 Von " Bull. nat. i. Sabatier. of copper and only 5 per cent. or from their colour and weight. 1'IIoinmc. " Production de l'or. " Les Mctaux dans l'Age du Bronze." 1874. Prehistoric Times. vol. Wilson. of tin lost so it cent. Troyon." 1865.. Ethnol.. der Wiss. C.vne d'Anthrop. it will not be in power to add much to what has already been published my on which commonly occurs native and was the first metal that attracted the attention of manThe next metal to be discovered would. Classe. Europe barbare." 1860. When once it was discovered that copper was fusible by heat. "Arch. as Chapter.A. on the "Archaeology of Bronze. . H. A." Arch. p. 1852 54. it occurs in a pure metallic state. op." Mem." p. "Origine du Bronze. With regard to the early sources of the copper and tin used in this country. vol." 1866. phil. . De " Proh. " Chemische Analyscn anb. Bd.\ Zaborowski-Moindron. p. as effected. Soc. 650. Ccltique et Gauloise." 1876. Tidskrift. vol. ccccvii. both sulphuretted and non-sulphuretted. hist. Acad. do Berne. such as would also become known. Archiv. such as copper pyrites." &c. in all probability. and has many points of brilliant. F.. 59 " L'Anciennete de et eeqq. "L'Age du Bronze. fur Anth. Dr. MOULDS.." 1869. " Einlluss der Etrusker und Griechen auf die Bronze Cultur. and the accumulation of the . AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. See also H. resemblance with gold. . iii. I have observed in the Introductory no doubt originated in some part of the world where. Von Cohausen's Review of " Wibel." in Antiq.418 METAL. would follow and in due time. t For an interesting essay on the sources of bronze. 11. ccccxviii. some of the other ores. would become known. this subject. M. Soc. the separation of the constituent metals tin in the lower and. The use of this metal. vi. De Fellenbcrg. on the shore of Lake Superior. p. Wocel. p. du Nord. G. It seems probable that gold. Sullivan in the Introduction to O'Curry's " Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish. be copper. the throwing off of the tin portion of the castings oxidation when the alloys were re-melted.Vo\. des Sc. kind. p. much of the latter metal of copper and 96 by six fusions that ultimately consisted of 95 per cent. fur Anth. dans 1' p. in the fused mass. it : [CHAP. "Die Bronzen und Kupferlegimngen.. Wien. and that tin ores would either O'Curry. de l'argent. Mortillct. Dusaussoy* by found that an alloy containing 9(P4 per per cent. of tin. cit. Bibra. " Die Cultur der Bronze-Zcit Nord und Mittel Europas. which also occurs native. other causes for first. xvi. 1866—71. De Rougcmont. XXI. iv. 72. the production of the metal from some of the more metallic-looking ores.-Ber. 206 Morlot." . Germanernes og Slaverncs Bronzer. 169 Kelterncs. f When once the production of copper in this manner was ." and " Prehistoric Man.S.." Trans. 320. Lubbock. iv." 1868. either from association with the metal. * it is probable that the ores of other metals.

as suggested by or added to crude Dr. But. 115. a question difficult to answer. So far. Native copper and many of its ores occur in Hungary. 419 be treated conjointly with the ores of copper. however.SOURCES OF COPPER AND TIN. 2. p. because the Phoenicians derived their civilisation and arts from Egypt. * For though the Egyptians may have used Job. that the Phoenician bronze would have been lead-bronze.wiii. by themselves so as to produce metallic tin. with which either directly or Copper and indirectly the Phoenicians traded for tin. 34fi. extent be true. t and several instruments of recognised French types have been found in our Bronze vessels also may have been imported. and long before Caesar's time was exported in considerable And yet his account may to some quantities to the Continent. Lewis Sir John Lubbock. copper pyrites Although tin was formerly found in abundance in some parts of Spain. and also in less quantity in Brittany. The argument. and it may my well be that their system of left commerce or barter was such as intentionally much the same stage of civilisation as that in which they found them. + there can be but little doubt that the Cassiterides. there was no necessity for the Britons in Caesar's time to make use of imported bronze. pp. southern counties. so as at once to produce bronze or again. vol. C. " Preh. t P. 223. Times. Sweden. with due deference to Professor Nilsson and other antiquaries. its ores are abundant in Ireland. chap. 18GG. however. lxii. as a socketed celt of what is almost undoubtedly Breton manufacture has been found near Weymouth. § The douhts raisnl by the late Sir G. therefore. and had continual intercourse with that country. Norway. where lead-bronze was early known." 63 el scqq. generally distributed. . x. Saxony. X Comptes Rendu*. Wibel. especially and gray copper. and Cornwall but copper pyrites is far more .§ are rightly identified with Britain. At what date " was generally known that brass is molten out of the stone "* it is. v. . as the existence of this metal is concerned. always assuming that they dealt directly with Britain and the barbarian tribes with whom they traded in not through the intervention of Gaulish merchants. and is found in most countries of the world. I must confess that the traces of Phoenician influence in this country are to mind at present imperceptible. especially as tin was found in abundance in Cornwall. on this point have been dealt with by E E 2 . be smelted as suggested by Professor Sullivan copper. appears to me wanting in cogency.

. des Ver. and other practical metallurgists have shown that thia view is untenable. that the discovery of bronze did not originate in the British Isles. 1852.420 METAL. 94. in ancient times used only true bronzes of greater or lesser purity — Many nickel. p. derived from the copper from which the bronze was made.R. Layard. lead-bronzes for statues and ornaments. Jahrbiich. 4.. Alt. in the book already cited. Some analyses of bronze antiquities found in other countries are given in the works indicated below. arrives at the following among other conclusions from the chemical facts at his command : — — 1. eit. the Egyptian dagger* analyzed by Vauquelin gave copper 85. the usual mode of making them was by treating fused crude copper with tin-stone. p. 249 " Et. . J in addition to those mentioned on page 418. France. f Dr. 19. like that of the to place the original Aryan family. 62 Perrin. lix. in an Asiatic rather than an European centre. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. "Age du Br. 670. Percy. op. t In later times together.. MOULDS. but that the knowledge of that useful metal was commu- nicated from abroad. of these bronzes contain small quantities of lead.. ." 1870. sur la Savoie. 2. and iron 1 per Of one point we may be fairly cent. vol. The northern nations those formed of copper and tin according to the kind of ores used. and probably from the neighbouring country. Though some bronzes may have been produced directly by melting a mixture of copper and tin ores..-frcund im Rheinl. p. See Lubbock. 3. ." p. v. 21 Chantre. The presence in greater or less proportions of other metals than copper and tin in bronze antiquities may eventually lead to the recognition of the sources from which in each country the Professor Sullivan.." p. bronze of was made by mixing the two metals seems to have been The copper the ancient bronzes smelted in many different localities. " Prehist. cobalt. F. Times..S. "Nineveh and Babylon. certain. XXI. When and in what manner that and the other countries of Western and Central Europe derived their knowledge of bronze I will only say that the not my intention here to discuss. . zinc. X AnnalcH for Oldk. p. preh. p. tin 14." lere ptie. iron. principal supplies of metal were obtained. [CHAP. 621. is it is tendency of the evidence at present gathered source of bronze. and showed no trace of lead. * Von Bibra. and silver.


+ 4f inches wide at the ends. the hole through the centre being "Die Bronzen und Kupferlegirungen. . This method of breaking up the solid cakes while hot saved also an infinity of labour as to cut such masses into small pieces when cold would. MOULDS. p. has a fine example of this kind found at It is about lGh inches long and Locras. viii. Ant. p. di Paletnol.. however." pi.. Professor Chiericif has suggested that appearance at the ends. and which not improbably are really such. have a similar broken . "Age du Br. "Alb. pi.. interspersed with cavities formed in the metal. A.t to form the break in the mould.* The copper which was used by the bronze-founders of old times appears to have been smelted from the ore and run into a shallow concave mould open at top. 250. t Bull. these becoming sufficiently cakes seem as a rule to have been disturbed and broken up into numerous pieces." 8vo.. . have the form of a doubleended axe with a very small shaft hole. vol. * xi. Some pieces of metal which have been regarded as ingots. which indeed was poured in at intervals. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. Gross. J. Many of the cakes are. and that from time to time clay and sand were thrown in so as to break the continuity of the metal. Erlangen. [CHAP. even with modern and with only bronze and stone appliances. after the insertion of the sand or clay. in the Lac de Bienne. Those who wish for detailed information as to the composition of the bronze antiquities found in other countries are referred to De Fellenberg's essays and to Von Bibra's comprehensive work. and in some cases there seems reason to think that this may have been produced intentionally. F. "Materiaux.422 I METAL.. better adapted for re-melting than the whole cakes would have been. of Neuveville. Phillips. . i. near Cambridge. Ital. be a difficult task tools at command would have been nearly impossible. 36. so as to render the breaking of the cakes even when cold more readily practicable. % Chantre. xxviii. 1869. p. convex below and flat above but before cold to be quite set into tough metal. in which the metal assumed the form of a circular cake. XXI.S. 1. and known by Italian antiquaries as ces signatum." vol. of a socketed celt from Yorkshire and of a small dagger from Newton. 159. . have here given most of the trustworthy analyses already published. Dr. 1879.. Soc. the moulds in which they were cast were of considerable length. They have been discovered with several of the bronze-founders' hoards in France. Proc. and have only added two new analyses kindly made for me by Mr." leroptio. V. Many of the blocks of metal cast in rough moulds.G. 2nd Ser.

&o. and the weight of the ingot. Near Worthing. the following may be cited. ** Arch. Roy. vol. xxi. socketed celts. vol. fragments of swords. p. these latter being sometimes in a worn-out or broken condition. vol." vol. 427. Beddington.^} with palstaves. Kenidjack Cliff. and in many cases have proved to be so on analysis. with palstaves and socketed celts. \ Joum. Hilary. Croydon.. They are from 1 to 13 inches in diameter and about 2 inches thick and on more than one found in .. St. vol. These lumps have usually the appearance of pure copper." p.. 2nd S. p. H J'roc. 5 Arch. 120 (Leland)..ff with mould. xxix. 10. xv. apparently very pure. which is of pure copper. Stogursey. go to prove that they are in fact the stock-in-trade of the ancient bronze-founders. however.. 286. socketed colts. i. though other instances are given in the tables at page 462 Lanant. each. Anglesea* weigh from 30 to 50 there are inscriptions lbs. Cornwall. p. Wick Park. Arch. is about 6| lbs. 363. 4th S. The jets or waste pieces from the castings. with palstaves. &c. Joum.** with socketed celts. near Welwyn. Surrey. 210 . j J with palstave. Ant.. Soc. . vi. Pennant's Froc. No. §§ Arch. however.. spears. Herts. p.. Cornwall. 194 " Tour. found with broken : — socketed celts. Soc. tt Surrey Arch. In other deposits the instruments seem new and ready for use. || . Inst. vol. three lumps of raw copper. cakes appear.! heavy lumps of fine copper.. vol. spear-heads.'vol. Sussex. Arch. 423 about j inch in diameter. Beachey Head. Joum. v. socketed celts. but with the edge inclined as if they had been cast Some copper differ in in a small frying-pan. in Roman characters. vol. %\ Anderson's "Croydon.LUMPS OF ROUGH METAL. of which I shall subsequently have to speak.. v. p. and apparently brought together as old metal for re-casting. 59. p. &c. G3 p. Camb. and spear-head. broken swords. are often found mixed with the rude lumps.. They shape from those already described.. 288. || * Arch. vol.. xxvi. x. Kingston Hill. xv. Cornwall. Coll. Somerset. 248. They Turning now to the instances of lumps of rough metal being found with bronze weapons and tools. Surrey. hammer. All the circumstances of these discoveries.. &c. 118. . Ant. p. t Arch. ii. several lumps of metal. §§ lumps of metal with damaged socketed celts. 2nd Ser. gouge. vol.! with palstaves and socketed celts. Surrey. Rough lumps of metal have frequently been found with deposits of bronze implements in Britain. xvi. said to have been found with spear-heads. or again they are in an unfinished condition. Cornw. in being of nearly even thickness. p. § lumps weighing 14 or 15 lbs. gouge. Wickham Park. to belong to Roman times. viii. vol. p. Danesbury. Joum. &c.

Kent. socketed celts. 213. p. 114. with nearly a hundred Earsley Common. Anthrop. weighing each about £ lb. Inst. Journ. 69. i. including some lumps weighing 5 or 6 lbs. Hemel Hernpsted.. x. " P. || || &e. + + + Proc. XX lamps of metal. p. vol. with socketed celts. were found at Therfield. Soc. p. but they seem to be scarcer in Scotland and Ireland than in England. p. iii. v. iii. Helsdon Hall. Lincolnshire. i. p. 115. near Christchurch. and possibly MalaccallHH in the East. p. Cambs." vol. Trans. Journ. 2nd Ser. ii. p.. vol. gouge. IIIIH Wilson. J lumps of metal in waste pieces and imperfect ings. 2nd S. Herts. Essex. Proc. 116.! ff with socketed celts. ring of caldron. ix.. with socketed celts. §§§ Arch.. vol. vol. 86. II If Penes Capt. vol.424 METAL. §§§ These bars "seemed to be pieces of the metal out of which the celts were cast. near Royston.. v. Arch. several lumps of metal. 101. UHU Crawfurd. vol.ff with socketed celts. fragments of Westwick Row." vol. Ant. Meldreth. Brooke.."^ with socketed celt. 350.** with socketed celts. with socketed Romford. in Duddingston Loeh. Norfolk. &c. \ Arch. swords. p. West Halton..* with palstaves. v. untrimmed socketed celts. XXI. § Arch. Yorkshire.. vol. Journ. Durham. &c. 24... p. p. JEliana. Herts. Norwich. 348 .f several lumps. Illl ** Smith's " Coll. p. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. Carlton Rode. of metal. 232. [CHAP. Soc. Ant.. p. socketed celts. XXX an ^. gouges. the trade with Britain for that metal must * Journ. probably the latter. Martlesham. and was in each case at least one lump of metal. vol.*** with socketed celts and broken sword. Essex." In Scotland some "lumps of brass" were found with the swords. gouges. + + Arch. ii. p. Arch. York. Scot. &c. In the British Museum. Roseberry Topping. Journ. Hants. &c. vi. §§ Arch. p. there Besides the cakes of copper. xviii. tt In the British Museum. and then cut into lengths of from 4 to 5 inches.. of Scot. Eth. . as already observed. and in that state to have served as Thirteen of these short bars the raw material for the bronze-founders. Fifield. Kensington. of copper with a Some fifteen or small alloy of tin or antimony. &c. hammer. Cumberlow. In the Heathery Burn Cave.|||||| Probably other lumps of metal have been found in that country. § upwards of 50 lbs. Soc. 302. &c. sixteen "pieces of long triangular brass" are described as having been found with about the same number of celts at Hinton. Ant. vol. v. || celts. vol. | p. &c.. with socketed celts. Ant. Arch. &c. ttt Arch. hammered - Although.. 195. Suffolk... Essex. i.. cast- High Roding. gouges. spears. 80. Journ. i. 11 Proc. 306. p. Woodbridge. MOULDS. t Penes me. chisel. 132. p.. with socketed celts. Ufford Hall. vol. vol. Soc. tin Spain in may have been the principal Western source of early times. socketed celts. vol. bars of that metal appear to have been into an oblong form. 116. Sittingbourne. gouge. xi. &c. *** Arch.-^ r Percy found on analysis that they contained about 98^ per cent. in the Gruilsfield find.. A. ^f^f a large quantity of metal. vol. §§ pieces of copper. vol. &c.

L. 93. which consists of 1 of tin to 2 of load. . ccccxix. its having been practised are given in preceding Some fragments of pure metallic tin have from time to time A small hammered bar found at been found on the Continent. 265. Spain. vol. that fragments of tin would be frequently found in the therefore. and somewhat curved.. is an interesting question.§ and analyzed by M. of oval section.* Morayshire. iron. Stevenson Mac- Tin . These in company with socketed celts." O'Curry and Sullivan. considered to have been entirely unknown in the Soldering* Bronze Age. . p. Irish. ** Arch. tin its is absence.DISCOVERIES OF TIN IN HOARDS OF BRONZE. and in about 3 ounces. Etruria. || * Proc. 376. is is . "Preh." p. Times. preh. p. p. fuses at 441 degrees Fahr. Whether this bar was intended lie is exported to Scotland Profrom the tin-producing districts. Saxony. "Manners and Customs of the Anc.** T ix. Von Sacken. Scot. Besides being found in Cornwall. 3er Beiicht. 425 have commenced at a very remote epoch." vol." p. and Portugal. p. Soc. If "Cong. But though lumps of copper have old bronze-founders' hoards. March 26. Sw eden. spear-heads. 435. the Lake-dwelling of Estavayer. and instances of pages.. vol. points out. the metal is in weight fact a soft solder composed. zinc. i. "Das Grabfeld von Hallstatt. vol." discovery at Achtertyre. of — according to Dr. or represents a base tin analysis lead uniformly present. and even during the earlier times of the Iron Age but the art of burning bronze on to bronze was certainly known.. 118. p. of Scot. We so often been discovered in them. § Keller. The only instance to which at present conspicuous by I am able to refer is the of four "broken bits of tin. || Silesia. Lead 78-66 21-34 100- a more fusible alloy than the ordinary This. Though spoken of as tin. de Fellenberg. Ann. and plumbers' solder. though in varying proportions. and would fuse at 365 degrees. adam. tin occurs in France. Avas free from lead. 242. fur Auth. Engineer. fessor Daniel Wilson t has called attention to the fact that in all the bronze instruments found in Scotland which have been submitted to for use as solder. . . ix. seem to be fragments of a single bar which was about pieces 6 inches in length. It also occurs in Bohemia.. p. and copper. ." Buda-Pest. t "Preh. Ant.1I and is said to be found in Chorassan.. % Lubbock. might expect. 44. as it contains nearly 4 of tin to 1 of lead. 1876. and bracelets.

as described by Diodorus Siculus. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. for an interesting paper on Ancient Metallurgy. 7.. What is borrowed. but This metal date is probably within a century of our era. 1055. p. Joum. p. and for being slung on a horse's side. XXI. 196. said at Syracuse. p. Arch. to the mouths of the Rhone. vol. " Paleoetnol." p.Hand in their form present a close analogy with this ingot of tin. form of II Curiously enough this author speaks of the blocks being in the Other astragali.. but in Kent and the neighbouring parts of England. vol. H Spano. is [CHAP. Joum. Sarda. lump cast in a basin-shaped mould. Among the Ancient Britons. 39 whence the cut X . Arch. either before or after Christ. with two holes in the Hat face converging so as to form a V-shaped receptacle for a cord. and I therefore content myself with men- tioning them. xvi. tin coins cast for the most part in wooden moulds were in circulation. ix. + It is 2 feet 11 inches long and about 11 inches wide. vol. Joum. t Evans.426 METAL. Brit. 39.S. p. MOULDS. § || . 6. by Dionysius* to have been struck into coins none such are at present known." lib. was dredged up Falmouth harbour. 514. though a small piece has been cut off at one end.J has pointed out Fig. Pollux." p. Phillips. but there appears to me hardly sufficient evidence to determine their approximate date. p. thus forming a proper load for a pack-horse. is in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. He has also suggested that this was the form of ingot in which the tin produced in Cornwall was transported to Gaul. J. that the form in which the ingot is cast adapts it for being laid in the keel of a boat. xvi. by the late Prof. not in the tin-producing disTheir tricts. F. though they are of much tuary tablets * Jul.R. with which this ingot fairly coincides. See also Arch. c. 514. " Onom. xvi. large ingot of tin. " Coins of the Anc. and thence carried overland. it still weighs 158 lbs.. Joum. Arch. two of them in A Fig. It is shown in The late Sir Henry James. and 3 inches thick. ingots of tin of different form have also been found in Cornwall. in shape like the letter H. and. vol. A appear to be ingots of copper rather than votive or morhave been found in Sardinia. 123. xxviii. f however.— Falmouth.. 26..

In many cases cores producing hollows in the casting were employed in 3." Eng. which on exposure to heat left the loam or clay in a porous condition. 40. Times.. wood model and hot. For this process the model was made of wax. stone. wood. p. cit. As to the method of melting the metal but They are counter- linger See.. possibly mixed with cow-dung or vegetable matter. Crucibles without cases with lumps of bronze still in them. The castings produced in this manner when in unfinished condition show the joints of the moulds. US. but so far as this country is con* Keller. In what may be termed solid moulds.METHODS OF CASTING. The loam moulds were profor bably burnt hard before being used. still which was probably poured in while the mould was Sir John Lubbock + regards this as the commonest mode of casting during the Bronze Age. p. 4:27 Both the sides and ends curve inwards. that the crucibles employed must have been vessels of burnt clay provided with handles for moving them while for pouring out the metal small ladles of earthenware may At Robenhausen. small crucibles of a ladle-like form have been found. in some land. of the desired form in wood or other soft substance. or metal. which might be an object already in use. . ed. however. or some combustible material which was encased in a mass of loam. Objects were cast In a single mould formed of loam. — the case of loam or sand castings a pattern or model would be used. or made 2. handles have been discovered at Unter-Uhldingen. notch at the ends of some being semicircular. conjunction with these moulds. This exposure to fire also burnt out the wax or left a cavity for the reception of the metal.* on Lake Pfaffikon. sand. " Lake-dwellings. which was left open to the air.t in the Ueber." % t Op. smaller dimensions. marked with a kind of double T. The methods 1. of easting were various. When sand was employed a frame or flask of some kind must have been used to retain the material in place when the upper half of the mould was lifted off the pattern. " Preh. In double moulds of similar materials. p. the little is known. It seems probable. 54. the upper surface of the casting exhibiting the flat surface In of the molten metal. Switzerhave been used.

which a recent possessor of the mould has thought so well stone. earned appears to me Except advantage would be gained result could usually be obtained by the use of a mould in two In comparing halves. that the mould with the marks where apparently a cobbler's awl has been sharpA celt cast in such a mould would be natter on one face ened. in use. as will be seen. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. 515. apparently caused by the contraction of the metal in cooling. specimen tion there is in one face a deep conical depression. It was probably to the casting while cooling necessary to add a little molten metal . knives. rings. which would render the two faces time condense the metal and nearly symmetrical. The single moulds found within the United Kingdom are all of stone. and are adapted for the production of flat celts. and also for wear at the edge. though much thinner Before being used it would be subthere than in the middle. which were subsequent processes. a of objects together. and at the same render it harder and fitter for cutting purposes. is for a The material is a micaceous sandflat celt of the ordinary form. In some cases it is hard to say whether a mould was intended to be used alone or in conjunction with another of the same kind. Others will subsequently be mentioned. was found near Ballymena. for allowance must be made for hammering. so as in fact to be only the half of a mould. is in the museum of that town.eight specimens of celts in the in highly complicated castings. no by adopting the process. Co. Antrim. than the other. from differences in the amount of coating used to prevent the hot metal from adhering to mould. if ever. The moulds formed of burnt clay have but rarely lasted to our times.428 METAL. which I have engraved as Fig. is in places scored adapted for use as a whetstone. In an Irish. off by the But of this I shall shortly speak. such as ring within ring. polishing. in Carniola. especially at the in my collecedge which was drawn out. One for a perforated axe found among the remains of Lake-dwellings near Laibach. Even in castings from the same metal mould there will be considerable variations. mitted to a hammering process. and the length stopped core. it that this was actually the case. XXI. while the pattern would then be preserved. to have been very seldom. and small chisels. though some have been found on the continent of Europe. like the six hundred and Dublin Museum. no two may eighty. The single mould. and. and be blunt at the ends. as the same number does not follow appear to have been cast in the same mould. it [CHAP. MOULDS. and ornamenting. though.

seems probable that some even of the flanged celts were originally plain castings in an open mould. 515. Journ. JFJiana. vol. .—Ballymi oa.. in order to avoid such defects. in In a field near Cambo.SINGLE MOULDS FOK FLAT CELTS. 107. 429 The sides as well as the faces of these plain celts have usually been wrought with the hammer. 2. vol. iv. though rarely. NorthumberEngland. x. Moulds of the same kind have been found. p. it * Arch. p. Arch. and I - Mb m 1 Fig.* near Wallington.

Assoc. Ant. " Preh. vol. in halves. R. — .. p. Soc. iv. vol. Argyleshire. vol. 109. pi. p. Only seven depressions are there described. " L'uomo 20.. 383.* Another large block. METAL. $ Ibid. vi. 341 Proc. 91. || These moulds are more abundant in Ireland.. of stone. ii. Journ. Scot. has moulds upon four faces for flat celts of different sizes. is in the Museum at Edinburgh." p. forming the end of a cist.. ." 1878. ** " tt Wilde's " Catal." vol. A mould for casting rings. XXI. which may have been used as moulds. and near it in one corner of the slab a mould for a very small celt. vol. [CHAP. p.** On a slab in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy f f there are moulds for two flat celts. p. Such celt moulds have always been made . Moulds for palstaves and socketed celts have been found both of stone and of bronze. 34 Arch. Ethnol. It would appear as if the founder must have possessed a second half of One its of this latter mould. t Journ. 335. castings could be made thicker than the depth of the moulds. p. nella Prow di Como.. pi. Ant. iv. and on the other face another such mould.f has nine depressions in it in the form of flat celts. Wilde. for a large celt in the centre. and also for one with a stop-ridge and a loop. i. p.. ^j polyhedral in shape.. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. p. Stone blocks with moulds cut in them have been found in Scotland. near Kilmartin.430 land. I. \ and Alford. § with depressions of various forms upon them. and it is by no means impossible that this stone and another forming part of the same cist may have been intended for the production of castings. but it will be well to reserve the latter until all the forms of moulds made of stone have been considered. p. ii. || Arch. They are barely an eighth of an inch in depth. is in the Antiquarian Museum at One with a mould Edinburgh. 392. 2nd S. Antrim. i. 45. not improbably belong to a later period than that of which I am treating. 513. 18 . p. %X Pegazzoni." p. Scot." p. iv. fig.. 2^ inches in diameter. 146. and for a larger celt and perhaps a knife on the other. Mus. p.JI Two moulds formed slightly flanged celts.. having on one face two moulds for flat celts of different sizes. Ant. vi. vol. Catal. was found a block of sandstone. preist. found at Kilmaihe. vol. and apparently intended for flat or have been found at Bodio in the Lago di Varese. "Catal. and v.. vol. A. 343. ii. vol. One for two flat celts on the one face. vi. and on this account have been thought to be pictorial representations rather than moulds. was found in a cairn near Kintore. * Proc. Aberdeenshire. Soc.. "With a metal so imperfectly fluid as melted bronze. 33. xxxvi. in the Belfast Museum. Ibid. MOULDS. Co. pi.. vol. p. v. Ann. It was found near Carrickfergus. and also one for a flat ring. near Grirvan. Soc. Soc. Ayrshire. Journ. 72. IT Wilson. Aberdeenshire. The stone moulds from Trochrig. 78. The second slab of stone may have served for casting pins. X Proc. 209. It is now in the British Museum. In the Bateman Collection is a slab of schistose stone (7 inches by 6 inches) with three such moulds upon it. Inverness-shire.

uix. and was intended for short palstaves about 3£ inches long. formed of mica schist. however.iUii. 516 in the is 431 They shown the half of a mould for palstaves. fig." 1879. Another mould. Ann. 517. As the halves of stone moulds are rarely made so as to be dowelled together. V. The original is of green schist. p." vol. i Fig. for palstaves with double sity of Dublin. Wilson. iv. The other half is with it. and is in the Boyal Academy Museum at Dublin. 10 " M. The half of a mould for casting palstaves of a somewhat broader form was found near Lough Corrib. i. p. which is now of the Boyal Irish Academy.f who has also figured a mould for a looped palstave. . i. 358. In Fig.— Ireland. t Arch. On tho Continent stone moulds for ordinary palstaves have been found loops.DOUBLE STONE MOULDS FOR l'ALSTAYI>. 46. pi. was found in the river Bann. " 10.— Ireland. It is remarkable that a mould for so rare a form should have been found. . Fig-. Galway. 517. and now in the British Museum. is shown full size in Fig. lately boon discovered in the Lac de Bienne \ by Dr. they are almost always of exactly the same size externally. 835. is in the Antiquarian these * j pi. i.. from the Museum of the UniverA stone mould from Ireland. Gross. 516. Preh." L880. Museum at Edinburgh. " Lies dernieres trouvailles du Lac de Uiennc.. Another has been engraved by Dunoyer. The half of a mould for a small palstave. Journ. so as to be readily adjustable into their proper position when tied together for the reception of the metal. It is uncertain in what part of Ireland are formed of sandstone. vol. with transverse edge. Museum they were found.* and is in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. A stone mould for transverse palstaves of the same kind has.

These moulds had the two .. Tid. Dorsetshire. halves dowelled together when in use. of Lake House. " . and they appear to Exp. of oblong section.* One of them is in my own collection. found at Bulford Water. In the museum at Geneva are several from the Station of Eaux Vives.. § and is now in the Dorchester Museum. XXI.. especially in the Lake habitations. 48 and 49. Hi. [f'HAP. pi. p. 184. Jord-fynd fran Wiirend's forhist.]. near palstave || . A few stone moidds for casting socketed celts have been found in England." 1876. It is so badly drawn that it might be § "The Barrow Piggfrs. and would produce two varieties of socketed celts. p." Wittlock. in those from the other castings from the one are plain upon the faces there are three annulets connected by raised ribs. Arch. have been found in the Lacustrine Station of Eaux Vives. 10. 187 Chantre. near Salisbury. like those in Fig. with three vertical ribs on the face on the other is that for a double-looped celt of the same character. pi. The wings as originally east were vertical to the blades. apparently for celts without loops. * t " || P. de la Hongrie. de l'Exp. with vertical ribs upon them. Moulds for looped palstaves have been found in the Lac broken Savoy." On one face is the mould for a single-looped socketed celt about 4^ inches long. 521. Ann. Materiaux. xxviii. ** "Ant. 185. E. I believe. as if for the reception of dowels. 78." vol. They are for looped celts rather wide and The straight at the edge. x. p. It has several holes on the face of the slab. i. 61 shows a casting from one of tho moulds. ." pi. In another instance a set of moulds has been formed of three slabs of stone. Duke. iv. one half of the mould of each being engraved on the two faces of the central slab. **One with diagonal air-passages. ft have been figured by Professor Daniel Wilson.432 in METAL. On one there appears to be a second mould for a small flat bar. but about b\ inches long. 85. 68." p. 134 . of Scot. Arch. It is only this central piece which has been preserved.. Fig." vol. "Materiaux. 345. Boss-shire. figs. U Hampel. The half of one. "Alb. de la Sav. vol. much the same as on one face of the celt from Wigtonshire (Fig. MOULDS. preh. Two pair from the parish of Rosskeen. " Materiaux. as stated in the "Barrow Diggers. p. % v. Others in sandstone for socketed celts have been found in Hungary. mould for a was found at Billy (Loir et Cher). and they were subsequently hammered over to form the side pockets. near Everley. was found near Milton. prehist. about 5 inches long and of hexagonal section. 75. xii. p. as in Fig. Sahsbury. some numbers. 451. on which the other half of the mould would fit. Stone moulds for socketed celts have also been found in Scotland. There are often moulds on each face of the stones. 1878. It was. p. 166). In Ireland stone moxdds for socketed celts are rare. This mould is formed of some variety of greenstone.f Others have been found in Hungary." 1874. and is now in the collection of the Rev. taken for a broken mould for a palstave. Stone moidds for socketed celts. xii.." vol. also with three vertical ribs. "Cat. A du Bourget.. is in the Copen- hagen Museum. so that they might be withdrawn from the mould.." vol. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. and not at Chidbury Hill. ft " Preh.^} Several moulds for such instruments have been discovered in Sweden. p. 112. near Geneva.

for a dagger blade of elegant Fig.the half of a mould of this kind made of mica slate. as !• ig. or more properly half of a mould. in Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. There is. in total length about 2| inches. and was found near Broughshane. which Mould require a good deal of hammering out. It is about I inch in thickness. and an unfinished mould for a segment of a flat ring. Co. 51S). fig.*. The mould. 518. 519 shows the half of a mould form. with a central rib along the blade. It is of closegrained sandstone. The surface on which the knife has been engraved is ground very smooth. is shown in Fig. Fig. 51H." p. "Catal. R.. apparently intended for a ribbed socketed celt. It is of mica slate. Antrim. and on the other face arc moulds for a if flat with side stops. 91.— Ballymoney. — Brougiishane. small flat chisel triangular celt-like tool * Wilde. 73. more than grooves for the central rib and tang.STONE MOULDS FOR DAGGERS. £ In this other half there was probably little to fit another half mould.\ inch long. and was found near Ballymoney. 4-33 the have been for the most part cast in sand or loam. Co. Antrim. F F . tor a about l. It has dowel-holes on the face of the slab. for a tanged knife. I. and much worn by age and exposure. Mus. A. as the mould at the edge of the knife would produce a casting fully fa inch thick. however.

— Knighton.. i In Figs.1 P'l ! i« . XXI. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. [(HAT. 521.* hi toai •: : W 1 . 520. iv.434 METAL. * Gastaldi. Tav. . i Fig. 520 and 521 I have reproduced on the scale of one-fourth the engravings of two stone moulds which were found near Knighton. 22. MOULDS. "Nuovi cenni.H|> Fig.—Knighton." 1862. Stone moulds for daggers have been found in the Italian terramare.

-» but in the parish of Hennock. The large one is 24-A. such as would be produced from a mould of this kind. 142. 1872—77. T have the half of a mould for a nearly similar spear-head. It is dilliciilt to understand the manner in which the cores for forming the sockets of the spear-heads were supported in the moulds. but it may possibly have been at once an ornament and a support for the scabbard of the blade. 185. !:. Co. 522. to allow of the escape of air during the process of casting.inches in length by 3 inches in and also 3 inches wide.STONE MOULDS FOR SPEAR-HEADS. 522. As will be seen.—Maghera. It is much like the figure. however. flat and cult to Some fluted pieces of bronze. found in a hoard at St. de» Ant. du Nord. the smaller is of each mould. but 7| inches Long. * Vol. with These. and found at Maghera. which would produce a slightly tapering casting. It is diffijudge of the purpose for which it was intended. by the side of the main its When found the two halves greatest width. also from the North of Ireland. and not rounded. ix. F F 2 . On the larger.. A mould for a short leaf -shaped sword has been found in Ireland.} Grenouph. Co.. in Fig. p. are in the museum at Tours. made of This is light brown stone. ribbed longitudinally on one face on the other. In the same collection is the half of a mould for speardieads. from Annoy. Canon and is shown of the be seen. A stone mould. and has shallow grooves in it to assist in keeping the string in place with which the two halves of the mould were bound together when ready for use. socket. Possibly small pins of bronze were attached to the f Mem. and are published in the Arclueological Journal* They are of a light greenish micaceous schist. is a second. were pro- bably flattened down during the finishing process. Kg. . formed of green micaceous schist. In the smaller is a series of small channels.S. Deny. is in the collection of Green well. As will it is for a spear-head ordinary Irish loops on the type. Antrim. 21 h inches long mould were in apposition the longer mould placed vertically. such as occurs in Cornwall. with the sides left square. Devon. they are for the production of rapier-shaped blades.R. The outside of the mould has been neatly rounded. the shorter horizontally. p. near Chudleigh. F.

vol. 6| inches long and If inch at the other. [CHAF. \). with moulds for very small lance-heads on three of its faces. "Catal. Co. "arrow-heads. Galway. xxxiv.436 METAL. " possibly. the base of the blade there is a transverse notch in the stone. 523. Such instances of several half -moulds on a single block of stone are not unfrequent. 2. is quadrangular in On section. Arch. moiety of a stone mould for casting spear-heads of various and also pointed objects. xx. 93. and were no doubt destined to be flattened in the usual manner by a subsequent process of hamThere is one special feature in this mould. f Wilde. * This mould is shown is in Fig. Limerick.f and now in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. has at the base two pin-holes about 1 inch long and J inch in diameter. The corresponding halves have not been found. but which during the casting process got burnt into the molten metal. Mus. however. A.. Journ. kindly lent by the Council of the Institute. I have. .+ Co. 523. a similar transverse notch in one of the smaller moulds for the 2 1 inches broad at one face. A second similar prism would. that at mering. pi. the steadying of the core.' in the barony of Dunkellen. It is a four-sided prism. sizes.— Loug-h Gur. it has been observed. p. clay core. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. which kept it in position. MOULDS. xv." p. viz. which would serve to There is keep the clay core for the socket in its proper position. 521. These loops are as usual semicircular in form on the mould. mould for spear-heads of the same kind as Fig. the fourth there are marks of a worn-out mould.. and end of each pointed objects." though not probably. Their axes are These may possibly be connected with parallel to that of the socket. times be found that the socket core inside the blade. evidently destined to receive a small pin. Cavan. A 1 A Fig." was found at Lough Gur. found no actual traces On examining broken spear-heads it will someof such a contrivance. stone mould found at the edge of Lough Earner. XXI. R. I. instead of being simply conical. but in each case provided with side loops. 349. 170. Co. 1.. give four perfect moulds for casting spear-heads slightly varying in form. vol. The cut % Arch. and is now A in the British Museum. has lateral projections running into the thicker part of the blade. found near " Claran Bridge.

xxi.vol. 1 Fig. both A mould of much Irish sides being cut for moulds. and in one found in the Lake of Varese. one for a looped spear-head and the other for one without loops. Dr.STONE MOVLDS FOE SPEAR-HEADS There is a similar notch in a mould for leafshaped spear-heads without loops in the Treusker It would seem as if the Collection at Dresden. vi. the same character as the was found near Campbelton. use of these Eoui blocks. in one of burnt clay for socketed knives.t examples It is formed of dark in Kintyre. Soc.—Campbelton. 524.* A small Irish mould for casting broad leaf-shaped lance-heads without loops is in the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh. found at Mcerigen. vol. Ant. Atti delta Soc. in the 437 museum at Modena. p. stone celts and another stone mould j)olished for spear-heads. in the Lake of Bienne. shown in Figs. am indebted to the Council Eor the . Hal. There are similar notches in a stone mould for spear-heads.— Campbelton. and one of its halves is shown in serpentine. 48. pi. also of serj>entine. 626.. On the same spot were found two Fig. says that in this second mould the two halves a Fig. 525. vi.. Arthur Fig. pin which formed the hole for the rivet was also Another such mould is of use to support the core. Mitchell. Scot. who has described this find. nat. de t Proc. 4 * Ranchot e Regazzoni. 525 and 526. Argyleshire. in two portions. n £ sc.

It is tapering from 2 inches to 1£ inch. and on the other a mould for a rather thicker oval plate. and the other side has simply the midrib alone cut on is is it. vol. What has been regarded as the mould for double-looped celts seems also to be the shallow half of a mould for spear-heads. so as to include the whole thickness of the edge of the spear. and the result being equally satisfactory. ii. t Arch. Several of the blocks had moulds on both sides ends. R. Journ. u. . as in the one described. p. 257. and what has been regarded as a double-looped celt. Taf. and the rest of that side of the mould gently bevelled towards the edges. h. % Proc. Lindenschmit. socketed celts. and served for casting as many as a dozen different objects. vol. Darbishire. It was found near Nantlle. The fourth side has a conical groove. vi. as is the case with Fig. principally mica-schist. It has been thought to have been for a spike-like javelin. 1GG. "Troy and its Remains. I may mention one for casting buckles of a kind like those from Polden Hill. Carnarvon." p. tanged spear-heads or daggers.438 METAL.S. Ant. appear to be more abundant in England than in any of the neighbouring parts of Europe. and and for casting flat celts. CornThis is not improbably of Late Celtic date. and gouges only." pp.. p. which was found at Camelford. having on one face a mould for a thin oval plate of metal about 5 inches by 4i inches. about 2 inches thick. quadrangular mould. Grur. MOULDS. first [CHAP. § number of moulds formed of stone. p. Schliemann during his excavations on the presumed site A || of Troy. They were The moulds made of bronze which have been found in this They country are for palstaves. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. 139. I am uncertain as to the period to which it ought to be assigned. XXI." vol. 173. 110. || U8. In the museum at Clermont Ferrand f there is an analogous stone mould for palstaves of three types and a point or ferrule. Sard. the result of which simple plan that when the two sides are laid together a perfect mould is made. about 6 inches was found between Bodwrdin * and Tre Ddafydd. much like that from Lough Anglesea. F. . iv. formed of hone-stone 9£ inches long. I may mention some for double-ended hatchets and for flat celts which have been found in the Island of Sardinia. An English. wall. the two sides of the casting being almost exactly alike. and was given me by Mr. 261.. vol. 385 p. vol. Heft. xii. D. various other forms.]: I have a flat oval slab of compact grit. It is adapted for casting looped spear-heads of two sizes. xviii. or rather Welsh.. Of foreign moulds of stone besides those already cited. 525b. Of other stone moulds.A. 5. In this case one-half has the shape of the spear-head deeply cut into the stone. " Paleoutnol. <fcc. V. were found by Dr. 27. 82. At one time the whole school of English * Arch. with the sides by Ah inches. "A.. less labour being thus required than in forming an outline exactly alike on both sides of the stone mould. and may be the complement of another more denned motdd. iii. § Spano. Joitrn.. i. Soc.

J to call them molds. " Colli < l:un-. In writing about the half of a bronze mould for found in Ireland. 108 teqq. with a greater quantity of iron. 527. p. either as friends or foes. t is undeniable. which fitted them if they had been the molds in which the instrucast. hundred years et ago. . palstaves as exactly as Lort had seen brass cases of these instruments.. ments were I cannot conceive why these gentlemen hesitate Tig.! " Dr. iv.BRONZE MOULDS FOR PALSTAVES. belongs the credit of being the first to recognise their true character. or in some manner tempered much harder than the instruments.—Hotham Cair.* To Vallancey.i. as a certain proof that they were manufactured in Ireland. the molds are found in our bogs they are of brass also. otherwise the correctness of the opinion expressed Vallancey." ml. where the Romans came not." I am not sure that the latter remark as to the comparative hardness of the moulds holds good by a in all cases. p. he observes. 439 antiquaries regarded the moulds for socketed celts as cases or sheaths specially prepared to hold such instruments. mixed . 59. I think. now about v. Borlase and Mr. vol. * See Arch.

for the use of which I am indebted to the Council of the Society of Antiquaries. [CHAP.R It is in palstaves the collection of Canon Greenwell. Stevenson of Lisburn. vol. Camb. vi. in Yorkshire.—Wiltshire.* in L800. £ was found another mould for One half of each pair of moulds is in the British Museum. At the top is a cup-shaped cavity for the reception of the metal. including seven palstaves without loops. 128. pi. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. F.. | a looped palstave of about the same size. waste pieces. It is remarkable as bearing on each of its halves bands evidently cast from actual twine which has been upon the model but the bands on the two tion of . 529. * Arch. iv. Another mould for simple palstaves was found in Danes^ e ^> near Bangor." vol. which were found with it only one was condition. "Coll. 166 t VulluiiLW. and was Such kept for re-melting.With •/ . 10. Sue. Arch. p. Journ.— Wiltshire. mould. * s ^ or a hlade rather wider at the edge and narrower in the shank than that produced by the Yorkshire. . which is shown in Figs. so as to steady the two halves when brought together and keep them in proper position. 158..R. n £ j j j[ 'J$ ' I JBBillffl'W/l ' 1 |S« mm \ t^ ^~'%tdr ^ 33$r Fig. with a shield-shaped ornament below the stop-ridge. p.440 METAL. Any portion of the casting which occupied this part of the mould was broken from the palstave was cool. and some will be subsequently noticed. MOULDS. there are projections or dowels on the face of this half of the mould which fit into corresponding depressions in the counterpart. -which was found with a hoard of bronze objects. Mr. 528. vol. was found in Ireland. at Hotham Carr. XXI. vol. p.. ii. and the other half in Lord Braybrooke's collection at Audley End. p. E. 527 are given three views of one half of a complete mould for palstaves. xviii. x. Among in the an un- damaged As will be seen from the figure. 3rd S. In the British Museum is another moidd for looped palstaves. 528 and 529. Ant. f One of the same kind was lately in the collecit Fig.S. In Fig.. from tie moulds are of common occuroff when it rence in the old founders' hoards. iii. \ &roc. J The original was found in Wiltshire.. vol. . p. . 38G. 59. The half of a bronze mould for a simple palstave. or jets..

^[ is in the museum There Northern Anticpaities at Larrnstadt. i. As to the bands of cording. pi. 408. Charles Seidler. Ant. Mus. . Ago du Br.. i. has one from the neighbourhood of Macon. Tut'. p. i. 2nd S. vii. v. Ant. ** Proc. 26.. "Alt. are engraved the halves of two moulds of different sizes and patterns. is in the A museum The at Polsen. X Keller." Stockholm vol. Soc." pi. Taf. p. The sides are also joggled together in a singular maimer. it may be that the model of the first half of the mould was formed of clay. 445. I have Sheppey..* A.." . "Cong. i. is in the museum at Poitiers. Berlin. V. burg. Medingen. v. the model for it was tied on to the half -mould already formed. u. of Nantes." Taf. !»..ib. 43 Troyon. Porel has another found in the Lake-dwellings at Morges. is in the Lyons. Several palstave moulds formed of bronze have been found in different countries in Europe. being on the one placed higher than on the other. ubi •-"/'. ii. when the second half of the mould had to be cast by a similar process. already an account of this discovery elsewhere ** but as it throws -<> given . h. Lac.j. i'. || . F. xiv. mould.BRONZE MOULDS FOR SOCKETED CELTS. Another bronze mould from the neighbourhood of Griinberg. has another. Yuss.. lerc. 15. Another from the hoard of Notre-Dame d'Or. "Die Bronzt'-s<-h\\vrl< r <lrs K.J palstave mould of near found bronze. Bastian unci A. xii.i'. the binding being in contact with the side of the band already in reHef upon the back and sides of the half. 530. and was thus moulded in clay or loam and that afterwards. x. which when dry. vol. * Chantre.'>. Vienne. t Proc. M. Soc. 109. for looped palstaves. 11 Lindenschmit. which relics in In Figs. The half of one.— Uarty..R. Eeft." vol. p. p. 411 halves do not coincide. " . was tied on to the palstave on which it had been shaped. are several bronze at moulds of this character in the Museum of Copenhagen. 530 and 531 for casting socketed celts were found with a number of other the Isic of Uarty. f General museum at M. in order to prevent its being broken. p. "H. and are now in my own collection. § Lmdenschmit.. ptie. "Album. 3er Berieht. vol. § half of one found near Mersein is that of Fig. 2nd S.|| at Hanover.. 4. zu Berlin..S. preh. found in the Saone." pi. Pitt Rivers.

2 large celts from different moulds. § 1 single-edged knife. so that the two much need be said.S. 531. 1 celt cast in One-half of a smaller mould with a portion of a lead lining adhering to it. Fig. XXI. hold the cord in position. Fig. both it from is one See mould. but whether they are from Fig. it will be desirable to give a somewhat detailed account of the entire find and its teachings in this place. Of the largest mould itself. 1 1 hammer or anvil. 220. double-edged knife. 530. 540. F. [CHAP. which may very trade of an ancient articles fairly be described as the stock-inconsisted of — bronze-founder. as kindly determined for me by Dr. MOULDS. Both halves of a gouge mould. 211.442 METAL. . the following Both halves of the mould. Fig. 1 ferrule. 253. The hoard. 1 503. it. 212. part of a curved bracelet-like object of doubtful use. Both halves of the mould. Fig. 1 doubtful this.— Harty. with small hole near the end. Fig. apparently cast in it. 2 small socketed celts from other and different moulds. more or less worn out. Fig.R. not On the outside of each valve well together as they did originally. 530. 2 pieces of rough copper. Fig. Fig. 2 GO. Fig. much light upon the whole process of casting as practised towards the close of the Bronze Period. small hammer. 532. 2 gouges. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. The dowels on the face of one by oxidation. 5 celts cast in this mould and a fragment. 2 pointed tools. Fig\ 531. 377. 3 celts. Fig. 1 perforated disc. of the halves have been much injured parts of the mould do not now fit so Fig. Percy. Fig. 1 whetstone. by are two projecting pins intended to which the two parts of the mould were held together when in use. 205. J.

secondly. four in fairly perfect present in the hoard. and history at page 108. are five and one broken in two in the middle. .THE HARTY HOARD. of the clay would be left untouched. I have already given the the ornamental " flanches The instruments cast from this mould. and loam it so as tightly to fill the upper pari. taken apart and the clay removed and probably left to become nearly dry. \ by a in the arrangement of the mould and core at On comparing the interior of one celt with the time of casting. no two are absolutely alike. so that the celts appear to equivalent to nearly another moulding. for The system adopted follows. and there is metal enough beyond to represent In two others the length is half the width of another moulding. round the mouth of each celt but in one of which very little parallel mouldings . there are striking differAs will be seen. the lower part of the clay was then trimmed to form the core. In the case of the celt broken in two in the middle.) the difference in the length above the loop is described. in number. Thirdly. therefore. First. the core has been placed so much out of the centre that there is a large hole in the casting: where there was not room appears. " on the celt. a shoulder being The left which would form the mould for the top of the celt. that of another. have been much as mould was or clay was rammed into tied together in proper position. the natural result of one having in width at their edges vary been more freely hammered out than another but in the upper — — part. 443 As Of will be seen. The mould was. . the mould itself is somewhat bell-mouthed. the untrimmed part of which would fori a a — two channels cut in . Not only do they the same mould. the mould is calculated to produce three ences. it is evident that the core was not produced in any mould or core-box. pared core inside. beyond having upper part it to allow of the passage of the melted metal. as the small projecting ribs of metal left as difference usual to help in steadying the haft vary in number and position. This difference can only be accounted for inch. in another the castings only two of these mouldings are present there are three. upwards of (see Fig. bands first On comparing this instrument with that 113. have four mouldings round their mouths and in the fifth celt there is a collar of plain metal extending § inch beyond the three . to has been done in the way of hammering or grinding since the celt left the mould. the mould would be tied together again with the preFourthly. the to the metal to run. Though cast in condition.

114. Fig.. . moulds. p. . there is but one and a fraction on the celt itself. like an imperfectly mould has a single projection The three celts which were apparently cast in this formed loop. so as to form a thin film between the metal of the mould and that of the casting./ Turning now to the second mould." vol. When cool off. The outside of this mould is provided with three knobs to keep The other and smallest halfthe binding cord from slipping off. and we have at once a reason for the variation here ob- the runners thus formed would be broken surfaces served. i. it will be seen that just below the mouldings there is accidentally present a sharply the imjjression. or smoke the inside of the mould /and our plumbers prevent solder from amalgamating with lead by using lamp-black and size. when casting pewter in brass. in the middle.* "anoint" the latter with red ochre and white of egg. It will also be noticed that though there is a double band of mouldings in the mould.. or even iron. instead of it. which is shown in Fig. / In order to prevent the molten bronze from adhering to the bronze mould. "Turning and Mcch. 321. iv. No doubt the ancient founders had some equally simple method. the latter must have been smeared over with something by way of protection. in use. p. and the melted metal would be poured down the channels. guide for its due position in the mould./ Modern founders. [CHAP. Manip. Arch. probably in conthe celt cast sequence of the mould having been smeared as lately suggested. such as brushing the mould over with a very thin coat of marl. and the fractured would be hammered or ground/* The knife found with the hoard was probably used for cutting the channels and trimming If such a process as that which I have described were the core. of this recess on defined small recess in this mould is not nearly so sharp. 531.444 METAL. beginning by having the mould empty and ramming clay into * Holtzappfel. Journ. it is evident that the chances would be much against the shoulders of the clay core being always cut at exactly the same place. mould show great uniformity reason for this clue. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. probably by being stuck into sand. the mould would then be placed vertically. in preparing the cores. I It is at their upper ends. There is another cause for slight variations in the sharpness of [ the mouldings and the other details of the castings. or even by rubbing it with a dock-leaf. MOULDS. and to the think the lead adhering to the mould furnishes a evident that if. however. / Fifthly. XXI. vol. 337.

.'. as has been sometimes supposed. + A and now in the museum Munich. but made and kept as a core-box. is proved by the numbers of socketed celts which from time to time have been found with the cores still in them. it is true. and have been a great puzzle to antiquaries. remains of a celt formed of lead. Hoc. Morbihan. But that the cores were frequently if not always made of clay. though this. and when dry would be ready for use. socketed celts found near Plenc'e Jugon. i. 10. its socket which was subsequently to be trimmed. 124. 1". Yorkshire. Vorz. . F. while in lead might have been made on a wooden core.THE HARTY HOAUU. 1866. Canon Green hoard of the case in France rather than in England. which it have sus^ested for them is at all events one that is but we must wait for further discoveries before accepting possible. Tat'. 11. ii. the founder placed a celt would act as a core-box or mould for a clay core which would require no further trimming so far as the part of On opening out the mould forming the socket was concerned.'. Perhaps in the celts with and not highly tapering sockets there would be a difficulty long in getting out the clay unbroken. an instrument which would be which might well have been utterly useless as a cutting tool. One found at Alnwick. is in the collection of the Rev..S. 12. »/' t Proc. was thought to One found with bronze celts in the have come from a barrow. Lindenschmit. . the majority * " Anc. and Pok/t X . u. Several socketed celts made of lead have from time to time been found. this core could be withdrawn from the socket of the model celt. which could promore readily than one bably be trimmed to the exact shape required I have elsewhere* called attention to the fact that wooden of clay." Heft. The use but it is doubtful whether it was used as a core-box. and the process would not be found to answer but in the case of the small celts there would In this mould I think we have the probably be less difficulty. "Alt. and not. in Brittany. Lincolnshire. British Coins. t near Sleaford. mould for sword hilts found in Italy. moulds were in use among the Ancient Britons for the casting of coins formed of tin.R. I as the only cause for their existence." \>. of metal. p. though not in association with bronzefounders' hoards. The very fact of its being made of another metal would prevent its being confounded with the other in the first instance a casting castings and being bartered away. h. has been at In the giv. 445 in the mould. Geol. is formed by three pieces of bronze. even the core by which the cavity in them was produced being formed of that metal.

540. 114. [CHAF. have also described the anvil.446 METAL. I Figs. XXI. but from one this has in old times been broken off. it appears that there were two gouges channels cut for the runners of metal. 532. MOULDS. Two halves are given in Fig. which appears to have been used for extracting the cores. so as to alternate with the joint of the mould through which the air could escape during the casting process. which would produce what may be termed trunnions on the and assist materially in holding it in proper position From the upper surfaces of the during the process of casting. probably. \ The other mould from this hoard is almost unique of its kind. with the clay cores still in I have them. were as they had come from the mould. found with the mould. 211 and 212. and the hammer. is too long and too broad at the edge for that part of it to enter into the mould in which it was cast. The arrangement for carrying the core is its views of each of different is from what it seems to have been in the other moulds. I will now add that the celt. already mentioned this fact in describing the tool from the Harty hoard. Originally there was a loop on the back of each half. the edges of the were drawn out and hardened. if such it be. burnt as hard as brick by the heat of the metal. The final sharpening was no doubt effected by the whetstone. Fig. This shows how much its edge was drawn out by hammering. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. There in the upper part of the mould when put together a transverse hole. .— Haity. by means of which. Fig. one at the middle of each half of the mould. 532. clay core. celts Fig.

and of the ordinary form. ii. socketed celts. objects. for socketed One. was found on the Quantock Hills. vol. v. Soc. 192. one on each side of the It is for casting celts loop. xi\. 132 ** Arch. Journ. p. xxii. . 2nd S. Journ. vii. Another mould. 166. 2nd ed. part of another was found in a hoard . and the back is ornamented with a peculiar raised figure with three vertical hues and a straight transverse line at the top. . Surrey. Journ.. XX p. Warburton. xx. 6. Norwich vol. external loops on each half. vol. and joined at the base by a transverse rib. pi.**near Lincoln. p.. " Surrey Arch. § is for celts with three vertical ribs on the face. at Beddington. in these passages is one and the same. and is now in the British Museum. for celts with an octagonal neck. Arch. Arch. vol. &c. into which tits a corresponding ridge on the counterpart. ii. Journ. iii. 7. about 4 J inches long. is in tin- Bateman A Collection. 532b. and is now in the museum at Lewes. like that on Fig. This mould has a transverse hole at the top like that in the gouge-mould already mentioned. p. was found with looped palstaves. On each side of the face of one half. found with eleven celts and fragments of weapons at Eaton. vol. ft Ibid. 387 " Arch. with. is a loop. X Somersetshire (and not in Yorkshire). iccvi § II Proc. of nearly the same character. and two lines at the bottom running up to the central vertical Line so as to form on each side of it an angle of about 120°. has smaller and broader loops near the top. Another mould was found in the fen atWashmgborough.. Another mould. xviii. Mas found in the Heathery Burn Cave. p. vol. Arch. J J and a * Suss. 421. as on that last mentioned. p. * Sussex. for the use of which I am indebted to the Council of the Society of Antiquaries. xxvi. At the junction there is a ring ornament. and two others near the angles formed with the side lines. 171 t Arch." vol. 8. Another moidd. p.|| The half of another mould for celts. elite's.. vol. I have assumed that the mould described .. vol. vol." .BRONZE MOULDS FOR GOUGES AND CELTS. X Arch. " It in. and is shown in Fig.^| already so often mentioned.f near Norwich. I must now return celts to the other examples of moulds which have been found in this country.. Journ. This appears to be the mould from Yorkshire belonging to Mr. figured by Stukeley. 358. 336. Soc. and is now in the museum at Poitiers. vi. 533.ff found with gouges. and also recesses in each half-mould. pi. The halves are adjusted to each other by a rib and groove. On the outside... so as to give four points of support to the core between which the channels for the runners might be cut. and near the bottom two projecting pins to retain the string. || . 7. Coll. 8. Inst. All these at Wilmington. vi. as is the case in many other hoards.. iv.*' pi. This likewise has a transverse and nearly square hole at the top. Arch. p.. Another. is a shallow groove. .. had been deposited in a vessel of coarse pottery. 5. . Cur. 6. p. Arch.. and roughly following its contour. Arch. 447 What appears to be part of a mould for gouges was found in the hoard of Notre-Danie d'Or. iv. vol.">. Coll. also in the British Museum. Ant. from Cleveland. and broken dagger or sword blades. near the top. a little distance from the actual moidd. pi.. Journ. xiv.. The outer face of each half is ornamented with two slightly curved vertical ribs. vol.

" Mem. AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE. bronze instruments is still the joint of the visible. . A bronze mould for spear-heads was ex- m hibited in Paris in 1878.— Heathery Burn. Mus. t Ulfsparre. 533. also for socketed celts. This latter is now in celts. For socketed celts there were usually two runners of metal for and sometimes only one nearly the full palstaves sometimes two. Norm. Croydon. 1827-8. i we see the castings just as they came from the moulds. 93. On a great many . Voss. and appears to have been cast against pi. Hugo Garthe. clay. such as those which have been found in the North of France. [CHAP. " Dio Bronze-schwerter des K.! an d ^ s the Stockholm Museum. MOULDS. is in the Berlin Museum. ornamented with V-shaped lines.. diverging from a loop in the centre. Fig.* in Upper Silesia. * Bastiau and A. fragment of another at the British Wickham Park. viii. was in the collection of the late Dr. except that the runners have been broken off. so that they was made. Germain. pi. XXI. 2 It has broad loops outside either half. in which the lateral displacement of the mould is as much as a quarter of an " in the inch. and found at Gnadenfeld. A Museum. + Svenska Fornsaker." p. Another bronze mould with an external loop. which show that the two halves of the mould or the flasks have were not in proper position when slipped sideways. xviii. was found in Gotland. A was The process of casting bronze instru- ments in loam. Ant. Soc. the casting 1 have a palstave from a large hoard found near Tours. bronze mould for socketed A bronze mould for socketed celts..448 METAL. . part of another in the Larnaud hoard. of Cologne. A magnificent mould for socketed celts was found in the Cotentin J in 182i. Upon the outside there are six ribs with ring ornaments at the ends. mould It is not uncommon to find castings width of the upper part. There were some fragments of bronze moulds in the great Bologna hoard. with three processes from it running up and down the mould. and is now in the museum at St. so that there is what geologists might term a "fault The metal which has been in contact with what was the casting face of the mould " is smooth. found at Eikrath. or sand must have been much the same as that in use at the present day but it was very rarely that the mould consisted of more or less than two pieces. and in some of the large hoards. 76.

t on the Lake of Bienne. swords." pi. 7ter Bericht. for on examination the mould itself appears to have been originally formed of two halves. Taf. while for articles with irregular surfaces. Part of a mould for spear-heads formed of burnt clay was found Some with broken palstaves. The core itself seems to have been T-shaped. &c. formed of fine clay. pins.* du Bourget those which have been made by : . however. in the Lac . Brittany. in their handles is proved by the Swiss hatchet. Of clay moulds Dr. knives. which had been well burnt. Of the first kind there were two examples one for a socketed chisel and the other for a socketed knife. 16.. Such a mould would give the idea of its having been formed on a model of wax on the system known as that of cire perdue . liv. but this appears not to have been really the case. sickles. were either in stone or burnt clay. xvii. socketed but the most interesting discoveries are Dr. and are in the museum at Vannes. some of the palstaves having been apparently cast from tools already shortened by wear. p. lumps of metal. The clay between these two holes forms part of a conical core. — * Chantre. or requiring cores. runners. and not formed of metal. or valves. which held them and the core they enclosed in their proper position. and which was broken in extracting the casting and the other. at Questembert daggers. clay was preferred. The stone moulds appear to have been principally used for the plainer articles. which was composed of two or more pieces. such as knives. " Alb. That castings were