Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of University of Mumbai For the Degree of

Bachelor of Engineering
(Computer Engineering )

By PranavBhujle
Ashish Mathew Aditya Prasad Pankajkumar Thakur
under the guidance of

Prof. Payel Gupta


Mobile hosts such as notebook computers, featuring powerfulCPUs, large main memories, hundreds of megabytesof disk space, multimedia sound capabilities, and colour displays,are now easily affordable and are becoming quitecommon in everyday business and personal life. At thesame time, network connectivity options for use with mobilehosts have increased dramatically, including support fora growing number of wireless networking products basedon radio and infrared.With this type of mobile computing equipment, there isa natural desire and ability to share information betweenmobile users. Often, mobile users will meet under circumstancesthat are not explicitly planned for and in whichno connection to a standard wide-area network such as is available. For example, employees may findthemselves together in a meeting room; friends or businessassociates may run into each other in an airport terminal; ora collection of computer science researchers may gather ina hotel ballroom for a workshop or conference. Requiringeach user to connect to a wide-area network in such situations,only to communicate with each other, may not bepossible due to lack of facilities, or may be inconvenientor impractical due to the time or expense required for suchconnection. These kinds of networks of mobile hosts have becomeknown as ad hoc networks. An ad hoc network is a collectionof wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary networkwithout the aid of any centralized administration or standardsupport services regularly available on the wide-areanetwork to which the hosts may normally be connected. Some form of routing protocol is in general necessaryin such an environment, since two hosts that may wish toexchange packets might not be able to communicate directly. For example, Figure 1 illustrates a simple ad hocnetwork of three mobile hosts using wireless network interfaces.Host C is not within the range of host A¶s wirelesstransmitter (indicated by the circle around A) and hostA is not within the range of host C¶s wireless transmitter.If A andC wish to exchange packets, they may inthis case enlist the services of host B to forward packetsfor them, since B is within the overlap between A¶srange and C¶s range. The maximum number of networkhops needed to reach another mobile host in any practicalad hoc network is likely to be small, but may oftenbe greater than one as shown here.

Figure 1:An ad hoc network of threewireless mobile hosts

The routing problemin a real ad hoc network may be even more complicatedthan this example suggests, due to the inherent nonuniformpropagation characteristics of wireless transmissionsand since any or all of the hosts involved may move atany time. The Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) [3][1] is a simple and efficient routing protocol designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. Using DSR, the network is completely self-organizing and self-configuring, requiring no existing network infrastructure or administration. Network nodes (computers) cooperate to forward packets for each other to allow communication over multiple ³hops´ between nodes not directly within wireless transmission range of one another. As nodes in the network move about or join or leave the network, and as wireless transmission conditions such as sources of interference change, all routing is automatically determined and maintained by the DSR routing protocol. Since the number or sequence of intermediate hops needed to reach any destination may change at any time, the resulting network topology may be quite rich and rapidly changing. The DSR protocol allows nodes to dynamically discover a source route across multiple network hopsto any destination in the ad hoc network. Each data packet sent then carries in its header the completeordered list of nodes through which the packet must pass, allowing packet routing to be trivially loop-free and avoiding the need for up-to-date routing information in the intermediate nodes through which the packet is forwarded. By including this source route in the header of each data packet, other nodes forwarding or overhearing any of these packets may also easily cache this routing information for future use. This DSR

protocol is a part of the Monarch Project at Carnegie Mellon University [3], a long-term research project that is developing networking protocols and protocol interfaces to allow truly seamless wireless and mobile networking. The Monarch Project is named in reference to the migratory behaviour of the monarch butterfly, and can also be considered as an acronym for ³Mobile Networking Architectures.´ The scope of the research includes protocol design, implementation, performance evaluation, and usage-based validation, spanning areas ranging roughly from portions of the ISO Data Link layer (layer 2) through the Presentation layer (layer 6). Comparing DSR protocol to other ad-hoc network protocols, it is a routing protocol that had very low overhead yet was able to react quickly to changes in the network, providing highly reactive service to help ensure successful delivery of data packets in spite of node movement or other changes in network conditions. The protocol specification for DSR has also been submitted to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the principal protocol standards development body for the Internet, and is currently one of the protocols under consideration in the IETF Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) Working Group for adoption as an Internet Standard for IP routing in ad hoc networks. This paper describes the design of the DSR protocol. Literature Survey and related work on the DSR protocol is described in Section 2. Section 3 of this paper discusses our assumptions in the design of DSR. In Section 4, we present the design of the DSR protocol and describe the resulting important properties of this design. In particular, we describe here the design of the two mechanisms that make up the operation of DSR, Route Discovery and Route Maintenance; we also discuss the use of DSR in supporting heterogeneous networks and interconnecting to the Internet, and describe the current support present in DSR for routing of multicast packets in ad hoc networks. We also discuss the header format of the DSR protocol.

Research in the area of routing in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks dates back at least to 1973, whenthe U.S. Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) began the Packet Radio Network (PRNET) project.PRNET and its successor, the Survivable Adaptive Networks (SURAN)project, generated a substantial number of fundamental results in this area. With the increasingcapabilities and decreasing costs of small, portable computers such as laptops and PDAs (PersonalDigital Assistants), and with the increasing availability of inexpensive wireless network interface devicessuch as wireless LAN interfaces packaged as PCMCIA PC Cards, a growing number of other researchprojects in ad hoc networking have developed. In our literature survey here, we concentrate on research specifically related to the DSR protocol.The initial design of the DSR protocol, including our basic Route Maintenance and Route Discoverymechanisms, was first published in December 1994, with significant additional design details and initialsimulation results published in early 1996 [3]. As noted in Section 1, the designspecification for DSR has also been submitted to the MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) Working Groupof the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) in their efforts to standardize a protocol for routing of IPpackets in an ad hoc network [1].The originalmotivation in the design of DSR came fromthe operation of theAddressResolution Protocol (ARP) used in the TCP/IP suite of protocols in the Internet. ARP is used on Ethernets andother types of networks to find the link-layer MAC address of a node on the same subnet as the sender. A node sending a packet to a local IP address for which it does not yet have the MAC address cached,broadcasts an ARP REQUEST packet on the local subnet link, giving the IP address of the node it is lookingfor; that node responds with an ARP REPLY packet, giving its MAC address, and all other nodes ignore theREQUEST. If all nodes in an ad hoc network are within wireless transmission range of each other, this is theonly routing protocol needed for the ad hoc network. DSR extends this basic behaviour of ARP by allowingthe REQUEST packet (the ROUTE REQUEST rather than an ARP REQUEST) to be propagated multiple hopsaway by being forwarded by neighbour nodes, with the ultimate ROUTE REPLY being returned over multiplehops back to the initiator of the REQUEST.

DSR¶s nonpropagating ROUTE REQUEST packets are indeed quite similar to the basic ARP REQUESTbehaviour, except that a mobile node may answer the ROUTEREQUEST fromits cache,whereasARP REQUESTSare normally only answered by the target node itself. The original implementation of DSR in 1997 also was structured as an extension of ARP,integrated into the existing ARP implementation in the FreeBSD Unix kernel [FreeBSD], using an extensionof the ARP REQUEST and ARP REPLY packet formats; as described in Sections 4.8, however, it wasultimately decided to operate DSR at the network layer rather than at the link layer, to allow routing betweendifferent heterogeneous networks all forming a single ad hoc network. DSR is also similar in approach to the source routing discovery mechanism used in the IEEE 802 SRTbridge standard, and related mechanisms have also been used in other systems includingFLIP and SDRP. The amateur radio community has also worked extensively with routing in wireless networks of (sometimes) mobile hosts, holding an annual packet radio computer networking conference sponsoredby the American Radio Relay League (ARRL) since 1981. Amateur packet radio networking originallyused only source routing, with explicit source routes constructed by the user, although some had consideredthe possibility of a more dynamic source routing scheme. A system known as NET/ROMwas also developed to allow the routing decisions to be automated, using a form of distance vector routingprotocol rather than source routing. NET/ROMalso allows updating of its routingtable based on the source address information in the headers of packets that it receives [6]. Recently, a number of other protocols have been structured around mechanisms similar to the RouteDiscovery and Route Maintenance mechanisms in DSR. For example, the Signal Stability-Based Adaptiverouting protocol (SSA) and the Associativity Based Routing protocol (ABR) eachdiscover routes on demand in a way similar to Route Discovery in DSR, but each attempts to select onlylong-lived links between nodes where possible; favouring long-lived links helps avoid routes breaking soonafter discovering them but may result in use of routes over a greater number of hops than the shortest routesavailable. ABR also adds overhead for periodic beacon packets required to monitor link stability. TheAd Hoc OnDemand Distance Vector routing protocol (AODV) [4] uses mechanisms similar toDSR¶s Route Discovery and Route Maintenance, but it uses them to create hop-by-hop routes rather thansource routes as is done in DSR; this use of hop-by-hop routes avoids the source routing

header overheadof DSR but prevents or makes difficult many of the route caching and other Route Discovery optimizationspresent in DSR and prevents AODV from supporting unidirectional links between nodes. The ZoneRouting Protocol (ZRP) defines a ³routing zone´ around each individual node,with a periodic (proactive) protocol such as distance vector or link state for routing within a zone and anon-demand protocol such as DSR for routing between zones; the use of routing zones reduces some aspectsof the overhead of the Route Discovery procedure as in DSR but adds the overhead of maintaining zonemembership and routing information within each zone. ZRP may also fail at times to successfully deliverpackets with highly mobile nodes, since the routing protocol within a zone does not utilize on-demandoperation. Finally, DSR has recently been used as a basis for further work by othe researchers, r including suggestedimprovements to the Route Discovery mechanism. For example, Ko and Vaidya [6] have proposedan optimization to Route Discovery, known as Location-Aided Routing (LAR), that uses knowledge of thephysical (geographical) location of the target node of the Route Discovery (e.g., from GPS, the GlobalPositioning System) to narrow the area of the network over which the ROUTE REQUEST packets must bepropagated. Castãneda and Das [2] have proposed a similar Route Discovery optimizationthat uses only logical (topological) location information, not physical location information, and thus doesnot require access to GPS. Above the routing layer, Holland and Vaidya [6] have recentlystudied the behaviour of TCP in ad hoc networks, using DSR as a routing protocol; their work added explicitinteraction between TCP and the Route Discovery and Route Maintenance mechanisms to allow TCP tocorrectly react to a route failure rather than treating it as network congestion, and to allow TCP to restartsending as soon as a new route to the destination is discovered.

We assume that all nodes wishing to communicate with other nodes within the ad hoc network are willingto participate fully in the protocols of the network. In particular, each node participating in the networkshould also be willing to forward packets for other nodes in the network. We refer to the minimum number of hops necessary for a packet to reach from any node located at oneextreme edge of the ad hoc network to another node located at the opposite extreme, as the diameter of thead hoc network. We assume that the diameter of an ad hoc network will often be small (e.g., perhaps 5 or 10 hops), but may often be greater than 1. Packets may be lost or corrupted in transmission on the wireless network. A node receiving a corruptedpacket can detect the error and discard the packet. Nodeswithin the ad hoc networkmay move at any time without notice, andmay evenmove continuously,but we assume that the speed with which nodes move is moderate with respect to the packet transmissionlatency and wireless transmission range of the particular underlying network hardware in use. In particular,DSR can support very rapid rates of arbitrary node mobility, but we assume that nodes do not continuouslymove so rapidly as to make the flooding of every individual data packet the only possible routing protocol. We assume that nodes may be able to enable promiscuous receive mode on their wireless networkinterface hardware, causing the hardware to deliver every received packet to the network driver softwarewithout filtering based on link-layer destination address. Although we do not require this facility, it is,for example, common in current LAN hardware for broadcast media including wireless, and some of our optimizations can take advantage of its availability. Use of promiscuous mode does increase the softwareoverhead on the CPU, but we believe that wireless network speeds are more the inherent limiting factorto performance in current and future systems; we also believe that portions of the protocol are suitablefor implementation directly within a programmable network interface unit to avoid this overhead on theCPU [3]. Use of promiscuous mode may also increase the power consumption of the networkinterface hardware, depending on the design of the receiver hardware, and in such cases, DSR can easily beused without the optimizations that depend on promiscuous receive mode, or can be programmed to onlyperiodically switch the interface into promiscuous mode.

Wireless communication ability between any pair of nodes may at times not work equally well in bothdirections, due for example to differing antenna or propagation patterns or sources of interference aroundthe two nodes. That is, wireless communications between each pair of nodes willin many cases be able to operate bi-directionally, but at times the wireless link between two nodes may beonly uni-directional, allowing one node to successfully send packets to the other while no communicationis possible in the reverse direction. Although many routing protocols operate correctly only over bidirectionallinks, DSR can successfully discover and forward packets over paths that contain unidirectionallinks. Some MAC protocols, however, such as MACA, MACAW, or IEEE802.11 [5], limit unicast data packet transmission to bi-directional links, due to the required bidirectionalexchange of RTS and CTS packets in these protocols and due to the link-level acknowledgementfeature in IEEE 802.11; when used on top of MAC protocols such as these, DSR can take advantage ofadditional optimizations, such as the route reversal optimization described below. Each node selects a single IP address by which it will be known in the ad hoc network. Although asingle node may have many different physical network interfaces, which in a typical IP network wouldeach have a different IP address, we require each node to select one of these and to use only that addresswhen participating in the DSR protocol. This allows each node to be recognized by all other nodes in thead hoc network as a single entity regardless of which network interface they use to communicate with it. Inkeeping with the terminology used by Mobile IP [3], we refer to the address bywhich each mobile node is known in the ad hoc network as the node¶s home address, as this address wouldtypically be the address that the node uses while connected to its home network (rather than while away,being a member of the ad hoc network). Each node¶s home address may be assigned by any mechanism (e.g., static assignment or use of DHCP for dynamic assignment), although the method ofsuch assignment is outside the scope of the DSR protocol.

4.1 Overview and Important Properties of the Protocol TheDSR protocol is composed of twomechanisms thatwork together to allowthe discovery and maintenanceof source routes in the ad hoc network: Route Discovery is the mechanismby which a node S wishing to send a packet to a destination node Dobtains a source route to D. Route Discovery is used only when S attempts to send a packet to D anddoes not already know a route to D Route Maintenance is the mechanism by which node S is able to detect, while using a source routeto D, if the network topology has changed such that it can no longer use its route to Dbecause a linkalong the route no longer works. When Route Maintenance indicates a source route is broken, S canattempt to use any other route it happens to know to D, or can invoke Route Discovery again to find anew route. Route Maintenance is used only when S is actually sending packets to D. Route Discovery and Route Maintenance each operate entirely on demand. In particular, unlike otherprotocols, DSR requires no periodic packets of any kind at any level within the network. For example, DSRdoes not use any periodic routing advertisement, link status sensing, or neighbour detection packets, and doesnot rely on these functions from any underlying protocols in the network. This entirely on-demand behaviourand lack of periodic activity allows the number of overhead packets caused by DSR to scale all the way downto zero, when all nodes are approximately stationary with respect to each other and all routes needed forcurrent communication have already been discovered. As nodes begin to move more or as communicationpatterns change, the routing packet overhead of DSR automatically scales to only that needed to track theroutes currently in use. In response to a single Route Discovery (as well as through routing information from other packetsoverheard), a node may learn and cache multiple routes to any destination. This allows the reaction torouting changes to be much more rapid, since a node with multiple routes to a destination can try anothercached route if the one it has been using should fail. This caching ofmultiple routes also avoids the overheadof needing to perform a new Route Discovery each time a route in use breaks.

The operation of Route Discovery and Route Maintenance in DSR are designed to allow uni-directionallinks and asymmetric routes to be easily supported. In particular, as noted in Section 3, in wireless networks,it is possible that a link between two nodes may not work equally well in both directions, due to differingantenna or propagation patterns or sources of interference. DSR allows such uni-directional links to be usedwhen necessary, improving overall performance and network connectivity in the system. DSR also supports internetworking between different types of wireless networks, allowing a sourceroute to be composed of hops over a combination of any types of networks available [1][6]. Forexample, some nodes in the ad hoc network may have only short-range radios, while other nodes have bothshort-range and long-range radios; the combination of these nodes together can be considered by DSR as asingle ad hoc network. In addition, the routing of DSR has been integrated into standard Internet routing,where a ³gateway´ node connected to the Internet also participates in the ad hoc network routing protocols;and has been integrated intoMobile IP routing, where such a gateway node also serves the role of aMobile IPforeign agent [3][6].

4.2 Basic DSR Route Discovery When some node S originates a new packet destined to some other node D, it places in the header of thepacket a source route giving the sequence of hops that the packet should follow on its way to D. Normally,S will obtain a suitable source route by searching its Route Cache of routes previously learned, but if noroute is found in its cache, it will initiate the Route Discovery protocol to dynamically find a new route to D. In this case, we call S the initiator and D the target of the Route Discovery. For example, Figure 2 illustrates an example Route Discovery, in which a node A is attempting todiscover a route to node E. To initiate the Route Discovery, A transmits a ROUTE REQUEST message asa single local broadcast packet, which is received by (approximately) all nodes currently within wirelesstransmission range of A. Each ROUTE REQUEST message identifies the initiator and target of the RouteDiscovery, and also contains a unique request id, determined by the initiator of the REQUEST. Each ROUTEREQUEST also contains a record listing the address of each intermediate node

Figure 2: Route Discovery example: Node A is the initiator, and node E is the target.

through which this particularcopy of the ROUTE REQUEST message has been forwarded. This route record is initialized to an empty listby the initiator of the Route Discovery. When another node receives a ROUTE REQUEST, if it is the target of the Route Discovery, it returnsa ROUTE REPLY message to the initiator of the Route Discovery, giving a copy of the accumulated routerecord from the ROUTE REQUEST; when the initiator receives this ROUTE REPLY, it caches this route in itsRoute Cache for use in sending subsequent packets to this destination. Otherwise, if this node receiving theROUTE REQUEST has recently seen another ROUTE REQUEST message from this initiator bearing this samerequest id, or if it finds that its own address is already listed in the route record in the ROUTE REQUESTmessage, it discards the REQUEST. Otherwise, this node appends its own address to the route record in theROUTE REQUEST message and propagates it by transmitting it as a local broadcast packet (with the samerequest id). In returning the ROUTE REPLY to the initiator of the Route Discovery, such as node E replying back to Ain Figure 1, node E will typically examine its own Route Cache for a route back to A, and if found, will useit for the source route for delivery of the packet containing the ROUTE REPLY. Otherwise, Emay perform itsown Route Discovery for target node A, but to avoid possible infinite recursion of Route Discoveries, it mustpiggyback this ROUTE REPLY on its own ROUTE REQUEST message for A. It is also possible to piggybackother small data packets, such as a TCP SYN packet, on a ROUTE REQUEST using this samemechanism. Node E could also simply reverse the sequence of hops in the route record that it trying tosend in the ROUTE REPLY, and use this as the source route on the packet carrying the ROUTE REPLY itself.For MAC protocols such as IEEE 802.11 that require a bi-directional frame exchange as part of the MACprotocol [5], this route reversal is preferred as it avoids the overhead of a possible second RouteDiscovery, and it tests the discovered route to ensure it is bi-directional before the Route Discovery initiatorbegins using the route.

However, this technique will prevent the discovery of routes using uni-directionallinks. In wireless environments where the use of uni-directional links is permitted, such routes may in somecases be more efficient than those with only bi-directional links, or they may be the only way to achieveconnectivity to the target node. When initiating a Route Discovery, the sending node saves a copy of the original packet in a local buffercalled the Send Buffer. The Send Buffer contains a copy of each packet that cannot be transmitted by thisnode because it does not yet have a source route to the packet¶s destination. Each packet in the Send Bufferis stamped with the time that it was placed into the Buffer and is discarded after residing in the Send Bufferfor some timeout period; if necessary for preventing the Send Buffer from overflowing, a FIFO or otherreplacement strategy can also be used to evict packets before they expire. While a packet remains in the Send Buffer, the node should occasionally initiate a new Route Discoveryfor the packet¶s destination address. However, the node must limit the rate at which such new RouteDiscoveries for the same address are initiated, since it is possible that the destination node is not currentlyreachable. In particular, due to the limited wireless transmission range and the movement of the nodes inthe network, the network may at times become partitioned, meaning that there is currently no sequence ofnodes through which a packet could be forwarded to reach the destination. Depending on the movementpattern and the density of nodes in the network, such network partitions may be rare or may be common. If a new Route Discovery was initiated for each packet sent by a node in such a situation, a large numberof unproductive ROUTE REQUEST packets would be propagated throughout the subset of the adhoc networkreachable from this node. Inorder to reduce the overhead from such Route Discoveries, we use exponential back-off to limit the rate at which new Route Discoveries may be initiated by any node for the same target. If the node attempts to send additional data packets to this same node more frequently than this limit, thesubsequent packets should be buffered in the Send Buffer until a ROUTE REPLY is received, but the node mustnot initiate a new Route Discovery until the minimum allowable interval between new Route Discoveriesfor this target has been reached. This limitation on the maximum rate of Route Discoveries for the sametarget is similar to the mechanism required by Internet nodes to limit the rate at which ARP REQUESTs aresent for any single target IP address.

Figure 3: Route Maintenance example: Node C is unable to forward a packet from A to E over its link to next hop D.

4.3 Basic DSR Route Maintenance When originating or forwarding a packet using a source route,each node transmitting the packet is responsiblefor confirming that the packet has been received by the next hop along the source route; the packet isretransmitted (up to a maximum number of attempts) until this confirmation of receipt is received. Forexample, in the situation illustrated in Figure 2, node A has originated a packet for E using a source routethrough intermediate nodes B, C, and D. In this case, node A is responsible for receipt of the packet at B,node B is responsible for receipt at C, node C is responsible for receipt at D, and node D is responsible forreceipt finally at the destination E. This confirmation of receipt in many cases may be provided at no cost toDSR, either as an existing standard part of theMAC protocol in use (such as the linklevel acknowledgementframe defined by IEEE 802.11 [5]), or by a passive acknowledgement (in which, for example, B confirms receipt at C by overhearing C transmit the packet to forward it on to D). If neither ofthese confirmation mechanisms are available, the node transmitting the packet may set a bit in the packet¶sheader to request a DSR-specific software acknowledgement be returned by the next hop; this softwareacknowledgement will normally be transmitted directly to the sending node, but if the link between thesetwo nodes is unidirectional, this software acknowledgement may travel over a different, multi-hop path. If the packet is retransmitted by some hop the maximum number of times and no receipt confirmationis received, this node returns a ROUTE ERROR message to the original sender of the packet, identifying thelink over which the packet could not be forwarded. For example, in Figure 3, if C is unable to deliver thepacket to the next hop D, then C returns a ROUTE ERROR to A, stating that the link from C to Dis currently³broken.´ Node A then removes this broken link from its cache; any retransmission of the original packetis a function for upper layer protocols such as TCP. For sending such a retransmission or other packets tothis same destination E, if A has in its Route Cache another route to E (for example, from additional ROUTEREPLYs from its earlier Route Discovery, or from having overheard

sufficient routing information from otherpackets), it can send the packet using the new route immediately. Otherwise, it may perform a new RouteDiscovery for this target (subject to the exponential backoff described in Section 4.2).

4.4 Additional Route Discovery Features

4.4.1 Caching Overheard Routing Information A node forwarding or otherwise overhearing any packet may add the routing information from that packet to its own Route Cache. In particular, the source route used in a data packet, the accumulated route record in overhears packets from X. a ROUTE REQUEST, or the route being returned in a ROUTE REPLY may all be cached by any node. Routing information from any of these packets received may be cached, whether the packet was addressed to this node, sent to a broadcast (or multicast) MAC address, or received while the node¶s network interface is in promiscuous mode. One limitation, however, on caching of such overheard routing information is the possible presence ofuni-directional links in the ad hoc network (Section 2). For example, Figure 4 illustrates a situation in which node A is using a source route to communicate with node E. As node C forwards a data packet along the route from A to E, it can always add to its cache the presence of the ³forward´ direction links that it learns from the headers of these packets, from itself to D and from D to E. However, the ³reverse´ direction of the links identified in the packet headers, from itself back to B and from B to A, may not work for it since these links might be uni-directional. If C knows that the links are in fact bi-directional, for example due to the MAC protocol in use, it could cache them but otherwise should not. Likewise, node V in Figure 4 is using a different source route to communicate with node Z. If node C overhears node X transmitting a data packet to forward it to Y (from V), node C should consider whether the links involved can be known to be bi-directional or not before caching them. If the link from X to C (over which this data packet was received) can be known to be bi-directional, then C could cache the link from itself to X, the link from X to Y, and the link from Y to Z. If all links can be assumed to be bi-directional, C could also cache the links from X to W and from W to V. Similar considerations apply to the routing

Figure 4:Limitations on caching overheard routing information: Node C is forwarding packets to E andoverhears packets from X.

information thatmight be learned from forwarded or otherwise overheard ROUTE REQUEST or ROUTE REPLY packets.

4.4.2 Replying to ROUTE REQUESTs using Cached Routes A node receiving a ROUTE REQUEST for which it is not the target, searches its own Route Cache for a route to the target of the REQUEST. If found, the node generally returns a ROUTE REPLY to the initiator itself rather than forwarding the ROUTE REQUEST. In the ROUTE REPLY, it sets the route record to list the sequence of hops over which this copy of the ROUTE REQUEST was forwarded to it, concatenated with its own idea of the route from itself to the target from its Route Cache. However, before transmitting a ROUTE REPLY packet that was generated using information from its Route Cache in this way, a node must verify that the resulting route being returned in the ROUTE REPLY, after this concatenation, contains no duplicate nodes listed in the route record. For example, Figure 5 illustrates a case in which a ROUTE REQUEST for target E has been received by node F, and node F already has in its Route Cache a route from itself to E. The concatenation of the accumulated route from the ROUTE REQUEST and the cached route from F¶s Route Cache would include a duplicate node in passing from C to F and back to C. Node F in this case could attempt to edit the route to eliminate the duplication, resulting in a route from A to B to C to D and on to E, but in this case, node F would not be on the route that it returned in its own ROUTE REPLY. DSR Route Discovery prohibits node F from returning such a ROUTE REPLY from its cache for two reasons. First, this limitation

Figure 5: A possible duplication of route hops avoided by the Route Discovery limitation on replying to ROUTE REQUESTs from the Route Cache.

increases the probability that the resulting route is valid, since F in this case should have received a ROUTE ERROR if the route had previously stopped working. Second, this limitation means that a ROUTE ERROR traversing the route is very likely to pass through any node that sent the ROUTE REPLY for the route (including F), which helps to ensure that stale data is removed from caches (such as at F) in a timely manner. Otherwise, the next Route Discovery initiated by Amight also be contaminated by a ROUTE REPLY from F containing the same stale route. If the ROUTE REQUEST does not meet these restrictions, the node (node F in this example) discards the ROUTE REQUEST rather than replying to it or propagating it.

4.4.3 Preventing ROUTE REPLY Storms The ability for nodes to reply to a ROUTE REQUEST based on information in their Route Caches, as described in Section 4.4.2, could result in a possible ROUTE REPLY ³storm´ in some cases. In particular, if a nodebroadcasts a ROUTE REQUEST for a target node for which the node¶s neighbours have a route in their RouteCaches, each neighbour may attempt to send a ROUTE REPLY, thereby wasting bandwidth and possiblyincreasing the number of network collisions in the area. For example, in the situation shown in Figure 6, nodes B, C, D, E, and F all receive A¶s ROUTE REQUESTfor target G, and each have the indicated route cached for this target.

Figure 6: A ROUTE REPLY storm could result if many nodes all reply to the same ROUTE REQUEST fromtheir own Route Caches. The route listed next to each node shows the route to destination G currently listedin that node¶s Route Cache.

Normally, they would all attempt toreply from their own Route Caches, and would all send their REPLYs at about the same time since they allreceived the broadcast ROUTE REQUEST at about the same time. Such simultaneous replies from differentnodes all receiving the ROUTE REQUEST may create packet collisions among some or all of these REPLIESand may cause local congestion in the wireless network. In addition, it will often be the case that thedifferent replies will indicate routes of different lengths, as shown in this example.If a node can put its network interface into promiscuous receive mode, it should delay sending its ownROUTE REPLY for a short period, while listening to see if the initiating node begins using a shorter route first.That is, this node should delay sending its own ROUTE REPLY for a random period d H _ _h _ 1 _ r_,where h is the length in

number of network hops for the route to be returned in this node¶s ROUTE REPLY,r is a random number between 0 and 1, andH is a small constant delay (at least twice the maximum wirelesslink propagation delay) to be introduced per hop. This delay effectively randomizes the time at which each node sends its ROUTE REPLY, with all nodes sending ROUTE REPLYs giving routes of length less than h sending their REPLYs before this node, and all nodes sending ROUTE REPLYs giving routes of length greaterthan h sending their REPLYs after this node. Within the delay period, this node promiscuously receives allpackets, looking for data packets from the initiator of this Route Discovery destined for the target of theDiscovery. If such a data packet received by this node during the delay period uses a source route of lengthless than or equal to h, this node may infer that the initiator of the Route

Discovery has already received aROUTE REPLY giving an equally good or better route. In this case, this node cancels its delay timer and doesnot send its ROUTE REPLY for this Route Discovery.

4.4.4 ROUTE REQUEST Hop Limits Each ROUTE REQUEST message contains a ³hop limit´ that may be used to limit the number of intermediatenodes allowed to forward that copy of the ROUTE REQUEST. As the REQUEST is forwarded, this limit isdecremented, and the REQUEST packet is discarded if the limit reaches zero before finding the target. Wecurrently use this mechanism to send a nonpropagatingROUTE REQUEST (i.e., with hop limit 0) as aninexpensive method of determining if the target is currently a neighbour of the initiator or if a neighbournodehas a route to the target cached (effectively using the neighbours¶ caches as anextension of the initiator¶sown cache). If no ROUTE REPLY is received after a short timeout, then a propagating ROUTE REQUEST (i.e.,with no hop limit) is sent. This mechanism can be used to implement an expanding ring search for the target [3]. For example, a node could send an initial nonpropagating ROUTE REQUEST asdescribed above; if no ROUTE REPLY is received for it, the node could initiate another ROUTE REQUESTwith a hop limit of 1. For each ROUTE REQUEST initiated, if no ROUTE REPLY is received for it, thenode could double the hop limit used on the previous attempt, to progressively explore for the target nodewithout allowing the ROUTE REQUEST to propagate over the entire network. However, this expanding ringsearch approach could have the effect of increasing the average latency of Route Discovery, since multipleDiscovery attempts and timeouts may be needed before discovering a route to the target node.

4.5 Additional Route Maintenance Features 4.5.1 Packet Salvaging After sending a ROUTE ERROR message as part of Route Maintenance as described in Section 4.3, a nodemay attempt to salvage the data packet that caused the ROUTE ERROR rather than discarding it. To attemptto salvage a packet, the node sending a ROUTE ERROR searches its own Route Cache for a route from itselfto the destination of the packet causing the ERROR. If such a route is found, the node may salvage the packetafter returning the

Figure 7: Node C notices that the source route to D can be shortened, since it overheard a packet from Aintended first for B.

ROUTE ERROR by replacing the original source route on the packet with the route fromits Route Cache. The node then forwards the packet to the next node indicated along this source route. Forexample, in Figure 3, if node C has another route cached to node E, it can salvage the packet by applyingthis route to the packet rather than discarding the packet.When salvaging a packet in this way, the packet is also marked as having been salvaged, to prevent asingle packet being salvagedmultiple times. Otherwise, it could be possible for the packet to enter a routingloop, as different nodes repeatedly salvage the packet and replace the source route on the packet with routesto each other. An alternative mechanism of salvaging that we have considered would be to replace onlythe unused suffix of the original route (the portion in advance of this node) with the new route from thisnode¶s Route Cache, forming a new route whose prefix is the original route and whose suffix is the routefrom the Cache. In this case, the normal rules for avoiding duplicated nodes being listed in a source routeare sufficient to avoid routing loops. However, this mechanism of salvaging would prevent the new routefrom ³backtracking´ from this node to an earlier node already traversed by this packet, to then be forwardedalong a different remaining sequence of hops to the destination. The current salvaging mechanism allowsbacktracking but prevents a packet from being salvaged more than once.

4.5.2 Automatic Route Shortening Source routes in use may be automatically shortened if one or more intermediate hops in the route becomeno longer necessary. This mechanism of automatically shortening routes in use is somewhat similar to theuse of passive acknowledgements. In particular, if a node is able to overhear a packet carrying a sourceroute (e.g., by operating its network interface in

promiscuous receive mode), then this node examines theunused portion of that source route. If this node is not the intended next hop for the packet but is namedin the later unused portion of the packet¶s source route, then it can infer that the intermediate nodes beforeitself in the source route are no longer needed in the route. For example, Figure 7 illustrates an examplein which node C has overheard a data packet being transmitted from A to B, for later forwarding to C; thearrow pointing to one node in the source route in each packet indicates the intended next receiver of thepacket along the route. In this case, this node (node C) returns a gratuitous ROUTE REPLY message to the original sender of thepacket (nodeA). The ROUTE REPLY gives the shorter route as the concatenation of the portion of the originalsource route up through the node that transmitted the overheard packet, plus the suffix of the original sourceroute beginning with the node returning the gratuitous ROUTE REPLY. In this example, the route returned inthe gratuitous ROUTE REPLY message sent from C to A gives the new route as the sequence of hops from Ato C to D.

4.5.3 Increased Spreading of ROUTE ERROR Messages When a source node receives a ROUTE ERROR for a data packet that it originated, this source node propagatesthis ROUTE ERROR to its neighbours by piggybacking it on its next ROUTE REQUEST. In this way, stale information in the caches of nodes around this source node will not generate ROUTE REPLYs that contain thesame invalid link for which this source node received the ROUTE ERROR. For example, in the situation shown in Figure 3, node A learns from the ROUTE ERROR message fromC, that the link from C to Dis currently broken. It thus removes this link from its own Route Cache andinitiates a new Route Discovery (if it doesn¶t have another route to E in its Route Cache). On the ROUTEREQUEST packet initiating this Route Discovery, node A piggybacks a copy of this ROUTE ERROR message,ensuring that the ROUTE ERROR message spreads well to other nodes, and guaranteeing that any ROUTEREPLY that it receives (including those from other node¶s Route Caches) in response to this ROUTE REQUESTdoes not contain a route that assumes the existence of this broken link.

A further improvement to Route Maintenance can be considered, in which anode, such as Ain Figure 5, that receives a ROUTE ERROR will forward the ERROR along the same sourceroute that resulted in the ERROR. This will almost guarantee that the ROUTE ERROR reaches the node thatgenerated the ROUTE REPLY containing the broken link, which will prevent that node from contaminating afuture Route Discovery with the same broken link.

4.5.4 Caching Negative Information In some cases, DSR could potentially benefit from nodes caching ³negative´ information in their RouteCaches. For example, in Figure 3, if node A caches the fact that the link from C to Dis currently broken(rather than simply removing this hop from its Route Cache), it can guarantee that no ROUTE REPLY thatit receives in response to its new Route Discovery will be accepted that utilizes this broken link. A shortexpiration period must be placed on this negative cached information, since while this entry is in its RouteCache, A will otherwise refuse to allow this link in its cache, even if this link begins working again. Another case in which caching negative information in a node¶s Route Cache might be useful is the casein which a link is providing highly variable service, sometimes working correctly but often not working.This situation could occur, for example, in the case in which the link is near the limit of the sendingnode¶s wireless transmission range and there are significant sources of interference (e.g., multipath) nearthe receiving node on this link. In this case, by caching the negative information that this link is broken, anode could avoid adding this problematic link back to its Route Cache during the brief periods in which itis working correctly.

4.6. Support for Heterogeneous Networks and Mobile IP In configuring and deploying an ad hoc network, in many cases, all nodes will be equipped with the same typeof wireless network interfaces, allowing simple routing between nodes over arbitrary sequences of networkhops. However, a more flexible configuration might be to also equip a subset of the nodes with a secondnetwork interface consisting of a longer-range (and thus generally lower speed) wireless network interface.For example, in a military

Figure 8: An ad hoc network consisting of nodes communicating via short-range radios, with nodes A, B,andC also having long-range radios.

setting, a group of soldiers might all use short-range radios to communicateamong themselves, while relaying through truck-mounted higher power radios to communicate with othergroups. This general type of network configuration is the ad hoc networking equivalent of wireless overlaynetworks. Due to the high degree of locality likely to be present among directly cooperatingnodes communicatingwith each other, such a network

configurationwould allowhigh speed communicationamong such cooperating nodes, while at the same time allowing communication with other nodes furtheraway without requiring very large numbers of network hops. The longer-range radios might also allow gapsbetween different groups of nodes to be spanned, reducing the probability of network partition. A simpleexample of such an ad hoc network configuration is shown in Figure 8. Nodes A, B, and C, here, each haveboth short-range and long-range radio interfaces, all other nodes in the ad hoc network have only short-rangeradio network interfaces. Node X is using a source route to node Y that uses a sequence of both short-rangeand long-range hops.

4.6.1 Use of Interface Indices in DSR DSR supports automatic, seamless routing in these and other heterogeneous configurations, through itslogical addressing model [1]. Using conventional IP addressing, each ad hoc

Figure 9: An ad hoc network consisting of nodes with heterogeneous network interfaces.

network nodewould configure a different IP address for each of its possibly many network interfaces, but as noted inSection 3, each node using DSR chooses one of these as its home addressto use for all communication whilein the ad hoc network. This use of a single IP address per node gives DSR the ability to treat the overallnetwork as single routing domain. To then distinguish between the different network interfaces on a node,each node independently assigns a locally unique interface index to each of its own network interfaces.The interface index for any network interface on a node is an opaque value assigned by the node itself. The particular value chosen must be unique among the network interfaces on that individual node butneed have no other significance and need not be coordinated with any other nodes in choosing their owninterface indices. On many operating systems, a unique value to identify each network interface is alreadyavailable and can be used for this purpose; for example, the if index field in the ifnet structure for anetwork interface in BSD Unix-based networking stacks can be used directly by a node forthe interface index for that network interface. For example, Figure 9 illustrates a simple ad hoc network of four nodes, in which node A is using onetype of network interface (represented by the triangles), node C and node D are using an different type ofphysical network interface (represented by the circles), and node B is configured with both types of networkinterfaces and can forward packets between the two different types of radio technologies. The numberlabelling each network interface indicates the interface index chosen by the corresponding node for thatinterface. Since the interface indices are chosen independently by each node, it is possible, for example,that nodes B and D each chose index 1 for their circle network interfaces, but node C chooses index 4.The interface index is used as part of each hop in each source route discovered and used by DSR.Specifically, a path through the ad hoc network from a source node N0 to a destination node Nm is fullyrepresented as a series of hops N0/i0 _ N1/i1 _ N2/i2 _ _ Nm, where

the notation Nk/ik is used toindicate that node Nk must transmit the packet using its network interface ik in order to deliver the packetover the next hop to node Nk 1. In forwarding a ROUTE REQUEST, a node adds to the route record in the REQUEST, not only its ownaddress (Section 4.2), but also the interface index of its own network interface on which it forwards thepacket. To allow the reversing of a sequence of hops for a reverse route back to the originating node (when,for example, the existence of bi-directional links can by assumed based on the underlying MAC protocol),the node forwarding the ROUTE REQUEST may also add to the route record in the REQUEST, the interface indexof its own network interface on which it received the ROUTE REQUEST packet. For example, the source routeshown in Figure 8 is A/1_ B/1 _ C/4_ D. The corresponding reversed route is D/1_ C/4 _ B/2_ A.The interface indices to represent a route are carried in the ROUTE REQUEST, the ROUTE REPLY, and thesource route in the header of data packets.

4.6.2 Internet Interconnection and Mobile IP DSR supports the seamless interoperation between an ad hoc network and the Internet, allowing packetsto transparently be routed from the ad hoc network to nodes in the Internet and from the Internet to nodesin the ad hoc network [1]. To enable this interoperation, one (or more) nodes in the ad hocnetwork must be connected to the Internet, such that it participates in the ad hoc network through DSR, andalso participates in the Internet through standard IP routing. We call such a node a gateway between thead hoc network and the Internet. In this way, DSR allows the coverage range around a wireless Internetbase station, for example, to be dynamically enlarged through multiple ³hops´ between nodes through thead hoc network. It is also possible for such a gateway node to operate as a Mobile IP home agent or foreignagent [3], allowing nodes to visit the ad hoc network as a Mobile IP foreignnetwork, and allowing nodes whose home network is the ad hoc network to visit other networks usingMobile IP. This functionality of interconnection with the Internet is implemented through two special reservedinterface index values, used by gateway nodes to identify their interconnection to the Internet. If thenode has a separate physical network interface by which it connects to the Internet, other than the networkinterface(s) that it uses for participation in the ad hoc network, the reserved interface index is used to identifythat interface. However, it

is also possible for a node to use a single network interface both for participationin the ad hoc network and also for connection to the Internet through standard IP routing; in this case,the reserved interface index identifies the logically separate functionality of this interface for its Internetconnection, and the node uses another (locally assigned) interface index value to identify this interface inits separate logical function of participation in the ad hoc network. If the gateway node is acting as a Mobile IP home agent or foreign agent (termed a mobility agent)on this network interface, it uses the reserved interface index value IF_INDEX_MA. Otherwise, thegateway node uses the reserved value IF_INDEX_ROUTER. The distinction between the reserved indexvalues for mobility agents and for routers allows mobility agents to advertise their existence (as needed forMobile IP) at no cost. A node in the ad hoc network that processes a routing header listing the interface indexIF_INDEX_MA can then send a unicastMobile IPAGENT SOLICITATION to the correspondingaddress in the routing header to obtain complete information about the Mobile IP services being provided. In processing a received ROUTE REQUEST, a gateway node generates a ROUTE REPLY, giving its reservedinterface index value, if it believes it may be able to reach the target node through its Internet connection. Thus, the originator of the Route Discovery may receive REPLYs both from the gateway and from the nodeitself, if the node is really present in the ad hoc network. When later sending packets to this destination,the sender should prefer cached routes that do not traverse a hop with an interface index of IF_INDEX_MAor IF_INDEX_ROUTER, since this will prefer routes that lead directly to the destination node within thead hoc network.

4.7 Multicast Routing with DSR DSR does not currently support true multicast routing, but does support an approximation of this thatis sufficient in many network contexts. Through an extension of the Route Discovery mechanism, DSRsupports the controlled flooding of a data packet to all nodes in the ad hoc network that are within somespecified number of hops of the originator; these nodes may then apply destination address filtering (e.g., insoftware) to limit the packet to those nodes subscribed to the packet¶s indicated multicast destination address. While this mechanism does not support pruning of the broadcast tree to conserve network resources, it canbe used to distribute information to all nodes in the ad hoc network

subscribed to the destination multicastaddress. This mechanism may also be useful for sending application level packets to all nodes in a limitedrange around the sender. To utilize this form of multicasting, when an application on a DSR node sends a packet to a multicastdestination address, DSR piggybacks the data from the packet inside a ROUTE REQUEST targeted at themulticast address. The normal ROUTE REQUEST propagation scheme described in Section 4.2 will resultin this packet being efficiently distributed to all nodes in the network within the specified hop count (TTL)of the originator. After forwarding the packet as defined for Route Discovery, each receiving node thenindividually examines the destination address of the packet and discards the packet if it is destined to amulticast address to which this node is not subscribed.

4.8 Location of DSR Functions in the ISO Network Reference Model When designing DSR, two different options were considered, regarding where should DSR be placed in the ISO model: routing at the link layer (ISO layer 2) and routing atthenetwork layer (ISO layer 3). Originally, it was opted to route at the link layer for several reasons: Pragmatically, running the DSR protocol at the link layer maximizes the number of mobile nodesthat can participate in ad hoc networks. For example, the protocol can route equally well betweenIPv4,IPv6, and IPX nodes. Historically [3], as mentioned in Section 2, DSR grew fromour contemplation of a multihop propagating version of the Internet¶s Address Resolution Protocol(ARP), as well as from the routing mechanism used in IEEE 802 source routingbridges. These are layer 2 protocols. Technically, DSR was designed to be simple enough that that it could be implemented directly inthe firmware inside wireless network interface cards [3], well below thelayer 3 software within amobile node. There is great potential in this for DSR running inside a cloud ofmobile nodes around a fixed base station, where DSR would act to transparently extend the coveragerange to these nodes. Mobile nodes that would otherwise be unable to communicate with the basestation due to factors such as distance, fading, or local interference sources could then reach the basestation through their peers. Ultimately, however, it was decided to specify [1] and to implement DSR as a layer 3protocol, since this is the only layer at which DSR could realistically support nodes with multiple networkinterfaces of different types, as described in Section 4.6.

4.9 Optional DSR Flow State Extension This section describes an optional, compatible extension to the DSR protocol, known as "flow state", that allows the routing of most packets without an explicit source route header in the packet. The DSR flow state extension further reduces the overhead of the protocol yet still preserves the fundamental properties of DSR's operation. Once a sending node has discovered a source route such as through DSR's Route Discovery mechanism, the flow state mechanism allows the sending node to establish hop-by-hop forwarding state within the network, based on this source route, to enable each node along the route to forward the packet to the next hop based on the node's own local knowledge of the flow along which this packet is being routed. Flow state is dynamically initialized by the first packet using a source route and is then able to route subsequent packets along thesame flow without use of a source route header in the packet.The state established at each hop along a flow is "soft state" and thus automatically expires when no longer needed and can be quickly recreated as necessary. Extending DSR's basic operation based on an explicit source route in the header of each packet routed, the flow state extension operates as a form of "implicit source routing" by preserving DSR's basic operation but removing the explicit source route from packets. 4.9.1 Flow Establishment A source node sending packets to some destination node MAY use the DSR flow state extension described here to establish a route to that destination as a flow. A "flow" is a route from the source to the destination represented by hop-by-hop forwarding state within the nodes along the route. Each flow is uniquely identified by a combination of the source node address, the destination node address, and a flow identifier (flow ID) chosen by the source node. 4.9.2 Processing Route Errors When a node receives a Route Error of type UNKNOWN_FLOW, it marks the flow to indicate that it has not been established end-to-end. When a node receives a Route Error of type DEFAULT_FLOW_UNKNOWN, it marks the default flow to indicate that it has not been established end-to-end.

4.10 DSR on IPv4 The Dynamic Source Routing protocol makes use of special header carrying control information that can be included in any existing IP packet. The reason that DSR on IPv4 is specified here is that it requires much less bandwidth than DSR on IPv6. DSR header is an IP-level protocol just as TCP or UDP are; it is inserted directly after IP header. The protocol number in the IP header is changed to ³DSR header´ (to be assigned by IANA), and ³next header´ field in the DSR header is updated to point to the original protocol number of the terminal header. This DSR Options header in a packet contains a small fixed-sized, 4-octet portion, followed by a sequence of zero or more DSR options carrying optional information. The end of the sequence ofDSR options in the DSR Options header is implied by the total length of the DSR Options header.

4.10.1 Fixed Portion of DSR Header DSR header has a fixed portion of 4 bytes (³Next header´, ³reserved´, ³Flow State Header´, ³payload length) and any number of options encoded in Type-Length-Value (TLV) notation. The Next Header is a 8-bit selector and identifies the type of header that immediately follows the DSR Header. The reserved bits are to be ignored, as they are reserved for further use. The payload length is a 16-bit field which mentions the length of the DSR Options Header excluding the 4-octet fixed portion. It defines the total length of all options included in the DSR Options Header. The most significant bit in the Option Type value (that is, Option Type & 0x80) represents whether or not a node receiving this Option Type (when the node does not implement processing for this




Fi re 11:Fi ed Portion of DSR Options Header

Option Type) SHOULD respond to such a DSR option with a Route Error of type OPTION_NOT_SUPPORTED, except that such a Route Error should never be sent in response to a packet containing a Route Request option. The two following bits in the Option Type value (that is, Option Type & 0x60) are a twobit field indicating how such a node that does not support this Option Type MUST process the packet: 00 = Ignore Option 01 = Remove Option 10 = Mark Option 11 = Drop Packet

When these 2 bits are 00 (that is, Option Type & 0x60 == 0), a node not implementing processing for that Option Type MUST use the Opt Data Len field to skip over the option and continue processing. When these 2 bits are 01 (that is, Option Type & 0x60== 0x20), a node not implementing processing for that Option Type MUST use the Opt Data Len field to remove the option from the packet and continue processing as if the option had not been included in the received packet. When these 2 bits are 10 (that is, Option Type & 0x60 == 0x40), a node not implementing processing for that Option Type MUST set the most significant bit following the Opt Data Len field, MUST ignore the contents of the option using the Opt Data Len field, and MUST continue processing the packet. Finally, when these 2 bits are 11 (that is, Option Type & 0x60 == 0x60), a node not implementing processing for that Option Type MUST drop the packet.

4.10.2DSR Options The following options have been defined: Route Request,Route Reply, Route Error, Acknowledgment Request,Acknowledgment, DSR Source Route, Pad1, and PadN[7]. These are only quickly introduced here; all thegory details are omitted. Route Request contains ³Identification´, ³TargetAddress´ and ³Address[1..n]´ fields. Route requestswill be sent to the limited broadcast address³255.255.255.255´, and the destination address wherethe source wants to find the route for is placed in ³Targetaddress´ field. Identification is a sequence number,used to distinguish between already seen and old messages.³Address [1..n]´ are used to store the addressesalong the the path of Route Discovery. Route Reply contains ³L´-bit, ³Reserved´ and ³Address[1..n]´ fields. Last Hop External bit indicates thatthe last address represents the last node in the DSR network, and the actual destination is outside of MANET.³Address[1..n]´ contains the source route gathered within the route request. Route Replies are usually sent backto the originator of Route Request by either the nodethat was the Target of the original Route Request or by some intermediate node, as a Reply from Cache or as agratuitous Reply. Route Error contains ³Error Type´, ³Reserved´, ³Salvage´,³Error Source Address´, ³Error Destination Address´,and error type -specific information. Currently,only one error type, Node Unreachable, is specified.The contents of ³Salvage´ field are derived from

theDSR Source Route option triggering the error. ³ErrorSource Address´ is the address of the node which encounteredan error; ³Error Destination Address´ is theoriginal source of the failed packet. In the case of NodeUnreachable message, type-specific information containsthe address of the unreachable node. Route Errorsare sent to inform the source (and intermediate nodes)of failed source routes. Acknowledgment Request contains ³Identification´field. It is a unique value that will be used in Acknowledgmentresponse to create a link between the two. Acknowledgmentsare used for ensuring the reliable deliveryof Route Maintenance packets if no other form (e.g.link-layer acknowledgments, passive acknowledgmentsby promiscuous mode) is available.Acknowledgment contains ³Identification´, ³ACKSource Address´, and ³ACK Destination Address´fields. Identification is copied from the Request, ACK Source Address is the address of the node originatingthe acknowledgment, and ACK Destination Address isthe address to which the acknowledgment will be deliveredto. DSR Source Route contains ³F´ and ³L´ -bits,³Reserved´, ³Salvage´, ³Segments Left´, and ³Address [1..n]´ fields. First and Last Hop External bitsindicate whether the route leads to or from outside ofthe DSR network; such paths must not be returnedfrom the cache of intermediate nodes. ³Salvage´ indicatesthe number of times the packet has been salvaged (see section 4.5.1), that is, rewritten by an intermediatenode to ensure delivery. ³Segments Left´ indicateshow many addresses in the option must still be traverseduntil reaching the final destination. ³Address[1..n]´ liststhese intermediate nodes which the packet has been, andwill be, through. DSR Source Route option is presentin almost every packet. Pad1 and PadN options include requested amount ofpadding, to ensure that the total DSR Header will beproperly aligned to a multiple of 4 bytes.


The scope of applicability of DSR needs to be moreprecisely defined. Interactions with IPSEC, and routingprotocol security in general should be studied. Interactionswith packet filters should be explored. Thespecification text should be clarified on some points, especiallyregarding retransmissions. Especially a mixednetwork of uni- and bidirectional links should be simulated.How destructive a DSR node (or a set of nodes)can be with old cache entries should be studied. Eventhough DSR is not meant for many hundreds of nodes, comparisons with other MANET protocols with theseamounts of nodes might be interesting.

DSR applies rather well to a smallish, less than a hundred, network of nodes that trust each other. In such networks, DSR may be especially useful if it is important to be able to deal with both high and low node mobility with reasonably small overhead without any manual changes; DSR is highly adaptive. There are some areas that need clarifications or more study; some of these are applicable to some otherMANET protocols too, though: ± Study on the more generic problem of trusting routing updates in ad-hoc networking ± Clarifications and tests on cache management, especially ensuring cache freshness and how far wrong data could spread ± Being able to use IPSEC to verify either the payload or DSR header data, so that linklayer security would not be required ± Clarifications on retransmission mechanisms and how that applies to unreliable IP ± Clarifications on interactions with firewalls and packet filters ± Clarifications and tests with bi- and uni-directionality of links ± Some other clarifications on the specification text

[1] Josh Broch, David B. Johnson, and David A. Maltz.³The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks´. Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-03.txt, October 1999. Work in progress. Earlier revisions published June 1999, December 1998, and March 1998. [2] Robert Casta×neda and Samir R. Das. Query Localization Techniques for On-demand Routing Protocols in Ad Hoc Networks. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom¶99).ACM,August 1999. [3] David B. Johnson. Routing in Ad Hoc Networks of Mobile Hosts. In Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pages 158±163. IEEE Computer Society, December 1994. [4] Carnegie Mellon University Monarch Project.CMU Monarch Project Home Page. Available at http://www.monarch.cs.cmu.edu/. [5] IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee.Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE Std 802.11-1997. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, New York, 1997. [6] David B. Johnson, David A. Maltz, and Josh Broch.³DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. in Ad Hoc Networking´, edited by Charles E. Perkins, Chapter 5, pp. 139-172, Addison-Wesley, 2001 [7] PekkaSavola: ³DSR: Dynamic Source Routing´, CSC/FUNET, Helsinki University of Technology.

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