Set 3 8. Write the formula of all ions present in the electrolyte.

Write the formula of ion/ions which is/are attracted to anode and cathode. Which is selectively discharged? Give a reason. Write the half equation to represent the discharge. What will you observe at the electrode? Name the product. State the test to identify the product.

Marking Scheme : Electrochemistry

2010

Anode Na+ , H+ , NO3- , OHNO3- , OHNa+ , H+

Cathode

OHIts lower than in electrochemical series 4OH-  2H2O + O2 + 4 e Colourless gas evolved / produced / liberated Oxygen gas -Place a glowing splinter inside the test tube filled with collected gas. -The glowing splinter will be rekindle.

H+ Its lower than Na+ in electrochemical series 2H+ + 2e  H2 Colourless gas evolved / produced / liberated Hydrogen gas -Place a lighted splinter near the mouth of the test tube filled with collected gas. -A ‘pop’ sound is heard.

9. Write the formula of all ions present in the electrolyte. Write the formula of ion/ions which is/are attracted to anode and cathode. Which is selectively discharged? Give a reason. Write the half equation to represent the discharge. What will you observe at the electrode? Name the product. 10. Write the formula of all ions present in the electrolyte. Write the formula of ion/ions which is/are attracted to anode and cathode. Which is selectively discharged? Give a reason. Write the half equation to represent the discharge. Anode Cu2+ , H+ , NO3- , OHNO3- , OHCu2+ , H+ Cu2+, Its lower than H+ in electrochemical series. Cu2+ + 2e  Cu Cathode Anode K+, H+, OH- , ClOH- , ClClThe concentration of chloride ion, Cl- higher than OH-. 2Cl-  Cl2 + 2e Greenish yellow gas produced. Chlorine gas K+, H+ H+ Its lower than Na+ in electrochemical series 2H+ + 2e  H2 Colourless gas evolved / produced / liberated Hydrogen gas Cathode

No ions were being discharged, copper metal being ionized. (factor type of electrode) Cu  Cu2+ + 2e

Chemistry Perfect Score Module Form 4 2010 Marking Scheme Set 3

21

Zn + Cu2+  Zn2+ + Cu Ag  Ag+ + e + Ag + e  Ag Becomes thinner / mass decreases iron covered by grey and silvery layer / becomes thicker . It’s lower than H+ in electrochemical series.the surface area of the object to be electroplated is cleaned / polished. PAPER 2 : STRUCTURE 1. H+ Cu2+. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Copper electrode. (a) X : Cathode. H+. Write the formula of ions which are moved to positive terminal. H+. SO42. Explain why? Write half equation at negative terminal. Y : Anode (b) Na+. Cu2+ + 2e  Cu Brown solid formed / mass increases / becomes thicker The intensity of blue solution decreases / blue turns colourless/ blue becomes paler Zinc electrode becomes thinner / mass decreases.Set 3 Marking Scheme : Electrochemistry 2010 What will you observe at the electrodes? Name the product. A ‘pop’ sound is heard.lower electric current is used . Zn  Zn2+ + 2e Positive terminal State all ions present in the electrolyte. OH(c) (i) Hydrogen (ii) Place a lighted wooden splinter near the mouth of the test tube filled with collected gas. because the rate of formation of Cu2+ at anode same as the rate of discharged of Cu2+ at cathode. Which is selectively discharged? Give a reason. OHZinc electrode. copper is less electropositive than zinc /copper is lower than zinc in electrochemical series. Identify positive terminal and negative terminal. Negative terminal Cu2+ . What will you observe to the electrolyte? Explain why? Copper electrode becomes thinner/ mass decreases. 11.. The concentration of Cu2+ in the solution remains. Half equation at positive terminal What will you observe at negative and positive terminal? What will you observe to the electrolyte? Explain why? Overall / Full ionic equation 14. Copper (II) ions Brown solid formed / mass increases / becomes thicker Copper metal Blue solution remains. (iii) 2H+ + 2e → H2 Chemistry Perfect Score Module Form 4 2010 Marking Scheme Set 3 22 . Cu2+ . zinc is more electropositive than copper / zinc is higher than copper in electrochemical series. Cl-.

Cl. 2. Thus.is high. Electrode X to electrode Y. 2H+ + 2e → H2 Differences Type of electrode Cell Y Positive electrode/anode : Copper Negative electrode/cathode : Copper Electrical energy → chemical energy Copper plate dissolves Brown solids deposited Cu → Cu2+ + 2e Cu2+ + 2e → Cu Cell X Positive electrode/cathode : Copper Negative electrode/anode : Zinc Chemical energy → electrical energy Brown solid deposited Zinc plate dissolves Cu2+ + 2e → Cu Zn → Zn 2+ + 2e Change of energy Observation at the positive electrode Observation at the negative electrode Half-equation at the positive electrode Half-equation at the negative electrode Chemistry Perfect Score Module Form 4 2010 Marking Scheme Set 3 23 . Thus. Z → Z2+ + 2e The further the distance between two metals in the Electrochemical Series. (iii) 4OH.Set 3 (d) (i) (ii) Marking Scheme : Electrochemistry 2010 (e) Oxygen Place a glowing wooden splinter inside the test tube filled with collected gas. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Dilute hydrochloride acid/ Aqueous sodium chloride. Because concentration of chloride ion.70 + 0. concentration of ion decreases.55 + 0. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3.75 V PAPER 2 : ESSAY 4.→ 2H2 O + O2 + 4e (i) Copper(II) ion (ii) Cu → Cu2+ + 2e (i) (ii) (i) (ii) Decreases Copper(II) ion discharged at the cathode to form copper metal. Y.→ 2H2 O + O2 + 4e The product produced at the anode will be chlorine gas. OH(i) Oxygen (ii) 4OH. The glowing splinter will be rekindle.25 V (i) W and V (ii) Voltage = (1.50)V = 2.70 + 0.50)V = 2. W. Cu2+. (a) (b) Hydrogen gas. SO42-. the higher the voltage of the cell. V (i) Z (ii) Voltage = (1. concentration of ion remains constant.05 + 0.H+. Z. X. Remains constant The copper(II) ion produce by copper anode is same as the copper(II) ion been discharged at the cathode to form copper metal.

chloride ions will be selectively discharged at the anode. Copper(II) sulphate solution is used as electrolyte. beaker Diagram: impure copper plate Pure copper plate copper(II) sulphate solution Procedure: a. pure copper plate. Chemical equations : Anode : Cu → Cu2+ + 2e Cathode : Cu2+ + 2e → Cu PAPER 3 : STRUCTURE 5. connecting wires. the higher the voltmeter reading. (c) (d) 6.1 V When the concentration of chloride ions is higher. (a) Metal plate Zinc Iron (b) Type of variables (i) Metal pairs (ii) Voltmeter reading (iii) Zinc electrode Action to be taken use different pairs of metal voltmeter readings which varies use the same zinc electrode Observation Zinc dissolves Brown solid deposited Inference Zinc loses electron to form zinc ion Copper(II) ion receives electrons to form copper metal. (a) (b) The further the distance between two metals in the Electrochemical Series. d.Set 3 (c) Marking Scheme : Electrochemistry 2010 Material : Impure copper plate. (i) Concentration of hydrochloride acid (ii) Ions discharged at the anode (iii) Type of electrodes. copper(II0 sulphate solution Apparatus : Battery. c. b. duration of electrolysis Chemistry Perfect Score Module Form 4 2010 Marking Scheme Set 3 24 . The circuit is completed by allowing the electric current to flow through the electrolyte. ammeter. Impure copper plate is used as anode. Pure copper late is used as cathode. Observation : Anode : Impure copper plate dissolved/becomes thinner. Between 0.4 – 1. Cathode : Pure copper plate becomes thicker/ Brown solid deposited.

2. The gas collected at the anode is tested with a glowing wooden splinter and a damp blue litmus paper. wooden splinter. blue litmus paper.0001 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution with 2. Tabulation of data: Solution 0. electrolytic cell. The carbon electrodes are connected to the power supply and ammeter. test tubes. Manipulated variables : concentration of sodium chloride solution Responding variables : product formed at anode Controlled variables : quantity of current.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution. dry cell. Bubbles of colourless gas are released. It turns blue litmus paper red and then white. 3. (a) (b) (c) Does concentration of ions affect the product of electrolysis at the anode? The higher the concentration of ions at the anode. Bubbles of colourless gas are released. 5. The gas produces ‘pop’ sound with lighted wooden splinter. PAPER 3 : ESSAY 7. Apparatus : carbon electrode. (d) Set 1 : 4OH. Bunsen burner. The gas lighted up a glowing wooden splinter.001 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid ) Anode Cathode Bubbles of colourless gas are released. Current is passed through into 0. The gas produces ‘pop’ sound with a lighted wooden splinter. Experiment is repeated by replacing 0. The gas lighted up a glowing wooden splinter.Set 3 (c) Marking Scheme : Electrochemistry 2010 Set 1 ( 0. Procedure : 1. the higher its tendency to be discharge.→ 2H2O + O2 + 4e Set 2 : 2 Cl. Set 2 ( 1.0001 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution. Electrolytic cell is filled with 0.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid ) Greenish-yellow gas is released.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution Observation Product formed at anode (d) (e) (f) Chemistry Perfect Score Module Form 4 2010 Marking Scheme Set 3 25 . 2. The gas produces ‘pop’ sound with lighted wooden splinter. 4.→ Cl2 + 2e (e) Anode : Bubbles of colourless gas are released.0001 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution 2.0001 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution for half hour.0001 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution. carbon electrodes Materials : 0. Cathode : Bubbles of colourless gas are released.

sand paper. connecting wires with crocodile clip [ Able to state all procedures correctly ] Example : 1. zinc strip. the potential difference will increase/ decrease [ Able to give the list of the apparatus and materials correctly and completely] Example : List of apparatus and materials Copper strip. positive terminal [ Able to give the hypothesis correctly] Example : The distance between two metals increase/decrease.. Determine and record which metal strip is the negative terminal 8. iron strip. Clean the metals with sand paper 2. magnesium strip. beaker. copper (II) sulphate solution. 3 columns and 6 rows Example : Pair of metals Potential difference (V) Mg and Cu Al and Cu Zn and Cu Pb and Cu Fe and Cu Score 3 (b) 3 (c) 3 (d) 3 (e) 3 3 Negative terminal (f) Chemistry Perfect Score Module Form 4 2010 Marking Scheme Set 3 26 . Repeat steps 1 to 6 using other metals to replace magnesium strip [ Able to exhibit the tabulation of data correctly ] Tabulation of data has the following element : 1. Record the potential difference between the metals 7. Fill a beaker with copper(II)sulphate solution 3. Connect the electrodes to voltmeter using connecting wire with crocodile clip. lead strip. Complete the circuit//switch-on the circuit 6.Set 3 Marking Scheme : Electrochemistry 2010 8. Question Number (a) Rubric [ Able to give the aim of the experiment correctly ] Example : To construct the electrochemical series based on the potential differences between metals [ Able to state All variables correctly ] Example : Manipulated variable : Pairs of different metals//Different types of metals Responding variable : Potential differences Constant variable : Concentration of Copper(II) sulphate. aluminium strip. voltmeter. Dip/ place/ immerse the magnesium strip and copper strip into the copper(II)sulphate solution 4. 5.

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