Rose occupied an unique position almost in all civilization the world has met so far.

It symbolises, according to Roman mythology, Venus the god of love and peace. Rose was the medium of conveying the eternal love and appreciating the beauty in the classic masterpiece such as "Rubayat-e-Omarkhayam". Rose was the favourite flower of many Mughal Badshah like Shahjahan. Its popularity, because of its fragrance and enchanting colours, remains unabated. It is the most cherished flower all over the world - hence, its commercial value apart from its beauty, remains eternal. Therefore, global popularity of rose throws out a very potential entrepreneurial opportunity in a sustainable way. STEP-WISE CULTIVATION TECHNIQUE . 1. SOIL QUALITY: Sandy-loam, red-loam, silty-loam soil will be best suited for rose cultivation. . 2. SOIL pH: 5.5 to 6.5 is ideal for rose, because useful soil bacteria that fix the atmospheric nitrogen and solubilises phosphate present in the soil grow well around this range of pH. If the pH falls below 5.5 than it can be amended by applying lime powder @ 100 kg per acre. 3. SALINITY: Rose dislikes saline soil as sodium carbonate which is present in the saline soil is harmful to the plants. Necessary soil amendment is required prior to plantation. Generally, soil salinity increases due to poor drainage, particularly in coastal areas and in heavy clay soil areas. Therefore, suitable methods for sub-soil drainage of water along with neutralisation of sodium carbonate are to be adopted. The soil amendment procedure is given below. Application of Gypsum: Gypsum or sulphur may be used effectively soil amendment agent to correct the soil salinity. Calcium of gypsum reacts, in soil, with sodium carbonate and calcium is precipitated g$ calcium carbonate. Harmful sodium carbonate is converted to soluble sodium sulphale which is leached out with water. Application of Sulphur: Similarly, sulphur is oxidized, in soil, to sulphuric..acid which reacts with sodium carbonate to form soluble sodium sulphate. 4. CLIMATE: Climatic factors controls the growth of rose plants. Rose usually dislikes humid climate, but can tolerate high temperature. Further, rose does not bloom in a temperature below 10° Celsius. Rose plant should receive 8 hours exposure to sun rays. Shady area is not at all suitable for rosary. 5. LAND: Up land having proper drainage of excess of sub-soil water. Any robbing roots of plants like coconut or some big trees near the rose field will retard the growth of rose plants as these robbing roots suck the nutrients from the nearby lands. 6. TYPES OF CULTIVARS NEEDED FOR COMMERCIAL ROSARY:

1. Hybrid Tea Roses which are evolved by crossing Tea Roses with perpetuals are suitable for big venture, but not for the beginners or small growers. Hybrid Tea Roses are highly valued in the cut flowers markets all over the world due to attractive size and colours, but their cultivation requires maximum cares, modern technological adoption and skill or expertise. After acquiring the required expertise, one can venture out for hybrid tea roses. It has export potential. 2. Common commercial roses for decoration purposes; A beginner can start with such roses as they require less cares and technology. 3. Floribundas are exotic variety roses evolved by crossing hybrid polyantha with Hybrid Teas. Floribundas require high skill and more attention. It is suitable for big ventures for 100 % export. Floribundas can also be cultivated along with hybrid tea roses in a big way. 4. Damask rose may be cultivated exclusively for manufacturing rose essence, rose-water and a pan Masala called Gulkand in industrial scale. In India, damask rose is being cultivated extensively in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarachanl states. 7. LAND PREPARATION: (I) TIME OF TILLAGE : October to November (II) DEPTH OF TILLAGE: 9" tillage by tractor or bullock drawn plough followed by 15 days exposure to sun rays. (III) PIT PREPARATION (a) Size: For rose cultivation, pits of size 45 cm X 45 cm X 30 cm are prepared for plantation of rose plantlets. (b) Spacing: 0.75m from pit to pit & 0.75m from row to row in low density cultivation accommodating about 7,000 plants per acre with plant density 1.729/m2. In case of green house culture, high density plantation will accommodate 28,000 plants per acre having plant density 71m2, ( 1 hactare= 2.471 acres) (c) Refilling of Pits: After exposing to sun rays for 15 days the pits are refilled with soil-manure mixture in the following composition. i. Soil ii. Cow-dung iii.Leaf-mould iv.Oil-cake, Bone-meal v. Urea vi. SSP vii. MOP 40% 40% 10 % 10 % 25g 100 g 50g

Plantlets are planted after a week of refilling the pits. 8. PLANTING 8. PLANTING MATERIALS: (I) BUD-GRAFTED PLANTLETS: Bud grafted plantlets are usually used as the planting material in rose cultivation. In bud grafting method, wild variety of rose like Rosa gigentia is usually used as root-stock on which buds of exotic varieties are grafted. Such grafted plantlets are available with Nurseries. But, the demerits of such bud grafted plantlets are that (1) the process of bud grafting is very cumbersome and (2) plantlets may not be disease free. Therefore, it is advisable that grafted plantlets should be purchased from renowned Nurserymen. (II) SEEDLINGS: Raising of seedling from rose seed is possible, the process is very cumbersome and delatory. Seedlings from seeds are raised in case of invention of new varieties on hybridization. (III) TISSUE CULTURE: Disease free and high yielding rose plantlets are now being produced in large quantities in wide range of varieties by tissue culture method which is a branch of modern biotechnology. An entrepreneur who wants to start a commercial rosary in a big way must use tissue culture plantlets to maintain quality of produce. 9. PLANTATION: The planting materials are planted in the prepared pits during evening hours. Before planting, 5 gram of Furadan 3G is to be applied to the pit for controlling pests. After plantation, the plantlets as well as the root zone of each plant to be sprayed with systemic fungicide like Bavistin ( 2g in one litre of water) as a prophylactic against fungal diseases. 10. MAINTENANCE CARES: (i) REMOVAL OF SUCKERS OF ROOT STOCK: Very often, off shoots or suckers from the root-stock stem come up at the base of the plantlets or below the grafted point which, if allows to grow by mistake, will retard the growth of the grafted part ultimately leading to its death. The off-shoot of the root-stock part will be seven leaved and odd pinnate which is to be pinched off as soon as it comes

up. Such unwanted suckers should be removed by nail pinching or by a sharp knife. (ii) IRRIGATION: Twice a week during October to March, Thrice a week during April to June. No irrigation is required during the rainy season. (iii) MULCHING: Mulching is an agro technique for conservation of soil moisture around the root zone of the plants and to facilitate gradual supply of nutrients to the plants. it is particularly very much important in arid and semi-arid zones where water becomes scarce during summer. The technique is very simple agro wastes like straw, dried leaves, grass clippings, rice husk or other wastes like Shaw dust, used tea, or leaf-mould are spread around the root of the plants with a radius of 1 to 2 feet and 4 inches thickness. This mulching reduces the rate of evaporation and thereby assisting the soil to conserve moisture. Further, it helps the soil to retain necessary biological temperature for proper intake of nutrients by the plants. But, one should remember to apply 10 % BHC or Aldrin to the soil and mulch in white ant infested areas. Now-a- days, black polyethylene sheet is used as mulch which is proved to be more efficacious and easy to manage. (iv) MANURES & FERTILISERS
Manures/ Fertilisers Doses & intervals of application of manures & fertilizers 30 days 1. Urea 2. SSP 3. MOP 4. Well rotten oil-cake in water 5. Bone-meal 6 Oil-cake solid 7. Cow-dung or compost or vermicompost 8. Micro nutrients as foliar spray yes yes yes yes 10 g/p 25g/p 25 g/p 100ml/p 50g/p 100g/p 2kg/p 60 days 120 days Thereafter in October 100ml/p 150ml/p 100ml/p -

(v) WINTERING: It is an agro technique applicable to rose and lemon. In this technique, irrigation is withdrawn for a period of 5 to 10 days which force the sap to move from root to stem and leaves. After withdrawal of irrigation, the soil is

removed from the root zone exposing the roots for 2 - 3 days. The old leaves turn yellow and fall. Old and week stem are dried up. But, we have to see that the whole plant does not dye in this harsh treatment. This helps the plant to produce healthy shoots and good blooming. (vi) PRUNING: It is a peculiarity with the rose that the old stem gradually stop giving healthy shoots to bear good flowers, if old and week stems are pruned after wintering, healthy shoots come up which bear good flowers. Therefore, wintering followed by pruning are the two important operation under the general maintenance cares. Without periodic pruning of old and week stems, at least once a year during October rose plant cannot yield qualitatively as well as quantitatively. For details of pruning technique, standard books on rose cultivation ( Complete Gardening by K. S. Gopalswamy lyengar or Growing Roses - in Pots by Capt. S. C. Dey) may be referred and trained gardener may be consulted. 11. HARVESTING: After initial planting in December or January (say), rose starts blooming from March and plant will yield on economic scale for 3 years. (i) Plucking Stage: For commercial purpose, roses are plucked at the bud stage just prior to blooming stage having a stalk of 9" to 12" long as per the preference of the market. (ii) Time of Plucking: Buds must be cut out from the plant by a sharp knife during the evening hours to keep them fresh. (iii) Packaging: Buds with long stalk are made to bundles of 100 as need may be and put in the bamboo baskets which are kept floating on water so that the cut end touch the water. Flowers are transported to market while covering the baskets with wet linen. . 12. PESTS & DISEASES OF ROSE: (i) PESTS: Scale Mites: It is an insect which form small and round red or brown scales on the stt3m near the base and then gradually spread upwardly. The insects live inside the scale and suck the sap of the plant. Scale mite can be prevented by washing the stem with a cotton swab dipped in Malathion, Rogor, Metasystox and applying granular Furadan 3G in the soil. Red Spider Mites: Very minute insects or mites spin webs on the under side of leaves which can be seen through a magnifying glass. Red mites infest only during dry months. The effected leaves look dull as mite suck sap from leaves. It is difficult to eradicate red mites completely. However, insecticide spray with Delcofol, Rogor, Malathion and dusting with Sulphur can control this pest.

Aphids: Four species of aphids which alway.s remain in colony and most them look green in colour usually attack rose plants. They also suck the sap making the plant weak. Effective insecticides against aphids are Nuvacron, Metacid etc. Nicotine sulphate solution is, however, specific in controlling aphids. "Thrips: These are very minute insects which distort the leaves. If not controlled, in time, not a single leaf would be found In normal condition. These insets effect the normal photosynthesis of plant. Effective insecticides are Metacid, Rogor etc. Mealy-bug: Bug like lazy insects with white woolly incrustation are found on the branches which suck sap from" young stem and leaves. Effective insecticides are Malathion, Rogor, Metacid etc. Leaf-rolling larva: It is a larva of an insect that first feed on the young leaves and then roll the leaves for its shelter: The effective insecticides are Malathion and Lindane. Leaf-miner: It is a larva of a moth which infests leaves and make the foliage unslightly by its leqf mining habit. It damages the parenchymatous cell of leaf which effects the important function like photosynthesis. Effective insecticides are Malathion and Metasystox. Caterpillars: Caterpillars are chewing insects that damage the leaves, buds, young stems. Effective Insecticides are Metacid, Malathion, Metasystox. Chafer-beetles: Sometimes irregular cuts are found on the leaves, but no insects are found in the day time. Such cuts are made by a nocturnal insect called chaferbeetle. Effective insecticides are 10% BHC and Aldrin. White ants: White ant which inhabitates beneath the soil is menace to rose plant. In white ant infested areas, soil may be mixed with 10% BHC or Aldrin. DISEASES Die-back: This is the most dreaded disease of rose caused by unknown etiology. As the name indicates, the stems die back from top down wards and gradually the whole plant. The disease, according to plant pathologists, is due to injury to the roots by fungi or careless root pruning or poor drainage in the root zone or due to shortage of essential food elements. Till now, no medicines are available against die-back. However, one can try the following method to control the disease to some extent. The effected stem or branch is cut 2-3 inches below the effected part and a cap of fresh cow-dung mixed with Copper Sulphate or Bordeaux paste alone is put over the cut wound. Any way the prognosis is not very encouraging. Over watering, particularly in coastal areas, should be avoided. It is also advisable to procure bud grafted plantlets from reliable nurseries only. In this context, tissue culture plantlet is the best substitute for bud-grafted plantlets.

Black spots: Almost circular black spots on the leaves causing severe defoliation is a common fungal disease of rose. Initially, brown or yellow spots appear on the lower leaves which then turn into black spots. On progress of disease, the effected leaves turn yellow and fall off. Heavy defoliation due to black spots make the plant weak and prone to die-back. Black spot disease can be controlled by contact fungicides like Dithane M-45, Blitox, Bordeaux mixture or by systemic fungicides like Bavistin, Calixin etc. Powdery & Downy Mildews: These are very common fungal disease of rose. Foliage, young stems and stalk of flower buds of rose are coated with powdery dust or downy masses causing leaves to fall, young shoots to wilt and perish and preventing buds to bloom. The disease starts-with a small white dot and then rapidly proliferate effecting the entire plant. High temperature difference between day and night triggers the disease, according to some experts. The disease is best controlled by systemic fungicide like Bavistin. Contact fungicide like Dithane M-45 may also be tried. ECONOMICS OF ROSE CULTIVATION (EXPORT ORIENTED) YEAR 1. No. of flowering stems/plant 2. No. of flowering stems/m2 3. No. of flowering stems/acre ( in lakhs ) 4. No. of export quality flowers Year 2: 80% Year 3: 90% 5. INCOME a. export @ RS.6/stem b. Domestic @ Re.1/stem c. Gross 6. Residual value 5.00 - 20.16 - 0.84 - 21.00 28.80 0.48 29.28 13.44* 0.84 14.28 3.36 4.32 3.36 1 15 105 4.20 2 20 140 4.48 3-7 15 105 4.20 8

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