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Table of Content

Dedication
Acknowledgement
Introduction
Chapter One: FIDS (Flight Information Display System)
Chapter Two: DCS( Departure Control System)
Chapter Three: PAS(Public Annoucement System/IP Telephony)
Chapter Four: CCTV(Closed Circuit Television)
Chapter Five: Access Control
Conclusion

About MMA2

The Federal Government of Nigeria has embarked on a process of reforms in the aviation sector
including, transferring the responsibility for the development, financing, management and
operations of Nigerian airports to the private sector.

In 2003, Bi-Courtney Limited, was awarded the concession of the Federal Government of
Nigeria to develop, finance, manage and operate the Lagos Airport Terminal 2 (and ancillary
assets) under a Build-Operate-Transfer (‘BOT’) arrangement. This is the first major BOT project
in Nigeria.

INTRODUCTION
In the early hours of May 10, 2000, the domestic airport of the Murtala Muhammed Airport went
into flames and all efforts by the fire fighters to save the airport from the unprecedented and
wide scale destruction proved abortive. Thankfully, no life was lost in the incident. The domestic
terminal had been built in the pre-independent era and before the construction of the
International terminal to cater for both international and regional flights.

Following the inferno, the Federal Government made a decision to redevelop the Airport using
private sector investment under a Public-Private Partnership Scheme. The plan completely
transferred all development and operating risks to the private sector specifically on a Build-
Operate-Transfer (BOT) arrangement. Bi-Courtney Limited, the parent company of Bi-Courtney
Aviation Services Limited, was in 2003 awarded the concession by the Federal Government of
Nigeria to design, build and operate the Murtala Muhammed Airport, Lagos Domestic Terminal
and ancillary facilities on a land area of 20,000m2.

The project comprises an Airport Terminal Building, a multi-storey car park and an apron. Bi-
Courtney Limited set out to work promptly with the goal of building a world class Airport
Terminal that will be the pride of Nigerians and promote Lagos as a major hub in Africa.

However, the journey to realizing MMA2 as an ultra modern airport facility was not without its
challenges primarily in the area of financial support, given the fact that BOT financing for such a
huge project with a long term repayment plan is not very fashionable in Nigeria.

Despite the absence of financial support Bi-Courtney remained undeterred. The company
proceeded with the project (with support from Oceanic Bank International Plc) and interestingly
expanded its scope to build a Terminal that eventually exceeded the expectations of the Federal
Government. By March 2007, Zenith Capital Limited led six banks – Oceanic Bank International
Plc, Zenith Bank Plc, GTBank Plc, First Bank Plc, First City Monument Bank Plc and Access
Bank Plc to arrange N20 billion part-financing for the completion of MMA Terminal 2.

Presently MMA2 is the first BOT project of its magnitude in the area of infrastructure
development which was completed successfully by a Nigerian Company.
Flight Information Display System (FIDS)
Definition:

Flight Information Display Systems (FIDS) provide real-time updates of flight information to all
passengers through technology such as plasma television screens and liquid crystal displays
(LCDs).
A Flight Information Display system (FIDS) is a computer system used in
airports to display flight information to passengers, in which a computer
system controls mechanical or electronic display boards or TV screens in
order to display arrivals and departures flight information in real-time. The
displays are located inside or around an airport terminal. A virtual version of
a FIDS can also be found on most airport websites and teletext systems. In
large airports, there are different sets of FIDS for each terminal or even each
major airline. FID systems are used to assist passengers during air travel and
people who want to pick-up passengers after the flight.

Each line on an FIDS indicates a different flight number accompanied by:

 the airline name/logo and/or its IATA or ICAO airline designator


 the city of origin or destination, and any intermediate points
 the expected arrival or departure time and/or the updated time (reflecting any delays)
 the gate number
 the check-in counter numbers or the name of the airline handling the check-in
 the status of the flight, such as "Landed", "Delayed", "Boarding", etc.

Flight information display LCD board at Munich International Airport


Examples of FIDS Solution are Fids3
Fids3 is a state-of-the-art Flight Information Display System (FIDS) of the 3rd generation based on the
latest software technology. It has been developed by German software engineers and is perfectly
designed as all-in-one solution for all-size airports or as Browser-Based Intranet Staff System and/or
airline differentiated check-in counter (layout-)control system for existing system environments.

What is the 3rd generation of FIDS (Flight Information Display System) ? Use the link attached to the
picture above to get explanations

Keeping passengers informed


The right information at the right time at the right place. That’s what an essential key system of airport
operations – the FIDS (Flight Information Display System) – has to provide to.

Extended requirements to modern, state – of- the art systems are the representative presentation of
the flight information and the affiliation with todays internet/mobile communication network.
The FIDS is the interface between the airport and the passenger and an indispensable tool for staff
information exchange and broadcasting as well.

Fids3 is a modern system written in a modern programming language (100% Java ©) which assures full
connectivity to the todays world of communication/software concepts (internet, intranet, mobile
communication, SMS, browser technologies, E-mail).
Fid3 is the worldwide 1st system which is Live available with it’s full functionality. This opens potential
customers new perspectives. Total availability (24x7) and extreme stability are evident.
Fids3 is going to be a comprehensive information system which provides more than just serving a few
monitors with flight information. It includes a complete staff system and is – due to it’s uncompromising
internet connectivity naturally a web-server/mobile-proxy system as well.
Fids3 is continuously developed, extended and equipped with new interesting features.
Fids3 has the self-demand to show you what’s possible with todays modern software technology.
For evaluation purposes we have prepared a special server running in the net. For this one you can apply
evaluation accounts with extended operating rights. This accounts gives you the opportunity to play a
little bit around and get familiar with the Fids3 system. In case of serious concerns a trial period for this
server can be arranged.
What Fids3 stands for?
Fids3 stays for '3rd generation (F)light (I)nformations (D)isplay (S)ystem'.

Before the personal computer came up there were a lot of miscellaneous systems mostly developed in
assembler language on different hardware platforms (e.g. Dec VAX, Microvax, PDP11, Honey well Bull
DPS3). Hardware was very heavy and expensive. There were absolutely no standards. This is the 1 st
generation of FIDS.

Beginning of the 90ties the personal computer (PC) was developed. The power of this new
generation of computers was improved dramatically and the first portations of the PC-based
UNIX V operation system became available. For the same time the programming language 'C'
consolidated as a standard. This was the technical environment the most of the todays available
FIDS are (still) based on (A UNIX based FIDS written in 'C' with DOS-/Windows based clients
(PCs) which are network/serial connected to the FIDS server). This was the 2nd generation of
FIDS.

The todays technical environment is dominated by the total networking provided by the internet.
The browser is the standard client interface (HTML) which nearly everyone is familar in using it
today. The todays penetration of mobile devices (Phones, PDAs) is comparable to the TV
penetration. The latest generation of mobile phones will offer comprehensive graphical features
(screen with at least 320x240 pixels) and mini browsers (e.g. opera mini). This enables you to
communicate with the network in a way we haven't seen before. This also will influence the way
the airport staff will communicate with the existing software systems.

The software world is dominated by the programming language Java© which is really portable
and perfectly designed for todays internet communications. Several open-source projects offer
professional cost-free software products/platforms (databases, middleware) and are well
accepted/used in todays enterprise development as well.
Fids3 is designed for the internet and the mobile future without any compromises.

This is the reason why it is called Fids3 ('The 3rd generation of FIDS).

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_information_display_system"

Departure control system


A Departure Control System (DCS) automates processing an Airlines' Airport
management operation. This includes managing the information required for Airport
Check-in and printing Boarding card, cargo load control and aircraft checks.

Today DCS mostly (98%) manage Electronic tickets via interfaces from range of
devices from Check-in kiosk, Airport_check-in#Online_check-in, mobile boarding
cards and baggage handling. DCS are able to identify, capture and update reservations
from an airlines Computer Reservation System for passengers stored in a so-
called Passenger Name Record (PNR). A DCS is used to update reservations,
typically as checked-in, boarded, flown or another status.

DCS systems interface directly or indirectly with Global Distribution System (GDS),
Load Control systems and an airlines inventory management. Additionally and
increasingly a DCS for some city-pair sectors may also be connected
with immigration control for visa, immigration and passenger no-fly watchlists.
Larger international airports will have a range of DCS or a single DCS which each
particular airline carrier can integrate with for streamlined operations.

[edit] See also

List of DCS vendors

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Departure_control_system"


AuRA
Common User Terminal Equipment

Introduction and Overview

Damarel provides business solutions for Airport Operations.

Years of experience in the supply and support of systems for Airport Authorities, Ground Handlers and Airlines has
led to the development of AuRA - a Common User Terminal Equipment System (CUTE) for Passenger Handling
Facilities.

AuRA works by providing a network of shared Information Technology equipment for Passenger Check-in and
Boarding, Baggage Check-in, Departure Control and Airline Ticketing.

Acting as a shared CUTE System platform, AuRA allows agents access to all the applications they require for
passenger processing - Terminal Emulators, Common Language Facilities, Local DCS, Boarding Applications and
more.

Releases terminal space

In today's Airport the competition for space is growing rapidly. The need to process more passengers through the
same space or turn areas over for alternative forms of revenue generation must be pursued.

With AuRA the Airport Authority no longer needs dedicated passenger check-in facilities. Each check-in position is
equipped with shared workstations and printers for common use.

Maintains image and service

Today's Airlines use their IT systems to deliver service to the passenger and project a positive image. AuRA
maintains the Airline's image and service by providing secure access to the Airline system as if dedicated to that
system.

Costs per passenger are the lowest in the industry

By keeping support costs low, simplifying system management and utilising commodity components, AuRA is THE
cost effective solution for shared use of Passenger Handling facilities.

Damarel is confident that when you compare AuRA with rival systems you will find that AuRA processes passengers
at a fraction of the cost.
Functional Highlights

Ease Of Use

Passenger Handling staff are operational from day one. AuRA is transparent once the connection to is made to the
Airline system.

AuRA security puts authorised staff through to familiar territory, talking to the Airline system as if directly
connected.

For the Ground Handling Company, where staff must operate multiple Airline Systems, Damarel can go further by
providing Common Language. This facility is an addition to AuRA that acts as a translator between the language
your staff know and the language each Airline expects.

Security And Resilience

Where facilities are shared, particular attention needs to be paid to security and reliability. AuRA has multiple
layers of security that ensure access can only be made by authorised staff.

The integrity of communication with the Airline's own system is assured through the use of proven and approved
communication components.

As more use is made of shared facilities the more dependence is placed on their reliability. AuRA is designed to
keep working even when components of the system fail. For instance, if a boarding pass printer or ATB2 printer
fails at check-in, staff can simply re-route the document to the nearest working printer.

Configuration and expansion

Addition of a new Airline to the system is accommodated with minimum effort. Simply attach an approved
communications gateway, configure and set up security and it's up and running. Check-in positions are easily
connected. AuRA uses commodity workstations and printers from all the major Airline printer vendors.

Billing And Analysis

Whatever charging scheme you wish to operate, AuRA collects the information you need. Whether by time, number
of flights, passengers, documents produced or open desks, the statistics are collected for transfer to your
accounting system.

Data is available in standard or tailored formats, ready for printed or electronic transfer.

Architecture

Common User Terminal Equipment (CUTE) System technical Information:


 Communicates across standard local area networks.

 Accommodates all the most common passenger and baggage document technologies

 Modular construction that can be tailored for a precise business fit.

 Part of an integrated airport solution with other Damarel or third party products.

 Open architecture, non-proprietary hardware.

 Comprehensive system management functions.

 Runs 24 hours a day with minimal computer operations supervision

 Supported and diagnosed remotely.

Closed-circuit television
Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a
specific place, on a limited set of monitors.

It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though
it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint, or mesh wireless links.
Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to
those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos,
airports, military installations, and convenience stores. Videotelephony is seldom
called "CCTV" but the use of video in distance education, where it is an important
tool, is often so called.[1][2]

In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from
a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans.
CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular
event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing Digital Video Recorders (DVRs),
provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance
options and extra features (such as motion-detection and email alerts). More recently,
decentralized IP-based CCTV cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors,
support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for
completely stand-alone operation.

Surveillance of the public using CCTV is particularly common in the UK, where there
are reportedly more cameras per person than in any other country in the
world.[3] There and elsewhere, its increasing use has triggered a debate about security
versus privacy.
Contents
[hide]

 1 History
 2 Uses
o 2.1 Crime prevention and prevalence in the UK
o 2.2 Hacking and video art
o 2.3 Industrial processes
o 2.4 Traffic monitoring
o 2.5 Transport safety
o 2.6 Outside the UK
o 2.7 Criminal use
 3 Privacy
 4 Technological developments
o 4.1 Computerized monitoring
o 4.2 Retention, storage and preservation
o 4.3 Closed-circuit digital photography (CCDP)
o 4.4 IP cameras
o 4.5 Networking CCTV cameras
o 4.6 Integrated systems
o 4.7 Wireless security cameras
 5 CCTV countermeasures
 6 See also
 7 References
 8 External links

[edit] History
Sign warning that premises are watched by CCTV cameras.

The first CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand


VII in Peenemünde, Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets.[4] The
noted German engineer Walter Bruch was responsible for the design and installation
of the system.

In the US the first commercial closed-circuit television system became available in


1949, called Vericon. Very little is known about Vericon except it was advertised as
not requiring a government permit. [5]

CCTV recording systems are still often used at modern launch sites to record the
flight of the rockets, in order to find the possible causes of malfunctions, [6][7] while
larger rockets are often fitted with CCTV allowing pictures of stage separation to be
transmitted back to earth by radio link. [8]

In September 1968, Olean, New York was the first city in the United States to install
video cameras along its main business street in an effort to fight crime. [citation
needed]
The use of closed-circuit TV cameras piping images into the Olean Police
Department propelled Olean to the forefront of crime-fighting technology.
The use of CCTV later on became very common in banks and stores to discourage
theft, by recording evidence of criminal activity. Their use further popularised the
concept. The first place to use CCTV in the United Kingdom was King's Lynn,
Norfolk.[9]

In recent decades, especially with general crime fears growing in the 1990s and
2000s, public space use of surveillance cameras has taken off, especially in some
countries such as the United Kingdom.

[edit] Uses

[edit] Crime prevention and prevalence in the UK

The two-year-old James Bulger being led away by his killers, recorded on shopping
centre CCTV.

Experiments in the UK during the 1970s and 1980s (including outdoor CCTV
in Bournemouth in 1985), led to several larger trial programs later that decade.[9]

These were deemed successful in the government report "CCTV: Looking Out For
You", issued by the Home Office in 1994, and paved the way for a massive increase
in the number of CCTV systems installed. Today, systems cover most town and city
centres, and many stations, car-parks and estates.
The exact number of CCTV cameras in the UK is not known but a 2002 working
paper by Michael McCahill and Clive Norris of UrbanEye, [10] based on a small sample
in Putney High Street, estimated the number of surveillance cameras in private
premises in London is around 500,000 and the total number of cameras in the UK is
around 4,200,000. Research conducted by the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice
Research and based on a survey of all Scottish local authorities, identified that there
are over 2,200 public space CCTV cameras in Scotland. [11]

According to their estimate the UK has one camera for every 14 people, although it
has been acknowledged that the methodology behind this figure is somewhat
dubious.[12] The CCTV User Group estimate that there are around 1.5 million CCTV
cameras in city centres, stations, airports, major retail areas and so forth. This figure
does not include the smaller surveillance systems such as those that may be found in
local corner shops.[13]

There is little evidence that CCTV deters crime; in fact, there is considerable evidence
that it does not.[14] According to a Liberal Democrat analysis, in London "Police are
no more likely to catch offenders in areas with hundreds of cameras than in those with
hardly any."[15] A 2008 Report by UK Police Chiefs concluded that only 3% of crimes
were solved by CCTV.[16] In London, a Metropolitan Police report showed that in
2008 only one crime was solved per 1000 cameras.[17] There are valid reasons for
including CCTV as a component of a physical security program, but deterrence is not
one of them.

Cameras have also been installed on public transport in the hope of deterring
crime,[18][19] and in mobile police surveillance vans, often with automatic number plate
recognition.[20] In some cases CCTV cameras have become a target of attacks
themselves.[21]
On 22 July 2005, Jean Charles de Menezes was shot dead by police at Stockwell tube
station. According to brother Giovani Menezes, "The film showed that Jean did not
have suspicious behaviour" .[22]

Because of the bombing attempts the previous day, some of the tapes had been
supposedly removed from CCTV cameras for study, and they were not
functional.[23] An ongoing change to DVR based technology may in future stop
similar problems occurring. [24]

The UK cameras were deployed and are maintained by NEP - Roll to Record, a
division of NEP Broadcasting.[25]

In October 2009, an "Internet Eyes" website was announced which would pay
members of the public to view CCTV camera images from their homes and report any
crimes they witnessed. The site aimed to add "more eyes" to cameras which might be
insufficiently monitored, but civil liberties campaigners criticised the idea as "a
distasteful and a worrying development".[26]

[edit] Hacking and video art

Hackers and guerrilla artists have exposed the vulnerabilities of the video systems in
an act dubbed "video sniffing" [27][28] They have crossed feeds, uploaded their own
video feeds and used the video footage for artistic purposes.

[edit] Industrial processes

Industrial processes that take place under conditions dangerous for humans are today
often supervised by CCTV. These are mainly processes in the chemical industry, the
interior of reactors or facilities for manufacture of nuclear fuel. Special cameras for
some of these purposes include line-scan cameras and thermographic cameras which
allow operators to measure the temperature of the processes. The usage of CCTV in
such processes is sometimes required by law. [specify]

[edit] Traffic monitoring

Main article: Traffic camera

This section does not cite any references or sources.


Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced
material may be challenged and removed. (August 2010)

Many cities and motorway networks have extensive traffic-monitoring systems, using
closed-circuit television to detect congestion and notice accidents. Many of these
cameras however, are owned by private companies and transmit data to
drivers' GPS systems.

The UK Highways Agency has a publicly owned CCTV network of over 1200
cameras covering the English motorway and trunk road network. These cameras are
primarily used to monitor traffic conditions and are not used as speed cameras. With
the addition of fixed cameras for the Active Traffic Management system the number
of cameras on the Highways Agency CCTV network is likely to increase significantly
over the next few years.

The London congestion charge is enforced by cameras positioned at the boundaries of


and inside the congestion charge zone, which automatically read the registration plates
of cars. If the driver does not pay the charge then a fine will be imposed. Similar
systems are being developed as a means of locating cars reported stolen.

Other surveillance cameras serve as traffic enforcement cameras.


[edit] Transport safety

Digital Video Recorder for Public Transport

A CCTV system may be installed where an operator of a machine cannot directly


observe people who may be injured by some unexpected machine operation. For
example, on a subway train, CCTV cameras may allow the operator to confirm that
people are clear of doors before closing them and starting the train.

Operators of an amusement park ride may use a CCTV system to observe that people
are not endangered by starting the ride. A CCTV camera and dashboard monitor can
make reversing a vehicle safer, if it allows the driver to observe objects or people not
otherwise visible.

[edit] Outside the UK

The use of CCTV in the United States is less common, though increasing, and
generally meets stronger opposition. In 1998 3,000 CCTV systems were in use
in New York City.[29] There are more than 10,000 CCTV systems in Chicago.[30]

In the last few years particularly, the percentage of people in the U.S having installed
a security camera system has increased dramatically. Global Security Solutions with
the help of Zone Tech Systems first announced the launch of IP surveillance in the US
security industry by partnering up with Axis Communications (an IP pioneer).
Today's CCTV market has transformed the shift towards IP-based security products
and systems, and is often touted as an example of a disruptive technology that has had
– and will continue to have – profound consequences for the electronic security
industry as a whole.[31]

In Latin America, the CCTV market is growing rapidly with the increase of property
crime.[32]

[edit] Criminal use

Criminals may use surveillance cameras, for example a hidden camera at an ATM to
capture people's PINs without their knowledge. The devices are small enough not to
be noticed, and are placed where they can monitor the keypad of the machine as
people enter their PINs. Images may be transmitted wirelessly to the criminal.[33]

[edit] Privacy

A surveillance room

A mobile closed-circuit TV van monitoring a street market


Opponents of CCTV point out the loss of privacy of the people under surveillance,
and the negative impact of surveillance on civil liberties. Furthermore, they argue that
CCTV displaces crime, rather than reducing it. Critics often dub CCTV as "Big
Brother surveillance", a reference to George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four,
which featured a two-way telescreen in every home through which The Party would
monitor the populace. Civil liberties campaign group Big Brother Watch have
published several research papers into CCTV systems. In December 2009 they
released a report documenting council controlled CCTV cameras.[34]

More positive views of CCTV cameras have argued that the cameras are not intruding
into people's privacy, as they are not surveilling private, but public space, where an
individual's right to privacy can reasonably be weighed against the public's need for
protection from presumptively innocent people .[35] However, both the United States
Supreme Court in Katz vs. The United States and anti-surveillance activists have held
that there is a right to privacy in public areas. [36][37]

The recent growth of CCTV in housing areas also raises serious issues about the
extent to which CCTV is being used as a social control measure rather than simply a
deterrent to crime. However, since theSeptember 11 attacks of 2001, many studies
have suggested that public opinion of CCTV has grown more favorable. Many
proponents of CCTV cite the attacks of the 2005 London Underground bombingsas
one example of how effective surveillance led to swift progress in post-event
investigations.

Quite apart from government-permitted use (or abuse), questions are also raised about
illegal access to CCTV recordings. The Data Protection Act 1998 in the United
Kingdom led to legal restrictions on the uses of CCTV recordings, and also mandated
their registration with the Data Protection Agency. In 2004, the successor to the Data
Protection Agency, the Information Commissioner's Office clarified that this required
registration of all CCTV systems with the Commissioner, and prompt deletion of
archived recordings.

However subsequent case law (Durant vs. FSA) has limited the scope of the
protection provided by this law, and not all CCTV systems are currently
regulated.[38] Private sector personnel in the UK who operate or monitor CCTV
devices or systems are now considered security guards and have been made subject
to state licensing.

A 2007 report by the UK's Information Commissioner's Office, highlighted the need
for the public to be made more aware of the "creeping encroachment" into their civil
liberties created by the growing use of surveillance apparatus. A year prior to the
report Richard Thomas, the Information Commissioner, warned that Britain was
"sleepwalking into a surveillance society".

In 2007, the UK watchdog CameraWatch claimed that the majority of CCTV cameras
in the UK are operated illegally or are in breach of privacy guidelines. In response, the
Information Commissioner's Office denied the claim adding that any reported abuses
of the Data Protection Act are swiftly investigated.[39]

In the United States, there are no such data protection mechanisms. It has been
questioned whether CCTV evidence is allowable under the Fourth Amendment, which
prohibits "unreasonable searches and seizures". The courts have generally not taken
this view.

In Canada, the use of video surveillance has grown very rapidly. In Ontario, both
the municipal and provincial versions of the Freedom of Information and Protection
of Privacy Act [40] outline very specific guidelines that control
how images and information can be gathered by this method and/or released.
[edit] Technological developments

Surveillance camera at London (Heathrow) Airport with a wiper for clear images
during rain

[edit] Computerized monitoring

This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality


standards. Please improve this section if you can. The talk page may contain
suggestions. (July 2010)

The first closed-circuit television cameras used in public spaces were crude,
conspicuous, low definition black and white systems without the ability to zoom or
pan. Modern CCTV cameras use small high definition color cameras that can not only
focus to resolve minute detail, but by linking the control of the cameras to a computer,
objects can be tracked semi-automatically. The technology that enable this is often
referred to as Video Content Analysis (VCA), and is currently being developed by a
large number of technological companies around the world. The current technology
enable the systems to recognize if a moving object is a walking person, a crawling
person or a vehicle. It can also determine the color of the object. NEC claim to have a
system that can identify a person's age by evaluating a picture of him/her. Other
technologies claim to be able to identify people by their biometrics.
CCTV monitoring station run by theWest Yorkshire Police at the Elland Road football
ground in Leeds

The system identifies where a person is, how he is moving and whether he is a person
or for instance a car. Based on this information the system developers implement
features such as blurring faces or "virtual walls" that block the sight of a camera
where it is not allowed to film. It is also possible to provide the system with rules,
such as for example "sound the alarm whenever a person is walking close to that
fence" or in a museum "set off an alarm if a painting is taken down from the wall".

VCA can also be used for forensics after the film has been made. It is then possible to
search for certain actions within the recorded video. For example if you know a
criminal is driving a yellow car, you can set the system to search for yellow cars and
the system will provide you with a list of all the times where there is a yellow car
visible in the picture. These conditions can be made more precise by searching for "a
person moving around in a certain area for a suspicious amount of time", for example
if someone is standing around an ATM machine without using it.
Surveillance camera outside a McDonalds highway drive-in

Maintenance of CCTV systems is important in case forensic examination is necessary


after a crime has been committed.

In crowds the system is limited to finding anomalies, for instance a person moving in
the opposite direction to the crowd, which might be a case in airports where
passengers are only supposed to walk in one direction out of a plane, or in a subway
where people are not supposed to exit through the entrances.[citation needed]

VCA also has the ability to track people on a map by calculating their position from
the images. It is then possible to link many cameras and track a person through an
entire building or area. This can allow a person to be followed without having to
analyze many hours of film. Currently the cameras have difficulty identifying
individuals from video alone, but if connected to a key-card system, identities can be
established and displayed as a tag over their heads on the video.
Monitoring station of a small office building

There is also a significant difference in where the VCA technology is placed, either
the data is being processed within the cameras (on the edge) or by a centralized server.
Both technologies have their pros and cons. [citation needed]

The implementation of automatic number plate recognition produces a potential


source of information on the location of persons or groups.

There is no technological limitation preventing a network of such cameras from


tracking the movement of individuals. Reports have also been made of plate
recognition misreading numbers leading to the billing of the entirely wrong
person.[41] In the UK, car cloning is a crime where, by altering, defacing or replacing
their number plates with stolen ones, perpetrators attempt to avoid speeding and
congestion charge fines and even to steal petrol from garage forecourts. [citation needed]

CCTV critics see the most disturbing extension to this technology as the recognition
of faces from high-definition CCTV images.[citation needed] This could determine a
person's identity without alerting him that his identity is being checked and logged.
The systems can check many thousands of faces in a database in under a second. [citation
needed]

The combination of CCTV and facial recognition has been tried as a form of mass
surveillance, but has been ineffective because of the low discriminating power
of facial recognition technology and the very high number of false
positives generated. This type of system has been proposed to compare faces at
airports and seaports with those of suspected terrorists or other undesirable entrants.

Eye-in-the-sky surveillance dome camera watching from a high steel pole

Computerized monitoring of CCTV images is under development, so that a human


CCTV operator does not have to endlessly look at all the screens, allowing an
operator to observe many more CCTV cameras.[citation needed] These systems do not
observe people directly. Instead they track their behaviour by looking for particular
types of body movement behavior, or particular types of clothing or baggage.

The theory behind this is that in public spaces people behave in predictable ways.
People who are not part of the 'crowd', for example car thieves, do not behave in the
same way. The computer can identify their movements, and alert the operator that
they are acting out of the ordinary. Recently in the latter part of 2006, news reports on
UK television brought to light newly developed technology that uses
microphones[clarification needed] in conjunction with CCTV.[citation needed]

If a person is observed to be shouting in an aggressive manner (e.g., provoking a


fight), the camera can automatically zoom in and pinpoint the individual and alert a
camera operator. Of course this then lead to the discussion that the technology can
also be used to eavesdrop and record private conversations from a reasonable distance
(e.g., 100 metres or about 330 feet).[citation needed]

The same type of system can track identified individuals as they move through the
area covered by CCTV. Such applications have been introduced in the early 2000s,
mainly in the USA, France, Israel and Australia. [citation needed] With software tools, the
system is able to develop three-dimensional models of an area, and to track and
monitor the movement of objects within it.

To many, the development of CCTV in public areas, linked to computer databases of


people's pictures and identity, presents a serious breach of civil liberties. Critics fear
the possibility that one would not be able to meet anonymously in a public place or
drive and walk anonymously around a city. [citation needed] Demonstrations or assemblies
in public places could be affected as the state would be able to collate lists of those
leading them, taking part, or even just talking with protesters in the street.

[edit] Retention, storage and preservation

The long-term storage and archiving of CCTV recordings is an issue of concern in the
implementation of a CCTV system. Re-usable media such as tape may be cycled
through the recording process at regular intervals. There are statutory limits on
retention of data.
Recordings are kept for several purposes. Firstly, the primary purpose for which they
were created (e.g. to monitor a facility). Secondly, they need to be preserved for a
reasonable amount of time to recover any evidence of other important activity they
might document (e.g. a group of people passing a facility the night a crime was
committed). Finally, the recordings may be evaluated for historical, research or other
long-term information of value they may contain (e.g. samples kept to help understand
trends for a business or community).

Recordings are more commonly stored using hard disk drives in lieu of video cassette
recorders. The quality of digital recordings are subject to compression ratios, images
stored per second, image size and duration of image retention before being
overwritten. Different vendors of digital video recorders use different compression
standards and varying compression ratios.

[edit] Closed-circuit digital photography (CCDP)

See also: Closed-circuit television camera

A development in the world of CCTV (October 2005) is in the use of megapixel


digital still cameras that can take 1600 x 1200 pixel resolution images of the camera
scene either on a time lapse or motion detection basis. Images taken with a digital still
camera have higher resolution than those taken with a typical video camera.
Relatively low-cost digital still cameras can be used for CCTV purposes, using CCDP
software that controls the camera from the PC.

Images of the camera scene are transferred automatically to a computer every few
seconds. Images may be monitored remotely if the computer is connected to a
network.
Combinations of PIR activated floodlights with 1.3Mpix and better digital cameras are
now appearing. They save the images to a flash memory card which is inserted into a
slot on the device. The flash card can be removed for viewing on a computer if ever
an incident happens. They are not intended for live viewing, but are a very simple and
cheap "install and forget" approach to this issue.

Closed-circuit digital photography (CCDP) is more suited for capturing and saving
recorded photographs, whereas closed-circuit television (CCTV) is more suitable for
live monitoring purposes.

[edit] IP cameras

Main article: IP camera

Easy Connect Wireless IP camera

A growing branch in CCTV is internet protocol cameras (IP cameras). IP cameras use
the Internet Protocol (IP) used by most Local Area Networks (LANs) to transmit
video across data networks in digital form. IP can optionally be transmitted across the
public Internet, allowing users to view their camera(s) through any internet connection
available through a computer or a 3G phone. For professional or public infrastructure
security applications, IP video is restricted to within a private network or VPN.[42]

[edit] Networking CCTV cameras

The city of Chicago operates a networked video surveillance system which combines
CCTV video feeds of government agencies with those of the private sector, installed
in city buses, businesses, public schools, subway stations, housing projects etc. Even
home owners are able to contribute footage. It is estimated to incorporate the video
feeds of a total of 15,000 cameras.

The system is used by Chicago's Office of Emergency Management in case of an


emergency call: it detects the caller's location and instantly displays the real-time
video feed of the nearest security camera to the operator, not requiring any user
intervention. While the system is far too vast to allow complete real-time monitoring,
it stores the video data for later usage in order to provide possible evidence in criminal
cases.[43]

London also has a network of CCTV systems that allows multiple authorities to view
and control CCTV cameras in real time. The system allows authorities including
the Metropolitan Police Service, Transport for London and a number of
London boroughs to share CCTV images between them. It uses a network protocol
called Television Network Protocol to allow access to many more cameras than each
individual system owner could afford to run and maintain.

The Glynn County Police Department uses a wireless mesh networked system of
portable battery-powered tripods for live megapixel video surveillance and central
monitoring of tactical police situations. The systems can be used either on a stand-
alone basis with secure communications to nearby police laptops, or within a larger
mesh system with multiple tripods feeding video back to the command vehicle via
wireless, and to police headquarters via 3G.

[edit] Integrated systems

An integrated systems unit.

Integrated systems allow users to connect remotely from the internet and view what
their cameras are viewing remotely, similar to that of IP cameras. In one incident, a
lady from Boynton Beach, Florida was able to watch her house get robbed and
contacted police directly from her office at work. [44]

[edit] Wireless security cameras

Main article: Wireless security camera

Wireless security camera


Many consumers are turning to wireless security cameras for home surveillance.
Wireless cameras do not require a video cable for video/audio transmission, simply a
cable for power. Wireless cameras are also easy and inexpensive to install. Previous
generations of wireless security cameras relied on analog technology; modern wireless
cameras use digital technology which delivers crisper audio, sharper video, and a
secure and interference-free signal.

[edit] CCTV countermeasures

Unless physically protected, CCTV cameras have been found to be vulnerable against
a variety of (mostly illegal) tactics:

 Some people will deliberately destroy cameras. Some outdoor cameras, such
as those employed by the Chicago Police Department, have bullet-resistant
housing.[citation needed]
 Spraying substances over the lens can make the image too blurry to be read.
 Lasers can blind or damage them. However, since most lasers are
monochromatic, colour filters can reduce the effect of laser pointers. However
filters will also impair image quality and overall light sensitivity of cameras
(see laser safety article for details on issues with filters). Also, complete
protection from infrared, red, green, blue and UV lasers would require use of
completely black filters, rendering the camera useless.
 For wireless networks, broadcasting a signal at the same frequency of the
CCTV network is reportedly able to jam it.[citation needed]

[edit] See also

 Bugging
 Closed-circuit television camera
 Documentary practice
 Eye in the sky (camera)
 Fake security camera
 Information Awareness Office
 IP camera
 Physical security
 Police
 Privacy International
 Proprietary DVR
 Security Operations Center
 Security smoke
 Sousveillance (inverse surveillance)
 Surveillance
 Telescreen
 The Convention on Modern Liberty
 TV Network Protocol
 Video analytics
 Videotelephony

A public address or "PA" system is an electronic amplification system with


a mixer, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to reinforce a given sound, e.g., a person making a speech,
prerecorded music, or message, and distributing the sound throughout a venue.
Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars.
PA systems with a larger number of speakers are widely used in institutional and commercial buildings, to
read announcements or declare states of emergency. Intercom systems, which are often used in schools,
also have microphones in each room so that the occupants can reply to the central office.
There is disagreement over when to call these audio systems Sound Reinforcement (SR) systems or PA
systems. Some audio engineers distinguish between the two by technology and capability, while others
distinguish by intended use, e.g., SR systems are for live music, whereas PA systems are usually for
reproduction of speech and recorded music in buildings and institutions). This distinction is important in
some regions or markets, while in other regions or markets the terms are interchangeable. In
colloquial British English, a PA system installed for public address in a building is sometimes referred to
as a "Tannoy" system after the company of that name.
Small systems
The simplest PA systems consist of a microphone, a modestly-powered mixer-amplifier (which
incorporates a mixer and an amplifier in a single cabinet) and one or more loudspeakers. Simple PA
systems of this type, often providing 50 to 200 watts of power, are often used in small venues such as
school auditoriums, churches, and small bars.
Public address systems typically consist of input sources, preamplifiers and/or signal routers, amplifiers,
control and monitoring equipment, and loudspeakers. Input sources refer to
the microphones and CD Players that provide a sound input for the system. These input sources are fed
into the preamplifiers and signal routers that determine the zones to which the audio signal is fed. The
preamplified signals are then passed into the amplifiers. Depending on a country's regulations these
amplifiers will amplify the audio signals to 50V, 70V or 100V speaker line level. Control equipment
monitors the amplifiers and speaker lines for faults before it reaches the loudspeakers.
Telephone paging systems
Most modern telephone systems, such as PBX and VOIP, use a paging system that acts as a liaison
between the telephone and a PA amplifier. In key telephone systems such as those
by Nortel, Toshiba, Avaya or Alcatel-Lucent, paging equipment is usually built into the telephone system
itself, and allows announcements to be paged over the phone speakers themselves, through external
speakers or through both external and internal telephone speakers.
In PBX and larger VOIP telephone systems such as those by Nortel, Cisco, Avaya, Siemens or Alcatel-
Lucent, used for larger enterprise applications, paging equipment is not built into the telephone system.
Instead the system provider must provide a separate paging controller connected to a trunk port on the
actual telephone system. The paging controller is accessed as either an unused directory number or
unused central office line. Access to the paging system is provided through a "trunk access" code or a
preprogrammed feature button on the telephone set itself.
Many retailers and offices choose to use the telephone system as the sole access point for the paging
system, because the equipment is already "paging system"-ready. Many schools and other larger
institutions are no longer using the large, bulky microphone PA systems and have switched to telephone
system paging, as it can be accessed from many different points of the school in an emergency. One
disadvantage of telephone paging systems compared to microphone paging systems, is that the noise
associated with hanging up the telephone can be heard over the speakers.
PA Over IP
"PA Over IP" refers to PA paging and Intercom systems that use the Ethernet or GSM-R network instead
of a centralized analog or DSP amplifier to distribute the paging to all of the locations in a building or
company. Distributed network attached amplifiers and Intercoms are used to provide the communication
function. A computer running special software is used to control where you send the pages. Using a
microphone connected to the sound card you can talk to the selected zones. One, some or all the zones
can be selected for broadcasting using the software. The voice message is broadcast on the network to
the selected network attached amplifier and Intercom modules. These are small specialized network
appliances with an IP address just like any other computer on the network. Since the system is connected
using your standard network and/or the Internet, a user can have unlimited multiple remote sites tied
together so that one location can be used to send pages to any or all other locations around the corner or
around the world. The command control center can also be at multiple locations. Manufacturers of PA
and Long Line PA based Public Address Systems include ASL Application Solutions (Safety and
Security) Ltd.
Long Line PA
Long Line Public Address (LLPA) describes any Public Address system in which the architecture is
distributed, normally across a wide geographic area. Systems of this type are commonly found in the rail,
light rail and metro industries and allow announcements to be triggered from one or several locations to
the rest of the network over low bandwidth legacy copper (normally PSTN lines using DSL modems), or
IP based media such as optical fiber, or GSM-R. Rail systems typically have an interface with
a Passenger information system (PIS) server, at each station linked to train describers which state the
location of rolling stock on the network from sensors on trackside signaling equipment. The PIS system
invokes a stored message to be played from a local or remote Digital Voice Announcement system, or a
series of message fragments to be assembled in the correct order. for example
//the//13.29//virgin_trains//sleeper_service//from//London_Paddington//to//Penzance//....//will depart from
platform//five//this train is formed of //12_carriages//. Messages are routed via the IP network and are
played on local amplification equipment. Taken together, the PA, routing, DVA, passenger displays and
PIS interface are commonly referred to as the Customer Information System or CIS, a term which itself is
often used interchangeably with Passenger Information System (PIS)
Large venue systems
For popular music concerts, a more powerful and more complicated PA System is used to provide live
sound reproduction. In a concert setting, there are typically two complete PA systems: the "main" system
and the "monitor" system. Each system consists of microphones, a mixing board, sound processing
equipment, amplifiers, and speakers.
 The "main" system (also known as "Front of House", commonly abbreviated FOH), which
provides the amplified sound for the audience, will typically use a number of powerful amplifiers
driving a range of large, heavy-duty loudspeakers including low-frequency speaker cabinets
called subwoofers, full-range speaker cabinets, and high-range horns. A large club may use
amplifiers to provide 1000 to 2000 watts of power to the "main" speakers; an outdoor concert may
use 10,000 or more watts.
 The "monitor" system reproduces the sounds of the performance and directs them towards the
onstage performers (typically using wedge-shaped monitor speaker cabinets), to help them to
hear the instruments and vocals. In British English, the monitor system is referred to as the "fold
back". The monitor system in a large club may use amplifiers to provide 500 to 1000 watts of
power to the "monitor" speakers; at an outdoor concert, there may be several thousand watts of
power going to the monitor system.
At a concert in which live sound reproduction is being used, sound engineers and technicians control the
mixing boards for the "main" and "monitor" systems, adjusting the tone, levels, and overall volume of the
performance.
Acoustic feedback
All PA systems have a potential for feedback, which occurs when sound from the speakers returns to the
microphone and is then re-amplified and sent through the speakers again. This generally manifests itself
as a sharp, sudden high-volume piercing sound which can damage the loudspeakers' high-frequency
horns or tweeters - and audience members' hearing.
Sound engineers take several steps to prevent feedback, including ensuring that microphones are not
pointed towards speakers, keeping the onstage volume levels down, and lowering frequency levels where
the feedback is occurring, using agraphic equalizer, parametric equalizer a combination of both devices,
or a notch filter.
Recent developments
In recent years, a number of technological advances have been made to PA systems.

Digital signal processors


Small PA systems for venues such as bars and clubs are now available with features that were formerly
only available on professional-level equipment, such as digital reverb effects, graphic equalizers, and, in
some models, feedback prevention circuits (which electronically sense and prevent feedback "howls"
before they occur). These digital signal processing multi-effect devices offer sound engineers a huge
range of sound processing options (reverb, delay, echo, compression, etc.) in a single unit. In previous
decades, sound engineers typically had to transport a number of heavy "rack-mounted" cases of analog
effect devices.
Amplifiers
A number of PA companies are now making lightweight, portable speaker systems for small venues that
route the low-frequency parts of the music (electric bass, bass drum, etc.) to a separately-
powered subwoofer. Routing the low-frequency parts of the signal to a separate amplifier and low-
frequency subwoofer can substantially improve the bass-response of the system. As well, the clarity of
the overall sound reproduction can be enhanced, because low-frequency sounds take a great deal of
power to amplify; with only a single amplifier for the entire sound spectrum, the power-hungry low-
frequency sounds can take a disproportionate amount of the sound system's power.
Power amplifiers have also become lighter, smaller, more powerful and more efficient due to increasing
use of Class D amplifiers (also called "switching amplifiers"), which offer significant weight and space
savings as well as increased efficiency. In the 1970s and 1980s, most PA amplifiers were heavy Class A
amplifiers or Class AB amplifiers. In the late 1990's ASLinvented the Adaptive Class D PA amplifier
which, in addition to normal Class D efficiency characteristics, consumes just 70mW for a 100w amp
module when not transmitting programme material. Amplifiers using this technology have become popular
in large scale PA applications such as rail, stadium and airports where their efficiency gains allows them
to run fanless and with higher rack densities compared to standard amplifiers.

Public address
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about audio systems. For IP addresses, see IP address.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Sound reinforcement system.
(Discuss)
Horn loudspeakers are often used to broadcast sound to outdoor locations

A public address system (PA system) is an electronic amplification system with


a mixer, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to reinforce a sound source, e.g., a person giving a speech, a DJ playing
prerecorded music, and distributing the sound throughout a venue or building.

Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. PA
systems with a larger number of speakers are widely used in institutional and commercial buildings, to read
announcements or declare states of emergency.Intercom systems, which are often used in schools, also have
microphones in each room so that the occupants can reply to the central office.

There is disagreement over when to call these audio systems sound reinforcement systems or PA systems. Some
audio engineers distinguish between the two by technology and capability, while others distinguish by intended use,
e.g., sound reinforcement systems are for live music, whereas PA systems are for reproduction of speech and
recorded music in buildings and institutions. This distinction is important in some regions or markets, while in other
[1]
regions or markets the terms are interchangeable. In colloquial British English, a PA system installed for public
address in a building is sometimes referred to as a Tannoy system after the company of that name now owned by TC
[2]
Electronic Group.
Contents

[hide]

 1 Small systems

 2 Large systems

 3 Telephone paging
systems

 4 PA over IP

 5 Long line PA

 6 PA on Tour

 7 Large venue systems

 8 Acoustic feedback

 9 See also

 10 References

 11 External links

[edit]Small systems

Public address system in a school

The simplest PA systems consist of a microphone, a modestly-powered mixer amplifier and one or more
loudspeakers. Simple PA systems of this type, often providing 50 to 200 watts of power, are often used in small
venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. A sound source such as a CD player or radio may be
connected to a PA system so that music can be played through the system.

Public address systems typically consist of input sources, preamplifiers and/or signal routers, amplifiers, control and
monitoring equipment, and loudspeakers. Input sources refer to the microphones and CD Players that provide a
sound input for the system. These input sources are fed into the preamplifiers and signal routers that determine the
zones to which the audio signal is fed. The preamplified signals are then passed into the amplifiers. Depending on a
country's regulations these amplifiers will amplify the audio signals to 50V, 70V or 100V speaker line level. Control
equipment monitors the amplifiers and speaker lines for faults before it reaches the loudspeakers. This control
equipment is also used for separating zones in a PA system. The loudspeaker is used to transduce electrical signals
into analog sound signals.

[edit]Large systems

Public Address System consisting of amplifiers, mixers and routers for a major international airport

Some PA systems have speakers that cover an entire campus of a college or industrial site, or an entire outdoor
complex (e.g., an athletic stadium). More than often this PA system will be used as voice alarm system that make
announcement during emergency to evacuate the occupants in a building.

[edit]Telephone paging systems

Some analog or IP private branch exchange (PBX) telephone systems use a paging facility that acts as a liaison
between the telephone and a PA amplifier. In other systems, paging equipment is not built into the telephone system.
Instead the system includes a separate paging controller connected to a trunk port of the telephone system. The
paging controller is accessed as either a designated directory number or central office line. In many modern systems,
the paging function is integrated into the telephone system, and allows announcements to be played over the phone
speakers.

Many retailers and offices choose to use the telephone system as the sole access point for the paging system,
because the features is integrated. Many schools and other larger institutions are no longer using the large, bulky
microphone PA systems and have switched to telephone system paging, as it can be accessed from many different
points in the school.
[edit]PA over IP

PA over IP refers to PA paging and intercom systems that use an Ethernet or GSM-R network instead of a
centralized amplifier to distribute the audio signal to all paging locations in a building or campus. Network-attached
amplifiers and intercom units are used to provide the communication function. At the transmission end, a computer
application transmits a digital audio stream via the local area network, using audio from the computer's sound
card inputs or from stored audio recordings. At the receiving end, specialized intercom modules receive these
network transmissions and reproduce the analog audio signal. These are small specialized network appliances
addressable by an IP address just like any other computer on the network. [3]

Such systems are inter-connected by the networking infrastructure and thus allow loss less transmission to remote
locations across the Internet or a local area or campus network. It is also possible to provide for multiple or
relocatable transmission control stations on such a network.

[edit]Long line PA

London Underground Employee making a Long Line Public Address system announcement using an RPA01 Radio Microphone at Bank Station

A Long-line public address (LLPA) system is any public address system with a distributed architecture, normally
across a wide geographic area. Systems of this type are commonly found in the rail, light rail and metro industries
and allow announcements to be triggered from one or several locations to the rest of the network over low bandwidth
legacy copper, normally PSTN lines usingDSL modems, or media such as optical fiber, or GSM-R, or IP-based
[4]
networks. Rail systems typically have an interface with apassenger information system (PIS) server, at each station
linked to train describers which state the location of rolling stock on the network from sensors on trackside signaling
equipment. The PIS system invokes a stored message to be played from a local or remote digital voice
announcement system, or a series of message fragments to be assembled in the correct order. For example:
//the//13.29//virgin_trains//sleeper_service//from//London_Paddington//to//Penzance//....//will depart from
platform//five//this train is formed of //12_carriages//. Messages are routed via an IP network and are played on local
amplification equipment. Taken together, the PA, routing, DVA, passenger displays and PIS interface are referred to
as the customer information system (CIS), a term which itself is often used interchangeably with passenger
[citation needed]
information system.
[edit]PA on Tour

A line array speaker system and subwoofer cabinets at a live music concert

As the number of album and singles sales falls each year, artists are relying more and more upon the income from
live performances and tours. Touring bands will source a large line-array PA system from an audio equipment hire
company with reliable service to take from venue to venue along with various other equipment such as lighting and
projection. PA hire companies typically will provide "sound solutions" for a myriad of purposes. Local companies may
specialise in small systems tailored to clubs, pubs and small outdoor events whereas larger companies will cater for
concert halls.

[edit]Large venue systems

For popular music concerts, a more powerful and more complicated PA System is used to provide live sound
reproduction. In a concert setting, there are typically two complete PA systems: the "main" system and the "monitor"
system. Each system consists of microphones, a mixing board, sound processing equipment, amplifiers, and
speakers.

 The "main" system (also known as "Front of House", commonly abbreviated FOH), which provides the
amplified sound for the audience, will typically use a number of powerful amplifiers driving a range of large,
heavy-duty loudspeakers including low-frequency speaker cabinets called subwoofers, full-range speaker
cabinets, and high-range horns. A large club may use amplifiers to provide 3000 to 5000 watts of power to the
"main" speakers; an outdoor concert may use 10,000 or more watts.
 The "monitor" system reproduces the sounds of the performance and directs them towards the onstage
performers (typically using wedge-shaped monitor speaker cabinets), to help them to hear the instruments and
vocals. In British English, the monitor system is referred to as the "foldback". The monitor system in a large club
may provide 500 to 1000 watts of power to several foldback speakers; at an outdoor concert, there may be
several thousand watts of power going to the monitor system.

At a concert in which live sound reproduction is being used, sound engineers and technicians control the mixing
boards for the "main" and "monitor" systems, adjusting the tone, levels, and overall volume of the performance.
[edit]Acoustic feedback

All PA systems have a potential for audio feedback, which occurs when sound from the speakers returns to the
microphone and is then re-amplified and sent through the speakers again. Sound engineers take several steps to
prevent feedback, including ensuring that directional microphones are not pointed towards speakers, keeping the
onstage volume levels down, and lowering gain levels at frequencies where the feedback is occurring, using
a graphic equalizer, a parametric equalizer, or a notch filter.