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Sec 3 Express ScienceChemistry (Past Year Examination Questions)
Atomic Structure and Chennical Bonding
h0\014 6aJ
8l '
:'Adfrrlfti;; eiliili'dnlaf op
a)i) '
A calcium ion has an electrical charge. Explain how, and why, this ion becomes charged
when it is formed from an atom.

ii) Give, using diagrams, the electronic structure of a calcium atom and a calcium ion. [7]

' An isotope of calcium has a mass number of 40. Another isolo-pe of.c.alcium has a mass
numb er'o| 44, What does the nucleus of each isotope contain? t3l
n rrl r2, tv,n - 6A ? nl dliyy| - I+tl ,,/#f\. I I

.#'"; Ca ion
) electrons. lr5:r
{a} complete Fig. 6.1 to describe the particles in the calclum iort.

number lrt
electrical charg€
one Caz+ ion
positive chorge

Fig.6.1 t5l

(b) How does the formafion of the calcium ion show that calcium is a metal?

. ..ryK-t$l... 1:nA P,.lsse n'.S:m P.o$1ivs .iw.S

Celctqrn lose i1s Zv4l€nc€ eteth0ns {o torm (-r) ions .t1 I

tc) How willanother isotope of calcium

(l) differ from !f,Ca,
. . .D'Jf*nf ..119 ...$. nr$ry-r
(lU be the same as $f;Ca? rA -,
4 ngII .. l]9),..$9.Y.(...9J9'!11*{)f.:1..:.1.!.. . .... . ..t21

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Nov 04/ P3/ Q9

a) Atoms with two e!gq!q!g sell can combine with atoms with seven
electrons in tFeii ouEimost shell. Draw cross' diagrams to show such
combination. Name tne atoms and the compounds formedl BefY[iUm F\Uffide t6]

b) t*o'"tn#lil"n
ionic compounds win conduct etectricig,tvnlflP ims ,{ree to condqct tKiytdty
iD solid ionic compounds will not conduct electricity. t4l
n6 yltbile io{tJ r not frft fo - . -.
t/vlc\^e {o oncluct elecv(q
Nov Oil P3/ QG

' Fig. 6.1 contains drawings of the nuclei of five diflerent atoms, l, J, K, L and M.


L ro. o

I o.^, o
o a" o
proton O
neulron O

Which ol the atoms l, J, K, L and M

(o) are isotopes of the same efement,

r$n no =somg l rM i\
t1l ' -/
(b) has a nucleon number of thre6,
tl l

(cl have one electron in their outermost eleetron shell,

L (no. of Petr4' €{tCtton) rll
I rl

(d) is given the symbol lLi?

t ! lrsty: J neuctroyr) t1]

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Nov Oil P3/ QT
Fig.7.1showe the arrangement of elsctrons of an element from one of the Groups of the
Periodic Thble shourn on paga 12.


electron a


(a) Draw in the space below the arangement of electrons of another alemenl in the oame
- c

2- A'6
(b) The element shown in Fig.7.1 reacts wlth hydrogen. Draw a diagram in the space below
to show th€ arrang€ment of electrons in the compound formed in this reaction.

€- of ||ydt"ogzrt
e- of oxYOen

{av t3I
--'-=-/ W il-o{
( Nov061P3/ Qe i e o{ cxrlSeh
\ -----ii1
il Name the type oJ chemical bond found in a molecule of carbon dioxide. COVAtehf
Draw a ' dot and cross' diagram to show the anangement of electrons in a carb-ori
dioxide molecule. Only the outer electron shells need to be shown. tn
b) Substances with the chemicalbond found in carbon dioxide normally have a relatively
low boiling point. Explain why, t3l
rha covql€ht rnotecu(e ie he{d +ogether lry r.reqk irte!'vnoteetpF-.+gl8s
ot oftracten . onry qe.,'narl 4 rnewJy '(*rql.rirel
3*ynt ro o$€ncqyla
1!rr wwE {rce of offruct{on .
Nov 07/ P3/ Q7

Fig.7.1 ehov*a the structure ol solid sodium chlorlde and Fig.7.2 shows the structure of
gasecus hYdrogen ctlbrid€-

Flg.7.1 Flg.7.2

solid ga$€ous
sodium chloride hydrogen chloride {)


€odiurfl lon with positive cfiarge g hydrogen atom with no charge o

citorid€ lon wlh ncgativa charge e chbrine atom wllh no charge qp

(a) Explain why sodium chloride has a very high meltlng point.

.1j9(4 .irs..mqdg.$n.*....S.1)*gnq!J..ipyu ..ptnat lhil. )"{s1.,{S.n.lJ forca & afuactiu

thesc hgt.{
b$! !9ys 9M fj$L...;:ll3 {rt.gtlKsl iqxs{Lxs :ll b,qh Lzt durolft
{b) (l} Exptain wfry sodium chloride wilf conduct electricity when molten.

llDlten sfiIr.r..f9K
r!1 t9.-Msyl . lrgJg nsp
1o o,Auct etrc{ricdy t,

(ll) When allorrved to soliclify sodium chtorlde loses the ablllty to c.onduct olectriclty.
Explain why,
l1^4rc n no rrroblle irlrrr to m114.t'.,gn9!...ccn9l$SJ..f !9Jlr-i31y.,,...,...


(c) Hydrogen ctrlorlde dissolves in watar to form an acidic solution.

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Nav 07/ P3/ Q9
An element has an isotope with fte nucleon nurnhar 9,

Fach of tha isotopa'e neutral etorrs hag foqrr elec#ons and a nucleus containing tm different
tps*rt p$fide,
(*) Sive ffre namss of lfreee. pafiicles and the. numbgr of aath partlde presenlin each nuclaus.
' Frotoyl, hetfron t rsutope fl | K6t?eiz
I 4grctons t4l
I a6, 5 neqtohJ I
(b) Gompare the masses and compare lhe etectrical changre of these particles. l3l

{c} Ths elemant has another isotope wilh atoms that have a nucleon number of ten.

Compare and contrast the nuclelof theseturo i$otopes. t3]

3 This table shows some intormalion about atoms ol the elements W, X, Y and Z.
{The letters do not represent th€ atomlc symbols of the elements,)

element atomlc number of number of mass electronlc

number protong neutrons number corrfiguratlon

w 16 16 16 g2 2.8.6

x 7 7 7 14 2.5

Y 1 1 1 2 1

z 11
ll 12 23 2.8. I

{a} (i) Complete the table by filling in the information for element Z. t3l
(ii) Give a reason why element Z is likely to be a metal. r
lvretal andro t0s€ iff valence..r:..,j:.,g..T...pgsjl.*...i.ft../..........
"iiitt if "Air'+ddt1A' "Alinp'i .4,ir r. 11l
(bl (ll Describe the change In elec#onlc configuration that occurs to an atom of element
W when itforms an ion.

. H.fll gqln l:lq-.lpn: P. !:r* 91 l;Ifff$ d ?-3:9 rrr

(ll) The accurate relative atomic mass of element W is 32.1.

Explain why this is not a whole number.

.* i1 .L19 1u- .ru"n.99...*. i:ot?}.g:.., .. ..... ..


(c) Elements X and Y cornbine to form a covalentfy bonded molecule.

Draw a'dot and cross'diagram to show the bonding in thls molecule.

Your diagram only needs to show outer electrons.

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x : e-ol x
e ; e- o€ Y

* This information comes from a website about salt'

I Cornmon Salt
& S^ttcontains lhe csmp.gund sodium chloride'
of a vast ionic lattice of
E n tingf* salt crystal consists
fi sodium and chloride ions.

I fna lattice structure m€ans that salt crystals are very

# *ara and have regular ehaPes.

I A verv imoortant usa of salt is to provlde tho huge
E of chlorine that are used every day' Chlorine is Na* @ cl- C
made industrially by electrolysis of concentrated'
produces chforine as
f. aqueous soolum cnnride, This
ift an elemsnt.

(a) The websile uses the words elomentand compound' i _)

Explaln what thoee words mean'

eremenr . $..ryx syP-41ng..11.:1lls.

*. opft
.'.{: .}. 1 } *....-.jna'" Y?u@hnn

. .9,g,n^,gl..qgg.t.{. -e!9:Y.,:Y..i...,. .. . .

cry$tals to be 'very
tb) Explain why the lattice structure ol sodium chloride cau$ee the
hard'and have 'regular shapee" ,.
T.F-ll* s .r*.{s.*P..* l-o-'$r.r\..?\?w..!ttll .iss %4 I. ion'
,T\4e force 4 attractiun beftveevr 0.PP..0rqJY.,,9.h9.fE:*.....(q\c...??-..Y:Y
anot herre +tt\e kr'rs qr€ ?y!W{....9.ftn.*....,.............. rzt \ )
etrucilre- +\^a't OMe K its l"egrtOr sharg'

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