BEAMS PLANNING ASPECTS 1. Layout of beams shall be done first.

The layouts of beams are often

controlled by positions of columns and the architectural considerations. The beams are normally provided over the columns, under the walls and under heavy concentrated loads to avoid these loads directly coming on slabs. 2. When the centre to centre distance between the intersection of walls, the spacing between two columns is governed by limitations of spans of supported beams, because of spacing of columns, decides the span of the beam.


In general, maximum span of beams carrying live loads up to 4 KN / m2 may be limited to the following values: Supported condition Rectangular Flanged Cantilevers 3.0 M 5.0 M Simply supported 6.0 M 10.0 M Fixed / continuous 8.0 M 12.0 M


As far as possible depth of beam greater than 1.0 M should be avoided from consideration of controlling deflection, cracking and economy point of view.


Beams shall be provided for supporting staircase flights at floor levels and at mid landing levels.


Beams should

be positioned so as to restrict the slab thickness, to 150

mm, satisfying the deflection criteria. To achieve this, secondary beams shall be provided where necessary. 7. As far as possible, cantilever beams should not be projected from beams, to avoid torsion. 8. Generally we come across with the situation that there is a gap between the floor level beam and beam supporting the chajja. Here the depth of floor

13.g. over the beam without any opening inverted beam may be provided in consultation with Architect. To get the required minimum head room. e. where a cluster of beams can be avoided. Beams which are required to give a planer look from the underside shall be provided as inverted beams. (b) In case there is a wall. Size of Beam .beam shall be so chosen that it can support chajja also. 11. Beams of equal depths shall be provided on both side of the expansion joint from aesthetical point of view. 10. PRACTICAL ASPECTS 1. (a) Reduce the beam depth without violating deflection criteria and maximum of steel criteria for beams. the following alternatives can be tried. under partition wall etc. Alternatively hidden beams inside the slab having the same depth as thickness of slab may be adopted. No secondary beam condition would be ideal.. the secondary beams shall preferably be provided of lesser depth than the depth of supporting beams so that main reinforcement of secondary beams shall always pass above the main beams. 9. Such hidden beams can be provided in toilet blocks. 12. canopies. However if depth so required is large( distance between floor beam bottom and lintel top. Where secondary beam are proposed to reduce the slab thickness and to form a grid of beams. greater than 30 cm) provide separate beam. In toilet block provide minimum number of secondary beams so that casting slabs and beam will be simple.

400 and 450.Generally the depth of beam should be such that the percentage of steel required is about 75% of that required for balanced section. Depth of beam i) The depths of beams are usually in multiples of 3" for old series and a module of 50 mm for new series. iii) For effective transfer of load from beam to the column. The width of beam should be equal to or less than the dimension of the columns supporting the beam.) 115. Simply Support condition Depth of beam supported and continuous 1/10 to 1/12 of clear span . v) b = 3. the breadth of beam should not exceed the width of column.Practical width used: 150. Lx are in CMS).24 (Lx) 1/3 (As per Swedish Regulations where b. It is normally taken in multiples of 50 mm or in modules of 3" for brick sizes 9" x 4-1/2". 300.(). 230. It is in practice to adopt depth of beam upto 500 mm in multiples of 25 mm and depth of beam greater than 500 mm in multiples of 50 mm. iv) 1/3 to ½ depth of beam is taken and rounded in multiples of 50 mm or in modular of 3". 230 or 350 mm thick. 200. (ii) Usually width of beam is kept equal to width of wall it supports (i. 380. 250.e. The width of the section should accommodate the required number of bars with sufficient spacings between them and a minimum side cover of 25 mm to the stirrups.

20. 450. 4. 500.34 for Fe 250 (MS Bars) 0. 6. Reinforcements Main Rods Minimum dia Common dia Maximum dia Common Numbers Minimum percentage : : : : : 12 mm 12. 32 32 mm 2. 28. 8. depth of slab is usually taken as 20% of overall depth of beam.5 the = = Depth of beam Depth of slab Practical depth used: 150. 300. 680. 3.5% for Fe 415 Hanger Bars (stirrup hangers) Minimum dia= ½ bigger main bar not less than 10 mm If the main steel is only 4 Nos 12 dia RTS.17 for Fe 500 4.20 for Fe 415 (Tor 40) Maximum percentage Common percentage : : 0. 16. use 8 mm dia RTS. 530. 380. 230. (ii) As per Swedish formula Db Dt Db Dt = 1. 600. 12 0.beams Tee beams 1/12 to 1/15 of clear span Cantilever beams 1/5 to 1/6 of clear span In a flanged Tee beams. 25.67 x Ly Lx but ≠ where 2. Minimum dia Maximum dia : 8 dia RTS : 16 dia RTS . 900. 1000. 9.2 to 0. 800. 750. 200. 250. 5. 840. 400. 10.0% for Fe 415 0.

of bars when their size is changed No.Common dia Minimum No. Use 10 mm dia RTS above 450 mm depth. Normal spacing : 80. Adjustment of No. 400. . 200. 125. 450. of bars actually provided No. 120. Note: It is a good practice to use 4 legged stirrups when width of beam exceeds 350 mm Side face reinforcement When depth of beam exceeds 750mm. 180. 10. 160. 100.450 mm or 0. 150. 8. 250. side face reinforcement = 0. provide spacer bars of 25 mm dia at 600 mm centre to centre to separate the layers of beam bars. of design bars as per = Dia of bar as percentage Dia of bar actually provided 2 x Spacer bars:If the reinforcement provided in two layers. 300.10% of web area distributed equally in two faces with spacing not greater than 300 mm or width of web whichever is less. Normally top straight bars are 2Nos 10 dia RTS for light beams and 2 Nos 12 dia RTS for heavy beams STIRRUPS Minimum dia Maximum dia Common dia Spacing : : : 6 dia MS : 16 dia RTS 6.75 depth whichever is less. : 12 to 16 mm dia RTS : 2 Note: Use 8 mm dia RTS bars upto 450 mm depth. 12 Minimum 80 mm Maximum .

it is advisable to design beam at mid span as Tee or Ell beam. Practical Depth Beam: Loading Light Medium to Heavy Heavy Span in metre 3m to 4m 5m to 10m ≥ 10m Span/Depth ratio L/d 15 to 20 12 to 15 10 to 12 Mu = Mr. If Mu < Mr exterior beams Tee beam requires 9% lesser reinforcement as required for rectangular beam.DESIGN ASPECTS 1. 3. 14. beam. 15.M. For span > 4 m where there is appreciable B. The beam requires 20% lesser than that required for rectangular .. Beam section at support : Beam section at mid span: Rectangular T beam for interior beams and L beam for 2.

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