THE BASICS OF CCTV First Action Security Team

The following is a basic overview of CCTV cameras and their functions and uses. Jump to Terms and Definitions What good is it? Advances in CCTV technology are turning the video surveillance into one of the most valuable loss prevention, safety/security and management tools available today. Retailers use CCTV to monitor for shoplifters and dishonest employees, compile recorded evidence against bogus accident claims and monitor merchandising displays in stores that may be hundreds of miles away. Manufacturers, governments, hospitals and universities use CCTV to identify visitors and employees, monitor hazardous work areas, thwart theft and ensure the security of their premises and parking facilities. Security Applications • • • • • • • • Observe and record theft or violence by overtly monitoring retail floor space, office buildings, building perimeters, warehouses, loading docks and parking garages. Monitor sensitive areas where infrequent activities occur (i.e. confidential records, safes, etc...) Monitor point-of-sale exceptions (cash register voids, over-rings, etc...) reducing cashier theft. Observe and record shoplifting activities. "Walk a beat" by programming a moving camera to pan, tilt, and zoom within a defined pattern. Perform covert surveillance (where legally applicable) Integrate with access control systems to provide video of persons entering and leaving the premises Complement asset tracking systems to provide video when a tagged asset leaves the premises.

Safety Applications • • • • Allow operators to see into areas where the environment is hazardous to life or health Monitor potential accident areas. Monitor residence halls, common areas, or high-risk areas to ensure safety of an educational institution's students and faculty. Help reduce the severity of some incidents by the timely dispatch of police, fire, and emergency personnel.

Management Tools • etc. • Demonstrate management's due diligence towards protecting employees, clients, and visitors, and perhaps avert or minimize litigation and negative publicity Train employees, check stock on store shelves and monitor retail sales floor coverage, production lines,

you should consider the crossover points between lighting costs and camera costs. and the stars. The Camera Cameras convert the visible scene captured by a lens into an electric signal and transmit that signal to a monitor for viewing.. a color system can help security personnel identify shoplifters and their clothing more easily and convincingly. To select proper equipment. richer image than black and white and may keep the operator's interest for longer periods of time. A scene often contains different colors. and other man-made lights. infrared. The scene and light The scene refers to the objects or area to be observed and the total environment in which the exist. florescent. While the use of color cameras is growing. or as a training tool. Black and White Color cameras generally require higher levels of lighting than their monochromatic (B/W) counterparts. It's possible that lowlight cameras will cost less than paying to increase the lighting level of a parking lot. it is necessary to determine the minimum lighting level (day or night) that will arrive from the scene to the camera lens. This information may be reviewed and later presented as evidence for prosecution of criminals. Color accuracy is extremely important in gambling casinos. It also makes it easier to detect subjects.• Document video images on magnetic tape or optical hard drives to record events. with a color system a viewer can easily distinguish a red car from a green one. Natural sources include the sun. Artificial sources include incandescent. Several considerations should be taken into account when choosing the proper camera/lens for any video system: • • • • • • • The purpose of the video system (detection. A scene or target area can be illuminated by natural or artificial light sources. Before purchasing cameras. surfaces and materials that reflect varying levels of light. In retail applications. Color produces a more natural. Getting Started Many elements must be considered when designing and installing CCTV systems. Black and white cameras are better suited for extremely low light situations.. Color vs. the better the picture.) The overall sensitivity of the camera needed based upon the actual application The amount of varying levels of light available at the scene The environment in which the camera will operate (indoors/outdoors) The field of view (FOV) required by the application The lens Cost . assessment. sodium. For example. while on a black and white system both cars would appear a similar shade of grey. identification etc. where hundreds of dollars can ride on the ability to recognize the difference between maroon chips and red ones. The ability to capture good quality images in low light situations increase the cost of both black and white and color cameras. the moon. black and white cameras continue to offer some distinct advantages. An axiom in CCTV security applications is: The better the light.

sunny day an auto iris lens camera will close the lens' iris to prevent strong light from reaching into the camera's imager. On a bright. Fixed and PTZ Cameras CCTV cameras can be fixed or have pan. Smoked Plexiglas bubbles have the same effect as wearing sunglasses. Protection from cold. Factors such as distance from the scene. Their primary function is to collect reflected light from a scene and focus a clear. Cameras are available in various "formats" expressed as 1/2. At night. Automatic iris control enables cameras to open or close an auto iris lens to adjust the amount of light passing through the lens.Domes conceals all the internal equipment in a nice clean shell. This only applies to camera that need a separate lens (i. Dome Cameras Many PTZ cameras today are disguised in dark colored Plexiglas housings called domes. In general. heat. Typically the more light that passes through the lens. dirt. sharp image on the camera's imager. . 1/3. shape. The lens (optics) Lenses (Optics) play an important role in the design of a CCTV system. Dome cameras offer three primary benefits: • • • Deterrence . C-Mount types) as opposed to cameras with a built in lens. the camera will open the iris to allow greater amounts of light into the camera.Camera performance depends largely upon the reflected light at the scene and the quality of the cameras imager Where the level of available light can change dramatically. desired field of view. or other elements is needed to ensure optimal performance and extend the life of the camera. A camera housing protects the camera and lens from vandalism and the environment. PTZ cameras are motor driven and can pan left or right. you should match the cameras format to the lens format. colleges and government facilities. tilt. All outdoor cameras require a housing of some type. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) rates housings on their ability to withstand environmental conditions. Economy .e.Domes equipped with a camera. lighting and format affects the size and clarity of the image on cameras imager. and zoom (PTZ) capabilities. dust. Selection of a lens is especially critical because it directly affects the size. or 1/4 inches. a half inch camera should be paired with a half inch lens. a camera equipped with automatic iris control can help assure consistent image quality. focal length. and sharpness of the image to be displayed on the imager. It also can enhance the appearance of the camera installation and conceal the equipment from the casual observer. and PTZ capabilities can be augmented with dummy cameras Aesthetics . and zoom in and out. lens. the better the quality of the picture. Fixed cameras are mounted on a fixed bracket and cannot move in response to operator commands. They are particularly popular wherever aesthetics are valued. For example. Dome cameras are found in practically every major department store and in many industrial/commercial locations such as hospitals. It reduces the amount of light reaching the lens affecting the color accuracy picked up by the camera.Domes make it virtually impossible for suspects to determine where the camera is pointed. These measurements represent the overall usable size of the cameras imager. tilt up or down.

A lens with a low F-stop number is sometimes also called a "fast lens". while a telephoto lens has a long focal length. you must change the lens." and can be found printed on the side or front of the lens. Depth of field Another consideration when determining the proper lens is depth of field. Focal length is simply the distance from the optical center of the lens to a focal point near the back of the lens. etc. bear in mind that if you want to change the field of view.: fixed focal and varifocal (sometimes known as zoom). A zoom lens is an assembly of lens elements that move the change the focal length from a wide angle to a telephoto while maintaining focus on the camera's imager. medium. Depth of field increase or decreases based on the Iris.2 can gather a great deal more light than a lens with an F-stop of f/4. a varifocal lens is best. telephoto. If depth of field is important. This distance is written on the lens and expressed in millimeters (mm). you may .0. Lens length short lens (wide angle lens) long lens (telephoto) Aperture wide aperture (low F-Stop) narrow aperture (high F-stop) Distance to object short distance long distance longer depth of field shorter depth of field shorter depth of field longer depth of field shorter depth of field longer depth of field Purchasing and planning decisions should take these factors into account since depth of field can affect image quality (and may jeopardize the ability to identify and prosecute subjects). This permits you to change the field of view between narrow. The lower the F-Stop number.Field of view The field of view (FOV) is the actually picture size (height and width) produced by the specific lens. A wide-angle lens has a short focal length. medium. and wide angles. This relationship is symbolized by the letter f. For example. although not as sharp. a lens with an F-stop of f/1.) to increase or decrease the field of view. the larger the maximum lens aperture and the greater the lens' ability to pass light to the camera imager and the better it can view a low light scene. When you select a fixed lens for a particular view. F-Stop The ability of a lens to gather light depends on the relationship between the lens opening (aperture) and the focal length. Depth of field is the area in focus before and behind a subject. which is commonly referred to as the "F-stop. while the varifocal lens can change its focal length. If the field of view is not suitable. Fixed focal length lenses are available in various wide. and narrow fields of view. This means that when you focus precisely on a subject a certain distance in front of and behind the subject also will be in focus. you may consider using a different lens (wide angle. A fixed focal lens has a constant focal length.. Camera lenses can be divided into two basic types. A lens with a "normal" focal length produces a picture that approximates the field of view of the human eye. When both wide scenes and close-up scenes are needed..

Telephone line . A CS-Mount lens cannot be used on a C-Mount camera.5mm from the imager. Copper braided coaxial cable is recommended to maximize conductivity and minimize potential interference. phone lines. The transmission is unaffected by any kind of interference.. The essence of good design is to minimize this impact. microwave. environments.or closed circuit . Examples of current video transmission include: Coaxial Cable A coaxial cable is one that provides a continuous physical connection . there is no fire hazard to a facility even in the most flammable environment. Lens mounts Camera lenses generally come with either a C-mount or CS-mount and must be matched appropriately to the camera's mounting requirements. Fiber optics offers a cost-effective method of sending large transmissions over long distances.want to explore options such as increasing artificial lighting or installing cameras with normal lenses rather than telephoto lenses. as well as many applications today. For traditional CCTV systems.between the camera and the monitor. this is the most common economical method of signal transmission over relatively short distances (few hundred feet). Due to varying application technologies in use within the same CCTV system. The difference between the two mounts is the distance of the lens options from the camera's imager. Hence. The cable is shielded to minimize interference from any nearby electronic devices or electrical wires. Fiber optic capable have a large signal capacity (bandwidth) and no possibility of a spark from a broken fiber. The C-Mount lens is 17.5 mm from the imager. At the other end. a receiver translates the pulsed light back into an electronic signal capable of being displayed on a monitor. the CS-Mount lens is 12. fiber optic.. Follow these guidelines when purchasing equipment: A C-Mount lens can be used on a CS-mount camera only if a 5mm spacer is added. many video transmission methods exist: coaxial cable. water in conduit or high voltage being run in the same conduit. In addition nearly all methods of transmission suffer from various forms of interference or loss. Today. Fiber Optics Fiber optic technology changes an electronic video signal into pulsed or laser light and injects (transmits) it into one end of a glass rod (the fiber optic cable). cost and facility layout. etc. Video Transmission Methods The purpose of the transmission medium is to carry the video signal from the camera to the monitor. and radio frequency. The choice of transmission mediums depends on factors such as distance.

Microwave technology offers a large bandwidth to carry video. It is becoming increasingly popular where hardwiring methods are easier impossible or impractical. Most CCTV systems use both dedicated monitors and call-up (switchable) monitors. Generally call-up/switchable monitors are larger than dedicated monitors and give operators the ability to view multiple images simultaneously (multiplexed) as well as scrutinize the camera image more closely. its positioning and angle relative to the viewer. but short distance. Microwave If already in place. sufficient growth must be factored into any console design. Several factors can affect the monitoring function: Size of the monitor. a CCTV monitor provides higher lines of resolution (better picture quality) and accepts only video signals rather than RF/antenna signals. Through the use of specialized transmission and receiver equipment. There are many different monitor sizes available. Although similar in function to a TV. the better or sharper the video picture will appear. It is a practical option when a wire path between the camera and the monitor locations cannot be established or is prohibitively expensive. The monitor The monitor receives the transmitted electronic video signal from the camera from the paints it across a cathode ray tube (CRT) to display an image to a viewer. microwave can be a very efficient and cost-effective method of delivering black and white or color video. Environment conditions or other RF in the area can affect it. Also determine the quantity of cameras to be displayed on a given monitor simultaneously (multiplexed). line of sight video transmission technology. be sure to provide adequate ventilation and air-conditioning. The dedicated line connects the transmitter (camera end) with a receiver (monitor end). Lines of resolution refers to the total number of horizontal lines the camera or monitor is able to reproduce. Radio Frequency Radio frequency (RF) is a reliable. and the quality (resolution) of the monitor itself. however it can be affected by environmental conditions.A telephone line is a standard twisted pair of wires that can transmit the image for distances up to one kilometer without signal boosting. A call-up or switchable monitor enables the operator to call or switch different or multiple cameras into view. Whether on a table or enclosed in a console. The more lines on a screen. Good quality transmission can be achieved over a line of sight path. you must first determine the distance of the monitor in relationship to the user. . and has been used successfully to reduce cabling costs even within large buildings. When choosing the proper size of monitor. It's also important to note that all monitors generate heat. A dedicated monitor displays the video from only one camera. CCTV monitors can provide up to 1000 lines of resolution compared to an average of 300 lines provided by some TV sets. A receiver then converts the transmission back into the video and data signals and displays the scene on a monitor. Microwave turns the video and data signals into high radio frequency signals and transmits them from one point to another via free air and space. Microwave transmissions are regulated by the FCC and a license is required. In all cases. it is possible to use standard telephone lines for video signal transmission (RSM).

The Multiplexor does this by reallocating frames from one camera to another as needed. you may see a door opening on camera 1. but also creates a drawback know as "switcher dilemma". The most popular type of switcher.The peripherals As the number of cameras and monitors increase. Multiplexors also can record all cameras in the system onto a single videotape. video printers and time date generators. The peripheral components may include switchers. a manual switcher allows users to select the camera they want to see by pressing the appropriate button. This is why it is a great advantage to use hi-density or . a video Multiplexors collects full-screen pictures from up to 16 cameras and displays them simultaneously on a monitor. simple system design eventually gives way to more complex designs that require peripheral components. Multiplexors. In this scenario. The cameras are recorded sequentially at a high rate of speed. instead of the standard 30. This allows operators to keep tabs on numerous cameras with only one monitor. Matrix Switcher A matrix switcher is a more complex design enabling the user to switch any video signal to any call-up monitor in a large-scale system. By the time camera 1 appears again. In a video system containing 15 cameras. They normally incorporate PTZ control and other features such as preset and alarm inputs and outputs. then suddenly the video switches to camera 2. When a time lapse VCR is used with a multiplexor. imagine a system with eight cameras. each programmed to switch after dwelling on the monitor for 5 seconds. In a smaller. contains circuitry that will switch one camera to another automatically. the door is closed and you are left wondering who came through the door while camera 2 through 8 were flashing sequentially on the monitor. On playback. the Multiplexors selects two frames from each camera and records them to a single videotape. quads. cost-conscious applications. followed by camera 3 and so on. a sequential switcher. a standard video signal is comprised of 30 separate frames each second. Switchers A video switcher enables different cameras to be switched to call-up monitors. As mentioned earlier. a considerable gap will occur between the time the first image is displayed and the time the eighth image is displayed. To illustrate switcher dilemma. The result is an effective frame rate of 2 frames per second. The situation worsens when recoding the video for review at a later time. Operators have the option of displaying any camera full screen or multiple cameras in reduced sizes. Most Multiplexors today contain motion detection features that enables the system to record more frames of video from cameras showing motion than from those not showing any motion. VCRs. Multiplexers Unlike conventional recording systems. the recording mode should be as short as possible to reduce the number of seconds required to record all the cameras. The operator can set the length of time (dwell time) that a scene remains on the monitor before sequencing automatically to the next camera. The net result is higher quality recordings of scenes that are more likely to be important to security personnel.

5 0. Recording Mode (hrs) 2 6 12 24 48 72 96 120 240 480 960 Framers per Second 30 30 10 5 2. Recordings make it possible to view events that have gone unnoticed at the time the occurred or that may require close scrutiny later. the number of pictures recorded per second in time-lapse mode decreases significantly as the recording time increases. but requires the operator to change tapes every 2 to 6 hours. Technological advances now make it possible to record images in digital form on a computer disk. The 24 hour real-time VCR will record 24 hours of video on a single tape at 20 frames per second. VCR presently are the most prevalent recording systems. Time-lapse recording can capture from 12 to 960 hours of video on one T-120 tape. It is considered a real time recorder because 20 pictures per second approximates the ability of the human eye to easily distinguish moving images. (duplexing) Quads The main feature of a quad is the ability to compress images from four separate cameras and simultaneously display them on a single monitor screen. quad recordings yield only what appears on the monitor at the time of recording. then the playback is in quad mode. Virtual real-time VCRs record 4 times the frames per second of conventional time-lapse VCRs. When four cameras are displayed.4 1. While this technology shows great promise for the near future. each occupies a quarter of the screen. Unlike Multiplexors recording. In the real-time recording mode. the tape moves at the same speed as a home VCR (2 to 6 hours) and capture 30 frames per second.virtual real-time recorders when using Multiplexors. A single camera can be selected and displayed full screen as well. any desired camera can be displayed full screen. VCRs designed for CCTV can record video images in either real-time or time-lapsed modes.2 1 0.125 (1 frame every 2 seconds) (1 frame every 4 seconds) (1 frame every 8 seconds) . As fewer pictures are recorded per second. and movement may appear jerky. This pullout feature saves investigators hours of time reviewing recorded actions.25 0. Recording CCTV Most CCTV systems use VCRs to record video images from the dedicated and/or call-up monitors. This produces high quality recordings. One of the strongest advantages of using Multiplexors is that during playback the multiplexor decodes the tape allowing investigators to display only selected frames with the same address. Another advantage is that during playback. Time-lapse recording makes it possible to record video over long periods of time on a relatively small amount of video tape. critical images may not appear on tape.6 1. However. If the VCR is recording in quad mode.

Multiplexors and camera controllers have this function built into the product. Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) An electronic circuit used whereby the frequencies of an oscillator is automatically maintained within specific units.Time Date Generator A time date generator can annotate the video scene (overlay) with chronological information. aka peak/average control. Automatic Gain Control (AGC) An electronic circuit used whereby the gain of a signal is automatically adjusted as a function of its input or other specified parameter. normally a simple switch closure. not digital. A lens in which the aperture automatically opens or closes to maintain proper light levels on Auto-Terminating Feature whereby equipment automatically selects the correct termination depending on whether the video output is connected to Back Lighting Compensation (BLC) A feature of modern CCD camera which electronically compensates for high background lighting to give detail which would normally be silhouetted. Adjusting this control allows the auto iris circuitry to either take bright spots Activity Detection A feature of the generation 3 multiplexor range that uses video motion detection techniques to improve camera update Alarming The ability of CCTV equipment to respond to an input signal. Attenuation A decrease or loss in a signal. Also. Reduction of signal magnitude (loss) normally measured in decibels Auto White Balance Feature on color cameras whereby the camera constantly monitors the light and adjusts its color to maintain white areas. The response varies Analog A signal in which any level is represented by a directly proportional voltage. a camera identifier is placed on the monitor screen to identify the camera scene being displayed. . Angle of View Aperture The lens opening that controls the amount of light reaching the pickup device (imager) Aspherical Lens A lens designed with a non spherical shape so that it refracts the light passing through it either lower the lens aperture so that it passes more light or decreases barrel distortion on wide angle lenses. most VCRs. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ALC (Automatic Level Control) On AL lenses. Automatic Iris Lens the cameras imager. The maximum scene angle that can be seen through a lens. Today.

Bandwidth The frequency range of a signal. . Solid state cameras are sometimes referred to as CCD cameras. usually through a switch. CCTV The common abbreviation for Closed Circuit Television. The part of the video signal corresponding to the color information. A type of shielded cable of carrying a wide range of frequencies (video and radio) with very low Composite Video reference. The C-Mount lens has a 17. It contains the image sensor and other electronic circuitry to create a video signal. BNC Video connector. during sync pulses to avoid thin white lines that appear in the picture Blooming The halation and defocusing effect that occurs around the bright areas of the picture (highlight) whenever there is an increase in the brightness intensity. Balanced Signal Method of transmitting video. chip or imager. The method for distributing RF signals via coaxial cable rather than radiated CATV (Cable Access Television) through the air.Back Focus The mechanical aligning of the imaging device with the focal point of the lens. Most important on a zoom lens to ensure the image stays in focus throughout the zoom range. CCIR The European TV standard 625 lines 50 fields Camera A device that translates light into a video image and transmits that image to a monitor for viewing. to a source of video. The CS-Mount lens has a 12. that consists of two equal but opposite signals being sent down two semiconductors.5 mm flange back distance. Base-Band Video Unmodulated video signal suitable for display on a monitor. A private or closed television system. but not a domestic TV Black Level The level of the video signal that corresponds to the maximum limits of the black areas of the picture Blanking (Field and line fly back blanking) The operation of turning of the monitor display. The span that the information-bearing signal occupies or requires or the difference between the lowest and highest frequency of a band. C Mount / CS Mount The two industry standards for mounting a lens on a camera. Chrominance (C) Coaxial Cable signal loss. The complete video signal consisting of the video information. CCD (Charged Coupled Device) This is a solid state semi-conductor imaging device often referred to as an integrated circuit. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) The picture tube in a monitor that can reproduce the picture image seen by the camera. A separate overall video output. usual over twisted pair cable. the most commonly used video connector in the CCTV industry Bridging A term indicating that a high impedance video line is paralleled.5 mm flange back distance. or pick-up device. the sync pulse and the threshold Contrast The range of light and dark values in a picture or the ratio between the maximum and minimum brightness values.

flexible fiber such as glass or plastic. Depth of Field Digital An auto-iris lens with internal circuit which receives voltage and a video signal from the camera to The area in focus in front of and behind the subject.5 scan lines) Field of View The maximum viewed image a lens "sees". EIA (Electronic Industry Association) Equalization US TV standard 525 lines 60 fields. EI (Electronic Iris) Shutter The ability of the camera to compensate for moderate light changes in indoor applications without the use of an auto iris lens. 1 lumen per square foot. Duplex Multiplexor A multiplexor with two frame stores allowing it to show multi-screen pictures while performing time multiplex recordings. Recording images on digital mediums such as optical or hard drives instead of analog tapes. Focus The focal point. These can be kept in a store. Current standards are 1/2.Cross talk Decibel (Db) two signals. The shorted the distance. External Sync The ability of CCTV equipment to accept one or more of the standard sync formats so as to align itself to the rest of the system Fiber Optic The process of transmitting light through a long. the longer the distance. for the purpose of transmitting video. 1/4 inches. The process of correcting losses of certain components in a signal. Focal Length The distance (in millimeters) from the lens to the surface of the imager. the wider the view. A device that accepts a video signal and sends it out over a number of independent Digital Recording Distribution Amplifier outputs. A signal that levels are represented by binary numbers. An undesired signal that interferes with the desired signal A measure of the power ratio of two signals. Field One half of a frame of video (262. An adjustment to the lens optics to improve the images clarity. The horizontal or vertical scene size at a given distance from the camera. the narrower the view. . 1/3. audio. It is equal to ten times the logarithm of the ratio of the DC Type Lens adjust the lens. Flange Back The distance from the flange of the lens to the focal plane. Dwell Time The length of time a switcher displays a camera before moving on to the next one in the sequence. A measurement of light. Foot Candle (FC) Format The size of the cameras imager. or data over long distances.

used with terminal adapters.Frame F-Stop A complete picture. Internal Sync (Crystal Controlled) A camera that generates its sync pulses without reference to any other sources. Iris The adjustable opening through which light can pass and is regulated. The effective resistance of an electronic circuit to an AC signal. The maximum number of individual picture elements that can be distinguished in a single Horizontal Resolution scanning line. The smaller the f-number. Image Device (Imager) Impedance The detector in the camera. Ground Loop Affects video pictures in the form of a black shadow bar across the screen or as tearing in the top corner of the picture. An electrical connection point that is common to either a metal chassis. The signal strength loss that occurs when a piece of equipment is inserted into a line. Lock (See External Sync) Ghost A shadowy or weak image in the received picture. either a tube or CCD solid state device. Lens A transparent optical component that converges light rays to forma two dimensional image of that object. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) Digital phone lines from which allow transmissions of video signals via fast scan at speeds of 128Kb / sec. Image Burn (Retained Image) A change produced or in or on a target pickup device (monitor) which remains after the removal of a previously stationary light source. Hertz (Hz) Cycles per second IR (Infrared) A range of frequencies lower than visible red light used for covert surveillance or as a low cost wireless video link. offset to either the right or to the left of the primary image. Hardwired Method of controlling camera points using multi-core cables. To synchronize one piece of equipment to the sync pulses of another. Normally using a crystal controlled oscillator. or a ground bus. 2 fields of video information. the greater amount of light passing through the lens. The speed of a lens. Caused by different earth potentials in the system. Insertion Loss Intensifier An electronic device that creates an output image brighter than the input (original) image. . a terminal. Grey Scale Ground The number of variations from white to grey to black. Interlace A scanning process where every other horizontal line is scanned in one field while the alternate lines are scanned into the next field to produce a complete picture frame. Gen.

Looping A term indicating that a high impedance device has been permanently connected in a parallel to a video source. Line Amplifier (Video Line Corrector) long cable runs.Level Control Main iris control. A filter that attenuates light equally over the whole visible spectrum. Noise Undesired signal(s) that corrupts the original video signal and may reduce image quality. PAL (Phase Alternate Line. A device to make good the loss of a signal strength and quality due to Line Lock Used to synchronize the field sync pulses of an AC powered camera to the frequency of the voltage input (line voltage). Microwave Radio frequencies between 1 and 30 Ghz. see CCIR) Color TV system used in the United Kingdom. Multiplex (Time Multiplex) Using one carrier to send more than one signal. Individual balanced video outputs for each video input. Racking) lenses that ensure the image stays in focus throughout the zoom range. The picture end of a CCTV system. NTSC (National Television Standards Committee. In video Multiplexors this achieved by sending a different camera output in each successive field or frame of a video signal. see EIA) N/D (Neutral Density) Color TV system used in the United States. The method of distributing RF TV signals by broadcasting them through the Mechanical focus (Back Focus. The closest distance a given lens will able to focus upon. Turning this control towards high will open the iris. A modulator is the circuit that modulates the signal. Standard phone lines used to transmit fast scan pictures via PTSN (Public switched Telephone Network) modems. Pan Side-to-side movement of a camera (horizontal axis). Used to set the auto-iris circuit to a video level desired by the user. A unit of measurement for the intensity of light. After set-up. Luminance (Y) Lux The part of the video signal that consists of the monochromatic data. Multiple Access Television. . Generally used for fixed lighting applications. towards low will close the iris. MATV air. the circuit will adjust the iris to maintain this video level in changing lighting conditions. Minimum Object Distance (MOD) Modulate to change or vary some parameter such as varying the amplitude of a signal. Mux A Multiplexor. One foot-candle (FC) = 10 Lux. Monitor A device that converts electronic signals into the video image that was generate by a camera and lens. Manual Iris Lens A lens with a manual adjustment for the iris opening in a fixed position.

A device that compresses up to 4 video signals and simultaneously displays them on a monitor. Peak to Peak The amplitude difference between the most positive and the most negative incursions of a signal. Photocell Automatically switches on the infrared (IR) if ambient light levels fall below a preset level. (i. A commonly used computer serial interface. PIP Picture in Picture Pixel Presets Quad The smallest cell or area in a picture. The illuminated face of the TV monitor without the information present. the better. etc.e. A 1/32 or 1/16 inch lens mounted on a camera that is capable of viewing an entire room. .Passive A non-powered element of a system. SECAM (see CCIR) SVHS (Super Video Home System) S/N (Signal to Noise Ratio) Saturation (Color) Measure of the noise levels of a video signal. VHS compatible. The pre-positioning of a pan. tilt. A measure of the ability of a camera or a television system to reproduce details. VCR. Random Interlace A scanning technique in which there is no external control over the scanning process. The measure of the vividness of color. its height is measure in units of U (1.. The amplitude of chrominance. but lowed than frequencies associated with heat and light. An industrial standard housing 19" wide.. Range Finder Used to determine the focal length needed and what the picture will look like on a monitor. The higher the number. Raster The rectangular patter of scanning lines upon which the picture is produced. zoom camera by the use of its potentiometer. Peripheral An optional device that can enhance a CCTV system. quad. New format high resolution VHS recorders. Reflected Light Resolution Roll RS232 The scene brightness or the light being reflected from a scene. The greater number of pixels. Color TV system used in France. There is no fixed relationship between adjacent lines and successive fields. A loss of vertical sync which causes the picture to move up and down on a TV screen. multiplexor.75 inches ea) Rack Mount RF (Radio Frequency) Signals with a repetition rate above audible hearing. Pinhole Lens lens used for applications where the camera must be hidden.) The ability to delay the line locking process so as to align cameras fed from Phase Adjustment (See Line Lock) AC voltages on a different phase. the higher the resolution of the scene.

Dictates the resolution of a CCTV product. Simplex (Multiplexor) A Mux with 1 frame store that can either multiplex record or show multi-screen pictures in live or play back mode. that consist of two conductors twisted together along their length. See sequential Switchers above. Used digital motion setup. Electronic pulses that are inserted into video signal for the purpose of assembling the picture in the correct position. TVL (Television Lines Resolution) The maximum number of changes between light and dark pictures across 3/4 the width. When referring to a video surveillance field. Telephoto A lens used to produce a larger image of a distant object. Twisted Pair A cable. These use the video cable or a simple twisted pair cable to send their information. wired to be the last in a Terminated (75 Ohm Terminated) particular video line. Time-Lapse VCR Video recorder that can record frames with pauses between them thereby extending the time that a standard cassette will hold. Sensitivity A camera's ability to reproduce a given scene with a given light level. Usually expressed in Lux or foot-candles. Sequential Switchers A video device that alternates the displayed video image from one camera to the next. often screened. Time intervals during which activity is permitted. Tearing A picture condition in which the horizontal lines are displaced in a irregular manner. Sync Abbreviation for synchronization. It may consist of batteries or an auxiliary generator. A video device that sequentially steps through and displays all connected camera signals. It cannot record multiplexed images while showing a multiplexed mode. Triplex (Triplex Multiplexor) Mux feature that gives you the ability to simultaneously view both playback and live cameras within the same multiscreen while still recording. Electronic circuit that aligns the unsynced video signal before signal processing. Time Zone TBC (Time Base Corrector) Used in Muxs and quads. . Tilt The up and down (vertical) movement of a camera. Spot Filter Switcher A small insert used in a lens to increase the F-Stop range of the lens. UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) Equipment that supplies power to a system in the event of a primary power loss.Scanner A panning only unit. Scanning The rapid movement of an electronic beam in a pickup device of a camera or in the CRT of a television receiver. it is the horizontal panning camera motion. Video Input of a piece of CCTV equipment. Telemetry A system utilizing control code transmitters and receivers.

The component parts are Y and C Zoom The ability to change the magnification of a scene. Zoom Lens A lens with a variable focal length. The entire spectrum of visible light. Y/C A method of sending video pictures in 2 separate parts down 2 separate cables. Usually represented as a multiplier (i.e. Wavelengths of light visible to the human eye. Usually not motorized (manual) a device that records video information to a tape. Vertical Interval Switching Sequential switchers waiting until the current field has finished before displaying the next camera even though the dwell time has elapsed. A varifocal lens. This lens may be effectively used as a wide angle. Zoom Ratio The ratio of starting focal length (wide position) to the ending focal length (telephoto position) of a zoom lens. or telephoto lens by varying the focal length of the lens.Unterminated (Hi-Z) Video input of a piece of CCTV equipment wired so as to allow the video signal to be fed to further equipment. Video Printer Visible Light White Light A device that prints a hard copy of images from a video signal. 32x) . standard. Video Motion Detection (VMD) A system that uses the video signal from a camera to determine if there is any movement in the picture and set of an alarm. Varifocal Lens VCR See Zoom lens. Vext A Mux feature that uses a pulse generated by the VCR so that the MUX automatically adjusts to the VCR time lapse speed. Does not necessarily include extra sockets for external coaxial cables.

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