# SID NUMBER: 0926018 MODULE CODE: ED 130010S

PART A Electronic Section You are employed as a Design Engineer at Cowboys Ltd and your Section leader has asked you to evaluate the following analogue circuits using a suitable electronic package such as Multisim or similar. i) Transformer fundamentals

The result shows that the two signal are identical because of the transformer equation N1/N2=V1/V2 V1= 100vpeak, I =V2 100vpeak. Reviewing the signals I saw a little bit of drop in the output signal because of the resistive loss in the transformer.

y

Disconnect the second channel from track A and reconnect it to track B.

The results show that the output is half of the input in level because N2= ½ N1
y

Change L1

Changing L1 on the transformer will increase the impendence because XL = 2 fL has been increased hence exerts more drop in the signal. ii) Half wave bridge rectifier fundamentals.

The results show that the upper signal which is the positive is clear but the negative signal is not fully shown. There were a little bit of the negative signal because the diode can pass the signal in one direction and stop the signal in the opposite direction. The small part of the signal shown is due to the inefficiency of the diode.

y

Now modify figure 2 by adding a 50uf capacitor to give figure 3. Explain why the output voltage changes.

The result shows that the upper signal which is the positive part is allowed to pass but the negative part is stopped, although I still see a little bit of it.

y

10uf

y

25uf

y

100uf

y

250uf

During the process of using different amount of capacitor, Increase in the capacitor led to the positive signal joining each other. T= RC More C means more time to discharge, therefore connecting to other following positive part of the signal.

iii)

Open loop transfer characteristic of 741 op-amp.

y

Vary the cursor to determine the relationship between the 741 op amp gain and frequency. FREQUENCY MAGNITUDE(dB) PHASE(Deg) 10HZ 100HZ 10KHZ 50KHZ 100KHZ 200KHZ 300KHZ 400KHZ 500KHZ 600KHZ 700KHZ 800KHZ 900KHZ 1000KHZ 99.073 80.039 40.05 26.071 20.05 14.03 10.508 8.009 6.071 4.487 3.148 1.988 0.965 0.049 116.673 92.876 90.029 90.005 90.002 90 89.999 89.997 89.997 89.996 89.995 89.994 89.993 89.992

f/
100 80 60 40 20 0
0 500000 1000000 1500000

Y- al es

freq against magnitude 1

F/P
150 100
Y- al es

0 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000

Frequency against phase 1

y

Looking at the result you will see that increase in frequency decreases the gain and phase. Explain the significance of the Bode Plotter response. The Bode Plotter is a very useful method to represent the magnitude and phase of a system as a function of frequency. The Bode Plotter interprets how the input affects the output in both gain and phase over frequency. The magnitude is the gain and the phase is the angle in degree. The transfer function of gain and phase angle can be plotted as a unction of f frequency to give an overall picture of system response. OP amp amplifier. Connect and analyse the circuit shown in figure 6

iv)

¡

50

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FREQUENCY 10 Hz 100 Hz 10 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz 200 kHz 300 kHz 400 kHz 500 kHz 600 kHz 700 kHz 800 kHz 900 kHz 1000 kHz

MAGNITUDE(Db) 42.849 56.438 56.347 46.423 37.518 26.651 19.857 14.949 11.114 7.97 5.307 2.996 0.956 -0.872

Phase(degrees) 81.134 27.794 -36.443 -107.331 -136.766 -156.933 -164.422 -168.275 -170.617 -172.188 -173.317 -174.169 -174.834 -175.369

100 50

0 -50
-100 -150 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 Y-Values 1200000 Column1

-200 Frequency/magnitude-phase 1

The measured output peak = 110 mv as you can see in the diagram it should be about that amount. The measured output = .

The input= 0.1mv so, the total G=

The calculated gain G1 = G2 = G= G1 x G2 = 50k x 15k=750k

The two op amps make a 180 phase shift each, hence we are using an inverting op amp but because we use two stages we get a 180 and a 180 where shift is 360 which is equal to zero.

Digital i) Investigating logic gates. Use the workbench package to construct of figure 7.

When the switch is closed X1 probe lights.

When the switch is open Z1 lights. Truth Table Z1 1 0

A 0 1

PART B Now construct the circuit of figure 8(the gate is now a two input NAND) TTL 7400N.

When BC (0,0) then Z1 lights.

When BC (0, 1) then X2 and Z1 lights.

when BC is (1,0) then X1 and Z1 lights.

When BC (11) X1 and X2 lights only Truth Table B 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 Z1 1 1 1 0

NAND GATE-3 INPUT Change gate G1 to a three input NAND.

When BCD is (000) then Z1 lights.

When BCD (001) X3 ad Z1 lights

When BCD (010) X2 and Z1 lights.

When BCD(011) X2, X3 and Z1 lights.

When BCD (100) X1 and Z1 lights.

When BCD (101) X1, X3, and Z1 lights.

When BCD (110) X1, X2, and Z1 lights. Truth Table B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 C 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Z1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

NOR GATE 2 INPUTS

When BC (00) Z1 lights.

For BC (01) X2 lights only.

For BC (10) X1 lights only.

For BC (11) X1 and X2 lights only.

Truth table B 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 Z1 1 0 0 0

NOR GATE 3 INPUTS

BCD= 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110

For BCD (000) Z1 lights.

For BCD (001) X3 lights only.

For BCD (010) X2 lights only.

For BCD (011) X2 and X3 lights.

For BCD (100) X1 lights only.

For BCD (101) X1 and X3 lights only.

For BCD (110) X1 and X2 lights only

For BCD (111) X1, X2, and X3 lights. Truth Table B 0 0 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 1 1 0 0 D 0 0 0 1 0 1 Z1 1 0 0 0 0 0

1 1

1 1

0 1

0 0

XOR 2 INPUTS BC= 00, 01, 10, 11

For BC (00) no light.

For BC (01) X2 and Z1 lights.

For BC (10) X1 and Z1 lights.

For BC (11) X1 and X2 lights. Truth table B 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 Z1 0 1 1 0

XNOR GATES 2 INPUTS AB= 00, 01, 10, 11

For AB (00) Z1 lights only

For AB (01) X2 lights only.

For AB (10) X1 lights only.

For AB (11) X1, X2,and z1 lights.

Truth Table A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Z1 1 0 0 1

FLIP FLOP Note the indication of probes Z1 and Z2, when AB= 00, 01, 00, 10, 00, 01, 00, 10.

For AB (00) Z1 and Z2 does not light.

For AB(01) Z2 lights.

For AB (00) the second time Z2 lights only.

For AB (10) X1 and Z1 lights.

For AB (00) Z1 lights only

For AB (01) Z2 lights.

For AB (00) Z2 lights only.

For AB (10) Z1 lights only.

PART B Mechanical Section This section relates to investigation and research. i) Cam mechanism Outline the concept and operation of the radial type cam mechanism. Your investigation should include at least three types of cam profile and their applications; in addition, three methods of transferring the motion from cam to follower.

CAM MECHANISM Cam mechanisms generally consist of two moving elements which the cam profile and the follower, mounted on a fixed frame. A cam can be define as a machine element having a curved outline, which by its rotational motion gives specified motion to another element with which it is in contact, called the follower.

TYPES OF CAM PROFILE PEAR- SHAPED CAMS: A follower controlled by a pear-shaped cam remains motionless for about half a revolution or cycle of the cam. During the time the follower is stationary, and the other half of the revolution of the cam, the follower rises and then falls. The pear-shaped cam is symmetric, so the rise motion is the same as the fall motion. Pear shaped cams are used on the shafts of a car.

This cam profile makes the follower to move with a uniform velocity. It allows the rise and fall with uniform velocity.

CIRCULAR CAMS Circular cam profile is a circle cam. It is also known as eccentric cams which produces a smooth motion. It is used in steam engines.

ii)

Gear mechanism Outline the concept and operation of the following gear types: Worm Bevel This part of your investigation should also include a discussion upon the arrangement of the gear teeth; namely: spur, helical and herringbone.

WORM GEARS Before explaining the concept and operation of the worm gear and other gears it is essential to know what a gear is. A gear is a machine element, whose function is to transmit motion and power from its shaft, through another gear to its shaft, by means of gear teeth. The axis of the worm is usually at 90 degrees to the worm gear shaft.

Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are needed. Worm gears are the perfect choice when the need is for producing large motor speed gear reductions in a single step. It is common for worm gears to have reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater.

Many worm gears have an interesting property that no other gear set has: the worm can easily turn the gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm. This is because the angle of the worm is so shallow that when the gear tries to spin it, the friction between the gears and the worm holds the worm in place.

TYPES OF WORM GEARS For industrial reasons there are three different applications of worm gear and wheel gears. The non throated worm gear, single throated, and the double throated worm gear. Non- throated Worm gears In non throated worm gears, both the worm and the driven gear are no throated. Below is an image of a non throated worm gear.

Single throated worm gears In single throated worm gears the driven gear is throated only. Tooth contact takes place in a single moving point on a worm drive.

Double Throated worm gears In double throated worm gears, the driven gear and the worm are both throated. Therefore higher loads are allowed without undergoing excessive wear.

The worm gears show the following characteristics.
y y y y y

Perfect for accurate movement of load Large speed reductions. Worm gears are cut helically for maximum mating. Single step conversion of high speed inputs to low speeds and high torque outputs. Occurrence of pure sliding motion.

BEVEL GEARS Bevel gears are important when the direction of a shaft s rotation needs to be changed. They are normally mounted on shafts 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles. The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or hypoid. Straight bevel gear teeth have similar problem with straight spur gear teeth, as each teeth engages it impacts the corresponding tooth all at once.

Gear bevel 1

The diagram below is a spiral bevel gear, the spiral teeth engage just like the helical teeth. The contact starts at one end of the gear and progressively spreads along the whole tooth.

and s al bevel gears the shafts must be perpendicular to each other, but they must On s also be in the same plane

SPUR G AR TEETH Spur gears are the most common, most widely used and least e pensive gears A spur gear is a wheel with the teeth cut parallel to their axis of rotation. The teeth is straight, spur gears are basically used to transmit motion from one shaft to another, the shaft parallel to it. 
 

When the spur gear is engaged it produces some noise which is normal but may become horrible in high speed. The distance from a point on a tooth of a gear at the pitch circle to a corresponding point on the next adjacent tooth, measured along the pitch circle is the circular pitch. Pc= 
 

HEL CAL GEAR TEETH Helical gear is a cylindrical shaped gear with helicoids teeth. The helical gear is just like the spur gear but with its teeth cut at an angle to their axis of rotation of the gear body. Helical gear operates more quietly and smoothly than the spur gears, this is because the teeth of helical gears slide one across the others rather than hitting each other as in spur gears.

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In addition, unlike the spur gears, in helical gear several teeth of each gear are in contact the same time, thus resulting in greater strength than if only one tooth of each gear is in contact at a time as in spur gears. A negative effect of using helical gears is that it exerts an end thrust which may be absorbed by a thrust bearing. HERRINGB NE GEAR TEETH Originally, herringbone gears consist of two helical gears, one right hand and other left hand. Most herringbone gears are produced in a single unit in special machines which cut the teeth in two directions at one time. The diagram below is a herringbone gear oil well pumping unit drive. 

REFERENCE
Budynas R. G and Nisbett J.K., 2008,Shigley¶s Mechanical Engineering Design, Eight Edition in SI Units, Singapore, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

Ewert, R. H., 1997. Gears and gear manufacture. New York: Chapman & Hall.
Engineers Edge, 2000, Gear Types,[internet], Available at http://www.engineersedge.com/gears/gear_types.htm, Accessed 2 nd of March, 2011. Erdman G.A. & Sandor N.G., 1997, Mechanism Design, Third Edition, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc. Global spec, 1999, About the herringbone gear, [Internet], Available at http://www.globalspec.com/LearnMore/Motion_Controls/Power_Transmission/Gears/Herr ingbone_Gears, Accessed 2nd March 2011. Juvinall R.C., Marshek K. M., 2000, Fundamental of Machine Component Design, Third Edition, America, R. R. Donnelly & Sons. Lanni C., Carbone G., Ceccarelli M. & Ottaviano E., 2006, Numerical and experimental analyses of radial cams with circular-arc profiles, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science , Volume 220(Number 1 / 2006 ), 111-125.

Mott, R. L., 1985. Machine elements in mechanical Design. London: Charles E. Merril Publishing company.
Ryan V., 2002, Mechanisms,[Internet], Available at http://www.technologystudent.com/cams/camdex.htm, Accessed 1 st March, 2011. Shigley J.E. and Mischke C.R., 2001, Mechanical Engineering Design, Sixth Edition, Singapore, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Uno N., 2009, Cams and followers, [Internet], Available at http://www.scribd.com/doc/13343039/Theory -of-MachinesCam-and-Followers, Accessed 1 st of March, 2011.  

Dimitrov L., 2006, Principles of Mec Ltd.

nic l Engineering Design, Bulgaria, Heron press