Josh Mieritz World His Cornell Notes African Independence Movements I.

An African middle class grew with access to education. A. Created Negritude movement- movement to celebrate African culture after the World Wars. B. Led to Pan-African movement- movement to unify and uplift all Africans as part of a “global African community.” C. The post-WWII environment led to changes in beliefs of colonialism. 1. Africans fought in WWII (to “defend freedom”) and wanted to end colonial domination. 2. Nations, poor after WWII, questioned the costs of maintaining colonies abroad. II. The Gold Coast/Ghana was the first African colony to become independent in 1957. A. Kwame Nkrumah fought Great Britain to bring about elections of Africans to the Legislative Council in Ghana. 1. Led strikes and boycotts. 2. Eventually won independence for Ghana and became first Prime Minister. a. Brought costly reforms (roads, schools, healthcare) but hurt economy. b. Spent time and money trying to encourage pan- African movement. 3. Army and police took power in 1966 while Nkrumah was in China (led to military rule under Jerry Rawlings until recent elections). a. Current leader is President John Agyekum Kufor (elected in 2001). III. Kenya achieved independence through rebellion. A. British settlers resisted Kenyan independence but two forces won out. 1. Jomo Kenyatta- African leader who fought hard for independence. a. Later became the first president of Kenya. 2. Mau Mau- a secret society of Kikuyu (African tribe) farmers who were forced from land by British farmers a. Tried to scare British from the northern farmlands. b. Kenyatta was arrested by the British for not condemning the Mau Mau. 3. Achieved independence in 1963 (10,000 African and 100 white Kenyans died in fighting). B. Current leader is President Mwai Kibaki (elected in 2002). IV. Similar independence movements against colonial control occurred after WWII in the Congo, Algeria, and Angola.

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