METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009

1
Prepared by: Zekai Murat Kılıç
Room: C-206 Phone: 7232
E-mail: zmkilic@metu.edu.tr Date: 09/03/2009

ME 308 – MACHINE ELEMENTS II
TUTORIAL 1
“LUBRICATION & JOURNAL BEARINGS”

NOTE: Figures and equations are taken from “ME 308 Notes to be used in
examinations” and “Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design”, 8th edition, Richard
G. Budynas, J. Keith Nisbett.

1) A conical bearing with a facial length of l
out
=150 mm at a cone angle of 40°

rotates
at a constant angular speed of ω=50 rad/s. It rests against a conical surface. Determine
the torque T applied on the bearing if the minimum film thickness is h=0.025 mm.
The gap in between is completely filled with SAE 20. Operating temperature is 80° C.
r
o
= 40 mm.





SOLUTION
6
h 25 10 m

= ⋅ 50 rad/s ω =


3
0
r 40 10 m

= ⋅
out
l 0.15 m =
The radius of the bearing can be expressed as:
0
cos( ) r r α = + ⋅
The viscosity of SAE 20 at 80° C can be determined using Figure 12-13 as:
3
9 10 Pa.s µ

= ⋅
The torque caused by shear forces can be formulated for an infinitesimal element as:
dT r dF = ⋅
The elementary shear force on a segment dl can be calculated by the shear stress
acting on the element.
dF dA τ = ⋅

where, 2 dA r dl π = ⋅

The shear stress acting on dl is,
U
h
τ µ =


The surface velocity is, U r ω = ⋅
So, the shear stress becomes:
r
h
ω
τ µ =
Combining these equations for torque expression we obtain:
( ) 2
r
dT r dl r
h
ω
µ π

= ⋅ ⋅



Integrating through the face of the bearing:
[ ]
3
0
0
2
cos( ) 21.2 Nm
out
T r dl
h
π µ ω
α
⋅ ⋅
= + ⋅ =

The applied torque T is 21.2 Nm



METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
2
2) A full journal bearing has a diameter of 60 mm, is 60 mm long, runs at 600 rpm,
has a radial clearance of 0.003 cm, and employs oil with a viscosity of 100 mPas.
When the bearing supports 8000 N, find the followings

(a) Unit load, P,
(b) Bearing characteristic number (aka the Sommerfeld number), S,
(c) Coefficient of friction, f,
(d) Heat Generated, H
g
,
(e) Total amount of oil volume flow rate, Q,
(f) Side leakage, Q
s
,
(g) Temperature rise of the oil, ∆T,
(h) Eccentricity ratio, ε,
(i) Minimum film thickness, h
0
,
(j) Minimum film thickness position, .

SOLUTION

The given parameters in the problem are:

60 mm d = 60 mm l = 600 rpm N =
30 m c µ = 0.1 Pa.s µ =

8000 N W =

Notice: Dynamic viscosity is taken as 100mPa.s for average operating temperature.

(a) Unit load on the bearing is

8000
2.22 MPa
60(60)
W
P
l d
= = =

(b) The Sommerfeld number (bearing characteristic number) is

2 2
30 0.1(600 60)
0.45
0.030 2220000
r N
S
c P
µ | | | |
= = =
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹


(c) From Figure 12-18 for 0.45 S = and 60 60 1 l d = = :

9 9
9 0.009
30 0.030
r
f f
c r c
= → = = =

(d) Heat generated is

( )
600
( ) 0.009(8000) (0.060) 136 W
60
gen
H T FV fW dN ω π π = = = = =
(e) From Figure 12-19 for 0.45 S = and 1 l d = :

3
6 6
3
600
m
3.7 3.7(0.030)30 10 0.060 2.00 10
s
60
mm
Q 2000
s
Q
Q
rcNl
− −
| |
= → = ⋅ = ⋅
|
\ ¹
=

(f) From Figure 12-20 for 0.45 S = and 1 l d = :

3
mm
0.36 0.36(2000) 720
s
s
s
Q
Q
Q
= → = =


(g) From Figure 12-24 for 0.45 S = and 1 l d = :

ο
0.12 2.22
3.0 3.0 3.0 55.5 C
0.12 0.12
T P
T
P

= → ∆ = = =

(h) From Figure 12-16 for 0.45 S = and 1 l d = : 0.18 ε =

(i) Using the result of (h):

6 0
0
1 (1 ) 30 10 (1 0.18) 22 m
h
h c
c
ε ε µ

= − → = − = ⋅ − =

Notice: The design point does not lie in the zone between the two dashed-line
contours. Authors of the textbook do not recommend selecting this location during the
design stage. If this was a design problem, we would respect their experience and
probably force the design point fall in the dashed-line zone.

(j) From Figure 12-17 for S=0.45 and l/d = 1: 70
o
φ =

METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
3
3) A 100 mm diameter full journal bearing supports a radial load of 15 kN. The shaft
works at 500 rpm and the bearing is 55 mm long. Assuming a permissible minimum
film thickness of 0.010 mm and H6/e6 fit for the bearing bore, determine:

(a) The dynamic viscosity µ of a suitable oil,
(b) The coefficient of friction, f,
(c) The heat generated, H
gen
,
(d) The total amount of oil volume flow rate, Q,
(e) The amount of side leakage, Q
s
, (the amount of oil to be supplied to the
bearing),
(f) The temperature rise of the oil, ∆T, flowing through the bearing.
(g) How would you evaluate the performance of the bearing? Which
modifications can be done for ∆T<30°C? What would be the supply pressure
if the bearing is converted to pressure-fed type. Take inlet temperature as
40°C. Groove width is 5 mm.

SOLUTION

By using tolerance tables:

From H6, bushing bore lies in 100 + 0 < D < 100 + 0.022 mm

From e6, journal diameter lies in 100 – 0.072 > D > 100 – 0.094 mm

Maximum diametrical clearance:
max
22 94 116 m C µ = + =
Minimum diametrical clearance:
min
0 72 72 m C µ = + =

To see the effect of clearance on the performance of the bearing analysis is done
considering both maximum and minimum clearance values. It is expected that values
for minimum clearance are more critical for the design. This is because for tighter
assembly loading capacity of the bearing is lower resulting in higher temperature rise.

For maximum clearance:

(a) A maximum diametral clearance of C
max
=116 µm is achieved along the diameters.
Thus, the maximum radial clearance is c
max
=116/2=58 µm.

Minimum film thickness criterion is used for selecting the viscosity of the lubricant. It
is stated that
0
10 m h µ ≥ . Minimum possible film thickness is taken for the system,
( )
0 0
min
10 m h h µ = =

From Figure 12-16, the value of the Sommerfeld number, S, is obtained for
h
o
/c = 10/58 = 0.17 and l/d = 55/100 ≈ 1/2:

S = 0.075

Notice: l/d ratio is taken approximately as 1/2. It could also be considered as 0.55. In
that case, all the variables would be interpolated via Equation 12-16 in the textbook.

Also, the unit load on the bearing is

15000
2.73 MPa
55(100)
W
P
l d
= = =

Then, by using the bearing characteristic number formula

2 2
50 (500 / 60)
0.075
0.058 2730000
r N
S
c P
µ µ | | | |
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹
= = =


µ is obtained as:

0.0331 Pa.s 33.1 mPa.s µ = =

(b) From Figure 12-18 for S = 0.075 and l/d = 1/2:

2.9 2.9
2.9 0.00336
50 0.058
r
f f
c r c
= → = = =

METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
4
(c) Heat generated is:
500
( )( ) 0.00336(15000) (0.100) 132 W
60
gen
H T FV fW dN ω π π = = = = =

(d) The total amount of oil volume flow rate, Q, is found by using Figure 12-19 for
S = 0.075 and l/d = 1/2:
6
3
5.45 5.45(0.050)58 10 (500 / 60)0.055
7240 mm s
Q
Q
rcNl
Q

= → = ⋅
=


(e) The amount of side leakage, Q
s
, (the amount of oil to be supplied to the bearing)
can be obtained from Figure 12-20 for S = 0.075 and l/d = 1/2:

3
0.89 6440 mm s
s
s
Q
Q
Q
= → =


(f) The temperature rise of the oil, ∆T, flowing through the bearing can be found by
using Figure 12-24 for S = 0.075 and l/d = 1/2:

From the figure it is 1.00.

ο
0.12 2.73
1.00 1.00 22.8 C
0.12
T
T
P

= → ∆ = =

For minimum clearance:

(a) A minimum diametral clearance of C
min
=72 µm is achieved along the diameters.
Thus, the maximum radial clearance is c
min
=72/2=36 µm.

Again, minimum film thickness criterion is used for selecting the viscosity of the
lubricant, ( )
0 0
min
10 m h h µ = =

From Figure 12-16, the value of the Sommerfeld number, S, is obtained for
h
o
/c = 10/36 = 0.28 and l/d = 1/2:

S = 0.17

Then, by using the bearing characteristic number formula

2 2
50 (500 / 60)
0.17
0.036 2730000
r N
S
c P
µ µ | | | |
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹
= = =


µ is obtained as:

0.00289 Pa.s 28.9 mPa.s µ = =

(b) From Figure 12-18 for S = 0.17 and l/d = 1/2:

5.25 5.25
5.25 0.00378
50 0.036
r
f f
c r c
= → = = =
(c) Heat generated is:

500
( )( ) 0.00378(15000) (0.100) 148 W
60
gen
H T FV fW dN ω π π = = = = =

(d) The total amount of oil volume flow rate, Q, is found by using Figure 12-19 for
S = 0.17 and l/d = 1/2:
6
3
5.15 5.15(0.050)36 10 (500 / 60)0.055
4250 mm s
Q
Q
rcNl
Q

= → = ⋅
=


(e) The amount of side leakage, Q
s
, (the amount of oil to be supplied to the bearing)
can be obtained from Figure 12-20 for S = 0.17 and l/d = 1/2:

3
0.82 3490 mm s
s
s
Q
Q
Q
= → =


(f) The temperature rise of the oil, ∆T, flowing through the bearing can be found by
using Figure 12-24 for S = 0.17 and l/d = 1/2:

From the figure it is 1.67.

ο
0.12 2.73
1.67 1.67 38.0 C
0.12
T
T
P

= → ∆ = =



METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
5
Therefore, according to the clearance range, the results are obtained as follows:

c
max
=58 µm c
min
=36 µm
µ 33.1 mPa.s 28.9 mPa.s
f 0.00336 0.00378
H
gen
132 W 148 W
Q 7240 mm
3
/s 4250 mm
3
/s
Q
s
6440 mm
3
/s 3490 mm
3
/s
∆T 22.8 ˚C 38.0 ˚C

(g) Performance of the bearing is satisfactory at maximum clearance. However, for
minimum clearance a little high temperature rise is obtained. One of the many ways to
overcome this poor performance is to have a coarser fit in the assembly. The other
option is to increase l/d ratio. Thirdly, introducing a compressor into the system, i.e.
converting the bearing to a pressure-fed type, could be another solution.

Using pressurized lubricant could be a good solution. Although they decrease the l/d
ratio of the bearing, pressure-fed type has a high lubricant flow. This results in higher
rate of cooling in the system, i.e. a more effective operation without overheating.
However, high initial and operating cost are their main disadvantage.

Determining supply pressure for ∆T<30°C at minimum clearance:

As the highest temperature rise occurs at minimum clearance, c
min
is considered in the
calculations.

At first, one should determine the lubricant of the system. Initial temperature is 40°C,
so, from the previous section average temperature of the lubricant is:
1
38.0
40 59.0 C
2 2
o
av
T
T T

= + = + =

Required viscosity of the fluid is found before as 28.9 mPa.s.

From Figure 12-13 for µ=28.9 mPa.s and T=59°C, the most suitable oil is SAE 30
type. Thus, for non-pressure fed bearing SAE 30 is selected. Same grade of oil is used
after conversion to pressure-fed bearing.

l’/d ratio is (take groove width as 5 mm):

[ ] 55 (groove width)
(55 5)
' 25 mm
2 2
' 25 1
100 4
l
l
d


= = =
= =


Unit load on the bearing is:
15000
3.00 MPa
4 ' 4(50)25
W
P
rl
= = =

The maximum allowed temperature rise is stated as 30°C. So, average temperature of
the lubricant is:
1
30.0
40 55.0 C
2 2
o
av
T
T T

= + = + =

From Figure 12-13, viscosity of the lubricant for SAE 30 and T=55°C is:
34 mPa.s µ =

Sommerfeld number becomes:

2 2
50 0.034(500 / 60)
0.18
0.036 3000000
r N
S
c P
µ | | | |
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹
= = =


From Figure 12-16 for S=0.18 and l/d=1/4: ε = 0.85

From Figure 12-18 for S=0.18 and l/d=1/4: (fr/c) = 5.3

Supply pressure is determined from Equation 12-25 for ∆T=30°C:

6 2 6 2
2 4 2 4
978(10 ) ( ) 978(10 )5.3(0.18)15
544 kPa
1 1.5 1 1.5(0.85) 30(50)
s
fr c SW
p
T r ε
= = =
+ ∆ +




METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
6
4) A journal bearing supports a shaft rotating at 2500 rpm with a load of 5 kN. The
bearing is supplied with SAE 10 oil at an inlet temperature of 40˚C. The shaft has 45
mm diameter. Design the journal bearing.


SOLUTION


In order to design the journal bearing; the type of the bearing (pressure-fed or non-
pressure-fed), length l, and a standard fit should be determined.

For the sake of maintenance, a non-pressure-fed bearing may be selected as a first
choice. As l/d ratio gets larger, pressure in the oil and side leakage decreases, and
consequently, minimum film thickness increases. In order to enhance the probability
of the non-pressure-fed bearing design, l/d = 1 should be preferred instead of ½ or ¼
ratios.

So, l=d=45µm and unit load on the bearing is:
5000
2.47 MPa
45(45)
W
P
l d
= = =

Since the most critical parameters in a journal bearing are minimum film thickness
(h
o
) and maximum oil temperature (T
max
), (h
o
vs. c) and (T
max
vs. c) graphs are to be
plotted in order to determine the optimum range for clearance, c. After determining a
clearance range, a standard fit is selected for the bearing and the shaft.

Two procedures can be employed to obtain (h
o
vs. c) and (T
max
vs. c) graphs:

1
ST
PROCEDURE:

Take a ‘c’ value.
Assume ∆T → Calculate T
av
and T
max
→ Find µ → Calculate S → Find h
o

Determine ∆T.
Continue the iterations until assumed ∆T and calculated ∆T are in agreement.
As soon as ∆T’s are in agreement, plot h
o
and T
max
vs c.

2
ND
PROCEDURE:

Take a ∆T value, calculate T
max
and find µ.
Find S from Figure 12-24 using ∆T and l/d ratio.
Calculate c from
P
N
c
r
S
µ
2
|
¹
|

\
|
=

Find h
o
/c from Figure 12-16 and calculate h
o
.
Plot h
o
and T
max
vs c.

In order to demonstrate the procedures, each procedure will be explained by a sample
calculation:

SAMPLE CALCULATION USING PROCEDURE 1:

Take c = 20 µm.

Assume ∆T = 30˚C

1
30
40 55
2 2
av
T
T T C

= + = + =


2 2
22.5 2500 / 60
21.35
0.020 2470000
r N
S
c P
µ
µ µ
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹


Using T
av
for SAE 10 oil from Figure 12-13, µ = 16 mPa.s

21.35(0.016) 0.34 S = =

By using S at Figure 12-24:

ο
0.12 2.47
2.4 2.4 49.4 C
0.12
T
T
P

= → ∆ = = → Assumption failed.

By repeating the steps in the procedure above:

Assume ∆T = 40˚C → Calculated ∆T ≈ 40˚C → Assumption satisfied

For the verified value of S = 0.28 at ∆T = 40˚C from Figure 12-16 h
o
/c = 0.6, then:

h
o
= 20(0.6) = 12 µm.


METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
7
SAMPLE CALCULATION USING PROCEDURE 2:

The same result can be obtained by using the second procedure:

Assume ∆T = 40˚C.

0.12 0.12(40)
=1.94
2.47
T
P

=

From Figure 12-24, by using 1.94 and l/d = 1:

S ≈ 0.27

Then, from the equation of S, c is calculated:

2 2
22.5 0.013(2500 / 60)
0.27 20
2470000
r N
S c m
c P c
µ
µ
| | | |
= = = → =
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹


From Figure 12-16, h
o
/c = 0.6, then:

h
o
= 20(0.6) = 12 µm.

By using either procedure 1 or procedure 2, the following table is formed:

c (µm) ∆T (˚C) T
max
(˚C) µ(mPa.s) S h
o
(µm) ε
7 108 148 4.6 0.80 5.8 0.17
10 80 120 7.0 0.60 7.8 0.22
20 40 80 12.6 0.27 12.0 0.40
25 32 72 14.6 0.20 13.0 0.48
28 29 69 16.5 0.18 13.7 0.51
30 27 67 16.9 0.16 13.8 0.54
32 26 66 18.0 0.15 14.1 0.56
34 24 64 17.6 0.13 13.9 0.59
36 22 60 18.2 0.12 14.0 0.61
38 21 61 16.9 0.10 12.9 0.66

The recommendations and requirements for a non-pressure-fed bearing are as follows:

h
o
> surface roughness
0.8 > ε > 0.5 (ε is the eccentricity ratio, ε = 1 - (h
o
/c))
h
o
> 10 µm

As seen from the Table above and h
o
and T
max
vs c graph below, a non-pressure-fed
bearing can be used. It will be better to select the clearance range slightly to the left of
the peak, which can be seen in the h
o
-c plot, as future wear will move the operation
region towards the peak, namely to the right-hand side.

As a result c
max
< 32 µm.

For bearing tolerances, Basic Hole System is used. Note that the calculated c values
are the radial clearances between the bearing and the shaft (c = R – r). But standard
tolerances are defined over diameters (C = D – d). Then, C = 2c. And, since a
clearance fit will be employed, tolerance letter codes c, d, f, g should be used for the
shaft. By using “ME307-Notes to be used in examinations” or any available tolerance
table standards in the following table are obtained.




METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
8

For bearing with a nominal dia. = 45 mm For shaft with a nominal dia. = 45 mm
H6: (45 + 0 < D < 45 + 0.016)
H7: (45 + 0 < D < 45 + 0.025)
H8: (45 + 0 < D < 45 + 0.039)
H9: (45 + 0 < D < 45 + 0.062)
f5: (45 – 0.025 > D > 45 – 0.036)
f6: (45 – 0.025 > D > 45 – 0.041)
f7: (45 – 0.025 > D > 45 – 0.050)
g6: (45 – 0.009 > D > 45 – 0.025)
C
max
(µm) C
min
(µm)

c
max
(µm)

c
min
(µm)

H6/g6 41 9 20.5 4.5
H7/f5 61 25 30.5 12.5
H7/f7 75 25 37.5 12.5
H8/g6 64 9 32 4.5
….. ….. ….. ….. …..

Some of the combinations are taken into account as follows:

H6/g6 and H8/g6 are not appropriate because of high T
max
and unacceptable
minimum film thickness, h
o
.
H7/f7 is not appropriate because of c
max
, which lies beyond the peak of the
h
o
-c graph.

H7/f5 can be accepted as c
max
lies just before the peak region. This choice seems to be
the best fit among the other alternatives. For minimum clearance, the maximum
temperature of the lubricant should also be checked in order to make sure that the
lubricant does not lose its property.



METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
9
5) A 55-mm diameter bearing is 60mm long and has a central annular oil groove of
5mm wide which is fed by SAE 30 oil at 40˚C and 450 kPa supply pressure. The
speed of the journal is 55 rps. The bearing is subjected to a load of 4.5 kN while the
radial clearance is 40 µm.

(a) Find the temperature rise in the lubricant, ∆T
c
.
(b) Find the total oil flow, Q
s
.
(c) Find the minimum film thickness, h
o
.

SOLUTION

(a) The formulation for temperature rise is given in Equation 12-25:
( )
2
6
2 4
978 10
(1 1.5 )
s
fr c SW
T
p r ε

∆ =
+


In this equation, S, ε and (fr/c) are not known, and also in S formulation µ is not
known.

For S:
From the dimensions of the bearing l’/d is obtained as:
[ ] (groove width)
(60 5)
' 27.5 mm
2 2
' 1
2
l
l
l
d


= = =
=


'
4500
1.49 MPa
4 4(27.5)27.5
W
P
rl
= = =

2
r N
S
c P
µ | |
=
|
\ ¹

In S expression, µ depends on T
av
, i.e. on ∆T, so does Sommerfeld number. ε and fr/c
depend on S, so do on ∆T.

So, iterations should be carried out to find µ and S.

1
ST
ITERATION:

Assume T
av
= 70
0
C as the first assumption:

Entering Figure 12-13 for SAE 30 and T=70°C:

µ = 19 mPa.s →
2 2
27.5 55
17.45 0.33
0.040 1490000
r N
S
c P
µ
µ µ
| | | |
= = = =
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹


From Figure 12-18 for S=0.33 and l/d=1/2:

8
r
f
c
=
From Figure 12-16 for S=0.33 and l/d=1/2:

ε = 0.6

Then the temperature rise is:

( )
2
6 6 2
o
2 4 2 4
978 10 978 10 (8)0.33(4.5)
132 C
(1 1.5 ) 1 1.5(0.6) 450(27.5)
s
fr c SW
T
p r ε
⋅ ⋅
∆ = = =
+ +



T
av
= T
1
+ (∆T/2) = 40 + (132/2) = 106
0
C → First assumption failed.

Now assume T
av
= (106+70)/2 = 88
0
C and repeat the procedure applied above.

The iterations are carried out until assumed and calculated T
av
’s are equal. After
several iterations:

µ = 14 mPa.s , S = 0.24, (r/c)f = 6.5, ε = 0.65 at T
av
= 76.3
0
C and therefore

∆T = 72.6
0
C

(b) From Equation 12-22:

3 6 3
2 2
'
3
(450000)0.0275(40 10 )
(1 1.5 ) 1 1.5 (0.65)
3 3(0.014)0.0275
mm
3530
s
s
s
s
Prc
Q
l
Q
π π
ε
µ


= + = + ⋅

=


(c) h
o
/c = 1-ε, since c = 40 µm; h
o
= 40(1-0.65) = 14 µm

METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
10
6) A self-contained journal bearing having a radial clearance of 40 µm supports a
load of 4 kN at a rotational speed of 250 rpm. Diameter and length of the bearing are
both 70 mm. The effective area of the housing surface can be taken as 20·l·d. SAE 20
type oil is used in the oil bath lubrication system of the bearing. Determine the
housing temperature, if the ambient is still air and its temperature is 25˚C.

SOLUTION

As self-contained bearings do not have an external sump, generated heat within the
housing and the rate of heat loss from the housing to the environment are supposed to
be equal (energy balance).

Parameters related to the system are as below:

f
T is the average film temperature and is not known.
T

is the temperature of surrounding still air and is given as 25˚C.

CR
is combined coefficient of radiation and convection and is looked up from
Equation 12-18 for still air; it is 11.4 W/m
2
°C (or W/m
2
K).
A is the surface area of the housing and is given as 20·l·d.
∝ is a constant which depends on the lubrication type. It Is looked up from Table
12-2 for oil bath type lubrication and still air condition; ∝ changes between 1/5
and 2/5. In order to be on the safe side and to get minimum rate of heat loss for
maximizing predicted housing temperature, ∝ value is taken as 2/5.
Rate of heat loss to the environment:
( ) ( )
( )
11.4(20 0.070 0.070)
25
2
1
1
5
0.798 25 J/s
CR
loss f f
loss f
A
H T T T
H T
α

⋅ ⋅
= − = −
+
+
= −

Rate of heat generation within the housing (frictional loss):
( )( ) ( )(2 ) 2
gen
fr
H FV f W dN f W rN WNc
c
π π π
| |
= = = =
|
\ ¹

6
250
2( )4000 40 10 4.1888 J/s
60
gen
fr fr
H
c c
π

| | | | | |
= ⋅ =
| | |
\ ¹ \ ¹ \ ¹


What is seeked is the condition at which
gen loss
H H = .
f
T is considered to be the average temperature of the lubricant in the system. µ and
(fr/c) depend on
f
T (analogous to T
ave
). Thus, finding
f
T is an iterative process.

2 2
4000
0.82 MPa
70(70)
35 250 60
3.9
0.040 820000
W
P
l d
r N
S
c P
µ
µ µ
= = =
| | | |
= = =
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹


1
st
TRIAL:

Assume
f
T =40˚C:
From Figure 12-13 for SAE 20 oil at 40°C: 47.5 mPa.s 0.0475 Pa.s µ = =
3.9 3.9(0.0475) 0.19 S µ = = =
From Figure 12-18 for S=0.19 and l/d=70/70=1: 4.5
fr
c
=
( )
( ) 0.798 25 0.798 40 25 12.0 W
4.1888 4.1888(4.5) 18.8 W
loss f
gen
H T
fr
H
c
= − = − =
| |
= = =
|
\ ¹

Here, H
gen
>H
loss
, meaning that
f
T >40˚C


METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009
11
2
nd
TRIAL:

Assume
f
T =60˚C:
From Figure 12-13 for SAE 20 oil at 60°C: 18 mPa.s 0.018 Pa.s µ = =
3.9 3.9(0.018) 0.07 S µ = = =
From Figure 12-18 for S=0.07 and l/d=1: 2.2
fr
c
=
( )
( ) 0.798 25 0.798 60 25 27.9 W
4.1888 4.1888(2.2) 9.2 W
loss f
gen
H T
fr
H
c
= − = − =
| |
= = =
|
\ ¹

This time, H
gen
<H
loss
, so,
f
T <60˚C

The dissipated and generated heats must be equal to each other. So, the iterations
should be carried out until the heat-balance is achieved. For some average temperature
values, following heat-balance computation is obtained.

Average Temperature (˚C) Heat Loss (W) Generated Heat (W)
40 12.0 18.8
42.5 14.0 16.3
44 15.2 15.5
45 16.0 14.7
50 20.0 12.6
60 27.9 9.2

At the end of the iterations,
f
T =44°C (H
gen
≈H
loss
)

Then, from Equation 12-19b:

0
44 0.4(25)
38.6 C
1 1 0.4
f
b
T T
T
α
α

+
+
= = =
+ +




Notice: If one needs to be more accurate while calculating average film temperature,
s/he can find the intersection point of H
gen
and H
loss
lines drawn between
f
T =44°C
and
f
T =45°C. For this case, it is
f
T =44.2°C as seen in the figure above.

45 and l d = 1 : 600 = 136 W 60 Q = 3. find the followings (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Unit load.0 P → ∆T = 3.45 and l d = 1 : Qs = 0. (d) Heat generated is H gen = T ω = FV = ( fW ) (π dN ) = 0. Qs. Q.36 Q → 3 Qs = 0.45 and l d = 1 : Notice: Dynamic viscosity is taken as 100mPa. Bearing characteristic number (aka the Sommerfeld number).060 = 2. Minimum film thickness position.s for average operating temperature. When the bearing supports 8000 N.009 r c 30 0.009(8000)π (0.12 0. Authors of the textbook do not recommend selecting this location during the design stage.36(2000) = 720 mm s d = 60 mm c = 30 µ m l = 60 mm µ = 0.7(0.45 and l d = 60 60 = 1 : 2 2 h0 = 1− ε c → h0 = c(1 − ε ) = 30 ⋅10−6 (1 − 0. Temperature rise of the oil.45 and l d = 1 : (i) Using the result of (h): ε = 0. If this was a design problem. ε.22 = 3. P. S. runs at 600 rpm.003 cm. Side leakage.1 Pa.s N = 600 rpm W = 8000 N (g) From Figure 12-24 for S = 0.45 and l/d = 1: r f =9 c → f = 9 9 = = 0.0 P 2. (j) From Figure 12-17 for S=0. (a) Unit load on the bearing is 0.1(600 60) S =  = = 0. ∆T. and employs oil with a viscosity of 100 mPas. is 60 mm long. Minimum film thickness. we would respect their experience and probably force the design point fall in the dashed-line zone.45  c P  0.030  2220000 (c) From Figure 12-18 for S = 0. Coefficient of friction.030 φ = 70o 2 METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 .5 ο C 0.18) = 22 µ m Notice: The design point does not lie in the zone between the two dashed-line contours. f. .0 = 55.060) (e) From Figure 12-19 for S = 0.12 ∆T = 3. Total amount of oil volume flow rate.12 P= W 8000 = = 2.030)30 ⋅10−6   0.18 (b) The Sommerfeld number (bearing characteristic number) is  r  µ N  30  0.2) A full journal bearing has a diameter of 60 mm. Eccentricity ratio. h0. has a radial clearance of 0. Heat Generated.7 rcNl  600  −6 m 3 → Q = 3. Hg.00 ⋅10 s  60  3 Q = 2000 mm s SOLUTION The given parameters in the problem are: (f) From Figure 12-20 for S = 0.22 MPa l d 60(60) (h) From Figure 12-16 for S = 0.

9 c → f = 2.022 mm From e6. (the amount of oil to be supplied to the bearing). the value of the Sommerfeld number. Minimum possible film thickness is taken for the system.058 METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 3 . (f) The temperature rise of the oil. is obtained for ho/c = 10/58 = 0. f. The amount of side leakage.075 and l/d = 1/2: r f = 2. Minimum film thickness criterion is used for selecting the viscosity of the lubricant.072 > D > 100 – 0. S.9 = = 0. The total amount of oil volume flow rate. the unit load on the bearing is P= W ld = 15000 55(100) = 2. µ is obtained as: µ = 0.17 and l/d = 55/100 ≈ 1/2: S = 0. This is because for tighter assembly loading capacity of the bearing is lower resulting in higher temperature rise.0331 Pa.094 mm Maximum diametrical clearance: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) For maximum clearance: (a) A maximum diametral clearance of Cmax=116 µm is achieved along the diameters. Qs. Q.73 MPa Cmax = 22 + 94 = 116 µ m Minimum diametrical clearance: Cmin = 0 + 72 = 72 µ m Then.010 mm and H6/e6 fit for the bearing bore. SOLUTION By using tolerance tables: From H6.00336 r c 50 0. journal diameter lies in 100 – 0. It could also be considered as 0.058  2730000 2 2 To see the effect of clearance on the performance of the bearing analysis is done considering both maximum and minimum clearance values. (g) How would you evaluate the performance of the bearing? Which modifications can be done for ∆T<30°C? What would be the supply pressure if the bearing is converted to pressure-fed type. It is stated that h0 ≥ 10 µ m . bushing bore lies in 100 + 0 < D < 100 + 0. The heat generated. all the variables would be interpolated via Equation 12-16 in the textbook. ∆T.075  c P  0. flowing through the bearing.1 mPa.9 2. determine: The dynamic viscosity µ of a suitable oil. Also. Groove width is 5 mm.s (b) From Figure 12-18 for S = 0. the maximum radial clearance is cmax=116/2=58 µm. Hgen.3) A 100 mm diameter full journal bearing supports a radial load of 15 kN. h0 = ( h0 )min = 10 µ m From Figure 12-16.075 Notice: l/d ratio is taken approximately as 1/2.55. In that case. by using the bearing characteristic number formula  r  µ N  50  µ (500 / 60) S =  = = 0. Assuming a permissible minimum film thickness of 0. Thus. The coefficient of friction. It is expected that values for minimum clearance are more critical for the design. The shaft works at 500 rpm and the bearing is 55 mm long.s = 33. Take inlet temperature as 40°C.

∆T. is found by using Figure 12-19 for S = 0.17 Then.075 and l/d = 1/2: From the figure it is 1. is found by using Figure 12-19 for S = 0.100) 500 = 132 W 60  r  µ N  50  µ (500 / 60) S =  = = 0.036  2730000 2 2 (d) The total amount of oil volume flow rate.050)58 ⋅10−6 (500 / 60)0.0 ο C 0.055 Q = 4250 mm 3 s For minimum clearance: (a) A minimum diametral clearance of Cmin=72 µm is achieved along the diameters. flowing through the bearing can be found by using Figure 12-24 for S = 0.12 ∆T = 1.17 and l/d = 1/2: From the figure it is 1. Thus.12 ∆T = 1. Qs. (e) The amount of side leakage.s (b) From Figure 12-18 for S = 0. the maximum radial clearance is cmin=72/2=36 µm.00 P → ∆T = 1.00378 r c 50 0.00289 Pa. Q.45(0.15 rcNl → Q = 5.050)36 ⋅10 −6 (500 / 60)0.89 Q → Qs = 6440 mm3 s H gen = T ω = FV = ( fW )(π dN ) = 0.8 ο C 0.25 5. Q. ∆T. is obtained for ho/c = 10/36 = 0.12 4 . (d) The total amount of oil volume flow rate.12 Q = 5.00 2.17 and l/d = 1/2: Qs = 0.67 2.67 P METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 → ∆T = 1.73 = 38.00378(15000)π (0. From Figure 12-16.17  c P  0. the value of the Sommerfeld number.100) (f) The temperature rise of the oil.67.82 Q → Qs = 3490 mm 3 s h0 = ( h0 )min = 10 µ m (f) The temperature rise of the oil. minimum film thickness criterion is used for selecting the viscosity of the lubricant.15(0. (the amount of oil to be supplied to the bearing) can be obtained from Figure 12-20 for S = 0.055 Q = 7240 mm3 s µ = 0.28 and l/d = 1/2: S = 0.9 mPa.(c) Heat generated is: H gen = T ω = FV = ( fW )(π dN ) = 0. S.00336(15000)π (0.17 and l/d = 1/2: 0.25 c → f = 5. flowing through the bearing can be found by using Figure 12-24 for S = 0.00. Again.075 and l/d = 1/2: r f = 5.075 and l/d = 1/2: µ is obtained as: Q = 5. (the amount of oil to be supplied to the bearing) can be obtained from Figure 12-20 for S = 0. Qs. by using the bearing characteristic number formula 0.25 = = 0.s = 28.45 rcNl → Q = 5.17 and l/d = 1/2: (e) The amount of side leakage.73 = 22.036 500 = 148 W 60 (c) Heat generated is: Qs = 0.

5(0.034(500 / 60) S =  = = 0. for minimum clearance a little high temperature rise is obtained. for non-pressure fed bearing SAE 30 is selected.18  3000000 c P  0.3 Supply pressure is determined from Equation 12-25 for ∆T=30°C: ∆T 38.0o C 2 2 Required viscosity of the fluid is found before as 28. according to the clearance range.1 mPa.8 ˚C cmin=36 µm 28.9 mPa. Although they decrease the l/d ratio of the bearing.00336 132 W 7240 mm3/s 6440 mm3/s 22.00 MPa 4rl ' 4(50)25 (g) Performance of the bearing is satisfactory at maximum clearance. the most suitable oil is SAE 30 type. Thus.9 mPa. so.18 and l/d=1/4: ε = 0.e. high initial and operating cost are their main disadvantage. introducing a compressor into the system. from the previous section average temperature of the lubricant is: The maximum allowed temperature rise is stated as 30°C.0o C 2 2 From Figure 12-13.18 and l/d=1/4: (fr/c) = 5. average temperature of the lubricant is: Tav = T1 + ∆T 30.s.e. So.036  2 2 From Figure 12-16 for S=0. a more effective operation without overheating.85 From Figure 12-18 for S=0.0 = 40 + = 55. Using pressurized lubricant could be a good solution.00378 148 W 4250 mm3/s 3490 mm3/s 38. could be another solution. Initial temperature is 40°C. Determining supply pressure for ∆T<30°C at minimum clearance: As the highest temperature rise occurs at minimum clearance.s 0. Thirdly. i. cmin is considered in the calculations.s Sommerfeld number becomes:  r  µ N  50  0.9 mPa. converting the bearing to a pressure-fed type. one should determine the lubricant of the system. From Figure 12-13 for µ=28. At first. the results are obtained as follows: cmax=58 µm 33.Therefore.0 Tav = T1 + = 40 + = 59.18)152 = = 544 kPa 1 + 1.5ε 2 ∆T r 4 1 + 1.3(0. This results in higher rate of cooling in the system. i. Same grade of oil is used after conversion to pressure-fed bearing. However. ps = 978(106 ) ( fr c) SW 2 978(106 )5. viscosity of the lubricant for SAE 30 and T=55°C is: µ = 34 mPa.85) 2  30(50)4   METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 5 . pressure-fed type has a high lubricant flow. The other option is to increase l/d ratio. However.s and T=59°C.s 0. One of the many ways to overcome this poor performance is to have a coarser fit in the assembly.0 ˚C l’/d ratio is (take groove width as 5 mm): µ f Hgen Q Qs ∆T l'= [55 − (groove width)] 2 = (55 − 5) 2 = 25 mm l ' = 25 =1 d 100 4 Unit load on the bearing is: P= 15000 W = = 3.

Plot ho and Tmax vs c. c) graphs are to be plotted in order to determine the optimum range for clearance. As l/d ratio gets larger.4 P → ∆T = 2.4 2. In order to demonstrate the procedures. and consequently.020  2470000 Using Tav for SAE 10 oil from Figure 12-13.35(0. For the sake of maintenance. length l. Continue the iterations until assumed ∆T and calculated ∆T are in agreement. METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 6 .5  2500 / 60 S =  = µ = 21. In order to enhance the probability of the non-pressure-fed bearing design.47 = 49. µ = 16 mPa. 0. Assume ∆T = 30˚C 2 In order to design the journal bearing.12 By repeating the steps in the procedure above: Assume ∆T = 40˚C → Calculated ∆T ≈ 40˚C → Assumption satisfied For the verified value of S = 0.4) A journal bearing supports a shaft rotating at 2500 rpm with a load of 5 kN. (ho vs. pressure in the oil and side leakage decreases. So. each procedure will be explained by a sample calculation: SAMPLE CALCULATION USING PROCEDURE 1: Take c = 20 µm. c) and (Tmax vs.016) = 0.34 By using S at Figure 12-24: 0. plot ho and Tmax vs c. Find S from Figure 12-24 using ∆T and l/d ratio.6) = 12 µm.6. Design the journal bearing. Two procedures can be employed to obtain (ho vs.47 MPa l d 45(45)  r  µ N  22. c) graphs: 1ST PROCEDURE: Take a ‘c’ value. l=d=45µm and unit load on the bearing is: Tav = T1 + 2 ∆T 30 = 40 + = 55 C 2 2 2 P= W 5000 = = 2. c) and (Tmax vs. then: ho = 20(0. c. a standard fit is selected for the bearing and the shaft. The shaft has 45 mm diameter. a non-pressure-fed bearing may be selected as a first choice. The bearing is supplied with SAE 10 oil at an inlet temperature of 40˚C. and a standard fit should be determined. S = 21. Assume ∆T → Calculate Tav and Tmax → Find µ → Calculate S → Find ho → Determine ∆T.35µ   c  P  0. the type of the bearing (pressure-fed or nonpressure-fed). After determining a clearance range. As soon as ∆T’s are in agreement. l/d = 1 should be preferred instead of ½ or ¼ ratios. minimum film thickness increases. 2ND PROCEDURE: Take a ∆T value. SOLUTION Calculate c from S =  r  µN   c P Find ho/c from Figure 12-16 and calculate ho. calculate Tmax and find µ.4 ο C → Assumption failed.s Since the most critical parameters in a journal bearing are minimum film thickness (ho) and maximum oil temperature (Tmax).28 at ∆T = 40˚C from Figure 12-16 ho/c = 0.12 ∆T = 2.

And.12 ∆T 0. g should be used for the shaft. then: ho = 20(0.s) 4.0 12.22 0.47 From Figure 12-24. Then.27 0. f. As a result cmax < 32 µm.12 0.6 16.20 0.0 13.6) = 12 µm. by using 1.6 18. the following table is formed: c (µm) 7 10 20 25 28 30 32 34 36 38 ∆T (˚C) 108 80 40 32 29 27 26 24 22 21 Tmax (˚C) 148 120 80 72 69 67 66 64 60 61 µ(mPa.12(40) = =1.51 0.(ho/c)) ho > 10 µm As seen from the Table above and ho and Tmax vs c graph below.9 14.5 (ε is the eccentricity ratio. d. Basic Hole System is used.8 7.8 12.7 13.61 0.13 0.9 18. ho/c = 0.0 12.60 0. which can be seen in the ho-c plot.9 ε 0. 2 2 → c = 20µ m By using either procedure 1 or procedure 2. By using “ME307-Notes to be used in examinations” or any available tolerance table standards in the following table are obtained.27  2470000 c P  c  From Figure 12-16.0 17. tolerance letter codes c. 0.16 0.8 14.6.9 S 0. as future wear will move the operation region towards the peak. since a clearance fit will be employed.48 0.94 P 2.27 Then.66 METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 7 .5 16.54 0.SAMPLE CALCULATION USING PROCEDURE 2: The same result can be obtained by using the second procedure: Assume ∆T = 40˚C.18 0. C = 2c. For bearing tolerances. namely to the right-hand side.10 ho (µm) 5.013(2500 / 60) S =  = = 0.15 0.40 0. c is calculated:  r  µ N  22. It will be better to select the clearance range slightly to the left of the peak. The recommendations and requirements for a non-pressure-fed bearing are as follows: ho > surface roughness 0.6 7.5  0. from the equation of S.94 and l/d = 1: S ≈ 0.56 0.59 0. But standard tolerances are defined over diameters (C = D – d). a non-pressure-fed bearing can be used.8 > ε > 0.17 0.2 16.0 13. Note that the calculated c values are the radial clearances between the bearing and the shaft (c = R – r).80 0.1 13.6 14. ε = 1 .

H7/f5 can be accepted as cmax lies just before the peak region. ….5 H7/f7 75 25 37.For bearing with a nominal dia.. = 45 mm For shaft with a nominal dia. ….5 H7/f5 61 25 30.. Some of the combinations are taken into account as follows: H6/g6 and H8/g6 are not appropriate because of high Tmax and unacceptable minimum film thickness. ho.5 4. ….016) f5: (45 – 0. = 45 mm H6: (45 + 0 < D < 45 + 0.050) H9: (45 + 0 < D < 45 + 0.062) g6: (45 – 0.036) H7: (45 + 0 < D < 45 + 0. This choice seems to be the best fit among the other alternatives.025 > D > 45 – 0.041) H8: (45 + 0 < D < 45 + 0.025 > D > 45 – 0.5 H8/g6 64 9 32 4. For minimum clearance.009 > D > 45 – 0. …..039) f7: (45 – 0.5 12.. which lies beyond the peak of the ho-c graph.025) Cmax (µm) Cmin (µm) cmax (µm) cmin (µm) H6/g6 41 9 20.5 12..025) f6: (45 – 0.5 …. H7/f7 is not appropriate because of cmax. METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 8 .025 > D > 45 – 0. the maximum temperature of the lubricant should also be checked in order to make sure that the lubricant does not lose its property.

5ε 2 ) ps r 4 1 + 1. ho.6 Then the temperature rise is: 2 978 ⋅106 ( fr c ) SW 978 ⋅106 (8)0.5 2  r  µN S =  c P In S expression. (b) Find the total oil flow.s → S =  r  µ N =  27.5. (c) Find the minimum film thickness. So. so do on ∆T.5) A 55-mm diameter bearing is 60mm long and has a central annular oil groove of 5mm wide which is fed by SAE 30 oil at 40˚C and 450 kPa supply pressure. SOLUTION (a) The formulation for temperature rise is given in Equation 12-25: Entering Figure 12-13 for SAE 30 and T=70°C: 55   µ = 19 mPa.0275(40 ⋅10−6 )3 1 + 1.65) = 14 µm 9 3 Qs = 3530 mm (c) ho/c = 1-ε. Qs.5 mm l' = 1 d 2 P= 4500 W = = 1.5)27. 1ST ITERATION: Assume Tav = 70 0C as the first assumption: Qs = π Ps rc 3 π (450000)0.5ε 2 ) ps r 4 In this equation.5  µ = 17.65) 2  (1 + 1.33(4. After several iterations: µ = 14 mPa.65 at Tav = 76.30C and therefore ∆T = 72. S.014)0. ε and fr/c depend on S.040  1490000  From Figure 12-18 for S=0. METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 .5 ⋅ (0.5 kN while the radial clearance is 40 µm. and also in S formulation µ is not known. µ depends on Tav. ε and (fr/c) are not known.49 MPa ' 4rl 4(27.e.5) 2 ∆T = = = 132o C (1 + 1. The bearing is subjected to a load of 4. Now assume Tav = (106+70)/2 = 880C and repeat the procedure applied above.33 and l/d=1/2: ε = 0. The iterations are carried out until assumed and calculated Tav’s are equal. ∆Tc.0275 s ho = 40(1-0. i. ε = 0.s . S = 0.33 and l/d=1/2: 2 2 r f =8 c From Figure 12-16 for S=0.5)4   ∆T = 2 978 ⋅106 ( fr c ) SW (1 + 1. so does Sommerfeld number.6) 2  450(27.24. (r/c)f = 6. For S: From the dimensions of the bearing l’/d is obtained as: l'= [l − (groove width)] 2 Tav = T1 + (∆T/2) = 40 + (132/2) = 1060C → First assumption failed.60C (b) From Equation 12-22: = (60 − 5) 2 = 27. (a) Find the temperature rise in the lubricant.33   c  P  0. iterations should be carried out to find µ and S. since c = 40 µm. on ∆T.5ε 2 ) =   3µ l ' 3(0.45µ = 0. The speed of the journal is 55 rps.5(0.

s =0. ∝ is a constant which depends on the lubrication type. if the ambient is still air and its temperature is 25˚C.4 W/m2°C (or W/m2K).4(20 ⋅ 0.s fr = 4.6) A self-contained journal bearing having a radial clearance of 40 µm supports a load of 4 kN at a rotational speed of 250 rpm.5) = 18.5 mPa.5 c S = 3.1888   = 4. Determine the housing temperature. T f is considered to be the average temperature of the lubricant in the system.798 T f − 25 = 0. A is the surface area of the housing and is given as 20·l·d. Rate of heat loss to the environment:  r  µ N  35  250 60 S =  = µ = 3. meaning that T f >40˚C ( ) H loss = 0. generated heat within the housing and the rate of heat loss from the housing to the environment are supposed to be equal (energy balance). SAE 20 type oil is used in the oil bath lubrication system of the bearing. T f is the average film temperature and is not known. CR P= W 4000 = = 0.82 MPa l d 70(70) 2 2 is combined coefficient of radiation and convection and is looked up from Equation 12-18 for still air. T∞ is the temperature of surrounding still air and is given as 25˚C.9µ   c  P  0.1888   J/s  60   c   c  What is seeked is the condition at which H gen = H loss .1888(4.040  820000 1st TRIAL: Assume T f =40˚C: From Figure 12-13 for SAE 20 oil at 40°C: µ = 47. In order to be on the safe side and to get minimum rate of heat loss for maximizing predicted housing temperature.19 From Figure 12-18 for S=0. SOLUTION As self-contained bearings do not have an external sump.0 W  fr  H gen = 4. finding T f is an iterative process.798 ( 40 − 25) = 12.0475) = 0. ∝ value is taken as 2/5.070 ⋅ 0. It Is looked up from Table 12-2 for oil bath type lubrication and still air condition. The effective area of the housing surface can be taken as 20·l·d.070) T f − 25 1+ 2 5 ( ) H loss = 0.798 T f − 25 ( ) J/s METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 10 . Hgen>Hloss.19 and l/d=70/70=1: H loss = (T 1+α CR A f − T∞ = ) 11. Parameters related to the system are as below: Rate of heat generation within the housing (frictional loss):  fr  H gen = FV = ( f W )(π dN ) = ( f W )(2π rN ) = 2π WNc    c   250   fr  −6  fr  H gen = 2(π )4000   40 ⋅10   = 4. ∝ changes between 1/5 and 2/5. µ and (fr/c) depend on T f (analogous to Tave).8 W  c  Here. Diameter and length of the bearing are both 70 mm.0475 Pa. Thus.9(0.9 µ = 3. it is 11.

0 15.8 16.s fr = 2.3 15.07 and l/d=1: H loss = 0. s/he can find the intersection point of Hgen and Hloss lines drawn between and Then. For some average temperature values.2nd TRIAL: Assume T f =60˚C: From Figure 12-13 for SAE 20 oil at 60°C: µ = 18 mPa. Heat Loss (W) 12.1888(2. from Equation 12-19b: T f =44°C Tb = T f + α T∞ 1+α = 44 + 0.2 ( ) T f =44°C (Hgen≈Hloss) Notice: If one needs to be more accurate while calculating average film temperature.2 W  c  This time. So.0 27.s =0.07 From Figure 12-18 for S=0.2°C as seen in the figure above.7 12.5 44 45 50 60 At the end of the iterations.2) = 9.5 14.798 T f − 25 = 0. T f <60˚C The dissipated and generated heats must be equal to each other.798 ( 60 − 25) = 27. following heat-balance computation is obtained.2 c S = 3.1888   = 4.018) = 0. For this case.0 20.6 9.4(25) = 38.4 T f =45°C. the iterations should be carried out until the heat-balance is achieved.9 µ = 3. Hgen<Hloss. so.0 14.9(0.60 C 1 + 0.018 Pa. Average Temperature (˚C) 40 42. it is T f =44. METU – ME 308 Machine Elements II – Spring 2009 11 .9 W  fr  H gen = 4.2 16.9 Generated Heat (W) 18.

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