Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

37 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Soft Neutrosophic Left Almost Semigroup
- Tutorial Q2 May2017
- 41 One SidedDerivativeMVTs
- Discrete Maths 2002 Lecture 17 3 Slides Pp
- ExamProgramAutumn2018-19.pdf
- NOTA ADD MATHS FORM 4 dan FORM 5-FOKUSSTUDY.BLOGSPOT
- Mat 0028 Final Review
- ON THE SUMATORY FUNCTION ASSOCIATED TO THE SMARANDACHE FUNCTION
- Algebra
- childrens theatre syllabus fall 2014
- Order in DSmT; definition of continuous DSm models
- Sets
- CIS 275 midterm 2
- Dirichlet INFORME
- 35 Integration Full Part 1 of 5
- mid1dsol
- Exercise Sheet 7
- laurentz.pdf
- Mathematics Trigonometry
- mathjason.pdf

You are on page 1of 3

ANKE D. POHL

wonderful book [1] is slightly incorrect, since Schwarz’ Lemma requires 0 to

be fixed by the map this lemma is applied to. In this note we correct this

inaccuracy. For the convenience of the reader, we provide a complete proof,

which is identical to Rudin’s in all steps but the beginning of Step 2. The

references are relative to [1].

domain Ω in C (other than C itself ) is conformally equivalent to the open unit disc

D.

Proof. Let Ω be a simply connected domain in C, Ω 6= C. Recall that then for each

holomorphic function f : Ω → C \ {0} there is a holomorphic function g : Ω → C

such that

f (z) = eg(z)

(a complex logarithm). Thus, h : Ω → C,

1

h(z) := e 2 g(z)

is a holomorphic function satisfying h2 = f (a holomorphic square root of f ).

If ψ(Ω) = D for some ψ ∈ Σ, then ψ is a biholomorphic map from Ω onto D by

Thm. 10.33. We will show that Σ contains such a ψ.

ϕ(z)2 = z − w0 .

Let z1 , z2 ∈ Ω such that ϕ(z1 ) = ϕ(z2 ). Then

z1 − w0 = ϕ(z1 )2 = ϕ(z2 )2 = z2 − w0 ,

hence z1 = z2 . Therefore ϕ is injective. Analogously, one sees that

(1) ϕ(z1 ) 6= −ϕ(z2 )

for each pair z1 , z2 ∈ Ω with z1 6= z2 .

By the Open Mapping Theorem ϕ is open. Thus, ϕ(Ω) contains a disc Ur (a)

with 0 < r < |a| (for some a). Then (1) implies

U1 (−a) ∩ ϕ(Ω) = ∅.

Since ϕ(Ω) is open, it follows that

Ur (−a) ∩ ϕ(Ω) = ∅.

1

2 ANKE D. POHL

r

ψ :=

ϕ+a

is in Σ.

there is ψ1 ∈ Σ such that

|ψ10 (z0 )| > |ψ 0 (z0 )|.

χ := ϕw ◦ ψ

where ϕw is given by Def. 12.3. Since ϕw ◦ ψ(Ω) ⊆ D and ϕw ◦ ψ is injective, we

see that χ ∈ Σ. Further, since ϕw is biholomorphic on D, we find χ(Ω) $ D.

Let α ∈ D \ χ(Ω). Then ϕα ◦ χ ∈ Σ. Since the unique root α of ϕα is not in

χ(Ω), the map ϕα ◦ χ does not have a root.

Hence there is a holomorphic function g : Ω → C such that g 2 = ϕα ◦ χ. Since

2

g is injective, g is so. Moreover we have

|g(z)|2 = |ϕα (χ(z))| < 1

for all z ∈ Ω. Thus g ∈ Σ.

Let β := g(z0 ). Then

ψ1 := ϕβ ◦ g ∈ Σ

2

and ψ1 (z0 ) = 0. With s(z) := z it follows that

χ = ϕ−α ◦ s ◦ g = ϕ−α ◦ s ◦ ϕ−β ◦ ψ1 .

Set

F := ϕ−α ◦ s ◦ ϕ−β .

Since ψ1 (z0 ) = 0, the chain rule implies

(2) χ0 (z0 ) = F 0 (0)ψ10 (z0 ).

Further, F (D) ⊆ D,

F (0) = χ(z0 ) = ϕw (ψ(z0 )) = 0,

and F is not injective (otherwise s would be injective). Hence F is not a rotation.

Therefore Schwarz’ Lemma shows

|F 0 (0)| < 1.

Taking absolute values in (2) we find

|χ0 (z0 )| < |ψ10 (z0 )|.

Using Thm. 12.4 we get

ψ 0 (z0 )

χ0 (z0 ) = ϕ0w (w)ψ 0 (z0 ) = .

1 − |w|2

Sin ce 0 < 1 − |w|2 < 1, it follows that |ψ 0 (z0 )| < |χ0 (z0 )|, and thus

|ψ 0 (z0 )| < |ψ10 (z0 )|.

PROOF OF THE RIEMANN MAPPING THEOREM 3

λ := sup{|ψ 0 (z0 )| | ψ ∈ Σ}.

Step 3: We claim that there is ϑ ∈ Σ such that |ϑ0 (z0 )| = λ. Step 2 then shows

ϑ(Ω) = D, which completes the proof.

Since |ψ(z)| < 1 for all ψ ∈ Σ and z ∈ Ω, the set Σ is locally bounded. Let

(ψn )n∈N be a sequence in Σ such that (|ψn0 (z0 )|)n∈N converges to λ. By the The-

orem of Montel there is a subsequence (ϕnk )k∈N which converges uniformly on

compact sets to a holomorphic function ϑ : Ω → C.

The Convergence Theorem of Weierstrass shows that (ψn0 k )k∈N converges to

0

ϑ (z0 ). Thus

|ϑ0 (z0 )| = λ > 0.

Since ψn (Ω) ⊆ D and ψnk → ϑ pointwise, ϑ(Ω) ⊆ D. The Maximum Principle

shows ϑ(Ω) ⊆ D. It remains to show that ϑ is injective.

Let z1 , z2 ∈ Ω, z1 6= z2 . Set α := ϑ(z1 ) and αk := ψnk (z1 ) for k ∈ N. By

the Identity Theorem there is r > 0 such that ϑ − α does not have roots on

D := Ur (z2 ) ⊆ Ω other than possibly z2 . After shrinking r we may assume z1 ∈

/ D.

Let

ε := min{|ϑ(z) − α| | z ∈ ∂D} > 0.

Since (ψnk − αk )k∈N converges uniformly to ϑ − α on D, there is l ∈ N such that

k(ϑ − α) − (ψnl − αl )k∞ < ε

on D. The Theorem of Rouché shows that on D the map ϑ − α has as many roots

as ψnl − αl . Since ψnl − αl is injective on Ω and the root z1 of ψnl − αl is not

contained in D, the map ψnl − αl does not have any root in D. Therefore ϑ − α

does not have any root in D. Thus, ϑ(z2 ) 6= α = ϑ(z1 ). ¤

References

[1] Walter Rudin, Real and complex analysis, third ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1987.

Institut für Mathematik, Universität Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, 33098 Pader-

born, Germany

E-mail address: pohl@math.uni-paderborn.de

- Soft Neutrosophic Left Almost SemigroupUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Tutorial Q2 May2017Uploaded bySerge Low Jen Hahn
- 41 One SidedDerivativeMVTsUploaded byapi-3738981
- Discrete Maths 2002 Lecture 17 3 Slides PpUploaded byapi-26021617
- ExamProgramAutumn2018-19.pdfUploaded byManish Prajapati
- NOTA ADD MATHS FORM 4 dan FORM 5-FOKUSSTUDY.BLOGSPOTUploaded byMiao Miao Liu
- Mat 0028 Final ReviewUploaded byLazaro Larry Martin Soris
- ON THE SUMATORY FUNCTION ASSOCIATED TO THE SMARANDACHE FUNCTIONUploaded byMia Amalia
- AlgebraUploaded byBedjoUntung
- childrens theatre syllabus fall 2014Uploaded byapi-260407551
- Order in DSmT; definition of continuous DSm modelsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- SetsUploaded byAbby Lumanglas
- CIS 275 midterm 2Uploaded byDaniel He
- Dirichlet INFORMEUploaded byPAJARO CUCU
- 35 Integration Full Part 1 of 5Uploaded bySubrahmanyam Sana
- mid1dsolUploaded byRey Damiano
- Exercise Sheet 7Uploaded byAnonymous NvXx5OP4wC
- laurentz.pdfUploaded byBala Krishnan P
- Mathematics TrigonometryUploaded byUdayveerSingh
- mathjason.pdfUploaded byEdwin Climaco
- Matlab File 1Uploaded byAbhishek Dumka
- temaUploaded byPaul Dogaru
- Algebra 2 - Graphing Rational Functions by HandUploaded byManilyn Suarez
- 2nd Year Math Chap 1 Mcqs With AnswersUploaded bySara Syed
- 1607.05267Uploaded byletthereberock448
- vhbUploaded byJuan Sebastian Palma Trocha
- sadUploaded byhelopixu
- Laplace_Table.pdfUploaded byVal
- SequencesUploaded byMaxine De Castro
- graph of Rational functions.pptxUploaded byKen Aguila

- tut 12 (2016)Uploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- TMMSMultiplication and PowersUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- Gp ActionUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- Amazing GraceUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- Why do mathUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- Trans NotesUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- SQL Server Source Control Basics 04-06-14 v2Uploaded byeshk01
- Graph DrawingUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- codes.pdfUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- Libre Office 3 MathUploaded bykharbaoui
- TexUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- B2bGroupTheoryHT11-Notes.pdfUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- DifferentiationUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- Sheet 1Uploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba
- Minitab GuideUploaded byBlazie
- Short Exact SequenceUploaded byTendai M Mudziiri Shumba

- volumen 1 mantenance manual arriel 2c.PDFUploaded byelizabetg
- Semantic ChangeUploaded byАлёна Тарневая
- Leica ScanStation C10Uploaded bybbutros_317684077
- Notes on Essentials of Astrology_ Astrology RisingUploaded byniara_martins
- Aypate is an Archaeological SiteUploaded byDessire Leonarda Mondragon Vega
- Elster AL425 Diaphragm MeterUploaded byaqilah
- MoonUploaded byRajanikantJadhav
- Basic SeamanshipUploaded byraj1987kapoor9309
- 187717922-Hvac.pdfUploaded byIordan Dan Ffn
- ZXY6005S User Manual R2.2Uploaded byguitalexander
- ppt cad young adults.pptxUploaded bypatricia.untoro
- Analog Electronics - IIUploaded bymepco100
- Neb Ul IzationUploaded bykarl
- 03 Puente Grúa - XinxiangUploaded byFrank Acarapi
- Public-Service-Co-of-NH-Lighting-and-Controls-(New-Equipment-and-Construction-Program)Uploaded byGenability
- Commonly Used Vet DrugsUploaded byIfran Chowdhury
- spondilita anchilozantaUploaded byRoxanakt
- cast ironUploaded bySai Praneeth Revuru
- CT-G2995_5d5Uploaded byMelina Lara Lezama
- Rethinking the Water Cycle - Circular EconomyUploaded byashu_scribd007
- .. Eamcet Qr Zoology Sr Zoo 07_2theories of EvolutionUploaded byManikandan Raju
- Bean Sprout Cultivation ManualUploaded byEricksons Gabriel
- 2010 Recreational Fishing RegulationsUploaded byLouisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries
- PROJECT-XIIUploaded byShubham Bharadwaj
- prosUploaded byjuan
- Acid Revision MapUploaded byTine Willis
- I2_g01bUploaded byTomuta Stefan
- Lecture 3 & 4- Composites (Slides)Uploaded byJustDen09
- Schmitt TriggerUploaded byHassan M Khan
- Srivastav a 2018Uploaded byMohammed

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.