Peter A. G. M.

de Smet
Ritual enemas and snuffs
in the Americas
The objectives of ethnopharmacology are
to rescue and document a vast cultural
knowledge before it is lost to the
world, and to investigate and evaluate
the agents employed without any
prejudice or bias in order to find the
rationale for their use.
Jan G. Bruhn and Bo Holmstedt
To my parents
Aan mijn ouders
CONTENTS
Contents
Preface
Abbreviations of chemical compounds
Chapter 1. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating
enema rituals in the western hemisphere
Part 1. The ethnobotany. chemistry and
psychopharmacology of ritual enemas
in the western hemisphere
1.1. 1. Agave species
1 .1. 1.1. Ethnobotany
1.1. 1.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
1.1. 2. Anadenanthera species
1.1. 2.1. Ethnobotany
1.1. 2.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
1.1. 3. Banisteriopsis species
1 .1. 3.1. Ethnobotany
1.1. 3.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
1.1. 4. Brugmansia species
1.1. 4.1. Ethnobotany
1.1. 4.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
1.1. 5. Capsicum species
1 .1. 5.1. Ethnobotany
1.1. 5.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
1.1. 6. Datura spec ies
1.1. 6.1. Ethnobotany
1.1. 6.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
1.1. 7. Ilex guayusa
1.1. 7.1. Ethnobotany
1.1. 7.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
1.1. 8. Lophophora williamsii
1.1. 8.1. Ethnobotany
1.1. 8.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
1.1. 9. Nicotiana species
1.1. 9.1. Ethnobotany
1.1. 9.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
1.1.10. Conclusion
Part 2. Rectal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of
possible ritual enema constituents
1.2. 1. General introduction
1.2. 2. Specific constituents
1.2. 2.1. Atropine
5
5
9
17
19
20
20
20
21
22
22
26
29
29
30
32
32
33
34
34
35
35
35
36
36
36
37
37
37
38
39
39
41
42
44
44
46
46
1.2. 2.2. Bufotenin 46
1.2.2;3. Caffeine 47
1.2. 2.4. Dimethyltryptamine and related compounds 47
1.2. 2.5. Ethyl alcohol 48
1.2. 2.6. Harmine 49
1.2.2.7. Mescaline 49
1.2. 2.8. Nicotine 49
1.2. 2.9. Scopolamine and related compounds 50
1.2. 3. Conclusion 51
Part 3. The chemistry of paricá seeds of the Brazilian
Maué Indians 52
1.3. 1. Introduction 52
1.3. 2. Analytical methods 53
1.3. 3. Results and discussion 53
Part 4. Enema scenes on ancient Maya pottery 55
1.4. 1. Introduction 55
1.4. 2. Maya enema paraphernalia 57
1.4.2.1. Iconographical approach 57
1.4. 2.2. Linguistic approach 61
1.4. 3. Ritual Maya intoxicants 65
1.4. 3.1. Ethnobotany 65
1.4.3.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 69
1.4. 4. Conclusion 71
Chapter 2. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating
snuff rituals in the western hemisphere 73
Part 1. The ethnobotany, chemistry and
psychopharmacology of ritual snuffs in the
western hemisphere 74
2.1. 1. Acorus calamus 74
2.1. 1.1. Ethnobotany 74
2.1. 1.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 74
2.1. 2. Anadenanthera species 75
2.1. 2.1. Ethnobotany 75
2.1. 2.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 77
2.1. 3. Banisteriopsis species 78
2.1. 3.1. Ethnobotany 78
2.1. 3.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 79
2.1. 4. Cannabis species 80
2.1. 4.1. Ethnobotany 80
2.1. 4.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 80
2.1. 5. Capsicum species 81
2.1. 5.1. Ethnobotany 81
2.1. 5.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 81
6
2.1. 6. Datura species 81
2.1. 6.1. Ethnobotany 81
2.1. 6.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 82
2.1. 7. Erythroxylum species 82
2.1. 7.1. Ethnobotany 82
2.1. 7.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 84
2.1. 8. Ilex guayusa 88
2.1. 8.1:-Ethnobotany 88
2.1. 8.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 89
2.1. 9. Justicia pectoralis 89
2;1. 9.1. Ethnobotany 89
2.1. 9.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 90
2.1.10. Maquira sclerophylla 91
2.1.10.1. Ethnobotany 91
2.1.10.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 92
2.1.11. Nicotiana species 92
2.1.11.1. Ethnobotany 92
2.1.11.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 94
2.1.12. Pagamea macrophylla 94
2.1.12.1. Ethnobotany 94
2.1.12.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 94
2.1.13. Piper interitum 94
2.1.13.1. Ethnobotany 94
2.1.13.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 94
2;1.14. Tanaecium nocturnum 95
2.1.14.1. Ethnobotany 95
2.1.14.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology - 95
2.1.15. Virola species 96
2.1; 15.1. Ethnobotany 96
2.1.15.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 98
2.1.16. Conclusion 101
Part 2. Nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible
ritual snuff constituents 102
2.2.1. General introduction 102
2.2. 2. Specific constituents 106
2.2. 2.1. Atropine 106
2.2. 2.2. Bufotenin 106
2.2. 2.3. Caffeine 106
2.2. 2.4. Cocaïne 107
2.2.2.5. Dimethyltryptamine and related compounds 110
2.2. 2.6. Harmine 111
2.2. 2.7. Nicotine 112
2.2. 2.8. Scopolamine and related compounds 114
2.2. 3. Conclusion 115
7
Part 3. The chemistry of yopo snuffs of the Venezuelan
Piaroa Indians 117
2.3. 1. Introduction 117
2.3. 2. Analytical methods 118
2.3. 3. Results and discussion 119
Chapter 3. Some factors to be taken into consideration in
the multidisplinary approach to ritual
intoxicating plants 121
3.1. Some botanical considerations 122
3.2. Some chemical considerations 124
3.3. Some pharmacological considerations 125
3.4. Concluding remarks 131
Appendices 133
A. Procedures for the chemical analyses of the Maué
seeds and the Piaroa snuffs (by Laurent Rivier) 134
B. Principal diagnostic accessories of Maya enema scenes (by
Nicholas M. Hellmuth) 137
C. A pictorial approach to enema scenes on ancient Maya
pottery 149
D. Procedure for the plasma level determinations of caffeine
(by Jan H.G. Jonkman and Wim J.V. van der Boon) 160
E. Procedure for the plasma level determinations of harmine
(by Laurent Ri vier and Pierre Baumann) 161
F. Same ritual plants and reputed botanical intoxicants of
New Guinea natives 163
G. Multidisciplinary table on some reputedly psychoactive
fumigatories among Middle and South American natives 171
References 179
Acknowledgements 227
Summary 228
Index 232
8
PREFACE
From prehistoric times till the present day, mankind has
employed biologically active agents for various purposes. The
scientific evaluation of these practices requires a multi-
disciplinary approach that comprises the observation,
identification. description and experimental investigation of the
ingredients and the activity of the agents used. This complex
field of research between anthropology, archaeology, philology,
botany. zoology. chemistry, pharmacology and medicine has now
become known as ethnopharmacology. lts principal objective is not
to advocate a return to aboriginal practices, but to document the
use of traditional preparations and to validate or invalidate
their alleged activity (Bruhn and Holmstedt 1981). It is obvious
that the results of a critical scientific evaluation will permit
an advantageous feed-back to traditional medicine. The efficacy
of useful indigenous drugs may be improved, once their
therapeutic principles have been identified, whereas harmful or
ineffective herbal therapies may be discouraged. For instance,
over the last fifteen years, overwhelming evidence has been
obtained that many plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids
should no longer be used because of their hepatotoxicity (Buurma
and Vulto 1984). Ethnopharmacological research mayalso give
impulses to modern western medicine. In contrast to common
belief, investigations of tradionally used plant material still
lead to the discovery of new substances that may des erve a place
in our modern therapeutic arsenal. The evaluation of Chinese
medicinal plants would seem to be particularly fruitful in this
respect (Xiao 1981), with the antimalarial compound qinghaosu
from Artemisia annua as a spectacular example (Jiang et al. 1982;
Li et al. 1984). When a biologically acti ve principle of anatural
product cannot be applied as such, it still may be useful as a
lead in drug design by providing a novel molecular structure wi th
potentially interesting effe cts (Krogsgaard-Larsen et al. 1984).
Not only studies of aboriginal medicinal plants, but also
investigations of ritually used psychoactive drugs are within the
scope of ethnopharmacology. In various parts of the world,
aboriginal peoples and tribes have taken intoxicating vegetal
preparations as facilitating agents in religious trance
induction, divination, witchcraft and healing ceremonies (Efron
et al. 1967; Furst 1976a; Emboden 1979a; Schultes and Hofmann
1980a,b; VOlger et al. 1981; Dobkin de Rios 1984). The recovery
of Sophora secundiflora from weIl dated archaeological sites in
northeastern Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas suggests that such
9
ritual plant uses may date back to millenia before our era
(Adovasio and Fry 1976).
It is obvious that only the ethnological discipline can
highlight the attitude of the aboriginals themselves towards
their sacred drugs. The essence of the catholic mass for the
church-goer is certainly missed by saying that mass wine is
prepared from Vi tis vinifera L. (Vi taceae) and that i t contains
about 13 per cent of the inebriating substance ethyl alcohol
before it is diluted by the priest. There is an essential
difference, however, between the catholic priest and the native
shaman. The former has no intention whatsoever of becoming drunk,
whereas the latter tries to reach an intoxicated state that will
enable him to enter supernatural realms. Nobody has put this into
words more eloquently than the peyotistQuanah Parker: 'the whi te
man goes into his church and talks about Jesus; the Indian goes
into his tipi and talks to Jesus' (Gr inspoon and Bakalar 1981).
Due to this fundamental difference, it is not merely allowed, but
even necessary. to supplement field observations of native drug
rituals with the results of laboratory experiments on the alleged
activity of the drugs employed.
Such investigations have perhaps nowhere arrived at more
scintillating results than in the domain of hallucinogenic
plants. TOday, only a few western clinicians consider
hallucinogens to have any therapeutic value. According to a
chapter in an authoritative pharmacological text book, the use of
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) has been abandoned, either
because controlled studies have failed to demànstrate its
therapeutic value, or because the elaborate precautions required
to minimize adverse psychological reactions dampened enthusiasm
and rendered its therapeutic use impractical (Jaffe 1980). Yet
ethnopharmacological studies on ritual psychoactive drugs may
have an impact on medical care in western society. Firstly, they
may lead to an improved clinical management of careless western
youngsters who arrive in emergency wards af ter self-experiments
with herbal 'highs' derived from native practices (Hall et al.
1978; Stienstra et al. 1981; Young et al. 1982). Secondly, thèy
may prov ide new pharmacolog ical tools for neurochemical research.
For instance, the Banisteriopsis alkaloid harmaline has turned
out to be a valuable selective inhibitor of MAO-A enzymes (Fuller
et al. 1981)0 Thirdly, they may result in the discovery of
synthetic substances with potentially therapeutic properties. A
recent example is the development of specific agonists of the
central GABA-ergic system from the fly agaric constituent
muscimol (Flach et aL 1984). Fourthly, might there never come
another time when the present categorical condemnation of
10
hallucinogenic drug therapy will be reevaluated (Grieco and Bloom
1981 )?
Aside from any direct or indirect medical significance, ritual
native intoxication is a fascinating area of research in its own
right. It constitutes an important culture trait of primitive man
which, just as other parts of our cultural heritage, deserves to
be carefully documented and evaluated. I became interested around
1978 when I was shown an enema scene On a polychrome Maya vase.
Such scenes were thought to represent intoxicating enema rituals,
and their existence had only just been brought to light by Furst
and eoe (1977). Here I saw an opportunity to combine my artistic
preference forpre-Hispanic American cultures with my
pharmaceutical education in botany. chemistry and pharmacology. I
started to collect additional data on enema rituals in the New
World, and soon found out that a comprehensive approach to the
subject had never been published. I therefore intensified my
literature search, which first resulted in brief articles on
South American Anadenanthera enemas (de Smet 1981a) and on ritual
enema scenes on ancient Maya pottery (de Smet 1981b), and then in
a general overv iew of the subject (de Smet 1983b).
During my search for ritual enemas, I kept looking for
information on other non-oral ways of ritual intoxication among
Indians. I thus learnt that intoxicants have always been more
widely useà as snuffs than as clysters, especially on the South
American continent. In contrast to ritual enemas, snuffs had
already been givena comprehensive outlook in the sixties
(pp.231-373 in Efron et al. 1967). So many new data had come to
light, however, since this survey had been published, that the
compilation of an up to date overview appeared to be warranted
(de Smet 1985a).
My reviews on ritual enemas and on ritual snuffs in the western
hemisphere form the basis of this thesis. Adapted and extended
versions are presented in chapter one and in chapter two,
respectively. The relevant data pUblished before October 1, 1984
are summarized and a few important references appearing af ter
this date are also included. The remaining gaps are filled as
much as possible with unpublished information from experts and
wi th the results of some self-experiments. Nasal self-experiments
became possible by the clinical facilities and plasma level
determinations of Jan Jonkman and Wim van der Boon (caffeine) and
those of Laurent Rivier and Pierre Baumann (harmine). Their
analytical procedures are described in Appendix D and Appendix E.
11
Chapters one and two have been given a similar structure. In
part one of each chapter, I review the ethnobotany, phyto-
chemistry and basic psychopharmacology of the intoxicating dosage
form. A psychoactive plant may only elicit a pharmacologically
induced subjective response, however, if at least one active
constituent (or active biotransformation product) reaches an
appropriate central site of action in an adequate amount. This
amount is governed not only by the dosage of the constituent, but
also by its manner of administration and by its subsequent fate
in the body, Le. by the absorption, distribution, metaboli3m and
excretion of the constituent. In other words, the pharmacological
validation of the reputed central effects of a native ritual
dosage form must take into account that its active constituents,
besides having intrinsic pharmacological effects, are molecules
with a characteristic pharmacokinetic profile. This concept,
which I propose to call the ethnopharmacokinetic aspect of native
ritual intoxication (vide chapter three), still has to be fully
recognized by many non-pharmacological scholars. To set an
example, data on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible
enema and snuff constituents via their native route of
administration are reviewed separately in part two of chapter one
c.q. in part two of chapter two.
Cooperation with other researchers has allowed me to present
original chemical and archaeological data in chapter one and
chap ter t wo.
Part three of both chapters is devoted to thè gas chromato-
graphical/mass spectrometric investigation of some Indian enema
and snuff materials, located by me in European collections. The
analyses were generously performed by Laurent Rivier, who
outlines his procedures in Appendix A. Part three of chapter one
describes the chemistry of 19th century paricá seeds, which
reportedly were used as an enema and snuff ingredient by the
Brazilian Maué Indians (de Smet and Rivier 1985b). Part three of
chapter two reports the composition of two contemporary yopo
snuffs of the Venezuelan Piaroa Indians (de Smet and Rivier
1985a).
Part four of chapter one discusses enema scenes on pottery of
the classic Maya civilisation (300-900 A.D.). I could not have
written this part without the help of Nicholas M. Hellmuth, who
unseHishly guided me through the complex iconography of Maya
enema scenes. This Maya specialist already reviewed the principal
diagnostic accessories of Maya enema scenes in an unpublished
paper in 1978. To give him credit, a revised vers ion of this
paper is included here as Appendix B. Hellmuth has based his
12
review primarily on photographical material from the large
archive of his Foundation for Latin American Anthropological
Research. Sy courtesy of the Foundation, this material is largely
presented here (vide Appendix C). The publication of so many
photographs is essential, since the ritual enema paraphernalia on
classic Maya pottery can only be fully highlighted by showing
vase painting af ter vase painting. Part four of chapter one
firstly presents an iconographical and linguistic view, and then
provides a multidisciplinary outlook on reputed Maya intoxicants
(de Smet and Hellmuth 1985).
During the preparation of my reviews on enernas and snuffs, I
discovered various scientific flaws in the consulted literature.
Wh en Richard Schultes invited me to contribute a chapter to a new
book on ethnobotany, I therefore decided to review some
botanical, chemical and pharmacological pitfalls in the
multidisciplinary approach to native ritual intoxication (de Smet
1985c). This more general paper on certain methodological aspects
underlies the third and f inal chapter of this thesis.
One of the most striking mistakes in some sources on ritual
drugs is the inappropriate handling of pharmacological data.
Actually, this does not come as a great surprise, because authors
in this field of ten lack a pharmacological background. As a
consequence, the concluding chapter is particularly meant to
provide a non-pharmacological audience with an easily readable
outline of a few important pharmacological principles. An
inevitable drawback of this objective is, of-course, that readers
trained in pharmacology will find few, if any, startling points
of view in the concluding chapter.
Some of the ideas in chapter three are not derived from my
quest for Indian enernas and snuffs, but from the preliminary
results of other research projects, viz. the taking of
intoxicating drugs by New Guinea natives (de Smet 1983a), and the
ritual use of fumigatories in Middle and South America (de Smet
1985b). The former communication sterns from my eagerness to learn
more about ritual drug practices in former Dutch colonies, the
latter is a logical consequence of my continuing interest in non-
oral intoxication among American Indians.
I feIt that the inclusion of these papers in the thesis would
not only enforce certain points in chapter three, but would also
contribute to the general usefulness of the thesis as an
ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological work of reference. Since
the preliminary character precluded the presentation as full-
fledged chapters, I decided to add them as appendices, viz.
13
appendix F on New Guinea practices and appendix G on Latin
American fumigatories. Appendix F may seem to compromise the
coherency of the thesis by focusing on another part of the world,
but this is only true in the geographical sense. From the
methodological point of view, the ethnobotanical uniformity of
the thesis remains unaffected.
The scope of the data presented in the thesis is determined by
its particular purpose, i.e. the multidisciplinary search for
scientific evidence of the alleged psychoactivity of Indian
ritual preparations.
Ethnobotanical data
American Indians-have used the enema and the snuff not only as
a ritual intoxicant, but also as a medicinal cure (Densmore 1928;
Nordenskiöld 1930; HalloweIl 1935; Heizer 1944; Cobo 1964; Vogel
1970). The former type is included as muchas possiblè so that
sometimes even vague and unsubstantial data are discussed. In
contrast, the lat ter type may only be mentioned when the reported
ingredient is a plant with proven or reputed psychoactive
properties.
Details are mostly restricted to certain secular aspects, such
as the native group, the vegetal ingredient, the vernacular name,
the botanical identity, the method of preparation, the specific
use and the claimed activity. No systematic attempt is made to
place the various practices into their cultural context, as this
would go beyond the bounds of the subject. For _instance, the
iconographical and linguistic approach to enema rituals on
ancient Maya pottery is limited to the enema paraphernalia
portrayed in these scenes, and pays little attention to other
aspects, such as the identification of the participants and their
occurrence in other Maya rituals.
Since botanical information is crucial for any experimental
approach, the availability of at least some tentative botanical
identification has been applied as a decisive factor for the
inclusion of field data. As aresuIt, the snuff review bypasses
the topasayri snuff of the early Peruvians (Cobo 1964), the
saakona snuff of the Sanema Indians (Wilbert 1963), the kokoime
snuff of the Karimé tribe (Salathé 1931), the baduhu-tsina snuff
of the Denis (prance 1972) and the ayukuma snuff of the
Mahekodotedi (Zerries and Schuster 1974),
In many cases, ethnological refere-nces designate plants with
incomplete, misspelled or obsolete scientific names, and the
indication of a herbarium voucher specimen is far from common. To
avoid false impressions of botanical accuracy, the authors of
Latin binomials have been excluded throughout the text. Complete
14
scientific names of the species and varieties mentioned in the
ethnobotanical sections are found at the beginning of each
section.
Chemical data
Chemical information is given about the qualitative and
quantitative composition of the vegetal sources and, where
possible, on the ultimate dosage forms themselves. With respect
to the phytochemistry of the source-plants, data are mostly
restricted to the parts used as an ingredient by Indians.
The consulted literature of ten indicates lengthy chemical names
of plant constituents with an abbreviation. The abbreviations
used in the thesis are listed at the end of this preface.
Pharmacological data
The pharmacological approach to intoxicating enemas and snuffs
is specifically directed to the question of whether they may
effectively produce a state of central intoxication. As this
question may well be answered without in-depth attention to
biochemical mechanisms, current ideas on the neurophysiology of
hallucinogens (Jacobs 1984) and other ritual plant constituents
have been left out of the discussion. Instead, the thesis focuses
on the most eloquent evidence of psychoactivity, i.e. on the
demonstration of central symptoms in human studies. Peripheral
actions in man are not listed consistently and a glance at
behavioural activity in laboratory animals is mostly reserved for
those cases where no or few human data are available.
An hallucinogen is often defined as a non-addictive substance
which consistently produces changes in percept-ion, thought and
mood, occurring alone or in concert, without causing serious
disabilities like major disturbances of the autonomie nervous
system; high doses may elicit disorientation, memory
disturbances, hyperexcitation, stupour or narcosis, but these
reactions are not characteristic. This definition is widely
accepted, but some authors apply it more rigorously than others
(Hoffer and Osmond 1967; Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975; Dfaz 1979;
Schultes and Hofmann 1980b; Grinspoon and Bakalar 1981), so that
two types of hallucinogenic agents emerge from the literature:
hallucinogens in a very strict sense, which are always
classified as hallucinogens (e.g. indolalkylamines like
psilocybin and phenethylamines like mescaline);
hallucinogens in a broader sense, which are not always, but
sometimes classified as hallucinogens (e.g. tropane derivatives
like scopolamine and dibenzpyran derivatives like ~ 9 - t e t r a ­
hydrocannabinol).
In the thesis, the term hallucinogen is used in its broader sense.
15
Index
The index does not contain broad terms like names of countries
or plant families. It is restricted to the native plants and
drugs, indigenous tribes and peoples, botanical genera and
species, and chemical substances mentioned in the preface,
chapters one, two and three, and appendices F and G.
The Hague, 1985
16
BBT
DMT
H
5-HT
LSD
5-+1eo-DMT
5-+1 e O-+1M T
6-MeO-MTHC
6-Meo-DMTHC
MMT
MTHC
5-0H-DMT
T
THC
THH
ABBREVIATIONS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
5-(3-buten-l-ynyl)-2,2'-bithienyl
N,N-dimethyltryptamine
harmine
5-hydroxytryptamine
lysergic acid diethylamide
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptamine
= 6-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3.4-tetrahydro-beta-
carbol ine
6-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-
beta-carboline
= N-monomethyltryptamine
2-rnethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline
5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
tryptamine

= tetrahydroharmine
17
CHAPTER ONE
A MULTIDISCIPLINARY OVERVIEW OF INTOXICATING ENEMA RITUALS IN THE
WESTERNHEMISPHERE - -
19
CHAPTER ONE PART ONE
THE ETHNOBOTANY, CHEMISTRY AND PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY OF RITUAL
ENEMAS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE
1.1.1. Agave species
Amaryllidaceae
1.1.1.1. Ethnobotany
Before the conquest, distillation was unknown in the New World,
but Mesoamerican Indians were familiar with a variety of
alcoholic drinks prepared by fermenting maguey (Agave), maize,
honey or pineapple (Tozzer 1913; Goncalves de Lima 1956; Erosa
Barbachano 1976; Furst and Coe 1977). The principal alcoholic
beverage of the Aztecs was octli, referred to as pulque by the
Spaniards; it was prepared from the sap of Agave species
(Goncalves de Lima 1956; Sahagun 1963; de Barrios 1971). Among
the ancient Aztecs, getting drunk without incurring the wrath of
society was a privilege of old age; drunkards could receive
severe punishments, ranging from public disgrace to death by
stoning or beating (Ross 1978).
Wilder drinking habits prevailed among the Huastecs of the
Mexican northern Gulf Coast. who were considered barbarian by the
Aztecs (Wasson 1980). According to the early chronicler Sahagun
(1961), the Huastecs also knew octli, and 'always went about as
if drunk'. Several early records speak of rectal administration
in connection with their inebriating practices (Bourke 1892;
Nordenskiöld 1930; Furst and Coe 1977; Robicsek 1978). The
conquistador Diaz del Castillo (1916) gives the following
account, clearly from his European point of view: 'About
drunkards I do not know what to say. so many obscenities take
place among them; I wish to note only one here which we found in
the province of panuco; they make an injection by the anus with
some (hollow) canes and distend the intestines with wine, and
this is done among them in the same way as among us an enema is
applied'. An anonymous companion of Cortés (El Conquistador
Anonymo 1941) states: '(they) worship figures showing different
forms of pleasure between a man and a woman and figures of human
beings wi th their 1egs lifted different ways ... the men are
great sodomites, cowards, and - bored drinking wine with their
mouths - 1ie down and, extending their legs, have the wine poured
into their anus through a tube until the body is full', A similar
description is found in yet another anonymous early record
20
(Relaci6n Anonima Segunda 1963). The 'wine' in these reports most
likely refers to pulque (Von Winning 1972; Furst and Coe 1977).
Some caution in accepting the term at face value may be in order,
however, since the Spaniards lacked experience with and a
vocabulary for hallucinogenic drinks (Wasson 1980).
There is circumstantial evidence that other Middle American
peoples besides the Huastecs may have known of ritual alcoholic
clysters. Firstly, the worshipped human figures with lifted legs,
mentioned by El Conquistador Anonymo (1941), are reminiscent of
certain rather poly-interpretable pre-Hispanic clay figurines
from the central Veracruz region in Mexico. Evidence of a
relationship bet ween these so-called 'bed figures' and the
alcoholic beverage pulque has been reviewed by Von Winning
(1972). A definite explanation for their peculiar raised leg
position cannot be offered, but perhaps it is concomitant with
the Huastec way of taking intoxicating enemas (Von Winning 1972;
Furst and Coe 1977). Secondly, there is evidence from scenes on
classic Maya pottery that the ancient Maya may have taken
alcoholic clysters (vide 1.4.2).
1.1.1.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Early Mesoamerican alcoholic drinks were prepared from Agave
sap or other sources by fermentation, and only contained about
3-6% of ethyl alcohol (Erosa Barbachano 1976). According to
Hegnauer (1963, pers. commun. 1985), Agave species are rich in
saponins, and such constituents may weIl have entered into the
pulque drink, as this beverage was not prepared by destillation.
Ethyl alcohol is a reversible general central nervous system
(CNS) depressant, and its acute ingestion can lead to an
inebriation characterized by stupour (Ritchie 1980; Eckardt et
al. 1981). Hallucinations may be expected only after chronic
administration, in particular, as signs of a withdrawal syndrome
(Thompson 1978). They occur usually af ter a prolonged drinking
bout (Eckardt et al 1981) but are sometimes experienced while the
alcoholic is severely intoxicated (Jaffe 1980). Isbell et al.
(1955) studied withdrawal symptoms in well-nourished, healthy
volunteers, who were given different amounts of 95% alcohol:
sudden abstinence induced hallucinations in most of the subjects
who had been drinking 383-489 mI for 48-87 days but in none of
the subjects who had been taking 266-346 mI daily for 7-34 days.
Taken orally, alcohol can be readily absorbed from the
gastrointestinal tract. Since most absorption occurs in the small
intestine, the absorption rate depends on the rate of gastric
emptying, which in its turn is determined by factors like the
21
properties of the beverage and the presence of food in the
stomach (Wilkinson et al. 1977; Ritchie 1980; Eckardt et al.
1981) •
Alcohol is known to affect the actions of many other drugs.
Direct interactions occur at the pharmacodynamic level, e.g. when
alcohol enhances the deleterious effects on performance and
skills of another CNS depressant. Indirect interactions involve
the pharmacokinetic level, e,g. when alcohol increases the
absorption rate of a drug by enhancing its gastric solubility or
the gastrointestinal blood flow (D'Arcy and Merkus 1981). As to
classical New World hallucinogens, the medical literature
contains some undetailed claims that the drinking of alcohol
potentiates the act ion of tree Daturas (Anonymous 1976a) and of
Psilocybe mushrooms (Benjamin 1979; Young et al. 1982). Well-
documented clinical studies on this subject do not seem to be
available. It has been shown only that atropine taken together
with alcohol can impair attention more strongly than either
substance alone (Linnoila 1973) and that pretreatment with
atropine may cause a reduction in alcohol absorption, presumably
because this anticholinergic inhibits the rate of gastric
emp ty ing (Gibbons and Lan t 1975).
1.1.2. Anadenanthera species
Leguminosae
Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan
var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul
(L.) Speg.
var. falcata (Benth.) Altschul
1.1.2.1. Ethnobotany
Many South American Indians valued a snuff, known as paricá, as
a ritual intoxicant (Wassén and Holmstedt 1963; Wassén 1965,
1967; von Reis Altschul 1972). Several tribes of the Amazon Basin
made small rubber syringes which were used occasionally to blow
paricá into the nostrils (Métraux 1949), but most of ten to
administer clysters prepared with the same intoxicant (Horwitz
1921; Nordenskiöld 1930; von Reis Altschul 1972). Unfortunately
the ethnological literature on these practices is of ten vague,
generalizing and repetitious.
The Caripuna Indians of the Brazilian Madeira River are said to
have provoked a state of trance by taking paricá in the form of
an enema (Horwitz 1921; Métraux 1948a; von Reis Altschul 1972;
Wassén 1972a). These statements can be traced back to the
22
Austrian zoologist Johann Natterer, who undertook several travels
in the inlands of Brazil in the first half of the 19th century.
He collected numerous ethnographical objects, which are now in
the Museum for Ethnology in Vienna. His travelling diaries were
destroyed by fire before they could be published, but fortunately
there is still a museum inventory of his ethnographical
collection, written under his supervision (Kann 1981. pers.
commun. 1984).
Number 1050 of the inventory list refers to a small rubber
syringe provided with a bird-bone tube: 'Kleine Spritze, besteht
aus einem länglichen Ballen aus Gummi elasticum, in welchem ein
kleiner Vogelknochen als Rohr steckt, womit die Caripuna
berauschende Parica-Klystiere nehmen. Parica heissen die flachen
Samenkörner des Angicobaumes, welche zerstossen und mit der Asche
des Imbauvabaumes gemischt, dann mit Wasser angemacht werden. Die
Murás, Mauhés, Porupurus und Catauixis nehmen auch solche
Klystiere. Man heisst dies tomar paricá'.
Number 1369 of the list is even more interesting, as it
describes a large sample of well preserved paricá seeds.
collected from the Brazilian Maué tribe: 'Samenkörner des
Paricábaumes (in Matogrosso Angico genannt). Diese Körner werden
zerstossen (zerrieben) und mit der Asche des Imbauvabaumes
gemischt und dann zum Schnupfen und zu berauschende Klystieren
gebraucht. Wird namentlich bei den Mauhés, Muras, Caripunas und
andere Nationen gebraucht'.
The rectal use of paricá seeds among the Mura Indians is
mentioned not only by Natterer, but also by other early
travellers. For this once much feared tribe of the Madeira River,
the use of paricá, both as a snuff and as an enema, must have
been of outstanding importance (Martius 1867; Nimuendaju 1948b;
Wassén and Holmstedt 1963; von Reis Altschul 1972). The
initiation ceremony of the Mura started with a general mutual
flagellation which was followed by the nasal and rectal
application of paricá (Marcoy 1867; Barbosa ROdrigues 1875).
Barbosa Rodrigues (1875) states that 'All those who have been
flagellated take parica either as snuff or dissolved in water as
a clyster ••. Taken ei ther way, the effect is terrible and so
violent that many die of suffocation or fall unconscious, while
still others, resisting, continue the dance ••• Usually, the
clyster causes a violent intoxication'. Marcoy (1867) reports
that on such occasions the rectal use of paricá was preceded by
the snuffing of paricá and the drinking of palm wine in copious
quantities. According to Spix and Martius (1831) the Mura clyster
had a similar but not so strongly intoxicating effect as the
snuff.
23
Likewise, the Catawishi or Catauxi Indians of the Purus River
took a paricá decoction rectally (Horwitz 1921; Cooper 1949;
Kennedy 1982). According to Spruce (1864, 1908), paricá was taken
as a snuff to speedily induce a sort of intoxication, but 'taken
in injection, it is a purge, more or less violent according to
the dose'. This statement clearly opposes the general view that
such enemas were intoxicating. Spruce adds that before the hunt
the Catawishi administered the paricá clyster not only to
themselves but also to their hunting dogs for a clearer vision
and greater alertness.
The Casharari or Cacharary Indians, an Arawakan tribe of the
western Amazon Basin, are reputed to have known paricá clysters
(Métraux 1948b, 1949). Drawing from a Portuguese source on these
Indians (Maso 1919), Nordenskiöld (1930) describes the effects of
the paricá enema as follows: 'Af ter about five minutes it acts
in about the same way as intoxication from opium, inducing lovely
and blissful dreams. Twenty minutes later the dreamer is fully
normal again, and does not appear to suffer from any af ter-
discomfort as is the case af ter snuffing paricá'.
To the north of the Casharari lived the Omagua or Umaua Indians
and further west the Coca ma Indians. These Tupian tri bes are said
to have used powdered curupa leaves which were blown into the
nose or administered as a clyster with the help of small rubber
syringes (Métraux 1948c). Usually only the Omagua are implicated
as curupa users (Veigl 1785; Marcoy 1867; Martius 1867) and there
seems to be some doubt about the curupa use among the Cocama
(Wassén 1967). According to De La Condamine (1778), the Omagua
employed enema syringes especially at feasts, when an obliging
host distributed them to all his guests.
Other South American tri bes claimed to have taken paricá
clysters, are the Maina Indians (Métraux 1949), known merely to
have made rubber syringes (Chantre y Herrera 1901; Nordenskiöld
1930), the Poruporo Indians (Naterrer, vide supra; Horwitz 1921)
and the Pasé, Juri and Uainuma Indians (Métraux 1948c).
The vagueness of the ethnological literature on paricá enemas
is especially evident from the absence, or insufficient
reliability, of botanical data. Sometimes the source is not
identified at all (Horwitz 1921; Métraux 1948b,c; Natterer, vide
supra) and sometimes the source is said to be Piptadenia (Métraux
1948a, 1949) or more specifically Piptadenia seeds (Nordenskiöld
1930). The paricá seeds which the Mura used for their clysters
(Martius 1867; Barbosa Rodrigues 1875; Nimuendaju 1948b) as weIl
as the curupa leaves from which the Omagua prepared their enemas
(Marcoy 1867; Martius 1867; Lowie 1948; Métraux 1948c) have been
attributed to a plant named Mimosa acacioides or Acacia niopo.
24
This leguminous tree has also been known under the binomial
Piptadenia peregrina, and is now considered to belong to the
genus Anadenanthera which comprises the two species A.peregrina
and A.colubrina (von Reis Altschul 1964),
The botanical identifications of paricá clysters correspond well
with the once common view that paricá snuffs were generally
prepared from seeds of a Piptadenia species, especially
P.peregrina (Roth 1924; Lowie 1948; Cooper 1949; Wassén and
Holmstedt 1963; Schultes 1967b). Cooper (1949) has rightly
cautioned, however, that some of these attributions may not be
correct, as exact botanical evidence is lacking in some cases.
It has now become clear that the vernacular term paricá is not
used exclusively for the genus Anadenanthera, as it also refers
to Virola preparations (Schultes 1954; Sei tz 1967) and to snuffs
containing harmine (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967). Furthermore, it
is uncertain that Anadenanthera peregrina is the species used
throughout the Amazon. Schultes (1972a) who speaks of a widespread
rectal administration of Anadenanthera in South America, points
out in a personal communication (1981) that 'Other species may be
used, such as A.colubrina. I believe that A.peregrina is a
species primarily of the Orinoco and adjacent parts of the
northern Amazonia of Brazil. Whether the species used in the
Peruvian Amazon or the central Amazon of Brazil are A.peregrina
is questionable. The reason is that snuffs, etc. have not been
accompanied by voucher herbarium specimens'. In other words, the
geographical distribution of Anadenanthera peregrina is now
assumed to be far more limited than was previbusly believed (von
Reis Altschul 1964,1972; Schultes 1967b). It is quite likely
that the Maué and other tri bes of the Madeira area prepared
enemas and snuffs from A.peregrina. The tree occurs in this
region (Schultes 1967b; von Reis Altschul 1972), and the paricá
seeds collected by Natterer from the Maué Indians are apparently
Anadenanthera seeds (v ide 1.3). On the other hand, the tree is
unknown anywhere near the area of the Omagua and Cocama, so its
use by these tribes of Amazonian Peru is open to serious question
(von Reis Altschul 1972; Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Similarly,
there is no good botanical evidence that the Catawishi,
Casharari, Pasé, Juri or Uainuma Indians knew A.peregrina (von
Reis Altschul 1972).
It should be noted that there are two varieties of
Anadenanthera peregrina: the variety peregrina occurs in northern
parts of South America and in the West Indies; the variety
falcata in southern Brazil and Paraguay (von Reis Altschul 1964).
It is sometimes claimed that the Incas, well-known inhabitants
of ancient Peru, intoxicated themselves with rectal infusions of
25
wilka or huilca seeds (Furst 1976a; Furst and Coe 1977). The
early chronicler Poma de Ayala (1969) indeed refers to such
enemas and another early writer stat es that Inca witch doctors
foretold the future by speaking with the devil, for which they
intoxicated themselves with villca, pouring its juice into the
alcoholic beverage chicha or taking it another way (von Reis
Altschul 1967, 1972). Most early records, however, including the
original report on the vilca clyster, emphasize the laxative
properties of vilca seeds (von Reis Altschul 1967) and it is not
sufficiently clear whether the seeds helped to produce visions or
were taken only for their purgative qualities (Rowe 1946). Poma
de Ayala (1969) says that the Incas purged themselves once a
month with bilca tauri, half of which was drunk and half of which
was taken 'por debajo' to give strength, health and a 200 years
life span. Larrain Barros (undated) suggests that the phrase 'por
debajo' implies nasal administration, but it is far more likely
to indicate the rectal route, not in the least since various
forms of the word vilca meant enema, syringe or the giving of an
enema (von Reis Altschul 1967, 1972; Wass'n 1972b). The botanical
source of the vilca clystér is usually thought to be
Anadenanthera (Larrain Barros, undated), in particular
A.colubrina (Rowe 1946; Furst and Coe 1977). It should be noted
that the evidence for this attribution is circumstantial rather
than conclusive (von Reis Altschul 1967; Schultes and Hofmann
1980a,b) and that A.colubrina occurs in eastern Brazil, whereas
the variety A.colubrina var. cebil is known in Peru (von Reis
Altschul 1964).
1.1,2.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Seeds of Anadenanthera peregrina (Piptadenia peregrina) were
found to contain one or more of the following indole alkaloids:
N,N-dimethyltryptamine (=DMT); its corresponding N-oxide (=DMT-N-
oxide): 5-hydroxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine or bufotenin (=5-QH-
DMT); its corresponding N-oxide (=5-QH-DMT-N-oxide); 5-methoxy-
N,N-dimethyltryptamine (=5-MeO-DMT) (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967;
Schultes et al. 1977). The question arises of whether the N-
oxides might be artifacts, as Saxton (1965) points out that DMT
may be oxidized on exposure to air. During storage, DMT and 5-
MeO-DMT may transform into 5-QH-DMT (Schultes et al. 1977). A
Venezuelan sample was reported as containing as much as 7.4% of
5-QH-DMT (Chagnon et al. 1971). According to Schultes (pers.
commun. 1982), this report is not based on identified herbarium
voucher specimens. In other samples 5-QH-DMT was present in
amounts up to 3,5% (Schultes et al. 1977). DMT, 5-QH-DMT,
26
DMT-N-oxide and 5-DH-DMT-N-oxide were reported to be present in
seeds of Piptadenia macrocarpa (Fish et al. 1955; Iacobucci and
Rûveda 1964), now considered to be Anadenanthera colubrina var.
cebil (von Reis Altschul 1964). From seeds of Anadenanthera
ëälübrina (Piptadenia colubrina), 5-DH-DMT has been isolated
(Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967).
The paricá seeds of the Brazilian Maué Indians, reportedly used
as an enema source (vide 1.1.2.1), have recently been submitted to
gaschromatographical/ mass-spectrometric analysis. Despite their
considerable age, the seeds still yielded as much as 15 mg/g of
bufotenin, which corroborates their botanical identification as
Anadenanthera seeds (v i de 1.3).
DMT is a well-established hallucinogen, which elicits a brief
but profound LSD-like response when given in intramuscular doses
ranging from 0.7 to 1.1 mg/kg, i.e. 49-77 mg170 kg (Szára 1956;
Rosenberg et al. 1963; Kaplan et al. 1974). Intramuscular
administration of 0.25 mg/kg (17.5 mg/70 kg) has similar effects
in certain tests measuring psychoticism as the Cannabis
constituent (Bickelet al. 1977). In
schizophrenics, intramuscular doses of 25-50 mg can induce
psychological changes (Turner and Merlis 1959), such as
exacerbation of the psychosis (Gillin and Wyatt 1977).
Human experiments with 5-MeO-DMT seem to have been conducted
only by Shulgin (1970), who reported briefly that aparenteral
dose of 5-10 mg is active. In 1981, the following details were
revealed in a letter to me: 'My clinical studies involved a total
of 9 subjects, 4 males and 5 females, withinthe age range of 33
to 65 years. All were healthy volunteers, all with considerable
experience with drugs that can alter one's state of
consciousness. The parenteral route of administration was in all
cases by inhalation of the fused free base suspended on Tanacetum
vulgare in cigarette form. The onset of act ion occurs in less
than 60 seconds, reaches a plateau in the 2nd to 3rd minute, and
is largely dissipated at 20 minutes, although there may be some
lingering awareness for the remainder of an hour. Centrally,
there is the loss of some reality sense, some eyes-closed imagery
and a general feeling of being enclosed and isolated in a sensory
sense. Peripherally, there have been occasional tremors noted,
and occasional mydriasis. These effects are from 6 to 10 mg of
the free base. I have personally conducted no oral experiments
and do not know its effects via this route',
5-DH-DMT is mostly found to act briefly, altering the
perception of colours and sometimes of space, when given in
intramuscular doses of 10-15 mg (Isbell, quoted by Turner and
Merlis 1959 and by Wassén and Holmstedt 1963) and in
27
intravenous doses of 4-16 mg (Fabing and Hawkins 1956) or 12-16
mg (Bonhour et al. 1967). In schizophrenics, intravenous
quantities of up to 20 mg, given by bolus injection (e.g. 10 mg
within 1 min) or by infusion (e.g. 20 mg in 77 min), produced
neither visual disturbances nor the psychological changes seen
af ter DMT administration (Turner and Merlis 1959). Many secondary
sourees doubt the hallucinogenic capacity of 5-0H-DMT following
peripheral administration and then point to its poor lipid
solubility at physiological pH and its consequent inability to
enter the centra 1 nervous system readily (Holmstedt and Lindgren
1967; Luchins et al. 1978; Glennon et al. 1979). Experiments with
laboratory animals have demonstrated that, in contrast with the
lipid soluble DMT (Cohen and Vogel 1972) and 5-MeO-DMT (Sanders
and Bush 1967), 5-0H-DMT does not cross the blood-brain barrier
in appreciable amounts (Sanders and Bush 1967; Luchins et al.
1978; Glennon et al. 1979). This suggests that the reported
effects of 5-üH-DMT may weIl be somatic symptoms of intoxication
rather than signs of true hallucinogenic activity. According to
Isbell (1967), it is difficult to say whether 5-0H-DMT is a
hallucinogen or not because of its powerful and dangerous cardio-
vascular effects, For this reason, it is not possible to push the
dose in man and it would be difficult to differentiate whether
psychotic reactions were due to central effects or to cardio-
vascular actions,
Oral experiments with Anadenanthera alkaloids have failed to
demonstrate hallucinogen-like effects, although the tested
amounts were much higher than parenterally active doses. DMT was
ineffective in a normal subject who took this compound in
quantities of up to 150 mg (Szára 1957), as weIl as in
schizophrenics who received single doses of up to 350 mg (Turner
and Merlis 1959). 5-0H-DMT was without effect when ingested by a
healthy individual in doses of up to 50 mg (Hofmann 1963) or in
doses of up to 100 mg totally (Isbell, quoted by Wassén and
Holmstedt 1963). This inefficacy of oral dosing is likely to be
due principally to extensive first-pass metabolism. The
physicochemical properties of Anadenanthera alkaloids, in
particular those of DMT and 5-MeO-DMT (Glennon et al. 1979),
exclude a defective absorption. Chemical evidence for
inactivation by gastric juices has not been found. DMT and 5-0H-
DMT are almost completely metabolized in man when gi ven
parenterally; the urinary recovery of unchanged drug was 1-6% of
an injected dose of 5-0H-DMT (Sanders-Bush et al. 1976) and as
low as ab out 0,07% in the case of DMT (Kaplan et al. 1974). The
structurally related neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
is promptly degraded by intestinal and hepatic monoamine oxidase
28
(MAO) when taken orally (Douglas 1980). Although Anadenanthera
alkaloids have a dimethylated amino-group, there is experimental
evidence that they are inactivated in a similar way. MAD-
inhibition prolongs the half-life of DMT in rats (Wang Lu and
Domino 1976). Other animal experiments have shown that 5-MeO-DMT
is deaminated by MAO and, just as with 5-HT, preferentially by
MAO-A (Squires 1975). In a human subject, MAO-inhibi tion was
found to double the urinary excretion of endogenous DMT (Oon et
al. 1977), Not only MAO, however, but also hepatic microsomal
enzymes may be capable of oxidating the dimethylated
of Anadenanthera alkaloids (Fish et al. 1955). The deamination of
5-HT leads mainly to 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, which is the
principal urinary metabolite (Douglas 1980). Intravenously given
5-oH-DMT was found to be excreted for 68-74% in the form of 5-
hydroxyindole acetic acid (Sanders-Bush et al. 1976); whereas in
an early study on DMT the urinary excretion of indoleacetic acid,
free and in alkali-labile form, accounted for only one-third of
the intramuscular dose (Szára, 1956). This implies that
deamination is a major metabolic pathway for these compounds, but
not the only one, especially not in the case of DMT. This
alkaloid was reported to be 6-hydroxylated to the extent of about
5-20% of the administered dose (Gillin and Wyatt 1977).
The N-oxides of DMT and 5-oH-DMT have not been studied
extensively by pharmacologists. They are said to have much less
cardiovascular activity in the dog and the cat than the bases
themselves (Fish and Horning 1956).
1.1.3. Banisteriopsis species
Malpighiaceae
1.1.3.1. Ethnobotany
The genus Banisteriopsis which comprises many species of
tropical vines, is a major ingredient of certain intoxicating
drinks taken in South American rituals (Cooper 1949; Friedberg
1965; Rivier and Lindgren 1972; Schultes 1982). Some recent
sources (Furst 1976a; Emboden 1979a) claim that Banisteriopsis
may have been taken as a clyster, but fail to provide an original
report on such practices. The comprehensive monograph by
Friedberg (1965) on the ritual use of Banisteriopsis does not
even hint at enemas prepared from this genus. Despite the
apparent lack of substantial ethnobotanical data on such dosage
forms, the chemistry and pharmacology of Banisteriopsis
preparations are discussed here.
29
1.1,3.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The principal alkaloids in Banisteriopsis species used by
natives are beta-carbolines, in particular harmine, harmaline and
(+)-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroharmine (Deulofeu 1967; Allen and Holmstedt
1980). The well-studied species B.caapi was found to contain
0.11-0.83% of alkaloids in the stem, 0.14-0.37% in the branches,
0.28-0.70% in the leaves and 0.64-1.95% in the root. These total
alkaloid percentages consisted primarily of harmine (40-96%) and,
to alesser extent, of tetrahydroharmine (1-44%) and harmaline
(0-17%). Small amounts of harmol, 6-methoxytryptamine and an
unident if ied compound were someti mes also present (Ri v i er and
Lindgren 1972). More recent analytical work on the same species
has revealed that other beta-carbolines may be present as minor
components: harmine-N-oxide, harmic acid methyl ester, harmalinic
acid, harmic amide, acetyl norharmine, ketotetrahydronorharmine
and harmalol (Hashimoto and Kawanishi 1975, 1976; McKenna et al.
1984a). In addition, the pyrrolidine bases shihunine and S-
{+)dihydroshihunine have been shown to occur in Banisteriopsis
caapi (Kawanishi et al. 1982).
ma study by Pennes and Hoch (1957), harmine was
hallucinogenic at an intravenous threshold dose of 150-200 mg in
mental patients, which elicited visual hallucinations in 5 out of
11 patients. Some other effects of these intravenous doses were
also produced by oral quantities higher than 300-400 mg, but it
is doubtful that indisputable visual hallucinations occurred with
oral quantities of up to 960 mg. Naranjo (1967) found harmaline
(as the HCl salt) to be hallucinogenic in volunteers at dosage
levels above 1 mg/kg intravenously (70 mg/70 kg), or 4 mg/kg
orally (280 mg/70 kg). In the same study, racemic tetrahydro-
harmine elicited subjective effects similar to those of 100 mg of
harmaline, when given to a single volunteer by mouth in
quantities of up to 300 mg. Vargas (1959) states that harmine,
LSD and mescaline produce essentially similar reactions in both
normal and psychotic patients, but the volunteers of Naranjo
(1967) clearly distinguished the experience with harmaline from
an intoxication with mescaline.
It has not been unequivocally established why the
psychoactivity of major Banisteriopsis constituents is largely
route-dependent. Extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism
certainly cannot be discarded as an unlikely cause. In rodents,
harmine and harmaline are extensively O-demethylated by hepatic
microsomal enzymes (Ho et al. 1971; Burke and Tweedie 1979).
It is doubtful that indigenous Banisteriopsis drinks, known as
30
ayahuasca, may generally contain mind-altering concentrations of
harmine and other major Banisteriopsis alkaloids. Chemical
analysis of such drinks from the upper Purus region revealed that
an average native dose of 200 ml contained only 6-38 mg of
harmine, 1-46 mg of tetrahydroharmine, 0-5 mg of harmaline, 0-20
mg of an Unidentified Banisteriopsis constituent and, due to an
admixture of Psychotria leaves, 0-32 mg of DMT (Rivier and
Lindgren 1972). More recently, McKenna et al. (1984a) found
substantially higher alkaloid levels in Peruvian ayahuasca
beverages prepared from Banisteriopsis caapi cultivars and
Psychotria species. Based on an average():f:five samples, 100 ml
of ayahuasca contained 467 mg of harmine, 160 mg of tetrahydro-
harmine, 41 mg of harmaline, and, due to the Psychotria
admixture, 60 mg of DMT. The intramuscular threshold dose of DMT
for producing subjective perception changes is only 30 mg (Szára
1957), so the implication of these analytical results is obvious:
DMT can be present in ayahuasca beverages in parenterally active
amounts.
This finding is quite interesting, since the beta-carbolines in
Banisteriopsis are known as potent reversible MAO-inhibitors
(Udenfriend et al. 1958; Pletscher et al. 1959; McIsaac and
Estevez 1966; Buckholtz and Boggan 1977; McKenna et al. 1984a).
In partièular as selective inhibitors of MAO-A (Fowler et al.
1978; Fuller et al. 1981). Since there is evidence that oral
tryptamines undergo first-pass inactivation by MAO, especially by
MAO-A (vide 1.1.2.2), not surprisingly it is often suggested that
the beta-carbolines enhance the effects of DM! (Holmstedt and
Lindgren 1967; Furst 1976a; Emboden 1979a; Schultes and Hofmann
1980b; McKenna et al. 1984a). Decisive in vivo experiments have
not yet been reported in the literature, but McKenna et al.
(1984a) offer in vitro evidence to support this suggestion. It
should be noted, however, that inhibition of degradation is not
the only reported mechanism of interaction between MAO-inhibitors
and DMT. In the sixties, the response to DMT (Sai-Halász 1963),
as well as that to LSD (Resnick et al. 1967), was found to be
diminished by pretreatment with a non-selective irreversible MAD-
inhibitor, and this phenomenon was attributed to elevation of
central 5-HT levels by the MAO-inhibitor.
The pharmacokinetics of an ayahuasca beverage with harmine and
tetrahydroharmine as its main constituents have been assessed in
two volunteers (Rivier and Holmstedt 1982). Af ter a dose of
200 ml, plasma levels were determ ined to be in the range of 0.01
~ g harmine and 0.04 ~ g tetrahydroharmine per ml by a gas
chromatographical/mass spectrometric methode Unfortunately,
quantitative data on the composition of the tested drink are no
31
longer available (Rivier, pers. commun. 1982, 1984).
1.1.4. Brugmansia species
Solanaceae
Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh.
Brugmansia suaveolens (H. and B. ex Willd.) Bercht. and PresI.
1 .1 .4.1. Ethnobotany
Many South American tri bes,. especially in western South
America, ingested preparations from tree Daturas in a ritual
context (Safford 1922; Cooper 1949; Lockwood 1979; Plowman
1981a). Among the Jivaro, headhunters of eastern Ecuador and
Peru, the rectal route of administration was employed as weIl
(Wassén 1972b; Emboden 1979a). It is said that a decoction of a
tree Datura was drunk or taken as an enema through a straw by
Jivaro warriors desiring to gain power and foretell the future
(Steward and Métraux 1948). Karsten (1935) tells that a Datura
preparation called maikoa was given during the initiation
ceremony in the form of a clyster, if the novice could not
continue drinking this intoxicating liquid: 'The oldest men of
the family or tribe arrange themselves in two parallel rows
facing each other. Each man holds apininga containing a small
quantity of maikoa. The novice must now go from the one to the
other in due order and take a sip from each p.Ïninga, starting
with the oldest member of the family. Generally it is easy for
him to do this with the first ones, but frequently it is
impossible for him to drink from the clay vessels of the last men
in the rows. Their contents are then given him in the form of a
clyster... It is considered absolutely necessary, i t should be
understood, that the novice should receive something from the
clay vessel of each man'.
Tree Daturas, all of which are native to South America, have
usually been regarded as the Brugmansia section of the genus
Datura, but on morphological and biological grounds this section
is now treated as a separate genus (Lockwood 1979). There is
usually no danger of confusing Brugmansia with any other
hallucinogen, but when the older literature offers an
indentification of the plant used, the statement is not usually
supported by a voucher specimen (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b).
According to Karsten (1935), the maikoa drink was simply prepared
by squeezing the juice from the bark of Datura arborea. There has
been a tendency in the past, however, to apply this binomial to
any white-flowered tree Datura (Bristol et al. 1969), so it is
32
uncertain how frequently the plant actually did represent
Brugmansia arborea. Other authors have attributed maikoa
preparations to Datura candida (Emboden 1979a) and to Brugmansia
suaveolens (Lockwood 1979).
1.1.4.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
As far as is known, all Brugmansia species and hybrids contain
tropane alkaloids (Hegnauer 1973; Schultes and Hofmann 1980b), so
there seems to be no serious uncertainty about the active
principles, even though information on the species utilized is
of ten inconclusive. In most cases, scopolamine, also called
hyoscine, has been isolated as the predominant alkaloid (Evans et
al. 1965; Shah and Saoj i 1966; Bristol et aL 1969; Leary 1970).
Aerial parts of white-flowered Brugmansia trees, referred to as
Datura arborea from India (Shah andSaoji 1966) and as Datura
candida and its Sibundoy cultivars from Colombia (Bristol et al.
1969), contained about 0.1-0.3% of scopolamine, whereas up to
about 1% of this alkaloid could be found in the red-flowered
Brugmahsia sanguinea (Evans et al. 1965). The structurally
related atropine and/or its laevo-isomer hyoscyamine mayalso be
present (Evans et al. 1965; Shah and Saoji 1966; Bristol et al.
1969; Leary 1970). It should be noted that the distinction
between these two compounds can be affected by racemisation upon
extraction (List and Hörhammer 1972) and by inseparability on a
paper chromatogram (Evans et al. 1965; Shah and Saoji 1966;
Bristol et al. 1969). Var ious other minor Brugmansia alkaloids
have been isolated, including aposcopolamine, norscopolamine,
norhyoscyamine, noratropine, pseudotropine, tropine, oscine and
meteloidine (Bristol et al. 1969; Leary 1970).
The central toxicity of the tree Daturas (Anonymous 1976a;
Belton and Gibbons 1979) and their pure alkaloids (Longo 1966;
Shader and Greenblatt 1971) is commonly known. As the following
discussion focuses on scopolamine and atropine, it should be
noted that hyoscyamine is the pharmacologically active laevo-
isomer of the racemic atropine, of which the dextro-isomer is
practically inactive (Shader and Greenblatt 1971; Reynolds 1982).
Ketchum et al. (1973) have demonstrated that parenteral
scopolamine and atropine produce a virtually indentical syndrome
of delirium, when allowances are made for differences in time of
action and potency. The delirium lasts for 6-8 h with scopolamine
and for 10-12 h with atropine. The intramuscular dose of atropine
necessary to produce hallucinations in half the subjects was
estimated to be about 0.15-0.17 mg/kg (about 11 mg170 kg).
Intramuscular scopolam ine was found to be 7.5, 8 and 11 ti mes as
33
potent in this respect, dependent on the test employed (mean 8.8
times; about 1.3 mg170 kg). In a cross-over study by Mirakhur
(1978) on peripheral activity of tropane alkaloids, the ratio of
equivalent intramuscular to oral doses of atropine appeared to be
1:2 and that of scopolamine about 1:5-6. If these ratios also
àpply to central activity, the difference in central potency of
both alkaloids would be reduced from 8.8 times parenterally to
3.2 times orally. Unfortunately, a cross-over study comparing
central effects af ter ingestion and injection does not seem to be
available. It is known only that oral doses of up to 10 mg of
atropine sulphate or of up to 3 mg of scopolamine HBr do not
induce delirium, whereas 4.5 mg of scopolamine HBr orally causes
illusions and hallucinations in half the subjects (Ostfeld et al.
1959; Ostfeld et al. 1960). It may well be that scopolamine and
atropine undergo substantial first-pass metabolism, which would
explain why the activity of these alkaloids is route-dependent.
Neither their physicochemical properties (Windholz 1983) nor the
rapid appearance of peak plasma levels af ter oral administration
(Beermann et al. 1971; Chandrasekaran et al. 1978) are suggestive
of a faulty absorption. Furthermore, the observed activity ratios
correspond rather well with reported urinary recoveries of non-
metabolized drug, viz. 30-50% and 70-95%. respectively, for oral
and intravenous atropine (Beermann et al. 1971), in contrast with
only 4-5% and about 10% for oral and parenteral scopolamine,
respect i vely (Chandrasekaran et al. 1978).
Naturally occurring tropane alkaloids have been found to
produce delirium with various ways of administration (Shader and
Greenblatt 1971), including tracheal inhalation (Bergman et al.
1980) and tropical application into the eye (Freund and Marin
1970) or on the skin behind the ear (Osterholm and Camoriano
1982). Furthermore, scopolamine (Tonndorf et al. 1953) and
atropine (Hyde et al. 1953) have been shown to produce systemic
effects wh en taken nasally.
1.1.5. Capsicum species
Solanaceae
1.1.5.1. Ethnobotany
Roth (1924) has included Capsicum in a review on narcotics and
stimulants of the Guiana Indians, because the Makusi of the
Rupununi used peppers as a stimulant and excitant. Although Spix
and Martius (1828) once experienced a narcotic-like action of
pepper (vide 3.4), it is not possible to draw any ethnobotanical
34
conclusion without further field observations (Schultes 1967a),
Roth (1924) also points out that, 'in the Pomeroon district it is
a very common practice for the Indian women to gi ve capsicum
enemata to themselves and children'. Unfortunately, he fails to
indicate whether the intended effect of the Capsicum clyster was
stimulation or purgation (Heizer 1944), The latter possibility is
strongly supported, of course, by the irritating properties of
Capsicum. According to an informant, who mayor may not have been
joking,the Makusi of the Roraima area use Capsicum to discipline
children by anal insertion of the fruit as severe punishment
(Gorinsky, pers. commun. 1982), The Jivaro of western South
America employed Capsicum clysters for medicinal purposes. For
instance, to try to cure patients from the consequences of a
snake-bite (Karsten 1935). Among the Shuar-Jivaro, the whole
Capsicum fruit is inserted rectally to distract from the pain of
the snake-bite and also the brok en fruit is rubbed on the wound
itself (Van Asdall, pers. commun. 1982).
1.1.5.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The fruits of most Capsicum forms, at least those used in
official western medicine, contain the pungent principle
capsaicin (Hegnauer 1973; Reynolds 1982), so native preparations
are much more likely to have strongly irritating properties than
any central effect. Since capsaicin selectively stimulates and
then blocks the chemosensitive unmyelinated sensory afferents
from the skin and mucous membranes, the initial irritation may be
followed by local anaesthesia (Anonymous 1983a).
Perhaps it should be noted that solanine and solanidine have
been reported as occurring in Capsicum annuum (Wojciechowska and
Dombrowicz 1966) and that solanines are central intoxicants when
taken in substantial quantities (Anonymous 1979), Hegnauer (pers.
commun. 1983) questions, however, whether Solanum alkaloids are
indeed present in the genus Capsicum.
1.1.6, Datura species
Solanaceae
Datura ceratocaula Ort.
Datura innoxia Mill.
Datura stramonium L.
1.1.6.1. Ethnobotany
Herbaceous Datura species have been widely employed by the
35
aboriginal inhabitants of North and Middle America (Safford 1922;
Dfaz 1979; Schultes and Hofmann 1980a,b). The ethnological record
of their rectal administration is less impressive than the data
on Brugmansia enernas (v ide 1.1.4.1). In the ini tiatory ri tual of
the Algonquin Indians, a tribe of the eastern United States, the
youths were kept intoxicated for 18 or 20 days by means of
wysoccan liquid (Beverly 1705). The chief ingredient is believed
to have been the root of Datura stramonium (Safford 1922;
Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Emboden (1979a) points out that such
a prolonged state of intoxication would more easily be maintained
through enernas than through oral fluids.
The ancient Aztecs of Mexico have been recorded as taking
Datura rectally, but only for medicinal purposes. An
authoritative early account on Aztec medicinal plants states that
tlapatl leaves were applied in the form of suppositories to
relieve fever (Hernández 1959). Tlapatl has been identified as
D.stramonium (Safford 1922), but it referred more probably to
D.innoxia (Schultes, pers. commun. 1982) or D.ceratocaula (Dfaz
1979) •
1.1.6.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
All herbaceous Datura species contain a mixture of tropane
alkaloids, and the principal alkaloids in the leaves are mostly
scopolamine and/or hyoscyamine (Hegnauer 1973; List and Hörhammer
1973; Schultes and Hofmann 1980b).
The deliriant activity and pharmacokinetic behaviour of tropane
alkaloids are discussed in sect ion 1.1.4.2.
1.1.7. Ilex guayusa
Aqu ifoliac eae
Ilex guayusa Loes.
1.1.7.1. Ethnobotany
Indians of the South American Montana region, such as the
Jivaro (Karsten 1935), are known to have valued Ilex guayusa as a
ritual stimulant and emetic (Cooper 1949; Pat i fio-,g68; Schultes
1972a). Bundles of I.guayusa leaves have been found together wi th
small syringes in an archaeological Tiahuanacoid medicine-man's
tomb in Highland Bolivia (Wassén 1972b). This has raised the
question of whether guayusa might have been employed as a clyster
(Schultes 1972a, 1981a; Furst 1976a). It should be added that the
grave also contained Nicotiana fragments in a skin pouch
36
(Bondeson 1972; Bruhn et al. 1976) and that small syringes were
sometimes also used for nasal application (Veigl 1785; Métraux
1949 ) •
1.1.7.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
I.guayusa leaves from the grave in question were demonstrated
to contain caffeine in amounts of 0.1-1 %, whereas 1.8% of
caffeine was present in a newly collected specimen (Holmstedt and
Lindgren 1972). This weIl known alkaloid is a CNS stimulant
(Stephenson 1977), which only rarely has been reported as
eliciting a psychotic reaction, usually af ter prolonged use of
excessive doses (Mc Manamy and Schube 1936; Shen and D'Souza
1979).
1.1.8. Lophophora williamsii
Cactaceae
Lophophora williamsii (Lem.) Coult.
1.1.8.1. Ethnobotany
The ritual use of peyote among North American and Mexican
Indians has been documented extensively (Furst 1976a; La Barre
1975. 1981; SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980a,b). Peyote is mostly eaten
in the form of so-called 'mescal-buttons', the dried tops of the
cactus, which are usually taken into the mouth, softened with
saliva and swallowed without mastication. They can also be soaked
in water to yield an intoxicating fluid (Schultes and Hofmann
1980b). The Huichols of the Sierra Madre in western Mexico,
renowned for their peyote pilgrimages (Furst 1976a), use peyote
in a different way. They only leave one-third of the cactus, and
use either the fresh ground form or the dried ground form,
thereby masticating a lot (Negrfn, pers. commun. 1983). The use
of a peyote enema among the Huichols has been reported by the
ethnographer Knab who was shown an enema syringe by an elderly
female shaman in the community of Santa Catarina (Furst and Coe
1977). In a personal communication (1982) to me, Knab detailed
the following: 'Old men and women use a mixture of either fresh
ground peyote with its juice or dried peyote mixed with water.
Among the Huichols an enema is applied through a short piece of
deer bone tied to a bladder. The mixture is applied by filling
the bladder, tying the bone to it and sitting on the bladder'. As
it is unclear whether the enema will be easily retained this way,
it is unfortunate that actual use has not been witnessed. At one
37
time, Furst (1976a) suggested that the practice probably has a
deeper symbolic meaning, as the sacred cactus is equated with and
identified as the deer by the Huichols. On reconsideration, he
suspects the reported event to have been idiosyncratic and not
something to be generalized to Huichol culture, as the practice
would be atypical of known Huichol behaviour (Furst, pers.
commun. 1982), This view is shared by Negrfn (pers. commun. 1983)
who seriously questions the truthfulness of the enema story,
since the Huichols are very puritanical and would not give such
delicate information to a visitor known for only a few weeks.
Negrfn adds that the Huichols.like to reverse things (viz. rectal
instead of oral administration) and like to teIl scabrous jokes.
There are no indications that peyote has ever been taken
rectally north of Mexico (Aberle, pers. commun. 1982; Stewart,
pers. commun. 1982).
Peyote is a vernacular term applied to a number of plants
(Bruhn and Bruhn 1973). For the Huichols, the common source of
peyote is unquestionably Lophophora williamsii (Furst 1976a,
1981; Knab, pers. commun. 1982; Negrfn, pers. commun. 1983).
1.1.8.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Mescaline, the main alkaloid in Lophophora williamsii, may
occur in peyote to the ex tent of 6%, but rarely exceeds 1% in the
dried whole plant (Crosby and McLaughlin 1973; Kapadia and Fayez
1970, 1973). A chemical study on fresh greenhouse-grown peyote
revealed an average total alkaloid percentage of 0.4%. consisting
mainly of mescaline (30%), pellotine (17%), anhalonidine (14%),
hordenine (8%), anhalamine (8%), lophophorine (5%), anhalonine
<3%), N-methylmescaline (3%), anhalidine (2%), 3-demethyl-
mescaline (1-5%) and N,N-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-
ethylamine (0.5-2%) (Lundström 1971). In total, more than 50
alkaloids have been isolated frOm peyote (Kapadia and Fayez 1970,
1973), but SchuIt es (pers. commun. 1982) may be quite right in
wondering how many of these constituents are artifacts.
Mescaline is not the only peyote constituent with
pharmacological activity (List and Hörhammer 1976; Shulgin 1979)"
However, the peyote tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids pellotine,
anhalonidine, lophophorine and anhalonine are not hallucinogenic
in man, even at rather high oral doses (Shulgin 1973. 1979), and
neither are the minor phenylethylamine components N-acetyl-
mescaline (Charalampous et al. 1966), N-methylmescaline (Shulgin
1973) and 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine (Shulgin et al. 1966).
There does not seem to be clinical evidence for hallucinogenic
activity of any minor peyote alkaloid in naturally occurring
38
quantities (Shulgin 1973. 1979). Studies on certain synthetic
modifications of the structure of mescaline have been more
rewarding in this respect (Shulgin et al. 1969; Nichols 1981),
Consequently mescaline seems to be mainly responsible for the
visual hallucinogenic properties of L .. williamsii (Shulgin 1979;
Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). This classical hallucinogen is
usually ingested in quantities between 300 and 500 mg of the
sulphate (Shulgin 1979). The average oral dose of mescaline
needed for a medium response has been estimated at 3.75 mg/kg,
i.e. about 260 mg170 kg (Shulgin et al. 1969). Schultes and
Hofmann (1980b) warn that there is an of ten overlooked difference
between peyote intoxication and mescaline intoxication, but so
far as I know, the influence of minor peyote alkaloids on the
effects of mescaline still needs to be properly tested in a
clinical setting.
Early experiments on the fate of mescaline in man have yielded
divergent results (Patel 1968). In a later study, a maximum of
radioactivity appeared in the plasma within 3 h of oral
administration of 14C-mescaline to humans; 87% of the dose could
be recovered from the urine during the first 24 h, mainly as
unchanged mescaline (55-60%) and its inactive metabolite 3.4.5-
trimethoxyphenylacetic acid (27-30%) (Charalampous et al. 1966).
According to these results, mescaline taken orally is readily
absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract without undergoing
extensive first-pass metabolism.
1.1.9.Nicotiana species
Solana.ceae
Nicotiana rustica L.
Nicotiana tabacum L.
1.1.9.1. Ethnobotany
Neither botanists nor pharmacologists consider tobacco to be a
true hallucinogen, but it may be conceptually and functionally
indistinguishable from hallucinogens in American Indian ritual
practices (Wilbert 1972). The references to its use in indigenous
rituals are numerous and there are ethnological reports on its
induction of trance-like states analogous to those induced by
hallucinogens (Castiglioni 1943; Spinden 1950; Wilbert 1972;
Janiger and Dobkin de Rios 1976; Siegel et al. 1977; Robicsek
1978). Several recent secondary sources state that tobacco was
taken rectally in the western hemisphere (Schultes 1981a), in
particular on the South American continent (Schultes 1972a, 1984;
39
Furst 1976a; Furst and Coe 1977), but neither the purpose nor
other details are clearly mentioned. The main ways in which South
American Indians have used tobacco àre smoking, snuffing,
chewing, drinking, eating and licking (Stahl 1925; Cooper 1949;
Wilbert 1975; Hartmann 1981). As to the rectal route, a pre-
Hispanic Bolivian grave was found to contain both tobacco
fragments and small syringes (vide 1.1.7.1), and early accounts
on Surinam (Fermin 1775) and Brazil (Spix and Martius 1831) touch
lightlyon tobacco enemas. These data, however, can hatdly be
considered as substantial evidence for the non-medical rectal use
of tobacco by South American natives. Neither Schultes (pers.
commun. 1981) nor Wilbert (pers. commun. 1982) are aware of any
detailed primary reference on this subject.
Decisive data are equally hard to find for Middle America.
Several early sources describe the rectal administration of
tobacco, but only as a medicinal cure. The 16th century physician
Monardes (1574) includes the use of clysters among the var ious
methods ofapplying tobacco as a medicine, and the Relaci6n de
Texcoco says that the Spaniards used the herb to clear malaria,
'taking it as a suppository because it purged them' (Pornar 1941),
The famous Aztec herbal known as the Badianus Codex recommends a
'clystere oriculario' prepared from tobacco and various other
ingredients as a remedy for rumbling of the abdomen (Anonymous
1940). Since it would be very peculiar to treat such a complaint
by instilling liquid into the ear, I am inclîned to interpret
this dosage form as a rectal fluid rather than as an auricular
one. In another passage of the Badianus Codex, a tobacco clyster
is recommended to relieve recurrent disease. Emboden (1979a)
feels that this enema was designed to produce inebriation, but
according to the original text purgation was intended (Anonymous
1940). Evidence suggesting that the ancient Maya may have used
tobacco as an ingredient of their ritual enernas is discussed in
sect ion 1.4.2.
Drawing from an early French account (De Charlevoix 1744),
several references indicate that the Indians of eastern Canada
revived those nearly drowned by forcing tobacco smoke up the
rectum. Then the victim was hung up by his feet to a tree so that
he could cast up the water he had swallowed (Brooks 1937, 1941;
Van Wart 1948; Gorter 1953). In past centuries, resuscitation of
drowned people by a rectal tobacco fumigation was practised in
Europe as well (Brooks 1937.1938,1941; Gorter 1953).
The two principal tobacco or Nicotiana species which have been
employed ritually in the western hemisphere, are N.tabacum and
N.rustica. At the time of the Spanish invasion, the first species
was known in Centra 1 and South America and much of the West
40
Indies, and the second one in North America and Mexico (Schultes
1967b, pers. commun. 1982). Although the literature sometimes
warns that there is no certain information to prove the existence
of N.tabacum in pre-Hispanic Mexico (Spinden 1950), this species
is frequently implied to have occurred there (Setchell 1921;
Castiglioni 1943; Schultes 1981a). Long af ter the conquest,
N.tabacum which comprises most varieties of commercially grown
tobacco, was introduced from the aId World to the North American
continent (Schultes 1967b).
1.1.9.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The principal Nicotiana alkaloid is nicotine, as it may account
for about 95% of the total alkaloid content of tobacco (Wenusch
1940; Rotenberg 1982). The amount in the leaf of N.tabacum varies
widely from 0.6% to 9% (Hoppe 1975; Schultes 1981a), but in
commercial cigarette tobacco it seldom exceeds 3% (Siegel et al.
1977; Robicsek 1978). N.rustica usually has a higher nicotine
content, which was found to range from 4.5% to 8.6% in African
samples and from 1.89 ± 0.02% to the surprising figure of 18.76 ±
2.6% in west M e x i c ~ n samples (Siegel et al. 1977). Minor
constituents include many other pyridine alkaloids such as
anabasine, anatabine, 2.3'-dipyridyl, myosmine, nicotelline,
nicotyrine and nornicotine (Wenusch 1940; Hegnauer 1973; List and
Hörhammer 1977). In addition, very small amounts of the beta-
carboline alkaloids harman and norharman have been isolated from
commerical tobaccos and their smoke; the amounts in the smoke are
about 0.01-0.02 mg per cigarette which is some 40-100 times
greater than that in the tobacco leaf, indicating that
pyrosynthesis occurs in the leaves during burning (Janiger and
Dobkin de Rios 1976).
Although practised smokers are tolerant of some of its effects,
nicotine is highly toxic and acute poisoning with a do se of 60 mg
may cause death due to respiratory failure within a few minutes.
It acts on a variety of neuro-effector and chemosensitive sites
and has both stimulant and depressant phases of act ion. The
ultimate response of an organ or system is the product of such
different and opposing effe cts. The central nervous system, for
instance, is markedly stimulated by nicotine, but depression may
follow (Rasche González 1980; Taylor 1980; Reynolds 1982).
Although smoking might contribute to mental changes (Janiger and
Dobkin de Rios 1976), and extreme acute doses of nicotine could
produce hallucinations and catatonia (Siegel et al. 1977),
nicotine is not considered to be an hallucinogen from the
pharmacological view (Siegel et al. 1977; Taylor 1980; Reynolds
41
1982). Other constituents in tobacco smoke, such as harman and
norharman (Janiger and Dobkin de Rios, 1976), might be
hallucinogenic per se, but all of these compounds appear to be
present in su eh small quantities, at least in commercial
tobaccos, that any suggestion of endogenous hallucinogens present
in tobacco in behaviourally active quantities should be viewed
with appropriate caution (Siegel et al. 1977; Baumann et al.
1984).
Recent pharmacological studies have demonstrated that the
smoking (Benowitz et al. 1982, 1983), snuffing (Russell et al.
1980, 1981) and chewing (Gritz et al. 1981) of tobacco can all
lead to substantial blood levels of nicotine.
Oral nicotine is said to be largely inactivated during its
first passage through the liver (Russell et al. 1976; McNabb et
al. 1982). It is also said that after oral ingestion of tobacco,
the absorption of nicotine is apparently delayed because of
slowed gastric emptying, so that vomiting caused by the central
effect of the initially absorbed fraction removes much of the
tobacco remaining in the stomach (Taylor 1980). Nevertheless,
oral tobacco infusions are considered qui te toxic and may even be
lethal (Harrison 1964; Opitz 1982).
Tobacco is knownto affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of
many drugs, but most of these alterations appear to involve
stimulation of hepatic drug metabolism by smoking and are caused
probably by the polycyclic hydrocarbons present in tobacco smoke
(Jusko 1978; Dawson and Vestal 1982; Hansten 1982). I am not
aware of clinical studies on the combined use of non-smoked
tobacco and a classical New World hallucinogen.
1 .1.10. Conclusion
From the ethnobotanical, chemical and psychopharmacological
approach to intoxicating enema rituals in the western hemisphere,
the following categories of ritual enema ingredients arise:
1) It is well established that the plant provides one or more
psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a
ritual enema ingredient is confirmed or is quite probable:
Agave, Anadenanthera, Brugmansia.
2) It is well established that the plant provides one or more
psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a
ritual enema ingredient is not well recorded or is even
unlikely:
Banisteriopsis, Datura, Ilex guayusa, Lophophora williamsii,
Nicotiana.
42
3) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual enema ingredient is
confirmed or is quite probable, but it is not weIl established
that the plant provides one or more psychoactive principles:
none.
4) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual enema ingredient is
not weIl recorded, and it is not weIl established that the
plant provides one or more psychoactive principles:
Capsicum.
43
CHAPTER ONE PART TWO
RECTAL PHARMACOKINETICS AND EFFICACY OF POSSIBLE RITUAL ENEMA
CONSTITUENTS
1.2.1. General introduction
Drug uptake from the rectum does not appear essentially
different from that in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract.
Passive diffusion through a lipid membrane is probably the main
governing mechanism of absorption. In contrast to the small
intestine, the rectum has no primary function as an absorbing
organ. It is approximately 15-20 cm long, and there are no villi
and microvilli on the rectal mucosa. Consequently, the absorption
surface is far more limited than that of the duodenum. Under
normal conditions, the rectum merely contains 2-3 ml of inert
mucus, so the small intestine has much more fluid available than
the rectum for drug dissolution from solid dosage forms. Despite
these potential disadvantages, it has been demonstrated that
numerous drugs reach effective plasma levels when given rectally,
and in many countries rectal therapy is generally viewed as a
convenient alternative to oral dosing (Senior 1974; Moolenaar
1979; Thoma 1980; de Boer et al. 1982).
Systemic therapy via the rectal route is considered
particularly useful when the patient is unwilling or unable to
take his medicine by mouth. For instance, because of nausea and
vomiting. The preceding pages amply demonstrate that the American
Indian has not failed to notice this obvious advantage.
The presence of food in the stomach delays the absorption of
many drugs when they are taken orally (Welling 1977; Toothaker
and Welling 1980), but this is impossible in the case of rectal
application. In other words, when a patient has just enjoyed a
meal, drug a.bsorption may be more rapid following rectal
administration than it would be af ter oral dosing.
Another advantage of rectal application may be that the
breakdown of acid-labile drugs by the stomach is avoided.
Sometimes the rectal route is also recommended as a means to
prevent first-pass elimination by liver enzymes (Ansel 1976).
There is considerable doubt, however, that an enema usually
provides the advantage of adequately bypassing hepatic
inactivation. It is true that, while the upper rectal vein drains
into the hepa.tic circulation, the inferior and probably also the
middle rectal veins pass directly into the systemic circulation.
A complicating anatomical factor, however, is the presence of
44
anastomoses between the rectal veins (de Boer 1980). Also, rectal
dosage forms do not remain in the lower parts of thé rectum, but
move upward into a higher region (Moolenaar and Schoonen 1980).
Studies on the degree of enema penetration indicate that
penetration as far as the ascending colon may be achieved and
that, depending on the enema volume, penetration at least as far
as the descending colon is likely (Lima and Jusko 1980).
Therefore, a large enema cannot be expected to provide a
substantial by-pass of the liver (Quevauviller and Jund 1951). A
recent study on lidocaine has shown that in principle the use of
a micro-enema can result in partial avoidance of a hepatic first-
pass effect (de Boer et al. 1979). However, in various other
experiments with codeine (Moolenaar et al. 1982), 5-methoxy-
psoralen (Stolk 1982). paracetamol (Moolenaar et al. 1979).
promethazine (MooIenaar et al. 1981), propranolol and
salicylamide (de Boer 1980), the systemic availability of a
micro-enema did not substantially surpass that of an oral dosage
form. It certainly cannot be concluded from these experimental
findings that a high-clearance drug will generally show higher
systemic availability when it is taken as an enema. Unless the
tested compounds were wel 1 absorbed af ter oral ingestion and
poorly absorbed following rectal application, this implies that
substantial first-pass metabolism may not be avoided even when a
non-voluminous enema is used.
The principal drawback of rectal administration is the risk of
interrupted drug absorption by the inability of the subject to
retain the dosage form. For instance, retention time was a major
determinant of bioavailability in studies on aminophylline
suppositories (Zuidema et al. 1976; Anonymous 1980).
A second problem may be a lack of patient acceptability. Rectal
therapy is generally recognized as useful in West European
countries on the continent, but it is far from common in Britain
and in the United States. In a large British study on
phenylbutazone suppositories in general practice. 10% of the
patients refused to participate, because they were not prepared
to accept a suppository, and half of them did not complete the
eight-week course (Anonymous 1983b). Opposite views on rectal
administration are not only seen in western civilisation, but
also in the native societies of South America. The Peruvian
Omagua Indians even distributed enema syringes to their guests
(De La Condamine 1778), but such instruments were less
appreciated among the Abipones of Paraguay (Dobrizhoffer 1822):
'They will not even bear the mention of an enema. In the town of
St. Jeronymo, a Spanish soldier who professed the art of
medicine, being requested by Father Brigniel to attend upon a
45
sick Abipon, declared the necessity of an injection. No sooner
did the sick man feel the syringe applied to him, than he started
furiously out of bed, snatched up a lance, and would have slain
the soldier physician, had he not saved himself by hasty flight'.
Another disadvantage of rectal administration arises from the
relatively small absorption surface of the rectum. As a
consequence, the usefulness of the rectal route may vary
considerably with the physicochemical properties of the drug
substance and with the biopharmaceutical properties of the dosage
form. These aspects of rectal drug administration and their
clinical implications are extensively discussed in recent reviews
by de Blaey and Polderman (1980), Thoma (1980), and de Boer et
al. (1982).
Datá on the rectal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ritual
enema constituents are summarized below. It should be borne in
mind that the dosage form tested in a wèstern study will differ
from the dosage form used in native ri tuals, and that this may
somewhat limit the pertinence of the clinical data to Indian
practices. Unfortunately, the ethnological literature rarely
describes the properties of the native dosage form. Only in the
case of the paricá clysters of the Brazilian Caripuna and Maué
Indians. some interesting information is given, viz. the addition
of plant ash to the clyster (v ide 1.1.2.1). Thi s admix ture has an
alkaline nature (Rivier 1981). and may thus enlarge the non-
ionized proportion of an alkaloid, which in its turn might
facilitate the rectal absorption of the alkaloid. An animal study
on suppositories with methylhomatropine shows thát the rectal
mucosa is not generally an impenetrable barrier for ionized drugs
(Cramer et al. 1978), but in principle non-ionized molecules
diffuse much more easily through the rectal mucosa than ionized
ones (Senior 1974; de Boer et al. 1982).
1.2.2. Specific constituents
1 .2.2.1. Atrop ine
Vide section 1.2.2.9.
1.2.2.2. Bufotenin
Vide section 1.2.2.4.
46
1.2.2.3. Caffeine
The physicochemical properties of caffeine (Windholz 1983)
and its rapid and complete absorption af ter oral administration
(Blanchard and Sawers 1982, 1983) suggest that its absorption
from rectal dosage forms may'well be substantial. Indeed Maier-
Lenz et a l ~ (1981), who recently compared the absorption of
caffeine and ether drugs from a certain multiple drug tablet and
suppository called Migräne-Kranit, did not find a large
difference between the serum levels of caffeine following oral
and rectal application. A recent case report describes two deaths
related to unofficial therapy with voluminous coffee enemas, but
these were assumed to be due to electrolyte disturbancesj
toxicological results in both cases indicated that not enough
caffeine had been absorbed to cause a substantial toxic effect
(Eisele and Reay 1980), possibly because of the difficulty to
retain the large volumes used.
1.2.2.4. Dimethyltryptamine and related compounds
There is considerable evidence to suggest that the active
constituents of Anadenanthera undergo extensive first-pass
metabolism by intestinal and hepatic MAO and by hepatic
microsomal enzymes (vide 1.1.2.2). This may well explain why this
genus is most of ten taken nasally, for the nasal route certainly
can provide the advantage of bypassing the gut wall and the liver
(vide 2.2.1). It is less easy to presume thatthe rectal taking
of Anadenanthera will be advantageous. Since it is likely that
the availability of drug metabolizing enzymes in the gut wall
decreases in the direction jejunum, caecum, colon, rectum (de
Boer et al. 1982), it may be speculated that inactivation by
intestinal MAO is avoided by rectal application. There is
considerable doubt, however, that the use of anenema is a
reliable way to escape hepatic first-pass elimination (vide
1.2.1). so the Anadenanthera tryptamines may still be inacti vated
following rectal administration. To obtain anecdotal experimental
evidence, I took enemas containing up to 125 mg (1.6 mg/kg) of
DMT in self-experiments. At the time of the experiment. I was a
non-smoker and a regular user of coffee and beer. The highest
rectal dose was 185 mg of DMT bioxalate (Schuchardt, Munich) in
15 ml of tap watèr, and it was taken with the aid of a syringe
and a special adaptor, developed for the rectal application of
Valium injection fluid (Anonymous 1981). Even though this dose of
125 mg was much larger than 30 mg, thé reported threshold dose of
intramuscular DMT (Szára 1957), I failed to notice any
47
discernible effect. The most likely explanation for the
inactivity is that first-pass elimination was not completely
avoided. Further experiments in more than one volunteer are
needed, however, especially with still higher doses, to ascertain
whether or not any partial avoidance is possible. So long as such
testing has not been done, it can neither be safely excluded nor
concluded that Anadenanthera alkaloids produce systemic effects,
when orally inactive amounts are taken in the form of an enema.
1.2.2.5. Ethyl alcohol
In view of the good oral absorption characteristics and
physicochemical properties of ethyl alcohol (Offerhaus 1979), a
rapid and complete absorption should be possible, if it be
rectally administered. To test this theoretical view, I twice
took 0.5 1 of 5% v/v alcohol, once as an oral drink and once in
the form of clysters. Solutions were prepared by diluting 26 mI
of 96% v/v alcohol (OPG, Utrecht) with tap water to 0.5 1. At the
time of the experiment, I was a non-inhaling smoker and a regular
user of coffee and beer. A percentage of only 5% was chosen,
since a clyster with analcoholic content of 20% is quite
irritating to the rectal tissue (MooIenaar, pers. commun. 1982),
and since the early Indian drinks also had low alcohol
percentages (vide 1.1.1.2). Because of this choice, the oral
drink and the enema had to be voluminous to provide a substantial
dose of alcohol. According to the pharmaceutical literature, the
volume of an enema should be less than 0.2 I, if it is to be
retained in the intestine (Fishburn 1965; Pernarowski 1975).
Therefore the total rectal volume was divided in four equal
parts, which were administered within 25 min with the aid of a
Flex-Klis flacon (Spruyt-Hillen, Vianen). The clysters had been
warmed to body temperature before administration, and they were
taken in a prostrate position. Due to these precautions, rectal
retention of as much as 0.5 1 turned out to be quite easy.
As the sole purpose of the experiment was to obtain an
impression of alcohol absorption via the rectal route, alcohol
blood levels were not monitored by blood analysis, but by simple
breath testing wi th an Intoxilyzer Model 4011 A (CMI, Mintum).
The manufacturer of this equipment guarantees an absolute error
of less than 0.1 mg/ml. In a calibration test of the used
apparatus, zero set values turned out to be more accurate than
test mode va lues and did not deviate more than 0.02 mg/ml from
actual blood levels (Zweipfennig, pers. commun. 1984). The
results presented here are therefore not test mode values, but
zero set values.
48
The oral dose was taken af ter an overnight fast, and resulted
in maximal blood levels of 0.4 mg/ml at 30-45 min, followed by a
practically linear decline to 0.2 mg/ml at 120 min. Similar data
were reported by Wilkinson et al. (1977), who tested 30 ml of 95%
of alcohol (diluted to 150 ml) in fasting subjects. In the next
25 min, the total rectal dose was administered, and it produced a
rise from 0.2 mg/ml to 0.6 mg/ml at 165 min, whereafter at 240
min the level fell again to 0.4 mg/ml in a practically linear
way. These results certainly support the theoretical suggestion
that alcohol is absorbed well from an enema.
As pointed out in section 1.1.1.2, alcohol may affect the
actions of many other drugs directly or indirectly. In the
present context it is interesting to no te that in an experiment
by Moolenaar (pers. commun. 1982), the presence of alcohol
enhanced the absorption rate of the drug sodium salicylate from
an enema.
1.2.2.6. Harmine
There does not seem to be any study on the rectal taking of
harmine. In view of the physicochemical properties of this
alkaloid (Hultin 1965), rectal absorption should well be
possible. However, harmine may undergo substantial h€patic first-
pass metabolism (vide 1.1.3.2), and there is recent evidence
that rectal application is not a reliable way of adequately
avoiding this phenomenon (vide 1.2.1). Consequently. there is no
obvious reason to assume that an enema will be effective if it
contains harmine in an orally inactive amount.
1.2.2.7. Mescaline
The sOlubility profile of mescaline (Windholz 1983) and the
reported good absorption of this hallucinogen af ter oral
ingestion (Charalampous et al. 1966) suggests that substantial
absorption can be possible af ter rectal application. This is a
theoretical view which still awaits experimental confirmation,
for in the only rectal experiment known to me, 200 mg of
mescaline in a suppository caused nothing but a dubious mydriasis
(Möller 1935).
1.2.2.8. Nicotine
When tobacco is injected into the rectum, it might sometimes
operate as a cathartic (Osol and Farrer 1955), but in official
Western medicine tobacco enernas certainly are considered obsolete
49
because of their toxicity (List and Hörhammer 1977). Rectal
infusions prepared from 15 to 20 g of tobacco (Fabre et al. 1957)
or even as low as 2 g (List and Hörhammer 1977) are said to have
caused fatal intoxications, although recovery af ter 15 g rectally
has also been observed (Lewin 1962). A recent case report
describes nausea and confusion followed by hypotension and
bradycardia due to unorthodox self-medication with an enema
prepared apparently from 5-10 cigarettes (Garcia-Estrada and
Fischman 1977). Furthermore, nicotine could be recovered from
the urine of a male non-smoking subject, who had received this
alkaloid via the rectal route (Jenner et al. 1973). In view of
these data, there can be no doubt that a tobacco clyster can
produce systemic effects.
1.2.2.9. Scopolamine and related compounds
The synthetic quaternary compounds butylscopolamine and
methylatropine are very poorly absorbed af ter rectal
administration (Soeterboek et al. 1980), but the natural tropane
alkaloids scopolamine and atropine are tertiary compounds, which
should allow a better rectal absorption. Suppositories containing
belladonna liquid extract were includedin the British
Pharmacopeia of 1948 (Reynolds 1982). However, there are only
vague and conflicting experimental data on the efficacy of rectal
atropine and scopolamine. Well-designed studies on the rectal
usefulness of natural tropane alkaloids are still awaited.
Tardos et al. (1959) studied the mydriatic activity of rod-
shaped suppositories with atropine sulphate in the rat. They
reported a very large difference between equivalent intravenous
and rectal doses of atropine, viz. 0.02 mg/kg vs. 0.5 mg/kg, for
rods prepared from cacao butter, andthe differencewas even
larger when the rod base was carbowax.
Neuwald et al. (1962) examined the mydriatic effect of fatty
suppositories with atropine base or atropine sulphate in rabbits.
A dose of 20 mg atropine or atropine sulphate produced mydriasis
in all animals tested, but a suppository with 10 mg of the
sulphate did not have this effect in each rabbit. According to
the authors, the large difference in mydriatic efficacy between a
rectal dose of 20 mg (6-8 mg/kg) in the rabbit and a systemic
dose in man should be attributed to the insensitivity of the
rabbit for atropine.
More recently, Hendrickx and Govaerts (1980) compared enemas
wi th 0,00, 0.01, and 0.02 mg/kg of atropine in smal! children.
Apparently, they did not find statistically significant
50
differences in cardiac and anti-sialogogic activity, but their
report is too confusing to permit firm conclusions.
In other investigations, rectal preparations containing one or
more natural tropane alkaloids were found to be useful as
premedication for children (Chayen and Sarnat 1973; Lindahl et al
1981) and for the facilitation of delivery (Weinstock 1934;
Rittmeyer 1935; Lehmann 1952). All these studies were
uncontrolled, however. and each tested drug preparation contained
at least one other active substance besides the tropane
alkaloid(s),
1.2.3. Conclusion
The literature yields convincing evidence that caffeine and
nicotine are effective following rectal application. A good rectal
efficacy could also be expected from mescaline and from tropane
alkaloids, but this is a hypothetical view which stills awaits
experimental confirmation.
In self-experiments, ethyl alcohol produced substantial blood
levels via the rectal route, whereas dimethyltryptamine did not
produce any effect when parenterally active quantities were taken
as an enema. First-pass elimination is the most likely
explanation for the observed inactivity of dimethyltryptamine via
the recta 1 route.
51
CHAPTER ONE PART THREE
THE CHEMISTRY OF PARICA SEEDS OF THE BRAZILIAN M A U ~ INDIANS
1.3.1. Introduction
In 1817, the Austrian Emperor Franz I. gave his daughter
Leopoldine in marriage to the later Brazilian Emperor Dom pedro
I. Wh en the Archduchess made the crossing to the New World, she
was accompanied by an Austrian expedition, which included the
zoologist Johann Natterer (1787-1843). At the request of King Max
Joseph von Bayern, the German explorers Spix and Martius also
joined this party. Most of the expedition members returned to
Europe in 1821. because the Brazilian civil war broke out, but
Natterer stayed behind and continued his travels in Brazil until
1835. During this time, he collected not only numerous biological
objects, but also almost 2000 ethnological items, which are now
in the Museum for Ethnology in Vienna (Kann 1981). Since various
Indian tribes from those days have become extinct or have lost
their cultural identity, the importance of these early Brazilian
ethnographical objects is obvious. There are only two other
collections of this kind in the world, viz. the one from Spix and
Martius (Zerries 1980), and an unpublished one from a Russian
expedi tion led by the Earl Langsdorff (Kann 1981).
In contrast with Spix and Martius (1823-1831), Natterer never
published his travelling diaries, and unfortunately they were
destroyed by fire a few years af ter his death, when the roof of
the Viennese court library caught fire. Still remaining, however,
is his correspondence to Europe, and the museum inventory of his
collection, written under his supervision. Both sources
provide valuable information (Kann 1981, pers. commun. 1984).
The Natterer collection includes several objects of the Maué,
Caripuna and Marauá Indians, which are related to ritual drug
tak ing. Detailed descriptions of these paraphernalia are given by
Wassén (1965, 1972a) and Kann (1971). It should be noted that
volume three of the renowned Handbook of South American Indians
does not discuss the Marauá, but only the Maraguá, who are
thought to be a probable subdivision of the Maué (Nimuendaju
1948a).
From the ethnobotanical view, the most interesting item is a
large sample of weIl preserved paricá seeds, collected from the
Maué tribe (museum inventory 1369): 'Samenkörner des Paricábaumes
(in Matogrosso Angico genannt). Diese Körner werden zerstossen
(zerrieben) und mit der Asche des Imbauvabaumes gemischt und dann
zum Schnupfen und zu berauschende Klystieren gebraucht. Wird
namentlich bei den Mauhés. Muras, Caripunas und andere Nationen
52
gebraucht'.
The tracing of these seeds is important, as it has of ten been
implied that the Maué and Mura Indians of the Brazilian Madeira
River prepared paricá snuffs and enemas from Anadenanthera seeds.
Up to now, however, these assertions have not been supported by
an early collection of the seeds (SchuIt es 1967b; von Reis
Altschul 1972). Furthermore, the seeds are unique in the sense
that no other ethnobotanical material from the western hemisphere
has ever been directly associated with ritual rectal
intoxication •
The seeds have a black-brown colour, a flat and orbicular
shape, and a diameter of 1-2 cm. These features are certainly
reminiscent of Anadenanthera seeds (von Reis Altschul 1964), and
this botanical view is shared by von Reis (pers. commun. 1984). Since
there are no clear differences bet ween the seeds of the two
Anadenanthera species A.peregrina and A.colubrina (von Reis
Altschul 1964), the species cannot be determined without the
availability of additional plant parts.
In view of the ethnobotanical importance of the seeds, it was
quite interesting to obtain data on their chemical composition.
Schultes et al. (1977) isolated 0.6% of bufotenin from seeds of
A.peregrina, which Richard Sprucehad collected in 1854 from the
GUahibo Indians of the upper Orinoco River. It was to be hoped
that the even older Maué seeds would also give a positive result,
corroborating their botanical identification as Anadenanthera
seeds.
1.3.2. Analytical methods
By cooperation of Laurent Rivier (Institute of Legal Medicine,
Lausanne), the seeds were submitted to a gas chromatographicall
mass spectrometric analysis comparable to that described by
Schultes et al. (1977). Details are provided in Appendix A.
1.3.3. Results and discussion
Despite their considerable age, the seeds still yielded as much
as 15 mg of the Anadenanthera alkaloid bufotenin per g dry seed
matter, as identified by retention time on capillary column and
mass spectrum. This chemical finding certainly supports the
botanical view that they are Anadenanthera seeds, Other
tryptamine alkaloids could not be detected. This is not
surprising, since SchuIt es et al. (1977) report that storage of
freshly collected Anadenanthera seeds for two years results in
the disappearance of all tryptamines except bufotenin. It can
53
therefore not be excluded that the Maué seeds originally may have
contained more than one alkaloid.
54
CHAPTER ONE PART FOUR
ENEMA SCENES ON ANCIENT MAYA POTTERY
1.4.1. Introduction
Pottery of the classic Maya civilization, in particular the
polychrome pottery of the late classic period (A.D, 600-900),
provides much information on this Mesoamerican culture by
portraying a variety of scenes like palace scenes, ball games,
hunting parties, and special dances af ter human sacrifice by
decapitation (Coe 1975, 1978, 1982; Hellmuth 1978; Robicsek 1978;
Robicsek and Hales 1981). Some years ago, Furst and Coe (1977)
added a new theme to this list af ter they had discovered à
polychrome Maya jar showing the actual administration of an enema
(vide plate 3 of Appendix Cl. According to early colonial
references, the Maya employed clysters for diarrhoea and chills
or for a swollen abdomen (Roys 1976), and present-day Maya have
been reported as taking the purgative castor oil as an enema to
treat constipation (Steggerda and Korsch 1943). Yet the
discovered scene was revealing, since it appeared to Furst and
Coe (1977) that some non-medicinal ritualistic use of clysters
was represented: 'Seven male-female pairs, the women easily
distinguished by their robes and long hair, are depicted in two
horizontal rows. That one woman is fondling a.child suggests a
familial setting. The activity being portrayed would have brought
blushes to the cheeks of the traditional Maya specialist, for
while one man is inserting a syringe into his rectum, this
delicate task is being carried out for another male by his
consort. One male also has a bulbed enema syringe tucked into his
belt. Nine vases, identical in shape to the actual vessel, are
painted between the couples, and painted dots at the mouth of
each represent a foaming, fermented liquid that is probably
balche, the common alcoholic drink among the Maya at the time of
the conquest. We must conclude that the people on the vase are
taking intoxicating enemas, a practice previously unrecorded for
this culture'. The discovery of this crucial vessel allowed the
identification of other Maya vase paintings as enema scenes
(Furst and Coe 1977), and soon others were also led to believe
that the ancient Maya took intoxicating enemas for ritual
purposes (Hellmuth 1978; Robicsek 1978; Nicholson and Cordy-
Collins 1979; Anonymous 1984; Dobkin de Rios 1984: Torres 1984:
Schele, pers. commun. 1985).
In my opinion, there can be little doubt indeed that the enema
55
scenes on Maya pottery, or at least part of them, represent some
kind of ritual. The mere fact that deities or their devotees, and
animals or humans dressed up like animals are common actors in
these scenes (vide Appendix B) leaves little room for another
interpretation. This does not automatically signify, however,
that the Maya vases show the use of intoxicating retention
enemas. Starting from the assumption that these enemas served a
specific ritual purpose, an alternative possibility could be
raised, viz. purifying evacuation enemas. The concept of ritual
. purification falls weIl within the range of established Indian
culture traits. The South American Jivaros, for instance, use a
solution prepared from Ilex guayusa as a ceremonial mouth rinse,
which is spat out instead of being swallowed (Karsten 1935). With
respect to the rectal way of administration, ritual purification
may be less weIl documented, but the Peruvian Incas seem to have
employed their vilca clysters for cleansing (poma de Ayala 1969).
Apart from this argument, the idea that the ancient Maya took
enemas to reach or intensify a state of intoxication, is a
plausible and attractive suggestion. When the Spaniards arrived
in Middle America, they found that the Indians living there were
familiar with numerous botanical intoxicants like alcoholic
beverages (Gonçalvez de Lima 1956), tobacco (Robicsek 1978) and
hallucinogens (Guerra 1967), and that the rectal route was
sometimes used to administer an intoxicant (vide 1.1.1.1). It is
also beyond question th at intoxicating practices had already
occurred in Middle America far before the coming of the white
man. The recovery of pre-Hispanic smoking pipes (Porter 1948),
snuffing equipment (Furst 1974a), peyote buttons (Bruhn et al.
1978), etc. from Mexican archaeological sites all point in this
direction. It is therefore worthwhile to trace which ritual
intoxicants were known to the Maya, and what evidence for their
rectal use can be found in the enema vase paintings themselves.
Taking this as a starting point, the following pages first review
which enema paraphernalia are shown in Maya vase paintings, and
then provide a multidisciplinary outlook on the ethnobotany,
chemistry and psychopharmacology of Maya intoxicants. In my
iconographical approach, I follow in the track of other
researchers. Furst and Coe (1977) were already able to interpret
previously baffling objects as enema syringes and to identify a
specially shaped jug as a common object in the enema scenes. Coe
(1978) subsequently proposed that a certain spiral glyph, number
627 in the Maya glyph catalogue of Thompson (1962), may be the
sign for the enema ritual and he added the speculative notion
that this glyph represents an anal sphincter muscIe. Additional
accessories in the enema vase paintings were listed by Nicholas
56
M. Hellmuth in an unpublished paper from 1978, which still is the
only detailed iconographical survey on the subject. A recently
revised version of this paper is included in this thesis
(Appendix B), and much of the underlying photographical material
is also presented here (Appendix C). In the next paragraphs, I
refer to the photographs by giving their plate numbers bet ween
brackets.
1.4.2. Maya enema paraphernalia
1.4.2.1. Iconographical approach
A principal diagnostic trait of the enema scenes on classic
Maya vessels is the presence of an enema syringe. Actual
insertion of this apparatus into subjects bending forward is
depicted on some early classic pottery (1, 2) and on the late
classic vase (3), which led to the discovery of Maya enema scenes
(vide 1.4.1). The syringe of ten has a clearly visible tube (e.g.
7, 10, 16)and an oval bulb with a semi-circle at the middle of
the top (e.g. 7,19,42), and can thus be distinguished from a
round rat tIe (18, 34). A striking feature of many syringes is
their large size (e.g. 16, 19). In modern western practices,
enemas larger than 0.2 1 are only applied to evacuate the bowels
(Fishburn 1965; Pernarowski 1975), so if the size of the syringe
is realistic, it would seem to suggest a purifying evacuation
enema rather than an intoxicating retention enema. In a recent
self-experiment, however, I could easily retain an alcoholic
enema with a total volume of 0.5 1 by taking certain precautions
(vide 1.2.2.5), which takes the edge off this pharmaceutical
argument.
Many scenes portray the enema syringe on top of a specially
shaped jug (e.g. 7. 10, 19). This type of jug is seen so often in
the enema ritual that it is assumed to contain the enema liquid
(Furst and Coe 1977; Coe 1978; Hellmuth 1978). This assertion
about the function of the jug is probably correct, when it occurs
in enema rituals, but its appearance is not limited to such
scenes. The jug is also seen, for instance, in scenes of
ceremonial self-sacrifice (Stuart 1975) or in simple palace
scenes (Coe 1978). Occasionally, the jug is of a small, portable
size (e.g. 39, 40), but most scenes display large jugs, standing
in front of a participant or near a throne.
In many scenes, something is shown as coming out or sticking
out of the jug: this may be scrolls (5, 13, 21), dots (3, 6, 12),
rod- and plume-like forms (15, 29, 33. 37. 41), occasionally
57
arranged in bundles (17), small circular forms (12, 38), larger,
often black-eyed circular and oval forms (4, 29, 34, 35, 38). or
a large flower (fig.5 in Boglár and Kovács 1983). Even on one
bowl, some kind of mam mal is shown jumping out öf the jug (43).
Since the enema may be present in the jug, a closer look at
current ideas on the protruding items is certainly warranted.
In an elaborate enema scene, syringes are emitting scrolls (18)
similar to those coming out of jugs in other scenes (5, 21). This
seems to reinforce the idea that the syringes and jugs in enema
scenes have the same content. Coe (1978) identifies the scrolls
as stylized smoke. This is an acceptable suggestion, since the
classic Maya were undoubtedly a smoking people, and their vase
painters of ten depicted smoke in this way (Robicsek 1978). In
another enema scene, cigars and objects that might be small jugs
are shown as emitting similar scrolls (13). The smoke symbol
would be an appropriate sign, if the jug contained the same plant
that was smoked. Alternatively, the scrolls might symbolize odour
(Deletaille , pers. commun. 1984) or pungency (Hellmuth, pers.
commun. 1980). A pungent clyster would, of course, be more
suitable for cleansing than for intoxication.
The display of dots at the mouth of a jug (3, 6, 12) has its
counterpart in pre-Hispanic Mexican codices. In Aztec codices,
like the Codex Mendoza, such dots indicate the alcoholic drink
octli, prepared from the maguey plant de Lima 1956; de
Barrios 1971; Ross In the Maya Codex Dresdensis from the
post-classic period; dots are depicted above é! large jug,
considered to contain fermented honey wine, because it bears the
cib sign (Seler 1902; Gonçalves de Lima 1956; Thompson 1972). In
view of such data, Furst and Coe (1977) and Robicsek (1978) may
be right to postulate that the dots in Maya enema scenes signify
the presence of some fermented liquid, such as the alcoholic
honey mead balché. For Hellmuth (pers. commun. 1984), the dots do
not have a specific meaning.
A definite interpretationof the rod- and plume-like forms in
Maya jugs is not yet available. Even if they are prominent (15,
29), it is difficult to come up with a botanical suggestion
(Schultes, pers. commun. 1984). The forms should be distinguished
from scrolls, for there is a bowl painting where both are coming
out of the same jug (fig.120 in Boglár and Kovács 1983). In one
scene (37), they merely seem to indicate that fluid is spilling
out of a tumbling jug (Robicsek and Hales 1981). Justeson (pers.
commun. 1985) feels that the form of the rod-like objects (41) is
roughly consistent with maguey leaves, but admits that the
execution is not distinctive enough to make a specific botanical
identification (vide 1.4.2.2), Hellmuth (1978, pers. commun.
58
1984) wonders about some forms; they may possibly be plant
segments or actual bird plumes, and about others; they might
represent cigars or pointed blood-letting perforators. If the
correctness of the last suggestion could be proven, this would
raise the possibility that the effect of the enema was enhanced
by self-torture. The ancient Maya are known to have practised
ritual self-mutîlation, especially by scarifying the penis or the
tongue (Joralemon 1974; Furst 1976b; Robicsek 1978).
The circular and oval forms on top of the jug (12, 29, 34, 35,
38) or coming out of it (4) are as enigmatic as the oblong forms.
Robicsek (1978) suggests that the small variety (12, 38)
indicates the presence of a fermented liquid, whereas Hellmuth
(pers. commun. 1984) feels that the small circles are real
objects. The larger variety mayalso be stacked up in a plate or
bowl elsewhere in the scene (8, 17. 18). eoe (1978) remarks about
such round objects in a throne scene; they might be the maize
preparation tamales, but they look suspiciously like disembodied
death-eyes. If food was ingested during the ritual it could have
a pharmacological bearing, as the presence of food in the stomach
of ten delays drug absorption af ter oral ingestion (Welling 1977;
Toothaker and Welling 1980), but this cannot happen af ter rectal
application. Hellmuth {pers. commun. 1984) wonders, if the round
forms might be some kind of food such as cookie balls or fruits.
According to Schultes (pers. commun. 1984), the large round items
(4, 8, 38) might possibly répresent some kind of fruit, such as
that of Annona, which could be eaten or used ~ o prepare a
fermented beverage.
Fig.5 of Boglár and Kovács (1983) shows a Maya vase painting
with à jaguar next to a large jug, from which a huge flower
emerges. The jaguar is wearing a netted bib and a netted
headdress, both of which are garments worn in the enema ritual
(vide infra). There is also an enema scene, in which an
indeterminate creature is holding an enormous flower (13). These
scenes open up the possibility that such flowers served as an
ingredient of ritual Maya enemas, which raises the issue of their
botanical identity. Rands (1953) associates comparable floral
forms in Maya art with the American water lily Nymphaea ampla. In
accordance with this view, Hellmuth (pers.commun. 1984) considers
the flow er in plate 13 to represent the water lily. This flower
is so stylized, however, that its identification as N.ampla
should not be accepted without reserve, and this is also the case
with the flower in fig.5 of Boglár and Kovács (1983).
The syringe on top of the enema jug is sometimes réplaced by a
cup (20, 27), sa ritual drinking must have occurred as well.
Hellmuth (pers. commun. 1984) rightly draws attention to thé
59
similarity between these drinking scenes and the Mural de los
Bebedores in the pyramid of Cholula at puebla in Mexico, which is
partly shown on the cover of de Barrios (1971) and on the wrapper
of Guerrero Guerrero (1980). As some vases show the drinking cup
and the enema syringe together (9, 19), both objects could
obviously be used in the same ritual. Robicsek and Hales (1981)
have elegantly demonstrated that different Maya vases may show
successive scenes of one event (Robicsek and Hales 1981), so the
enema scenes and drinking scenes may weIl represent different
stages of the same intoxication ceremony.
Occasionally U-shaped objects are displayed on top of the jug
(7) or in the hand of actors (3, 18). In one of the scenes, God N
is holding such an object in his left hand, while painting his
face with his right hand (18). Coe (1978) suggests that it is a
paint-pot in this scene, which suggestion corresponds w ith the
painted faces in other scenes showing U-shaped objects (3,7).
The participants in the ritual of ten wear a special garment
around the neck as a bib, analogous to an oyster bib (3,7,13).
In one scene, a bib-wearing male has his right hand in the jug,
apparently to fill up a syringe or cup (26). Hellmuth (1978;
pers. commun. 1980) has suggested that the bib is worn in the
ritual because of vomiting, as some scenes portray a vomiting
creature (24, 25, 27). This remains uncertain, for the bib may
also be worn as a head--dress (3), and not every vomi ting
personage is wearing the bib (24). Robicsek (1978) thinks that
the bib is in some way related tothe iconography of God N, who
regularly wears a netted element in his headdress (e.g. 19).
Whatever the bib may mean, the display of vomiting actors does
provide a plausible reason why the Maya opted for rectal
application. If a subject is vomiting or is going to vomit. the
rectal route of administration offers an obvious advantage over
the oral one.
Other objects, which may appear together with enema
paraphernalia, include vegetation decorating the head of a jaguar
(e.g. 13. 28), cigars or cigarettes (12,13,14,32), musical
instruments like drums and rattIes (18. 34), and bouquet-like
objects (35, 36).
A jaguar with a leaf or flower sprouting from the head is of ten
displayed besides a jug and/or with a bib around the neck (e.g.
25, 27, 32). Just like the flower in plate 13 (vide supra), these
plant parts are commonly associated with the water lily Nymphaea
ampla, even to the point that the jaguar in question is indicated
as the Water Lily Jaguar (Coe 1978, 1982; Robicsek 1978;
Hellmuth, pers. commun. 1984), Once more, however, á botanical
reserve should be kept in mind, since it is difficult, if not
60
impossible, to exclude all other plants. In this connection, it
should be emphasized that the leaf of the so-called Water Lily
Jaguar may be much more acuminate (e.g. 28) than the leaf of
N.ampla, as judged from photographs of a herbarium specimen
(Emboden 1981a) and of the living plant (Torres 1984).
The presence of smokers opens up the possibility that the
effect of the enema may have been enhanced by smoking, whereas
the presence of musicians could possibly signify non-
pharmacological potentiation. There is ample ethnographical
evidence that the American Indian valued rythmical music as a
means of intensifying drug-induced experiences (Wasson 1980;
Dobkin de Rios 1984). The bouquet-like objects are so stylized
that it is not possible to interpret them as any known
psychoactive plant (Schultes, pers. commun. 1984).
1.4.2.2. Linguistic approach
Mostly, the special jug appearing in Maya enema rituals and
related scenes has a plain surface or a simple painted design,
but some jugs are provided with an obvious glyph, although not
always the same glyph is shown (10,14,15,30,34,35,40,41).
Since the jug is thought to contain the enema, the interpretation
of such glyphs is of paramount importance. Most of the jug glyphs
cannot readily be found in the Maya glyph catalogue of Thompson
(1962). This is not surprising, since Thompson focused on glyphs
from monuments and manuscripts and not on glyphs from pottery.
Some glyphs can be identified, however, and in ~ n e case it is
even possible to give an interesting interpretation:
1) In his book on tobacco among the Maya, Robicsek (1978)
describes a Multiple Resist vase painting with smoking and
dancing skeletons (vase A-14), He interprets the infix on a
small portable jug in this scene as akbal, the sign of
darkness (number 504 in Thompson's catalogue).
2) Justeson (pers. commun. 1985) has found the manik glyph, which
represents the name of a day (number 671 in Thompson's
catalogue). on a large jug (41).
In an unpublished manuscript from 1982 on 'Hieroglyphic evidence
for the languages of the classic Maya', Fox and his co-author
Justeson (pers. commun. 1985) remark on the occurrence of the
manik glyph on the jug in plate 41: 'Logographically, this sign
represents the day Manik. The day name in Yucatec is clearly
ancient, since the name is preserved from Chol and/or Tzeltal as
<manich> in calendrical names in the Comitan Libro de Bautismos
(see Baroco 1970: 138, 146) and the Yajalon Libro de Bautismos y
Matrimonios (Campbell in press). This day name corresponds to the
61
day Deer of other Mesoamerican calendars, and the sign is used as
a logogram DEER in the codices. The sign is never read
phonetically as ke, which Yucatecan ké:h 'deer' terms would
suggest as phonetic generalization; however, there is ample
evidence for its value ei, which presupposes the Cholan-Tzeltalan
*Öihx 'deer'. This sign-origin supports Cholan-Tzeltalan
development of either the sign's phonetic value èi or semantic
value DEER, but indicates nothing concerning a Cholan-Tzeltalan
involvement in any spellings which make use of it in either
value. Some such spellings, however, do implicate the Cholan-
Tzeltalan group. (The figure) illustrates a vase depicting two
seated figures, leaning toward a central vessel with cups in
their outstrectched hands. Long leaves appear to be rising from
the (enema?) vase, which is marked with the sign ei. We suspect
that the sign and the leaves are intended to indicate that the
figures are drinking, or are preparing to drink, an alcoholic
extract of the maguey. The same sign marks depicted vases in a
scene on a polychrome vase which Kerr suggests represents a
drunken display. In Cholan and Tzeltalan languages, èih means
'maguey': èi?, whose basic meaning is 'sweet: delicious', means
by extension-'alcoholic beverage' or, as an adjective,
'inebriated', while *a:x-èi is 'drunkard'. These terms are
cognate with Yucatecan kih 'maguey' and ki? 'sweet. delicious;
alcoholic beverage: inebriated' and x-ki? 'drunkard'.'
In this comment on the manik glyph, two separate steps are
taken, viz. the reading of the glyph as 'ei' and the connection
of this phonetic value with terms like maguey· (Agave plant) and
alcoholic beverage. Yucatecan parallels of the latter step are
easily found in the literature. According to Roys (1976), the
Yucatecan Maya had at least nine names all ending in 'ci' for
various species of Agave. Bolles (1981) indicates that 'ci' in
Yucatecan texts may be translated as wine. With respect to the
former step, Justeson sent me a second letter (1985) detailing
the following: 'The evidence for the ei value is varied. First
the contrast between it and the sign T534 la in the words for
'west' and 'east' (Cik'in and lak'in) are generally acknowledged,
and this is the context that initially suggested the reading.
Other good examples in the codices are the spelling k'u-è(i) for
k'uè, which verifies the consonant at least; the spelling is in
posi tion to be the name of the bird depicted, which is the k'u1'i
'buzzard', The sign is in alteration with T669, which has the two
values k'a and Ca, in spelling what should be the same word in
different pages of the Madrid Codex, namely pa-l5(a) and pa-ë(i),
At Chichen Itza, a preposition is spelled i-Ci-l(a) that must
have the function of marking a day as falling within or in a
62
given tun in the long count; only the prepositions ti?, and
i5-il could serve that function, so the spelling
makes a prima facie case for both the consonant and vowel of the
value. The sign is used for the day Deer, and (or chihj
in Spanish-based orthography; i.e., my x is the velar fricati ve,
not the s or sh sound) is the word for -'deer' in proto-Tzeltalan,
proto-Chölan-Tzeltalan, and perhaps proto-Cholan (I think proto-
Cholan is actually but I'm not positive; the choice depends
on data I don't accent in Chontal, an accented
form pOinting to and an unaccented for pointing to
Also, the form of the sign is a pan-Mayan gesture for eating;
*èi? is proto-Yucatecan for 'to bite; to eat meat' from proto-
Mayan *ti? A telling case that the sign T765, used as a verb for
enter, represents Yucatecan *ok, Cholan *05 'to enter', being
also the sign for the day nameOc (i.e., iOk or perhaps *o:k); at
Tortuguero, which is demonstrably a Cholan-Site and thus would
have read this verb as there is an infixed or suffixed T671.
presumably for è1 as a phonetic complement to indicate the final
è of oè and perhaps the i as a grammatical suffix. The sign is
älso used in the Madrid in varying spellings of the word for
'bathing, baptism', in texts accompanying baptism scenes; the
spellings are somewhat defective, but can be interpreted as
i-5(i)-ki or as i-èi-VL for 'baptism'; the variation is
in order of signs, the-first i sometimes being last, but the
words are clearly the same so-reordering must be assumed.
I think all of this evidence is reasonably solid, with the
possible exception of the gestural origin for the 5i value in pYu
Other contexts that may be interpretabie in terms of the
value do not have as much solid semantic contra 1 or Iinguistic
con trol over the terms that are being represented. In all the
above examples, it would take special pleading to see other terms
or values being involved.
References: k'u5 and contexts: generally known, first
argued in 19th century.
'deer' = èihx: first argued, although I'm not sure in quite this
form, by Kelley in his phoneticism paper (Fonetismo en la
escritura maya, Estudios de Cultura Maya, 1962).
5i/5a alternations: James and John S. Justeson,
- ""Polyvalence in Mayan hieroglyphic wri ting", in John S.
Justeson and Lyle Campbell, eds., Phoneticism in Mayan
Hieroglyphic Writing, pp. 17-76. Institute for;Mesoamerican
Studies: Albany ,1984
or i-ci-VL for iè-k-il 'baptism': also in the above,
although the basic baptism reading and the recognition of the
i-5i elements goes back again to the 19th century.
63
for and for or oÖ-i 'enter(ed)' in Fox
and JustesolïTi982). "Hieroglyphicevidenë'ë" for the languages
of the Classic Maya··, unpublished manuscript (the same one
from which you have the discussion of the maguey).
The i-M-lCa) case is also discussed in Peter M"athews and
John S. Justeson, ··Patterns of sign substi tution in Mayan
hieroglyphic wri ting: the Affix Cluster··, pp. 185ff of
Justeson and Campbell, cited above, but this discussion relies
on Fox and Justeson (1982).
pYu 'bite, eat meat
A
as the basis for the form of the
sign is discussed in Fox and Justeson (1982) and equivalëntly
in a forthcoming source The Foreign Impact on Lowland Mayan
Language and Script, Middle American Research Institut-e----
Publication 53, Tulane University: New Orleans, by John S.
Justeson, William M. Norman, Lyle Campbell, and Terrence
Kaufman. '
Since the scene in plate 41 fails to show any specific enema
related object, it could be argued that the jug wi th the manik
glyph in this scene contains an oral drink rather than anenema
liquid (vide 1.4.2.1). There is another scene, however, where a
probable enema syrlnge is lying on top of a similar jug which is
unquestionably ornamented wi th the same manik sign (14). There is
a prefix on the left of this glyph, but it is rather problematic
to identify this side-sign (Justeson, pers. commun. 1985): 'The
best match in form I think is with T238, AH5, and this would make
sense as Ah Chih, 'Maguey' or 'He of Maguey' (or 'Liquor' or 'He
of to Bolles (1981), the phrase 'ah ci'
occurs in colonial Yucatecan Mayan texts and may be translated as
drunk or drunkard.
As Justeson's linguistic interpretations have great ethno-
botanical implications, it appeared essential to obtain an
independent expert's comment on the manik glyph. When asked for
this second opinion, Schele (pers. commun. 1985) first expressed
some reservations:
'Justeson's suggestions seem very plausible to me. He reads the
'manik' hand as chi (he uses linguistic orthography so the
diacritic in hisc;;mments indicates a phoneme we would record in
our alphabetic system as chi). He apparently assumes the pot read
in Cholan-Tzeltalan and comments that there is no substantiation
for a ki value for the 'manik ' hand, which lagree wi th. The
is part of the k/ch correspondence set in Yucatec
(keh 'deer ')1 Cholan (chih 'deer '). Therefore, his suggested
reading does not Yucatec chi value for the 'drunken'
term is in the same correspondence set. His proposal is possible,
64
even probable. My only reservation is that there is evidence from
the west glyph (Yucatec chik'inl Cholan ti-k'in) and from other
substitutions that the 'manik' hand participated in the
correspondence set that requires ch in Yucatec and t in Cholan.
The lat ter glyphs in which the 'man ik ' hand replaces signs with
the value of ti do not have accepted readings as words, so they
can only be taken as supporting evidence for the ch/t
correspondence set. The 'deer' set is equally strong evidence for
the other side. However. the chi reading for the pottery glyph
does not have an equivalent in the codices and, therefore, does
not require a ki reading in Yucatec. In other words, the 'manik'
hand may be used on the pot solely as a phonetic glyph without a
meaning assigned to it. I would rate Justeson's reading as a good
possibility to be further tested by watching for new examples,
but I would not consider it secure enough to be used to prove the
'manik' hand was used for the k/ch correspondence set in the
inscriptions, as he seems to be doing. I think the question is
still open. '
Just before this thesis went to press, however, Schele (pers.
commun. 1985) informed me in a second letter that her former
doubts have waned substantially:
'In the process of pursuing other research in the last months, I
have found evidence sufficient to convince me that the manik hand
T671 was indeed phonetic chi in the Classic period and not ti. I
have also been able to seea great many photographs of pottery
scenes that include pots, especially the round bodied ones, that
have the manik hand on them. The weight of this evidence now
makes me about 90% certain that John is correct in his reading of
the chi glyphs as ""sweet"" and "" intoxicating"",'
1.4.3. Ritual Maya in toxicants
1.4.3.1. Ethnobotany
The principal ethnobotanical question is, of course, which
intoxicating enemas the Maya may have taken. An alcoholic liquid,
tobacco and hallucinogens have all been proposed as possible
ingredients (Furst 1976a; Furst and Coe 1977; Hellmuth 1978;
Robicsek 1978; Torres 1984).
As outlined above, the enema scenes themselves present a fair
amount of evidence to support the first suggestion. It is well
established that alcoholic beverages were known to the Maya in
early-contact times (Tozzer 1913; Landa 1978). Rectal use of such
preparations has not been reQorded for the Maya, but it is
65
reported for other early native inhabitants of Middle America
(vide 1.1.1.1). The balché drink of the Maya has been described
as a mild intoxicant, concocted of fermented honey and water, to
which was added the bark or root of the balché tree Lonchocarpus
violaceus (= L.longistylus) (Roys 1943. 1976; Gonç:alves de Lima
1956; Gonçalves de Lima et al. 1977; Landa 1978). This admixture
has been reported to contain antibacterial longistylines (Delle
Monache et al. 1977), but it is not known to contain any
hallucinogenic principle. According to early sources, there were
other alcoholic beverages as weIl: their base is said to have
been pineapples and sugar-cane (Tozzer 1913), or honey, together
with maize or the root of an Agave, and roots of unidentified
plants (Roys 1943). It should be added, however, that sugar-cane
cannot have entered into the composition of pre-Hispanic Maya
drinks, as this plant was introduced by the Europeans (SchuItes,
pers. commun. 1984; Coe, pers. commun. 1985).
The use of tobacco among the Maya has been reviewed extensively
by Robicsek (1978). In contrast with the sourees on alcohol,
early historical records on the Maya relating to tobacco appear
to be questionable and confusing. There can be no doubt, however,
that numerous Maya vase paintings from the classic period portray
fumigatories, which are of ten provided with smoke scrolls (e.g.
13). As pointed out in section 1.4.2, enema paraphernalia are
occasionally shown to emit similar scrolls. With respect to the
botanical identity of the fumigatories on Maya pottery, Robicsek
(1978) rightly remarks: 'Of course, the only ~ a y to state with
absolute certainty that the ancient Maya indulged in tobacco
smoking would be to discover tobacco cigars or cigarettes or
pipes stuffed with tobacco (preferably still smoking) in Classic
graves. Unfortunately. the only bona fide discovery of tobacco at
a Maya site was the cache of cigars discovered by C. Rudy Larios
in Group H at Tikal. This (review), however weIl supported, is,
therefore, speculative. The only thing we know for certain is
that the Mayas smoked something. This something was most likely
tobacco, a conclusion based on archaeological material found at
Classic and post-Classic sites, stone monuments, ceramic
artifacts, and codices.'
The conjecture that the Maya employed hallucinogenic clysters
necessitates a glance at the current ideas about Maya
hallucinogens. The only hallucinogen which is suggested again
and again as a possible ritual Maya intoxicant, is the
psilocybian mushroom (Dobkin de Rios 1974; Robicsek 1978; Torres
1984). Apart from the chemical and pharmacological data (vide
1.4.3.2), the evidence includes linguistic findings (entries
found in early Maya vocabularies relating to inebriating
66
mushrooms), botanical findings (psilocybian mushrooms found in
the Maya region), and archaeological findings (mushroom-shaped
stone objects found at pre-Hispanic Maya sites) (Greene Robertson
1972; Lowy 1977; Mayer 1977; Wasson 1980; Torres 1984), Not every
scholar , however, cons id-ers the mushroom-shaped stone objects as
substantial evidence of the Maya mushroom use in early times
(Brown 1984). It should also be noted that the evidence of such
use is not associated with the central Maya area, from which most
enema vase paintings originate, but with other Maya regions,
especially with the Highlands. Even though it cannot be excluded
that mushrooms could have been brought into the central region by
trade (Brown 1984; Mayer, pers. commun. 1984), it is certainly
not safe to claim that the Maya prepared ri tual enemas from
mushrooms. The vase paintings fail to provide any evidence for
this conjecture. The mushroom-shaped objects, which sometimes
appear in front of a face on classic Maya pottery, unquestionably
represent nose-beads.
The fly agaric Amanita muscaria also occurs in the Maya
highlands and it has sometimes been suggested that it is
represented in post-classic Maya codices (Lowy 1972; Torres
1984), but the objects interpreted as mushrooms might also be
rattles, maces or fans (Thompson 1972; Robicsek 1978). At
present, there would not seem to b-e paramount evidence that the
ancient Maya may have preferred the fly agaric to psilocybian
mushrooms (Mayer. pers. commun. 1984).
The literature on ritual plants mentions various other
potential Maya intoxicants besides mushrooms, -but all of these
possibilities still require more evidence from chemical and
pharmacological studies (vide 1.4.3.2) and/or from the
ethnobotanical field, befare they can be accepted without
hesitation.
The divinatory tsité tree of the Popol Vuh, a famous epic of
the Quiché Maya, is said to have been an Erythrina species
(Girard 1960; Schultes 1972b). In 1970, Furst (1974b) presented a
paper about this subject at the Annual Meeting of the Society for
American Archaeology in Mexico. This paper is na langer available
(Furst, pers. commun. 1985). Ruinours that Guatemalan shamans
ingest Erythrina beans for ritual purposes are still extremely
tenuous and open to doubt (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b).
Dobkin de Rios (1974) has put forward that the Maya rnay have
taken the water lily Nymphaea ampla in a ritual context, but
other scholars did not generally approve of this idea. More
recently, the available evidence for the suggestion that the
water lily was a ritual Maya plant has been surveyed by Emboden
(1981a, 1981b) and by Torres (1984). Enema paraphernalia and
67
plant parts associated with the water lily are known to occur
together in Maya vase paintings. In one case, a possible water
lily flower is even shown to emerge from the specially shaped
jug, which features in enema scenes on other vases (vide 1.4.2).
This raises the possibility that the flower could have entered
into the composition of ritual Maya enemas. It is still
insufficiently clear, however, whether or not Nympaea ampla can
serve to induce a central intoxication (vide1.4.3.2).---
Consequently, it would be unwise at this stage to discard
alternative explanations, such as nutritional, sexual, or
symbolic purposes, as being impossible. There is a vague claim,
for instance, that the farinaceous rootstocks of N.ampla are
edible (Sturtevant 1972). This corresponds with a herbarium
annotation that the bulbs of an indeterminate Nymphaea species
from Mexico are dug and eaten during the dry season (von Reis
Altschul 1973). Furthermore, the rootstock of N.ampla is said to
be considèred an aphrodisiac in Yucatan (Morton 1981). It should
be noted that these ethnobotanical data refer to the submerged
parts and not to the flowers. A non-materialistic suggestion is
offered by Furst (pers. commUn. 1982) who feels that the Maya
water lily 'is a perfect visual metaphor for the connection
between the surface of the water, or the earth, and the watery
lower reg ions.'
Dobkin de Rios (1974) has also suggested toad poison as a
ritual Maya intoxicant, but this conjecture was not generally
approved of either. There is a classic Maya vase which displays
one or more jugs together with a toad-like creature,
characterized by its 'ear' with three dots (30), but it is
unclear whether i t is a toad or a frog.
The Maya flora is known to include Datura candida (Hopkins
1974), but Schultes (pers. commun. 1982) doubts very much that
this tree occurred in Central America in ancient times, as all
the Brugmansia species are South American. Toh-ku, of which the
Maya made many medicines for hemorrhoids, has been identified as
Datura innoxia (Roys 1976), but there is no ethnobotanical record
that the Maya intoxicated themselves with this plant. And, its
characteristic spiny fruit does not occur in classic enema
scenes. Litzinger (1981) has reported that ceramics resembling
the spîny fruit of Datura have been found in the Maya area, but
Hellmuth (pers. commun. 1981) feels that these may represent the
stem of the Ceiba tree rather than the fruit of Datura. The
lat ter view is supported by the cylindrical form of spiny
ceramics from the Amátitlan Lake in southern Guatemala, which I
have seen in the Museum for Ethnology in Vienna. What is more,
Li tzînger (pers. commun. 1982) himself informed me that the
68
present-day Lacandon Maya still make spiked ceramic vessels, and
refer to the spikes as to those of the Ceiba tree, which is an
important symbolic plant for them.
1.4.3.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Data on alcohol, tobacco and Daturas can be found in sections
1.1 and 1.2.
The truly hallucinogenic nature of Psilocybe mexicana and
related mushrooms is well documented; both psilocybin, which is
usually the main active principle, and psilocin, which may be
present as well, are LSD-like hallucinogens (Schultes and Hofmann
1980a,b; Beug and Bigwood 1982; Young et al. 1982). The medium
öral dose of psilocybin, which elicits symptoms similar to those
induced by about 2 g of dried Psilocybe mexicana, is said to be
4-8 mg; doses of 6-20 mg evoke more profound psychic changes than
doses of up to 4 mg (Delay et al. 1958; Heim et al. 1958; Hofmann
1963; Berkenbaum 1969; Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Experimental
data on the rectal application of Psilocybe alkaloids do not seem
to be available. The physicochemical properties of psilocybin
(Windholz 1983) are not suggestive of a good and rapid absorption
from rectal do sage forms.
The fly agaric Amanita muscaria is also frequently classified
as an hallucinogen. lts major active principles are stated as
being ibotenic acid and muscimol, which is probably not a genuine
constituent but an artifact formed during drying or extract ion
(Eugster 1967; Wasson 1967; Gray 1978; Schultes and Hofmann
1980a,b). Recent analytical work suggests that the muscimol
Content may decrease with time: fresh material was found to
contain 0.15-0.22%, calculated on dry matter, whereas a maximum
of 0.02% could be detected in 3-5 year old samples (Stijve 1982).
Clinical evidence for hallucinogenic activity is not so
impressive as it is in the case of psilocybian mushrooms. Ott
(1976) ingested about 30 g of dried caps, and this resulted in
sedation and slight visual phenomena. McDonald (1978) drank an
aqueous extract from 30 g of the dried mushroom, and did not
experience hallucinations or obvious visual distortions. He also
gave an oral dose of 12 g/72 kg body wt to healthy volunteers,
who partly reported visual and auditory distortions, but not
overt hallucinations. Plomp (1982) felt some heightened
perception of colours and deeper awareness, but 'no sensational
action' from oral doses up to five fresh caps. A truly visionary
experience has no more been found in Clinical experiments with
isolated constituents. In healthy subjects, ingestion of 7.5-10
mg of muscimol elicited changes in mood, affective detachment and
69
loss of concentration, but hallucinations did not occur. In the
same study, ibotenic acid in a dose of 75 mg produced a weaker
and less characteristic effect (Theobald et al. 1968). In
schizophrenics, oral administration of 7-10 mg of muscimol caused
exacerbations ofcertain psychotic. manifestations, but
deterioration of hallucinations was not observed (Tamminga et al.
1978). studies on the fate of tritiated muscimol in the mouse
indicate substantial metabolism and poor penetration of the
intact substance into the brain (ott et al. 1975; Maggi and Enna
1979), so it is open to question that the behavioural effects of
muscimol are due to the compound itself. Muscimol has extreme
water-solubility. but also a low molecular weight (Eugster 1967).
It is rather difficult to predict from these properties, whether
or not muscimol will be absorbed well af ter rectal application.
The genus Erythrina appears to be rich in alkaloids, many of
which have a peripheral curare-like action (Deulofeu 1959;
Boekelheide 1960; Hill 1967; Dyke and Quessy 1981). Central
depressant and convulsant activity has also beenreported for
some Erythrina alkaloids, but the intensity of action was
considerably lower than that observed in the case of peripheral
activity (Boekelheide 1960). Pharmacological evidence for
hallucinogenic properties appears to be lacking (Schultes and
Hofmann 1980b; Dyke and Quessy 1981).
Early phytochemical data on the genus Nymphaea have been
reviewed by Hegnauer (1956). According to this survey, Nymphaea
alba contains the non-alkaloidal compound nymphaline with
digitalis-like activity, and a mixture of unstable alkaloids with
hypno-sedative effects. The Old World species Nymphaea caerulea
has been tested by Emboden (1979b; pers. commun. 1984) who twice
drank a decoction of its flower buds. The effect of the decoction
was very mild and more akin to a hypnotic, but there were
alterations in visual and auditory perception. With respect to
Nymphaea ampla, the water lily of the New World, Torres (pers.
commun. 1985) has recently informed me of an experiment with
negative results: 'About 2 months ago, a psychiatrist friend,
tried to experience the hallucinogenic effect of Nymphaea ampla
collected in Lake Petén Itzá (in the center of the Maya Classic
area), in Petén, northern Guatemala, with absolutely no effects.
The experiment was done according to instructions given me by
Emboden'. Various sources indicate that N.ampla contains
apomorphine-like alkaloids (Emboden 1979a, 1981a; Schultes and
Hofmann 1980a; Dobkin de Rios 1984; Torres 1984), For instance,
Emboden (1979a, 1981a) claims that apomorphine-like compounds as
well as nupharine and nupharldine were found in the flowers of
N.ampla and that aporphine could be extracted from its bulbs and
70
roots. All such statements are said to be based on the analytical
work of D!az on N.ampla (Emboden, pers. commun. 1984: Dobkin de
Rios, pers. commun. 1985: Torres, pers. commun. 1985). So far as
I have been able to ascertain, however, this investigator has
merely reported the isolation of an unidentified alkaloid from
the leaves (D!az 1976, 1977) and several unspecified alkaloids
from the submerged parts (D!az 1979). As to the possible psychcr-
pharmacology of N.ampla, Diaz (l976) points at the presence of
tetraisoquinoline, benzylisoquinoline and aporphine alkaloids in
other Nymphaeaceae, and subsequently at the central dopaminergic
acti vityof apomorphine, which has an aporphine structure. It
should not be overlooked, however, that only aporphines like
apomorphine and N-propylaporphine, which have (or obtain in vivo)
an intact dopaminergic moiety in their structure, may be expected
to have substantial dopaminergic activity (Pinder et al. 1971;
Cotzias et al. 1976). In a later publication, Diaz (1979) reports
on auto-experiences with the intact bulb and extracts. On one
occasion, 7 g of the pulverized dried bulb were ingested and on
another, an aqueous extract equivalent to 35 g of the bulb was
taken. There were no detectable psychological modifications. It
should be noted that D!az (1976, 1977, 1979) does not provide
experimental data on the flöwers of N.arilpla. This is rather
unfortunate, for if the Maya used the water lily as a ritual
intoxicant, this anatomical section is the most likely plant part
to have served this purpose (vide 1.4.2).
It has been demonstrated that poison from the sk in glands of
various Bufo species contains bufotenin (Bonhour et al. 1967;
Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). This tryptamine alkaloid is
extensively discussed in section 1.1.2.2. Besides bufotenin,
steroidal bufogenins and bufotoxins, with a similar chemical
structure and cardiotoxic act ion as scilla glycosides, may be
present (Stoll 1937: List and Hörhammer 1972: Flier et al. 1980).
The cardiotoxicity of these compounds would obviously place
severe restrictions on the use of toad poison in ritual practices
(Alger 1974).
1.4.4. Conclusion
The enema scenes on classic Maya pottery undoubtedly represent
rituals and may very well indicate that the ancient Maya toak
intoxicating enemas in a ritual context. This idea is quite
contrary to the traditional view that the ancient Maya we re a
contemplative people, who did not indulge in ritual ecstasy. The
occasional display of vomiting actors would seem to providea
71
plausible reason why the Maya opted for rectal application. Some
scenes present a fair amount of evidence that an alcoholic
beverage may have been taking rectally. Other scenes open up the
possibility that tobacco and the water lily may have served as an
enema ingredient. It is sometimes speculated that the lat ter
plant is hallucinogenic, but pharmacological confirmation of this
view is still awaited.
72
CHAPTER TWO
A MULTIDISCIPLINARY OVERVIEW OF INTOXICATING SNUFF RITUALS
- IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE
73
CHAPTER TWO PART ONE
THE ETHNOBOTANY, CHEMISTRY AND PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY OF RITUAL
SNUFFS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE
2.1.1. Acorus calamus
Araceae
Acorus calamus L.
2.1.1.1. Ethnobotany
Acorus calamus, commonly known as rat root or sweet flag, is
of ten included in reviews on ritual botanical intoxicants
(Farnsworth 1972; Emboden 1979a; SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980a,b).
Therefore its nasal use by North American tribes should not go
unrecorded here. The Chippewa Indians snuffed pulverized rat root
to treat colds (Densmore 1928), and the Omaha gave the plant as a
snuff to horses to make them spirited and run faster (Morgan
1980). These data confirm the general impression that North
American Indians valued the rhizomes of sweet flag as a medicine
and stimulant rather than as a true ceremonial intoxicant (Morgan
1980) •
2.1.1.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Most publications on the phytochemistry of Acorus calamus
concern the rhizomes, which may contain 0.4 to 10.8 % of
essential oil (Hegnauer 1963; Röst 1979; Stahl and KeIler 1981).
It is of ten stated th at this oil has sedative effects, which are
thought to be due to its constituents alpha-asarone and beta-
asarone (Hoffer and Osmond 1967; Brown and Malone 1978; SchuIt es
and Hofmann 1980a,b). Such statements are based on phytochemical
and pharmacological studies with Old World samples, in particular
with samples from India (Baxter et al. 1960; Dandiya and Menon
1965; Dhalla and Bhattacharya 1968). There is now considerable
evidence, however, that a substantial asarone fraction can only
be expected in triploid and tetraploid plants from the Old World,
and not in diploid plants from the New World (Hegnauer 1963; Röst
and Bos 1979; Stahl and KeIler 1981, 1983).
Calamus oil from rhizomes of the North American diploid variety
americanus con ta ins acoragermacron, acorone, acorenone,
preisocalamendiol, and hydrocarbons as its main constituents,
when the oil is extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide
74
(Stahl and KeIler 1983). When it is obtained by water
destillation, the thermolabile compound acoragermacron is no
longer present, and the major principles are shyobunone
derivatives, acorone, acorenone, preisocalamendiol, and
hydrocarbons (Röst and Bos 1979; Keller and Stahl 1983).
An unspecified type of Acorus calamus is said to haveproduced
an LSD-like response in two sophisticated subjects who had both
taken 10 inches of rat root 5 times (Hoffer and Osmond 1967).
This report should not be viewed wi th out caution, for the
subjects had taken LSD several times under controlled conditions,
so perhaps they were preconditioned to have a similar experience
(Morgan 1980).
2.1.2. Anadenanthera species
Leguminosae
Anadenanthera colubrina (VeIl.) Brenan
var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul
(L.) Speg.
var. falcata (Benth.) Altschul
2.1.2.1. Ethnobotany
The ethnological literature on South America includes numerous
references on a most interesting, but somewhat enigmatic group of
intoxicating snuffs, denoted as paricá, yopo, yupa, niopo,
hisioma, and angico (Wassén and Holmstedt 1963; Wassén 1965,
1967, 1972a; von Reis Altschul 1972). At one time, such snuffs
were generally attributed to thé seeds of Piptadenia species, in
particular Piptadenia peregrina (Roth 1924; Lowie 1948; Cooper
1949; Wassén and Holmstedt 1963; Schultes 1967b). This leguminous
tree has a rather complex nomenclatural history, for it has also
been known under the binomials Acacia niopo and Mimosa
acacioides. It is now considered to peregrina,
which occurs in northern parts of South America and in the West
Indies. From southern Brazil and Paraguay the variety A.peregrina
var. falcata is known (von Reis Altschul 1964). The once common
attribution of all paricá snuffs and the like to the seeds of
Anadenanthera species like A.peregrina reflects the genera 1
belief in those days that South American snuffs had either
Nicotiana or Anadenanthera as their botanical origin. Since the
fifties, however, it has become increasingly clear that this
generalization is amisconception, kept alive by the uncritical
acceptance of infirm or invalid botanical data. SchuIt es and co-
workers have rightly emphasized this fact again and again,
75
thereby pointing at the abundance of Virola snuffs in the Amazon
basin, and at the relatively restricted geographical range of
A.peregrina. This tree can be expected to occur in open savannah
country, but it is not likely to grow spontaneously in the deep
forest areas of Amazonian Brazil (Schultes 1954, 1967b, 1984;
Schultes and Holmstedt 1968: Schultes and Hofmann 1980b).
However, the actual use of A.peregrina is not necessarily
confined to its natural distribution range. A Waiká group of the
Brazilian Marauiá river yearly undertakes a long canoe journey to
open pastures, where they collect the seeds of A.peregrina with
the purpose of preparing a snuff (prance 1972). Interestingly,
the tree has been observed in the Marauiá area itself, where it
is probably cultivated from imported seeds (Wassén 1965: Schultes
and Holmstedt 1968).
The domestication of A.peregrina and the trade in its seeds
have also been reported in the Orinoco basin (Granier-Doyeux
1965: Chagnon et al. 1971). From the available botanical evidence
it would appear that this territory is the major South American
area of A.peregrina snuffs, principally known there as yopo,
yupa, niopo, and hisioma (Wurdack 1958: Granier-Doyeux 1965:
Wassén 1965, 1967: Chagnon et al. "971: Coppens and Cato-David
1971: von ReiS Altschul 1972: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975: Schultes et
al. 1977: SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980a,b). Detailed accounts by
early traveilers like van Humboldt (1958) and Spruce (1908)
indicate that the use of such snuffs is not a recent culture
trait of the Orinoco region. Most snuffs are prepared from the
roasted and powdered seeds, and in many cases vegetable ash or
lime obtained from shells is added (Granier-Doyeux 1965: Wassén
1965, 1967: Coppens and Cato-David 1971: von Reis Altschul 1972).
There is some evidence to suggest that the Yecuaná-Makiritare
Indians of southern Venezuela may employ the bark (Fuchs, quoted
by Wassén and Holmstedt 1963).
According to the classical descriptions, the snuffs have a
stimulating effect, producing great excitement and the onset of
hallucinations. This is followed by sleepiness, which of ten
passes to a hypnotic or unconscious state (Granier-Doyeux 1965).
Among the Venezuelan Cuiva Indians, who prepare a yopo snuff from
A.peregrina seeds and shell lime, a single dose does usually not
exceed 5 grams, and this amount may be taken one to three times a
day. One dose is said to cause an intoxication of 1/4 to 2 hours
(Coppens and Cato-David 1971).
A detailed discussion of all the snuffs, which rightly or
wrongly have been associated with A,peregrina is beyond the scope
of this section. For good overviews of this subject, the reader
is referred to the meticulous publications of Wassén (1965, 1967,
76
1972a) and von Reis Altschul (1972). Examples of snuffs, which
have probably correctly been attributed to the seeds of
A.peregrina, are the paricá snuffs of the Mura Indians and other
tribes of the Brazilian Madeira region (Martius 1867; Barbosa
Rodrigues 1875; Schultes 1967b; von Reis Altschul 1972). The
recent isolation of 1.5% of the Anadenanthera alkaloid bufotenin
from 19th century paricá seeds of the Maué Indians supports this
botanical assertion (vide 1.3), The famous cohoba snuff of the
early colonial natives of the West Indies is also said to have
had A.peregrina as its probable source (Safford 1916; SchuIt es
1967b; von Reis Altschul 1972).
There is evidence to suggest that snuffing was not the only
method of using A.peregrina. Various South American tri bes have
been reported as having taken paricá as an enema (vide 1.1.2.1).
Schomburgk (1848) describes the occurrence of A.peregrina in
British Guiana and gives paricá and paricarama as vernacular
names. According to this 19th century traveIler, the natives of
this region burnt the pulverized beans and inhaled the smoke.
The genus Anadenanthera comprises a second species,
A.colubrina. It occurs in eastern Brazil, and its variety cebil
is known in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, and severa-l----
localities in southeastern Brazil (von Reis Altschul 1964). The
variety cebil has been frequently associated with certain early
snuffs cäïIed vilca or huilca in southern Peru and Bolivia, and
cébil or sébil in northern Argentina. Although the evidence is
circumstantial and sometimes weak, it is quite possible that the
association is correct, not in the least because phytochemical
studies have revealed the presence of tryptamine alkaloids in the
seed of A.colubrina var. cebil (Safford 1916; Cooper 1949; Wassén
1965, 1967; SchuIt es 1967b; von Reis Altschul 1967. 1972;
Schultés and Hofmann 1980b). There is a recent report that a
mixture of tobacco and cebil (or jatáj) is smoked by Argentinian
aboriginals (Califano 1975). According to the 18th century
missionary Dobrizhoffer (1822), Indians of the Paraguay region
inhaled the smoke of burnt pevil pods.
2.1.2.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Chemical data on the seeds of Anadenanthera species and the
psychopharmacology of Anadenanthera tryptamines with a
dimethylated aminogroup are summarized in section 1.1.2.2.
The occurrence of the Anadenanthera alkaloids DMT, 5-MeO-DMT
and/or 5-oH-DMT (=bufotenin) in Venezuelan and Colombian snuffing
material has been repeatedly demonstrated (Fish and Horning 1956;
Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967; De Budowski et al. 1974; Schultes et
77
al. 1977; vide also section 2.3),
The bark of A.peregrina has been shown to contain N-monomethyl-
tryptam ine (=MMT), 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptam ine (=5-MeO-MMT),
N ,N-d imethyltryptamine (=DMT), and 5-methoxy-N ,N-dimethyl-
tryptamine (=5-MeO-DMT) (LegIer and Tschesche 1963; Holmstedt and
Lindgren 1967; SchuIt es et al. 1977). Besides these tryptamine
alkaloids, small amounts of 6-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetra-
hydro-beta-carboline (=6-MeO-MTHC) and 6-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-
1,2,3.4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (=6-MeO-DMTHC) are occasionally
found in the bark (Schultes et al. 1977). Such compounds might be
expected from the point of view of biosynthesis and workup
procedure (Holmstedt et al. 1980).
The pharmacological effects of the beta-carbolines and the
monomethylated tryptamines found in the bark of A.peregrina are
discussed in section 2.1.15.2.
2.1.3. Banisteriopsis species
Malpighiaceae
2.1.3.1. Ethnobotany
Banisteriopsis preparations are widely employed by the
indigenous inhabitants of the South American continent (Cooper
1949; Friedberg 1965; SchuIt es 1982). Most reports concern the
use of Banisteriopsis as an ingredient of intoxicating drinks,
but it has also been reported that Indians of the upper Orinoco
area chew the dried stem (Spruce 1908; Roth 1924). There does not
appear to be any ethnobotanical evidence for the preparation of
snuffs from Banisteriopsis (Friedberg 1965; Schultes 1982, 1984).
In chemical studies, however, harmine was found in snuffs from
the Venezuelan Piaroa Indians, while harmine, harmaline, and
tetrahydroharmine could be isolated from a snuff of the Surára
Indians, a Waiká group of northwestern Brazil (vide 2.1.3.2).
Unfortunately, na botanical material was collected together with
the snuffs, so their botanical origin remains uncertain. In South
American ethnobotany, the beta-carbolines harmine, harmaline, and
tetrahydroharmine are commonly associated with Banisteriopsis, so
these chemical findings certainly open up the possibility that
Banisteriopsis may have been used as a source of snuff (Holmstedt
and Lindgren 1967; SchuIt es 1982). However, the most
comprehensive review on the use of Banisteriopsis by South
American Indians (Friedberg 1965) includes neither the Piaroa nor
the Surára as tribes familiar with Banisteriopsis drinks.
78
2.1.3.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The chemistry and psychopharmacology of Banisteriopsis and its
native beverage ayahuasca are discussed in section 1.1.3.2.
The presence of Banisteriopsis constituents in South American
snuffs has been reviewed by Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967).
According to table I of their review, the presence of oneor more
Banisteriopsis alkaloids has been demonstrated on four different
occasions, once by Biocca et al. (1964), once by Bernauer (1964),
and twice by the authors themselves. On closer examination,only
two actual snuffs seem to be involved.
Biocca et al. (1964) did not study asnuff, but the fragment of
the stem of a liane, from which they isolated harmine, harmaline
and tetrahydroharmine. The material was said to serve as a source
of paricá snuff among the Tukano and Tariana Indians of the Upper
Rio Negro area. Biocca (1983) has recently provided a photograph
of such a liane. Unfortunately, the collectors have not been able
to witness the preparation of the snuff, so it remains uncertain
whether the liane actually served as a snuff source and not as an
oral ingredient.
Bernauer (1964) has analyzed an epéna snuff of the Surára
Indians of northwestern Brazil. He isolated harmine (H), (+)-
1,2.3,4-tetrahydroharmine (THH) and an unidentified amorphe
compound (X) with yields of 1.3 % H, 0.22 % THH and 0.36 % X
before purification, and 0.38 % Hand 0.08 % THH after
purification.
Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967) have also demohstrated the
presence of harmine and tetrahydroharmine in an epéna snuff of
the Surára Indians, thus duplicating the findings of Bernauer
(1964). The gaschromatogram pertinent to the second snuff shows a
third Unidentified peak (fig. 9 of the original publication), and
the snuff was collected by Dr. H. Becher, who also supplied the
epéna sample studied by Bernauer (1964). It seems likely that the
same snuff was studied twice, and Holmsledt (pers. commun. 1983)
is inclined to agree with this view. In addition, Holmstedt and
Lindgren (1967) have found harmine together with DMT, 5-QH-DMT
and 5-MeD-DMT in a paricá snuff of the Venezuelan Piaroa Indians.
Other original publications on Banisteriopsis alkaloids in
South American snuffs do not seem to be available. Section 2.3 of
this thesis, however, reports on the isolation of harmine and
bufotenin from a yopo snuff of the Piaroa Indians, which result
corroborates the unusual f indings in the sixties.
79
2.1.4. Cannabis species
Cannabaceae
2.1 .4.1. Ethnobotany
Although Cannabis is smoked among the Brazilian Tenetehara
Indians (Wagley and Galväo 1949), and eaten among Mexican
aboriginals like the Tepehua Indians (Heffern 1974; Williams-
Garcia 1975), it is not a major intoxicant in native rituals of
the western hemisphere. Plausible explanations might perhaps be
that Cannabis was introduced af ter the conquest and had to
compete with the numerous psychoactive plants already available
(Partridge 1975), and that nowadays it is an illegal intoxicant
in many colintries.
Substantial data on the snuffing of Cannabis by American
aboriginals appear to be lacking. A 19th century Portuguese
catalogue of objects from Amazonian tri bes states that 'parica
tobacco' was much used as a snuff and that 'pango, an African
tobacco', served as a substitute for pari ca (Teixeira de Aragäo
1892). Since the word pango is a vernacular name for Cannabis,
the question arises as to whether the catalogue may possibly
indicate the snuffing of hashish (Wassén 1972a). However, there
are no additional data whatsoever to support this suggestion.
2.1.4.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Since hemp has become a major recreational drug in western
society, more chemical and pharmacological research has been
directed to this plant than to any other natural hallucinogen
(van Praag 1972; Miller 1974; Braude and Szára 1976; Schultes and
Hofmann 1980b; Turner et al. 1980). In view of its minor role in
native American practices, the complex chemistry and pharmacology
of Cannabis are not discussed in detail here.
The most important constituents of Cannabis are cannabinoids.
Up to now, more than sixty cannabinoids have been detected in
hemp or in crude drugs prepared from hemp. Most of these are
tra ce components, and some are considered' to be artificial
(Schultes and Hofmann 1980b; Turner et al. 1980).
cannabinol (THC) is by Tar the most psychoactive one. In seized
samples from various countries, THC concentrations were in the
range of 0.4-5.0% in unspecified Cannabis parts and 1.1-8.7% in
Cannabis resin (Baker et al. 1981 ).
Acute intoxication with a Cannabis product appears to be a
reasonably benign experience. To elicit LSD-like activity, high
doses of THC are needed; modest doses merely induce
80
depersonalization and mild hallucinogenic effects (Meyer 1972).
Although neither smoking nor oral ingestion of hemp results in a
high bioavailability of THC, both methods of application can
produce a subjecti ve response (Ohlsson et al. 1980).
2.1.5. Capsicum species
Solanaceae
2.1.5.1. Ethnobotany
Some reviews on South American 'narcotics and stimulants' have
included Capsicum, because the Makusi of the Rupununi used
peppers as a stimulant and excitant (Roth 1924; Cooper 1949). The
Makusi poured a liquid preparation from crushed peppers and water
into the nostrils of patients with a headache (Roth 1924), More
recently, Uscátegui Mendoza (1965) reported the nasal use of a
Capsicum preparation among a Tukano group of the Colombian Vaupés
reg ion. Af ter they have danced and drunk alcoholic beverages the
night before, they pour a mixture of crushed pep per and water
into the nose to drive away the effects of the festivities. The
Tukano also practise this administration during their initiation
period. Occasionally, the initiates cleanse themselves by taking
drops prepared from fresh chili peppers through the nose, using
for this a small funnel made of a leaf (Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975).
When the consulted literature speaks about pepper, it either
identifies pepper as Capsicum or fails to offer a botanical name.
In the last case, it should be borne in mind that pep per is a
vernacular term which might also refer to a Piper species
(Hegnauer, pers.commun. 1983). ---
2.1.5.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The chemistry and psychopharmacology of Capsicum fruits are
discussed in section 1.1.5.2.
2.1.6. Datura species
Solanaceae
Datura innoxia Mill,
2.1.6.1. Ethnobotany
From pre-Hispanic times until the present day, Mexican Indians
have known the hallucinogenic properties of oral Datura
81
preparations (Safford 1922; Guerra 1967; Dfaz 1979). According to
a journalistic rather than scientifîc source, the dust of dry
toloachi leaves was taken in the Mexican town of Guanajuato as a
snuff (Reko 1949). TOloachi, more of ten denoted as tOloache, is a
vernacular name used for varîous Datura species, such as
D.înnoxia (Dfaz 1979; Schultes and Hofmann 1980b).
Although tree Daturas, now treated as the genus Brugmansia, are
common intoxicants in South American rituals (Cooper 1949;
Plowman 1981a), there does not seem to be evidence that they have
served as a source of snuffs (Schultes 1967b).
2.1.6.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The chemistry and psychopharmacology of Datura species are
discussed in sections 1.1.4.2 and 1.1.6.2.
2.1.7. Erythroxylum spec ies
Erythroxylaceae
Erythroxylum coca Lam.
var. ipadu Plowman
Erythroxylum fimbriatum peyr.
Erythroxylum macrophyllum Cav.
Erythroxylum novogranatense (Morris) Hieron.
var. truxillense (Rusby) Plowman
2.1.7.1. Ethnobotany
The widespread use of coca among the lndians of western South
America is weIl established (Bühler 1948; Cooper 1949; Schultes
1957. 1981b; Antonil 1978; Plowman 1979, 1981b: Wiedemann 1979:
Scheffèr 1981). lts role as a true ceremonial drug seems tö be of
minor importance, at least in present times (Cooper 1949;
Wiedemann 1979). The principal lndian way of taking Coca is
usually designated as chewing. A common method consists of
placing coca leaves in the mouth and rolling them around or
chewing them briefly until a wad has formed. The wad is held
reasonably still between cheek and gums, and lime or ash is added
periodically. The juice is swallowed and some of the leaf
material may occasionally be ingested (Bühler 1948; Cooper 1949;
Antonil 1978; Holmstedt et al. 1979). Another common method;
sometimes denoted as eating, èonsists of taking coca powder
prepared from pounded coca leaves and alkaline plant ash.
Moistening of the powder with saliva results in a pasty quid
which is held between the cheek and gums, and the juice is
82
swallowed. In contrast with a quid from whole leaves, which
cannot be totally swallowed, most and occasionally all of the
coca powder will pass to the stomach (Schultes 1957, 1981b;
Holmstedt et al. 1979; Plowman 1981b; Scheffer 1981).
Exceptional ways to utilize coca include the drinking of an
infusion from the leaves - among the Peruvian Pánobo Indians
(Tessmann 1930; Schultes 1981b). And, the injection of coca
powder into the mouth by means of a bag with a bone tube - by
certain tribes in the Vaupés reg ion (Plowman 1981b; Schultes
1981b). It is said that the Omaguas of northeastern Peru have
smoked coca leaves (Bühler 1948), but this claim is not supported
by a primary reference. In recent years, the urban youth of Peru
has developed the practice of smoking cigarettes containg coca
paste mixed with tobacco or marihuana; coca paste is a crude
extract from coca leaves (Jeri et aL 1978).
There are various undetailed statements on the Indian use of
coca snuffs (Hartmann 1890, Bühler 1948; Wilbert 1975; Plowman
1981b; Scheffer 1981), in particulat by certain tribes of the
northwest Amazon (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Schultes (1967b)
mentions the addition of powdered coca to tobacco snuff among the
Colombian Witoto and Yukuna Indians. In later publications he
reports, on the basis of reliable hearsay, that the Yukunas as
well as the Tanimukas may have utilized coca-ash powder as a
snuff in certain annual ceremonies (Schultes 1981 b, 1984), The
use of coca powder as a snuff by the Witotos has alsa been
reported by Wavrin (1948). Such use would seem a considerably
rare practice, since the Witotos are a relatively well-known
tribe, and most field workers fail to describe this method of
administration (Plowman 1981b).
The genus Erythroxylum includes perhaps as many as 250 species,
but only E.coca and E.novogranatense are cultivated in South
America. Bath species include two varieties. E.coca var. coca
(Bolivian or Huánuco coca) occurs throughout the wet tropical
valleys of the eastern Andes from Ecuador south to Bolivia,
whereas E.coca var. ipadu is cultivated in many parts of the
Amazon Basin. E.novogranätense var. novogranatense (Colombian
coca) is grown in drier regions of Colombia and Venezuela,
whereas its variety truxillense (Trujillo coca) is cultivated in
the dry Maranon valley and on the desert coast of northern Peru
(Holmstedt et aL 1977; Plowman 1979, 1981b; Plowman and Rivier
1983). The type of coca cultivated in the northwest Amazon, where
Coca snuffs are said to occur, is E.coca var. ipadu, but it
should be added that the Witotos and other ttibes in this area
mayalso employ the wild species E.fimbriatum and E.macrophyllum
(Schultes 1981 b).
83
2.1.7.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Dried leaves from the two main cultivated Erythroxylum species
are stated as having a total alkaloid content of about 0.5-2 %
(Hegnauer 1966; Grinspoon and Bakalar 1976). Their principal
alkaloid is undoubtedly cocaine (=benzoylmethylecgonine). It is
of ten claimed that the Trujillo leaf has a higher total alkaloid
content than the BOlivian leaf, but that the latter has a greater
proportion of cocaine to other alkaloids (Grinspoon and Bakalar
1976; Reynolds 1982; Novák et al. 1984). Recent studies on dried
South American Coca leaves have revealed cocaine percentages of
0.13-0.96% in E.coca var. coca, 0.11-0.41 % in E.coca var. ipadu,
0.17-0.93% in E.novogranatërlse var. novogranatense, and o ~
1 ;02% in E.novogranatense var. truxillense CHolmstedt et al.
1977; Plowman 1981 b; Plowman and Ri vier 1983). In other words,
the highest percentage of cocaine was fou"nd in the last variety,
which contradicts the belief that Trujillo coca is lower in
cocaine content than other varieties (Plowman and Rivier 1983).
There is some evidence to suggest a distinct phytochemical
difference between E.coca var. coca (Andean coca) and the variety
ipadu (Amazonian coca). Aftel" Amazonian and Andean coca plants
had been grown in the greenhouse under the same uniform
conditions, the dried leaves of the former yielded only 0.34-
0.41% of cocaine, whereas the latte I" showed consistently higher
pèrcentages of 0.51-0.81 %. If this finding can be confirmed, i t
might explain why Indlans of the Amazon Basin pulverize the coca
leaf before use (Plowman 1981b; Plowman and Rivier 1983).
Apparently no or very little cocaine is present in most wild
Erythroxylum species like E.fimbriatum and E.macrophyllum
(Hegnauer 1966; HOlmstedt et al. 1977; Plowman 1981b; Plowman and
Rivier 1983). In a recent study of 29 different species, a
cocaine percentage of 0.1% or more could only be demonstrated in
E.recurrens and E.steyermarkii (Plowman and Rivier 1983).
Reviews of the minor alkaloids, claimed as occurring in the two
main cultivated Erythroxylum species (Hegnauer 1966, 1981; Evans
1981; Novák et al. 1984), show the following picture:
11 ecgonine alkaloids (cis-cinnamoylcocaine, trans-cinnamoyl-
cocaine, ecgonine, norecgonine, norformylecgonine, methyl-
ecgonine, benzoylecgonine, cinnamoylecgonine, methylecgonidine.
alpha-truxill ine, beta-truxill ine);
5 tropine alkaloids (tropine, pseudotropine, dihydroxytropane,
tropacoca ine, benzoyltrop ine);
4 pyrrolidine alkaloids (hygroline, hygrine, cuscohygrine,
dihydrocuscohygrine);
2 other alkaloids (choline, nicotine).
84
The question arises as to how many of these reported minor
constituents are artifacts instead of naturally occurring
substances in living material. Rivier (1981) examined crude
ethanolic extracts of E.coca leaves without any further
purification by a GC-MS method, and could only demonstrate
cocaine, cis-cinnamoylcocaine and trans-cinnamoylcocaine as
endogenous alkaloids.
Depending on leaf age, species and variety, the cinnamoyl-
cocaines may represent 2-60% of the total alkaloid content
(Rivier 1981; Turner et al. 1981).
The acute and chronic toxicity of cocaine is discussed at
length by Grinspoon and Bakalar (1976), The most striking acute
systemic effect is stimulation of the central nervous system,
which can result not only from intravenous injection, but also
from oral ingestion (Van Dyke et al. 1978; Wilkinson et al.
1980), nasal application (vide 2.2.2.4), and smoking (Perez-Reyes
et al. 1982; Siegel 1982). The central stimulation manifests
itself as a feeling of well-being and euphoria, although
sometimes dysphoria occurs .• These effects may be accompanied by
garrulousness, restlessness, excitement, confusion, apprehension,
and anxiety (Ritchie and Greene 1980; Oderda and Klein-Schwartz
1982). Wh en used for a long time or in high doses, cocaine may
provoke a psychosis; an iatrogenous case has been recently
observed in a patient with oral stomatitis, who had been given 3
mI of a 10 % solution every 4 hours for more than two weeks
(Lesko et al. 1982).
Over the last few years, growing attention has been paid to the
metabolism of cocaine in man (Lindgren 1981; Oderda and Klein-
Schwartz 1982), and to the plasma levels of this alkaloid
(Barnett et al. 1981; Javaid et al. 1983).
Only a small portion of cocaine is excreted unchanged in the
urine. Major metabolites in human urine are the hydrolysis
produets benzoylecgonine (Fish and Wilson 1969; Jindal and
Vestergaard 1978) and ecgonine methylester (Inaba et al. 1978;
Ambre et al. 1983), There is evidence to suggest that the lat ter
compound is formed largely by esterases, and that the former one
results from spontaneous, nonenzymatic hydrolysis in the body
(Stewart et al. 1979). A minor metabolic pathway in man is N-
demethylation or cocaine to norcocaine (Inaba et al. 1978), which
in its turn might undergo hydrolysis (Stewart et al. 1979;
Lindgren 1981). Other minor metabolites, such as ecgonine, have
been demonstrated in multiple intoxication and overdose cases
(Lindgren 1981).
The pharmacological effects of cocaine and its metabolites,
af ter intravenous dosing, have been studied in the rat. No
85
observable effects were noted with benzoylecgonine af ter doses of
250 mg/kg and with ecgonine methylester or ecgonine af ter doses
of 200 mg/kg. Cocaine and norcocaine caused excessively rapid
heart beat, convulsions and death af ter injection of 20 mg/kg,
and lower doses of 5-10 mg/kg produced similar results without
mortality (Misra et al. 1975). In monkeys, norcocaine is
effective in maintaining intravenous self-administration,
although it is less potent than cocaine itself (Bedford et al.
1980; Spealman and Kelleher 1981). In contrast to cocaine,
however, norcocaine does not stimulate locomotor activity or
fixed-interval feeding behaviour of rats, which suggests that the
two compounds do not have the same behavioural profile (Bedford
et al. 1980).
These data indicate that only norcocaine is a pharmacological-
ly active metabolite of cocaine. Norcocaine seems to be a minor
metabolite in man, however, accounting only for 2.4% and 6.2% of
an oral dose in two subjects (Inaba et al. 1978). Consequently it
would appear that the activity of cocaine in man' is not
principally due to metabolites, but to the alkaloid itself.
Studies on nasal application do not show a close correlation
between the time course of effects and the curve of the plasma
level. Maximal central effects tend to occur prior to peak plasma
levels, and a certain level during the increasing phase of the
curve is associated with a more intense 'high' than the same
level during the decreasing phase (Van Dyke et al. 1978, 1982).
This phenomenon, which is known as acute tolerance, has also been
observed with central depressants like alcohol CJaffe 1980).
In a study on the chewing of coca powder and coca leaves,
material containing 16.8-48 mg of cocaine produced maximal
cocaine plasma levels of 11-149 ng/ml af ter about 1-2 Only
one of the studied subjects was an Indian, and thehighest level
of 149 ng/ml af ter 1 hour was obtained when this subject chewed
leaVes containing 21 mg of cocaine. Just as is the case with pure
cocaine, the subjects feIt stimulated during the rising phase of
the plasma curve, and they reported no more stimulation during
the falling phase, when the quid was still in the mouth. These
results suggest that central stimulation by coca leaves or powder
is primarily due to cocaine CHolmstedt et al. 1979).
This v iew is supported by a recent survey on the p'harmacology
of minor alkaloids. With respect to cinnamoyl-
cocaines, apparently the most important alkaloids besides
cocaine, the survey claims a lack of pharmacological activity.
Unfortunately. no discrimination is made between the c1s- and
trans-ferm (Novák et al. 1984). Furthermore, there is a recent
report that water-soluble alkaloid-free fr'act10ns of coca leaves
86
are not centrally active in the mouse (Harland et al. 1982).
Significant plasma levels of cocaine from coca chewing have
also been demonstrated by Paly et al. (1980). One of their test
groups included pure Indians and subjects of"mixed ancestry who
were experienced in the use of coca. They received 50 g of coca
leaves containing 0.65% of cocaine. Single blood samples drawn
during the chewing yielded plasma levels ranging from 130 to 859
ng/ml with a mean value of 249 ng/ml.
Until recently, it was commonly feIt that cocaine is ineffective
af ter oral administration because of poor bioavailability.
However, in recent human studies on the oral and nasal
application of 2 mg/kg cocaine HCl, oral administration did not
result in less euphoria or in lower bioavailability than nasal
dosing. In the oral experiments, cocaine was given in a gelatine
capsule, and plasma levels could not be detected until half an
hour af ter administration. This finding suggests that orally
ingested cocaine is not well absorbed until it reaches the small
intestine (Van Dyke et al. 1978; Wilkinson et al. 1980). Such a
time lag is not observed in coca chewers, who show measurable
plasma levels of cocaine af ter only 5 minutes of chewing
(Holmstedt et al. 1979). This implies that there is a significant
buccal absorption in coca chewers. Intestinal absorption will
occur as well, since coca chewers swallow the juice and mayalso
swallow plant material (vide 2.1.7.1). Since coca chewing
invoJ.ves significant buccal absot'ption, i t is somewhat a misnomer
from the pharmaceutical point of view to denote this practice as
oral administration.
The literature is not unanimous about the reason why coca
chewers add alkaline material like lime or plant ash to their
coca quid (Rivier 1981). Some authors express the view that these
admixtures produce an alkaline environment, in which cocaine is
hydrolyzed into benzoylecgonine and ecgonine before it is
absorbed. According to this supposition, not cocaine itself, but
metabolites like ecgonine have a central place in the
pharmacology of coca chew ing (N ieschulz 1971; Burchard 1975).
This hypothesis does not appear to be acceptable. Firstly, recent
in vitro experiments simulating natural conditions do not show an
immediate extensive hydrolysis of cocaine in an alkaline
environment (Rivier 1981). Secondly, experienced coca chewers
report local anaesthésia in the mouth, and this effect is
considered as an indication of the yield of alkaloid extracted
from the coca quid (Antonil 1978). Cocaine is known to be a
potent local anaesthetic (Ritchie and Green 1980), whereas
neither benzoylecgonine nor ecgonine have appreciable local
anaesthetic properties (Novák et al. 1984). Thirdly, the
87
metabolite hypothesis fails to explain why coca chewers show
substantial plasma levels of cocaine and why they report central
stimulation (Antonil 1978; Holmstedt et al. 1979; Paly et al.
1980). Another, much more acceptable explanation is, of course,
that the alkaline material facilitates the cocaine absorption
through the buccal mucosa (Antonil 1978; Holmstedt et al. 1979;
Rivier 1981; Siegel 1982). Furthermore, the addition of lime is
reported to transform the bitter and unpleasant flavour of coca
leaves into a more sweet and agreeable taste (Antonil 1978;
Siegel 1982).
Principal effects of coca chewing by South American Indians
are said to be a reduction of hunger, cold and fatigue (Hanna and
Hornick 1977). Considerable controversy still exists as to
whether the practice is detrimental or not (Holmstedt et al.
1979). Cases of acute overdosage or obvious chronic toxicity seem
to beuncommon among South American coca chewers (Grinspoon and
Bakalar 1976; Hanna and Hornick 1977; Antonil 1978). In contrast,
the heavy use of coca paste is strongly associated with a variety
of psychopathological states, including full-blown psychoses
(Jeri et al. 1978; Siegel 1982). Coca paste is a concentrated
extract from boca leaves, reported to contain 40-85% of cocaine
sulphate (Siegel 1982). Recently. coca paste cigarettes, each
containing 75 mg of co·caine, have been tested in regular users.
The smoking of one cigarette in 3 minutes produced cocaine plasma
levels of 91-462 ng/ml, and ad libitum smoking of five cigarettes
resulted in levels of 266-882 ng/ml af ter only 25-47 m inutes
(Paly et al. 1982).
2.1.8. Ilex guayusa
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex guayusa Loes.
2.1 .8.1. Ethnobotany
The use of Ilex guayusa as a ritual stimulant and emetic by
natives of the South American Montana area is well established
(Cooper 1949; Patino 1968; Schultes 1972a). Bundled leaves of
I.guayusa have been found, together with several snuff trays, in
a pre-Hispanic medicine-man's tomb of Highland Bolivia. This
joint occurrence in an archaeological context raises the
possibility that guayusa leaves may have once served as a source
of snuff, "but there is no direct evidence for this supposi tion
(Schultes 1972a, 1984; Wassén 1972b).
88
2.1.8.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The chemistry of I.guayusa and the psychopharmacology of its
principal alkaloid ca'ffeine are discussed in section 1.1.7.2.
2,1,9. Justicia pectoralis
Acanthaceae
Justicia pectoralis Jacq.
2.1 .9.1. Ethnobotany
Several groups of Waiká Indians prepare a snuff from Virola
exudate, the dried leaves of mashihiri, and vegetable ashes.
Technically, these Indians are known as the Yanomamö or Yanonami
Indians (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Prance 1972). The rnashihiri
plant, which is cultivated for this purpose, has been identified
as Justicia pectoralis var. stenophylla (Seitz 1965. 1967:
Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Brewer-Carias and Steyerrnark 1976;
Schultes 1978). Chagnon et al. (1971) report that different types
of Justicia are cUltivated, all Of which they tentatively
classify as different varieties of Justicia pectoralis or as
different forms of Justicia pectoralis var. stenophylla. SchuIt es
(pers. commun. to MacRae and Towers 1984b) feels that the variety
stenophylla is a growth form of J.pectoralis rather than a
genetic variant. In keeping with this suggestion, the varietal
epiphet is left out of the following discussion.
In some Waiká villages of the Brazilian Rorairna territory, the
dried leaves of Justicia pectoralis are commonly added to Virola
snuffs, apparently wi thout adding vegetable ashes (prance 1972).
A Waiká name for this plant is paxararok (Schultes 1978). The
Waikás of the Brazilian Tototob! River likewise prepare Virola
snuffs without ashes, and J.pectoralis (known as masha-hára-hanak
or boo-hanák) is added very occasionally (Schultes and Holmstedt
1968) •
Accörding to various field reports, Indians themselves consider
Justicia leaves an aromatic admixture, which has no intoxicating
effect, but merely improves the aroma of the Virola snuff (Seitz
1965. 1967; Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Prance 1972). Yet here
is evidence that the Waikás may use Justicia as the sole source
of a snuff (Schultes 1967b; Chagnon et al. 1971; Schultes and
Hofmann 1980b; McKenna et al. 1984b). The Caburiwe-Teri group,
living in the border region of Venezuela and Brazil, uses
mashihiri powder mostly to strengthen their more powerful Virola
snuff, but mashihiri can also be used alone. Since the powder is
89
too fine by itself, it is generally mixed with plant ashes before
use (Brewer-Carias and Steyermark 1976). Prance (pers. commun.
1984) has observed Waiká Indians at theTototob! River 'taking
pre-Justicia snuff without Virolaj af ter the shaman took this he
was apparently in a trance',
2.1.9.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Many reviews on botanical hallucinogens have included
J.pectoralis, stating that tryptamines (in particular dimethyl-
tryptamine) might be present, but that the preliminary
indications for this suspicion should be verified (Furst 1976aj
Emboden 1979a; Schultes and Farnsworth 1980; SchuIt es and Rofmann
1980a,b). These statements go back to the end of the sixties,
when preliminary chemical indications for the presence of
alkaloidal principles were reported (Schultes and Holmstedt
1968). At that time, a small amount of an indole alkaloid had
been isolated from J.pectoralis, but the material had been
harvested by Indians with Virola exudate on their hands, so it
may wel! have been contaminated (Holmstedt, pers. commun. 1984).
Additional studies by Holmstedt failed to detect an
hallucinogenic alkaloid in the dried leaves of J.pectoralis, used
as an admixture in the Roraima territory (prance 1972). This
negative chemical result corresponds with ethnological reports
that natives do not attribute hallucinogenic properties to the
aromatic herb.
Recently, coumarin and its 7-hydroxyderivative umbelliferone
have been found in Peruvian J.pectoralis (MacRae and Towers
1984b). These non-alkaloidal benzopyran compounds could also be
isolated from two Venezuelan Yanomamö snuffs, labeled as
mashahari and as buhenak + mashahara (McKenna et al. 1984b).
Coumarin is a fragrant principle. which has been used in
cosmetics and detergents (Opdyke 1974), According to
toxicological text books, it may produce nausea, vomiting,
headache, dizziness, and loss of consciousness (Lewin 1962; Braun
and Dönhardt 1975). lts pharmacokinetics in man have been studied
by Ritschel et al. (1977, 1979). Af ter oral ingestion, the
compound is absorbed completely, but only 2-6% reaches the
systemic circulation in intact form because of extensive first-
pass metabolisme The major metabolite is 7-hydroxycoumarin, which
in its turn undergoes glucuronidation. In a recent study in
gerbils, intraperitoneally administered coumarin distributed
rapidly into the cerebral tissue, whereas its metabolites 7-
hydroxycoumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronide entered the
brain only to a small extent, if at all. The tested dose of 40
90
mg/kg produced transient sedation, and this effect corresponded
rather weIl with the time of maximal coumarin brain concentration
and with the subsequent rapid removal of coumarin from the brain
(Ritschel and Hardt 1983). The same intraperitoneal dose of 40
mg/kg of coumarin was found to cause a longer and deeper level of
sedation in the rat, but this species is a poor 7-hydroxylator of
coumar in (Hardt and Ri tschel 1983).
All in all, 7-hydroxycoumarin (=umbelliferone) is unlikely to
have any central effect, and coumarin will thus not readily show
psychoactive symptoms when taken orally. Whether coumarin might
be centrally active in man via other routes of administration, is
still far from clear.
As Justicia pectoralis is mostly used as an admixture to
Virola, the question arises if this plant could modulate the
activity of Virola. To test this possibility, MacRae and Towers
(1984b) examined the influence of J.pectoralis extracts on the
effects of the Virola alkaloid 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine (5-
Meo-DMT) in the mouse. None of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and
ethyl ether extracts tested had any significant effect upon the
changes in behaviour and in locomotor activity induced by 5-MeO-
DMT.
Hegnauer (1964, pers. commun. 1985) points out that many
acanthaceous plants have cel Is enclosing calcium carbonate
(cystoli ths). If such cells would occur in J.pectoralis, this
admixture to Virola snuffs might give an alkaline reaction, which
might facilitate the absorption of the Virola alkaloids (vide
2.2.1). Thi s could be of i mportance when the snuff is prepared
from Virola and Justicia without the addition of alkaline plant
ash.
2.1.10. Maquira sclerophylla
Moraceàe
Maquira sclerophylla (Ducke) C.C. Berg
2.1.10.1. Ethnobotany
An enigmatic snuff, known only by the general Portuguese term
rapé dos indios, is said to have been formerly employed in the
central part of the Brazilian Amazon, especially in the Pariana
region. Direct observation of its preparation and use has never
been possible. The source of the snuff is reputed to be the fruit
of Maquira sclerophylla, which was first known as Olmedioperebea
sClerophylla (SchuIt es 1967b, 1984; Schultes and Farnsworth 1980;
Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). According to von Reis Altschul
91
(1972), the seeds of this gigantic forest tree are said to be a
traditional snuff source of the Mundurucu Indians.
2.1.10.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
Chemical and pharmacological data on Maquira sclerophylla have
apparently not been reported in the literature (Schultes and
Hofmann 1980b). According to Carlini and Gagliardi (1970). water
and ethanol extracts from wood of the related M a q u i r ~ calophylla
are devoid of Cannabis-like activity in animal experiments, even
at doses ten times those required for Cannabis sativa to
demonstrate such effects. These investigators announced that
their studies would be continued with extracts from leaves and
flow ers of M.calophylla and M.sclerophylla, but results have not
as yet been published (Schultes and Farnsworth 1980). Recently,
another research group has reported the isolation of the coumarin
derivatives marrnesin, oxypeucedanin hydrate and pranferol from
the stem bark of Maquira calophylla (Rovinski and Sneden 1984).
2.1.11. Nicotiana species
Solanaceae
Nicotiana rustica L.
Nicotiana tabacum L.
Nicotiana thyrsiflora Bitter ex Goodsp.
2.1.11.1. Ethnobotany
South American Indians are known to have used tobacco since
their earliest contacts with Europeans, and these practices
undoubtedly go back to pre-colonial times (Stahl 1925;
Castiglioni 1943; Cooper 1949; Bondeson 1972; Elfèrink 1983).
Most South American tri bes of the twentieth century take tobacco
in one form or another for magico-religious, medicinal and/or
recreational purposes. The major South American method of using
tobacco is smoking, but chewing, drinking, eating, licking and
snuffing are also weIl documented (Stahl 1925; Cooper 1949;
Zerries 1964; Wilbert 1972, 1975). Snuffirtg is said to be the
most widespread method of tobacco use in certain parts of South
America, especially in the wet, tropical lowland areas like the
Amazon valley (Schultes 1967b; SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980b).
According to Cooper (1949), the three main reg ions for whiCh
tobacco snuffs have been recorded, are the Orinoco territory, the
Montana region, with an extension down the Purus river, and early
colonial Peru. This author rightly cautions that, in the
92
literature, tobacco snuffs are not always clearly distinguishable
from truly hallucinogenic snuffs. Consequently, the actual use of
tobacco snuffs may have been somewhat less widespread than
generalizing statements would suggest (Schultes 1967b).
The Peruvians of the early colonial days have been reported as
taking a snuff prepared from tobacco root for medicinal reasons
(Cobo 1964), but most tobacco snuffs were and still are prepared
from the dried leaves (Cooper 1949; Schultes 1967b).
The mixing of tobacco powder with plant ashes has been recorded
for Arawak groups of the Purus river (Cooper 1949), such as the
Den!, Jarawara, and Jamamad! Indians (prance 1972, 1978). Tribes
of the Brazilian Guaporé River are said to have mixed tobacco
powder with vegetable ash and crushed angico seeds (Snethlage
1937). Angico may well refer to Anadenanthera (Schultes 1967b),
but also to other genera (von Reis Altschul 1972). Other reported
admixtures include Tanaecium (prance et al. 1977) and
Erythroxylum (Schultes 1967b).
Not only tobacco snuff, but also tobacco juice has been used
nasally. This practice has been documented for several tribes of
northeast Peru (Tessmann 1930), the famous Jivaro Indians
(Karsten 1935), and the Bush negroes of the Guiana region (Roth
1929). Recently. i t has been reported that the Creoles of French
Guiana and the Bush negroes of Surinam inhale a liquid through
the nostrils, which is prepared from tobacco leaves and plant
ash, for recreational purposes (Plotkin et al. 1980).
Of the 36 Nicotiana species occurring in South America
(Goodspeed 1954), Nicotiana tabacum is undoubtedly the principal
source of South American tobacco preparations (Schultes 1 9 6 7 b ~
In his elaborate monograph on the genus, Goodspeed (1954) even
goes so far as to state that no other species can be shown to
have been, or. wi th the possible exception of N.rustica, to be
today a source of tobacco in South America. This statement would
not seem entirely correct, however, as a herbarium annotation on
Peruvian N.thyrsiflora explicitly mentions the use of its leaves
for smok ing (von Reis and Lipp Jr. 1982).
Harrington (1932) reports that the Karuk Indians of California
use the express ion i mcakare.he.raha to designate the snuff ing of
tobacco, and the Nootka Indians of the northwest coast are said
to have snuffed tobacco (von Welck 1981). The snuffing of tobacco
powder in ancient Mexico has been recorded by the early authors
Hernández (1959) and Clavijero (1970). There appear to be few
references of this kind, so the practîce is not believed to have
been widespread in North and Middle America (Wilbert 1975;
Elferink 1983).
93
2.1.11.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The chemistry and psychopharmacology of tobacco are discussed
in section 1.1.9.2.
2.1,12. Pagamea macrophylla
Rubiaceae
Pagamea macrophylla Spr. ex Benth.
2.1.12.1. Ethnobotany
Among the Colombian Barasana Indians, the pulverized leaves of
Pagamea macrophylla are aspirated by medicine men, in the form of
a snuff, during ceremonies of divination. The Barasana name for
the plant is ma-nu-su-ka-ta (Schultes 1980a).
2.1.12.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The chemistry and psychopharmacology of Pagamea macrophylla
appear to be unknown (Schultes 1980a, 1984).
2.1.13. Piper interitum
Piperacea:e--
Piper interitum Treal. ex Macbr.
2.1.13.1. Ethnobotany
Among the Kulina Indians of eastern Peru, Piper interitum is
known as tetsi. These Indians are said to prepare a snuff from
the dried leaves and roots, which is used as a substitute for
tobacco (Schultes 1980b).
2,1.13.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
I am not aware of phytochemical or pharmacological research on
Piper interitum.
94
2.1.14. Tanaecium nocturnum
Bignoniaceae
Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb.-Rodr.) Bur. et K. Schum.
2.1.14.1. Ethnobotany
The Paumarf Indians of the Brazilian Rio Purus region prepare a
ritual snuff by mixing tobacco powder with the roasted, grounded
leaves of a vine called korib6. This vine has been botanically
identified as Tanaecium nocturnurn. According to the Indians, the
snuff has the same effect as another snuff, which they prepare
from the bark of Virola elongata. Paumarf women do not usually
take the snuff, but they drink an aqueous brew from the root bark
of korib6. This brew is said to produce drowsiness, inability to
concentrate, and reduced awareness (prance et al. 1977).
2.1.14.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The fresh leaves of Tanaecium nocturnum have been reported as
containing a very high concentration of hydrogen cyanide
(Grajales Diaz 1967). Field investigators found the fumes from
freshly collected material poisonous, causing dizziness and
headache in one of them. When the snuff is prepared, however, the
leaves are toasted and this probably removes the cyanide (prance
et al. 1977). Which compounds are formed or left intact during
the preparation of the snuff is still unclear. In 1978, chemical
and pharmacological studies were announced (prance 1978), but to
my knowIedge, the results of these investigations have not yet
been published.
The stem of Tanaecium nocturnum contains an essential oil
consisting almost exclusively of benzaldehyde (Gottlieb et al.
1981). Animal experiments have shown that this compound has
antispasmodic, local anaesthetic and antibacterial properties
(Macht 1923). According to toxicological textbooks, it is also
capable of producing centra 1 nervous depression (Gleason et al.
1969; Braun and D6nhardt 1975; Dreisbach 1977).
95
2.1.15. Virola species
Myristicaceae
Virola calophylla Warb.
Virola calophylloidea Markgr.
Virola cuspidata (Spr. ex Benth.) Warb.
Virola elongata (Spr. eX Benth.) Warb.
Virola rufula Warb.
Virola sebifera Aubl.
Virola theiodora (Spr. ex Benth.) Warb.
2.1.15.1. Ethnobotany
Many South American Indian tribes prepare potent psychoactive
snuffs from Virola species for ceremonial and recreational uses
(Schultes 1954, 1967b, 1984; Uscátegui Mendoza 1959; Seitz 1965.
1967; Wassén 1965, 1967; Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Prance
1970, 1972; Chagnon et al. 1971; Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975; Brewer-
Carias and Steyermark 1976; Prance et al. 1977; SchOltes and
Hofmann 1980a.b). All important ethnobotanical references to
these snuffs appèar to be comparatively recent. Older reviews on
the botanical sourees of South American snuffs tend to focus on
Nicotiana and Anadenanthera, and fail to pay any attent ion to
Virola (Cooper 1949). This raises the question as to whether this
merely reflects the insufficiency of certain early ethnobotanical
investigations, or whether it mayalso indicate a difference
between past centuries and the present. Whatever the answer may
be, it has become more and more clear that Virola is one of the
major sources of psychoactive South American snuffs, and that the
use of Anadenanthera snuffs is less widespread than was once
believed (Schultes 1954, 1967b; Schultes and Holmstedt 1968).
The principal native usérs of Virola snuffs are tribes in the
Colombian Vaupés region, and the Waiká Indians inhabiting the
upper Orinoco area in Venezuela and the Brazilian territory north
of the Rio Negro (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Schultes and
Hofmann 1980b). Depending on tribe and locality. the snuffs are
known under different native names, such as yá-kee, yá-to and
paricá in Colombia, and epéna, ebene, paricá and nyakwána in
Brazil (Seitz 1967; Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Schultes and
Hofmann 1980b). It should not be forgotten that these indigenous
names haVe no distinctive botanical value. Paricá mayalso refer
to Anadenanthera (vide 1.1.2.1) and epéna or ebene tends to be a
genera 1 term designating snuffs, regardless of their exact
botanical origin (Chagnon et al. 1971; Brewer-Garias and
Steyermark 1976),
The preparation of Virola snuffs is described in detail by
96
field workers like Schultes (1954), Seitz (1967), Schultes and
Holmstedt (1968), Prance (1970, 1972), Brewer-Carias and
Steyermark (1976), and Prance et aL (1977), Most snuffs appear
to be based on the powdered blood-red exudate from the inner bark
of Virola species (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Schultes and
Hofmann 1980b), but the Paumarl Indians of central Amazonia use
the entire bark and not merely its exudate (prance et al. 1977),
Seitz (1967) did not observe an admixture to Virola among the
Tukano Indians, but several Colombian tribes are reported as
mixing the Virola dust with plant ashes (Schultes 1954). Some
Waiká groups use the dusted exudate wi thout an admixture, whereas
other groups add aromatic Justicia leaves and/or vegetable ashes
(Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Prance 1970, 1972; Brewer-Carias
and Steyermark 1976). Other admixtures have been reported as
weIl, but unfortunately botanical identifications are not
available (Seitz 1967; Chagnon et al. 1971). The addition of
ashes is thought to serve as a means of drying, to free the
alkaloids more easily from the exudate, to keep the snuff from
rapid deterioration during storage, or merely for mechanical
purposes (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968). The addition of Justicia
is discussed in the section on this genus.
The effects of Virola snuffs seem to vary. but in Indians they
often include initial excitability, beginning within several
minutes of the first snuffing. This is followed by numbness of
the limbs, twi tching of the facial muscles, inability to
coordinate muscular activity, nausea, visual hallucinations with
frequent macropsia, and afterwards, a deep, disturbed sleep
(Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). The Indians themselves acknowledge
that it can be a dangerous practice to use large doses of a
Virola snuff. An informant illustrated this with the death of a
medicine-man, from the Colombian Puinave tribe, during a yá-kee
intoxication (Schultes 1954, 1967b). The Waiká Indians visited by
Seitz (1965, 1967) usually inhale two coffee-spoons full, one in
each nostril, which results in a short intoxication of
approximately one hour.
While snuffing is the most common way to administer Virola, it
is certainly not the only method employed by South American
natives. Venezuelan witch doctors are said to smoke the dried
bark of V.sebifera to cure fevers (von Reis Altschul 1967;
SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980b), and Brazilian witch doctors
reportedly smoke the bark of an indeterminate Virola species as
an additive to tobacco (McKenna et al. 1984b). In the past
decade, the oral ingestion of Virola preparations by the Hitoto
and Bora Indians of Amazonian Colombia and adjacent Peru has
become weIl documented (Schultes 1969; Schultes and Swain 1976;
97
Schultes et al. 1978). A recent publication describes the effect
of such oral preparations in a field investigator, who tested
four different samples in amounts exceeding those recommended by
native informants. Two of the samples exhibited oral activity,
but no strictly hallucinogenic response could be observed. The
most potent sample had the effect of a pressor amine or géneral
anaesthetic rather than the effect of an hallucinogen (McKenna et
aL 1984b).
Principal Virola species utilized to prepare snuffs are
V.calophylla and V.calophylloidea in the Colombian region, and
V.theiodora in theWaiká area (Schultes 1954; SchuIt es and
Hölmstedt 1968; Prance 1970, 1972; Holmstedt et al. 1980).
Another important Virolà species appears to be V.elongata. This
plant is used as a snuff souree by certain Waikás (Brewer-Carias
and Steyermark 1976), by the Paumarl Indians in central Amazonia
(prance et al. 1977), and possibly by the Taiwanos in Amazonian
Colombia (Schultes 1954). In a recent taxonomie monograph on
Virola, Rodrigues (1980) treats V.theiodora as equivalent to
V.elongata, but Schultes (1982) prefers to consider the two as
separate species, since they look very different in the field and
are widely recognized as distinct by Indians who use them.
Other species of which the nasal use has been suggested in the
literature, include V.cuspidata and V.rufula (Biocca 1968).
Unfortunately. these suggestions are not supported by herbarium
voucher specimens (SchuItes. 1982). Rodrigues (1980) considers
both binomials as synonyms of V.elongata, b u ~ the different
phytochemistry of V.cuspidata casts doubt on its disposition
under V.elongata (Schultes 1982).
2.1.15.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The chemistry of Virola species has been studied by Agurell et
aL (1969), Holmstedt et al. (1980), and McKenna et al. (1984b).
These studies have shown that the following tryptamine a.lkaloids
ean be present in the Virola genus: tryptamine (=T). N-mono-
methyltryptamine (=MMT), 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptamine (=5-
MeO-MMT), N ,N--dimethy ltryptamine (=DMT). and 5-methoxy-N ,N-
dimethyltryptamine (=5-MeO-DMT). Although the Indians usually
employ only the bark and especially its exudate, tryptamines have
not only been demonstrated in bark samples, but also in samples
of leaves, flowering shoots, and roots. In addition to tryptamine
derivatives, beta-carbolines could be isolated as minor
components: 2-methyl-1 ,2,3. 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (=MTHC),
6-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2.3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (=6-MeO-MTHC).
and 6-methoxy-1 ,2--d imethyl-1 ,2,3. 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline
98
(=6-MeO-DMTHC). Such compounds might be expected from the point
of view of biosynthesis and workup procedure (Holmstedt et al.
1980) •
Bark samples of V.calophylla, V.calophylloidea, V.rufula and
V.theiodora were found to have DMT and 5-MeO-DMT astheir main
alkaloids (Agurell et al. 1969; Holmstedt et al. 1980). An
exudate sample of V.elongata contained T, MMT, DMT andMTHC; a
bark sample of this species yielded MMT and DMT as principal
alkaloids (Holmstedt et al. 1980). The bark of V.sebifera may
contain DMT, 5-MeD-DMT and MMT (Corothie and Nakano 1969; McKenna
et al. 1984b), whereas 6-methoxy-harman, 6-methoxy-harmalan, and
6-methoxy-tetrahydroharman are present in V.cuspidata (Cassady et
al. 1971).
When these chemical data on Virola species are considered, the
possibility must be kept in mind that a natural alkaloid
composition might alter during the preparation and the storage of
a snuff (Holmstedt et al. 1980). For instanee, one step in the
preparation of Virola snuffs involves concentration of the
exudate to a thick syrup. The effect of such a treatment on 6-
methoxy-tetrahydroharman, the major component in V.cuspidata, was
determined in the laboratory. Refluxing in water for eight hours
resulted in partial aromatization to 6-methoxy-harmalan and 6-
methoxy-harman (Cassady et al. 1971). However, snuffs from tribes
familiar with Virola contain the same simple tryptamine alkaloids
which are also found in Virola plant material (Holmstedt and
Lindgren 1967; Agurell et al. 1969; McKenna et al. 1984b). A
nyakwána snuff, which had been prepared solely -fromthe exudate
of V.theiodora by the Waiká Indians of the Brazilian Rio
Tototobf, yielded an unusually high total alkaloid content of
11 %, consisting mainly of 5-MeD-DMT and DMT (Agurell et al.
1969). The Anadenanthera alkaloid bufotenin, which apparently
does not occur in Virola plants, is also absent in Virola snuffs
(Holmstedt et al. 1980).
Pharmacological data on DMT and 5-MeD-DMT, the major alkaloids
in utilized Virola spec ies, are summarized in section 1.1.2.2.
The pronounced hallucinogenic activity of these N,N-dimethylated
tryptamine derivatives is probably not seen with T, MMT and 5-
MeD-MMT (Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975). T was reported as
producing changes in perception anti sensation in patients by
intravenous infusion of 0.025-0.364 mg/kg/min for a total dose of
23-277 mg during an experlmental day (Martin and Sloan 1970).
There is little doubt, however, that the observed effects were
largely autonomie in nature (Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975; Kantor
et al. 1979). In an earlier study, intravenous infusion of 1
mg/mirt for a total dose of 10-40 mg, did not change the
99
subjective state or the blood pressure and pulse of depressed
patients pretreated with a MAO-inhibitor (Coppen et al. 1965).
Human studies on the activi ty of MMT and 5-MeQ-MMT seem to be
lacking (Kantor et al. 1979). Behavioural studies in animals
suggest that these compounds are probably not hallucinogenic
(Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975; Gillin and Wyatt 1977). In the
rat, 5-MeQ-MMT was found to cross the blood-brain barrier only to
an extremely small extent, whereas a rapid crossing of 5-MeO-DMT
could be shown (Vogel 1969). Consequently 5-MeO-MMT is not likely
to exert profound central effects.
Animal experiments show that T. MMT and 5-MeO-MMT are rapidly
and extensively metabolized into their corresponding indoleacetic
acids. Since Tand its N-monomethylated congeners are good
substrates for monoamine oxidases, these enzymes are held
responsible for the convers ion (Vogel 1969; Brimblecombe and
Pinder 1975).
Besides the tryptamines, the commonly utilized Virola species
may contain small amounts of the beta-carbolines MTHC, 6-MeO-MTHC
and 6-MeQ-DMTHC (Holmstedt et al. 1980). One of the best studied
pharmacological properties of such simple beta-carbolines is
their MAO-inhibiting activity. Over the years it has been
demonstrated that series of beta-carbolines have this effect in
vitro (Udenfriend et al. 1958; Pletscher et al. 1959; McIsaac and
Estevez 1966; Buckholtz and Boggan 1977; McKerma et al. 1984a).
Experimental data on MTHC and 6-Meo-DMTHC are still awai ted, but
a recent study has compared 6-MeO-MTHC wi th various common beta-
carbolines. On a molar base, the Banisteriopsis constituents
harmine and harmal ine were the most potent MAO-inhibi tors, and
the Virola alkaloid 6-MeQ-MTHC was found to be in the same
intermediate range of potency as harman and harmol (McKenna et
al. 1984a). It should be noted, however, that studies on the
relative potency of beta-carbolines have used different methods
of assessing MAO-inhibition, and that their results are partly
conflicting (McIsaac and Estevez 1966; Buckholtz and Boggan 1977;
McKenna et al. 1984a). Since the tryptamine alkaloids in Virola
species serve as subs"trates for MAO (vide 1.1.2.2), it is
sometimes speculated that 6-MeQ-MTHC and itscongeners may modify
the activity of the Virola tryptamines by acting as MAQ-
inhibitors (Furst 1976a; Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). However,
these beta-carbolines usually occur in Virola in trace amounts,
unlikely to be of pharmacological importance (Holmstedt
et al. 1980; McKenna et al. 1984b). In other words, unlike the
DMT inayahuasca beverages (vide 1.1.3.2), the tryptamines in
oral Virola preparations stand little or no chance of being
protected from first-pass metabolism by beta-carbolines.
100
Recently, various lignans have been isolated from the bark of
Virola elongata, and some of these non-alkaloidal constituents,
when given intraperitoneally to mice, could be shown as reducing
isolation induced aggression and spontaneous locomotor activity
(MacRae and Towers 1984a). It is not yet clear, however, whether
the reported oral activity of native Virola drugs should be
attributed to these lignan derivatives (McKenna et al. 1984b).
The MAO-inhibi ting act i v i ty of 6-methoxy-harman, 6-methoxy-
harmalan and 6-methoxy-tetrahydroharman, the alkaloids in
V.cuspidata, is weIl documented (McIsaac and Estevez 1966;
Buckholtz and Boggan 1977; McKenna et al. 1984a). Interestingly,
6-methoxy-harmalan and 6-methoxy-tetrahydroharman have been found
to be psychoactive in man. They appear to produce a state of
inspiration and heightened introspection rather than an
hallucinogenic experience in the strict sense. In the case of 6-
methoxy-harmalan, subjective effects become apparent with
approximate oral dosages of 1.5 mg/kg (Naranjo 1967).
2.1.16. Conclusion
From the ethnobotanical, chemical and psychopharmacological
approach to intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere,
the following categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise:
1) It is weIl established that the plant contains one or more
psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a
ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or is quite probable:
Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Nicotiana, Virola.
2) It is weIl established that the plant contains one or more
psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a
ritual snuff ingredient is not weIl recorded or is even
unlikely:
Banisteriopsis, Cannabis, Datura, Ilex guayusa.
3) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is
confirmed or is quite probable, but it is not weIl established
that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles:
Justicia pectoralis, Pagamea macrophylla, Tanaecium nocturnum.
4) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is
not weIl recorded, and it is not weIl established that the
plant contains one or more psychoactive principles:
Acorus calamus, Capsicum, Maquira sclerophylla, Piper
interitum. -----
101
CHAPTER TWO PART TWO
NASAL PHARMACOKINETICS AND EFFICACY OF POSSIBLE RITUAL SNUFF
CONSTITUENTS
2.2.1. General introduction
Since the 1920s, medical practitioners have treated diabetes
insipidus with the nasal insufflation of posterior pituitary
powder (Choay and Choay 1946; Carter and Shorr 1947). In the last
two decades, this treatment has been superseded by the
application of synthetic sub stances like lypressin and
desmopressin. Just like the pituitary snuff, these pure compounds
show substantial antidiuretic activity when applied to the nasal
mucosa (Dashe et aL 1964; Kosman 1978). Despite this long-
standing evidence, nasal administration has never been adopted in
the medical profession as a generally useful method of systemic
delivery of drugs. Until recently, the nasal route has been
employed almost exclusi vely for local treatment. Common examples
are the topical use of corticosteroids, sympathicomimetics and
antihistamines for perennial rhinitis and the like (Empey and
Medder 1981). Such topical drugs are not intended, of course, to
be absorbed into the general circulation from the nose, but the
occasional systemic side-effects of nasal sympathicomimetics and
antihistamines indicate that systemic availability is not always
negligible (Parr 1983). Recent case reports associate nasal
sympathicomimetic preparations with the development of a
psychotic syndrome af ter long-term abuse (Snow et al. 1980;
Escobar and Karno 1982), and with central excitation or
depression in small children af ter apparently normal dosing
(Söderman et aL 1984).
Before the seventies, human studies on the systemic efficacy of
nasal preparations were limited to a handful of therapeutic drugs
besides pituitary snuff and synthetic antidiuretic compounds
(Riegelman and Sorby 1971; Gorman and Hall 1973; Ritschel 1973),
In the last few years, the interest in nasal administration as a
convenient way to introduce drugs into the body has revived.
Recent research has especially confirmed the potential usefulness
of nasal application for drugs, which show a very poor effect in
man af ter oral administration, such as: insulin (Hirai 1982;
Pontiroli et aL 1982), buserilin (Bergquist et aL 1979; Koch
1981), testosterone (Danner and Frick 1980), nitroglycerin (Hill
et aL 1981), glucagon (Pontiroli et aL 1983), and protireline
(Borkenstein 1983). The advantage which the nasal rOUGe appears
102
to have for certain drugs over the oral route, can be easily
explained. Drugs which are absorbed through the nasal mucosa,
immediately enter the general circulation, and thus evade any
form of presystemic degradation by the acid gastric juice and
first-pass elimination by intestinal and hepatic enzymes. Among
the various drugs of which the oral efficacy is greatly reduced
by first-pass metabolism, are the sex hormones progesterone and
testosterone. In recent studies on the kinetics of these hormones
in the rat, nasal and intravenous administration resulted in
practically similar systemic availability, whereas the
availability following duodenal administration was approximately
1 % that of intravenous dosing (Hussain et al. 1981, 1984). Wi th
respect to humans, the most striking data have been obtained for
the beta-receptorblocking agent propranolol Hel, which is known
to suffer from an extensive first-pass effect when taken orally.
Intravenous and nasal doses of 10 mg produced practically
identical serum levels; an oral amount of 80 mg produced
relatively low serum levels and, af ter adjustment for the dose
difference, the oral availability was only 25% of the intravenous
availability (Hussain et al. 1980).
Nasal application does not only prevent presystemic
elimination, it is also a rapid way of drug delivery. Most of the
recent human studies mentioned above show peak levels and/or
maximal activity within half an hour af ter nasal dosing. It is
not difficult to understand such findings, when the anatomy and
physiology of the nose are taken into consideration. The nasal
cavity comprises an olfactory region in its extreme upper area
and arespiratory reg ion in its lower and greatest part. In the
different regions, the nasal mucous membrane varies in lts
thickness and its vascularity. It is thick and most vascular in
the upper area and over the septum, but on the floor of the nasal
cavity and in the sinuses the membrane is very thin. The surface
area is enlarged by the subdivision into sinuses, and it is
further increased by the presence of microvilli comparable to
those in the small intestine. In addition, the vascular bed of
the respiratory mucosa within the nose appears to be designed for
the rapid passage of fluid and dissolved materials from the blood
vessels to the tissues and vice versa. All in all, the nose is a
suitable site for drug absorption, and this seems to be
particularly true for the respiratory region (parr 1983).
The use of nasal dosage forms for systemic therapy may have its
drawbacks. A large variability in systemic effects, resulting in
an erratic response, has been strongly emphasized by some early
investigators (Talledo et al. 1964; Hankiss 1982). In the case of
cocaine, the rate of absorption from the nasal mucosa appears to
103
be highly variable, and as this alkaloid is a potent vaso-
constrictor, this might be due to a fluctuating degree of local
vasoconstriction (Wilkinson et al. 1980) . A recent major concern
is the ciliotoxicity of active constituents and additives (van de
Donk and Merkus1981) .
Clinical studies onthe nasal application of psychoactive
alkaloids are summarized below. Wherever possible, the
relationship bet ween dose and activity is indicated. Field
i nvestigators report that an Indian snuff dose usually does not
exceed 5 g (Coppens and Cato-David 1971) or ab out one to two
teaspoons full, which would be equal tö some 5-10 g (Schultes
1954; Turner and Merlis 1959). It seems difficult, if not
impossible, to retain suéh large doses completely. In other
words, when a snuff contains 1 % of a psychoactive alkaloid, the
nasal threshold level of this alkaloid should be less than 50-100
mg to get an effect from one dose, and when only 0.1 % is
present, a threshold level lower than 5-10 mg will be required.
It must be emphasized, however, that the pertinence of clinical
results to snuffing rituals may be somewhat limited. Nasal
absorption does not only depend on the physicochemical properties
of the active compound (pKa, partition coefficient, molecular
size), but it is a l so governed by other factors . Potentially
influential differences between experimental and native practices
include:
- characteristics of the drug product
In si tu recirculation tests wi th the nasal .cavi ty of the rat have
shown that the absorption rate of weak electrolytes is pH-
dependent. In the case of aminopyrine (=aminophenazone), the
absorption behaviour even closely fol l owed the rules of the pH-
partition theory. which assumes that only unionized drug
molecules are capable of passive diffusion across a mucous
membrane (Hirai et al . 1981) . It would thus appear that the
common addition of alkaline plant ashes or lime to South American
snuffs may be significant. Up to half of a snuff can consist of
plant ash (Seitz 1967; Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Prance 1972) .
Just as is the caSe in coca chewing practices, the addition öf
such a l kaline material may facilitate the diffusion of the
al kaloids through the mucous membrane. Vegetable ash might
further promote absorption by helping to prevent agglomeration of
the snuff powder (Schul tes 1967b).
Clinical studies on insulin (Hirai 1982), gentamicin
(Rubinstein 1983), and scopolamine (Tonndorf et al . 1953) have
de monstrated that surfactants have a great potential for
enhancing nasal drug absorption. Consequently it would be
i nteresting to ascertain , whether South American snuffs contain
104
surface-active compounds like saponins (Hegnauer, pers. commun.
1984), and if so, whether these compounds improve the absorption
of the alkaloidal consti tuents.
- characteristics of the user
A potential difference between western individuals and South
American Indians is that the western subjects may be less able to
retain a nasal powder. In clinical studies on Piptadenia snuffs,
most of the dose was discharged by sneezing and coughing, because
of the inexperience of the test subjects (Turner and Merlis
1959).
Another potential difference may be the condition of the nasal
mucosa. British tobacco snuffers who had used commercial snuff
for at least twenty years turned out to have a generalized
atrophy of the nasal mucosa. Biopsy in four snuffers confirmed
metaplasia of the ciliated columnar epithelium to squamous
epithelium over the middle turbinal and adjoining nasal septum
(Harrison 1964). Similarly, chronic abuse of cocaine via the nose
may lead to inflammatory changes and perforation of the nasal
septum (Sawicka and Trosser 1983). Natanson (1975) feels that the
nasal perforation seen in immodera:te cocaine Sniffers should be
attributed to the intense vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine.
In view of such data, it may weIl be that the regular use of
snuff by South American Indians results in degeneration of their
nasal mucosa. This factor should be taken into account, since
nasal drug absorption may be decreased (Ritschel 1973) or
increased (Parr 1983) by local inflammation. In recent rat
experiments, the nasal absorption of the quaternary ammonium
compound clofilium was substantially bet ter when the administered
concentration became so high that it damaged the nasal mucosa (Su
et al. 1984).
- method of administration
Among some tribes, one Indian blows the snuffing powder
forcefully through a tube into the nostril of another Indian,
whereas other tribes know self-administration, either by direct
inhalation through a bifurcated or straight tube, or by placing
one end of a V-shaped tube into the mouth and the other end into
the nostril (Cooper 1949; Wassén 1965; SchuIt es 1967b; Seitz
1967; Coppens and Cato-David 1971; Prance 1972; Reichel-Dolmatoff
1975). The forceful blowing through a V-shaped or straight tube
is likely to give a more widespread deposition than direct
inhalation (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967). When tobacco snuff is
inhaled cautiously, the snuff will probably reach no further than
the anterior part of the nasal tract, whereby a small quantity
will go down into the pharynx (Fraser Roberts 1962). In a study
with chronic tobacco snuffers, inhaled pinches of barium sulphate
105
powder with an average size of 20 ~ m could be primarily collected
in the middle meatus of every snuffer (Harrison 1964), The
forceful blowing in Indian practices will project the snuff
against the well perfused semicavernous tissue of the nasal
conchae (Holmstedt, pers. commun. 1983), and small partieles may
even reach the lungs (Chinachotiand Tangchai 1957; Fraser
Roberts 1962; Huggins et al. 1962). According to text books, the
partiele size of a nasal powder should not be below 10-20
micrometer to prevent passage into the tracheal and pulmonary
area (Gor man and Hall 1973; Dolder 1978). Holmstedt and Lindgren
(1967) assume that, even in the case of forceful blowing, the
main part of the administered material will affect the brain from
the nose. There does not appear to be solid evidence that snuff
constituents may pass directly into the brain without being
transported through the gener al circulation. Consequently it
should be accepted that snuff constituents are absorbed through
the richly vascularized nasal mucosa, and reach the brain via the
general blood-stream (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967).
2.2.2. Specific constituents
2.2.2.1. Atropine
Vide section 2.2.2.8.
2.2.2.2. Bufotenin
Vide section 2.2.2.5.
2.2.2.3. Caffeine
Recent studies have demonstrated that an oral dose of 5 mg/kg
of caffeine results in maximal plasma levels of 9-10 ~ g / m l
af ter half an hour, and in complete bioavailability (Blanchard
and Sawers 1982, 1983). These good oral absorption
characteristics and the physicochemical properties of caffeine
(Windholz 1983) suggest that this alkaloid may be rapidly
absorbed from nasal dosage forms.
To obtain anecdotal experimental evidence for this supposition,
I have taken pure anhydrous caffeine (OPG, Utrecht) as a nasal
powder, The powder had a particle size of 10-30 ~ m , but many
agglomerates of 100-300 ~ m were present. At the time of the
experiment, I was a non-inhaling tobacco smoker and a regular
user of coffee and beer. Af ter abstention from xanthine-
106
containing products for two days and af ter an overnight fast, a
total dose of 6.4 mg/kg was self-administered into both nostrils
with a glass tube. A small fraction of the dose was lost because
of some nasal mucOus discharge. Venous blood samples were drawn
at 0,10,20,35,50,100,120,240, and 360 min af ter
administration. Each sample was centrifuged and the resulting
plasma was kept frozen until submission to analysis.
Plasma levels we re assayed by Jan H.G. Jonkman and Wim J.V. van
der Boon (Pharma Bio-Research International, Assen). They Used a
sensitive high pressure liquid chromatographical method
comparable to that developed by Jonkman et al. (1980) for
theophylline. Details are provided in Appendix D.
Af ter administration, some mild transient stimulation was feIt,
not unlike the effect of a first tobacco cigarette in the
morning. The plasma level was already 7.9 ~ g / m l at 10 min and
10.9 ~ g / m l at 20 min. The level was still 9.8 ~ g / m l at 120 min,
whèreafter it declined in a semilogarithmic way to 6.3 ~ g / m l at
360 min. Some unabsorbed caffeine powder could be reCovered from
the nasal cavity one hour af ter the end of the experiment.
All in all, the nasal absorption of pure caffeine powder was
rapid in onset, but still incomplete af ter seven hours.
2.2.2.4. Cocaine
In official western medicine, cocaine is no longer used
systemically, but because of its good local anaesthetic effects
and potent vasoconstrictive properties, cocaine is still applied
as a surface anaesthetic, especially in nasal surgery (Johns et
al. 1977; Ri tchie and Greene 1980). Cocaine is also a major drug
of abuse, and a common method of rècreational administration is
snorting into the nostrils (Jaffe 1980). Consequently the medical
profession needs clinical data on the kinetic behaviour and
systemic toxicity of this alkaloid af ter nasal administration.
Such data were not available some years ago, but this picturehas
been changed completely by the recent development of specific and
sensitive methods for the determination of cocaine in biological
fluids (Lindgren 1981; Barnett et al. 1981). Since 1976, there
has been a continuous flow of publications On the plasma levels
and/or systemic effects of nasal cocaine in an experimental
setting (Van Dyke et al. 1976, 1978, 1982; Byck et al. 1977:
Resnick et al, 1977a,b; Javaid èt al. 1978, 1983: Wilkinson et
al. 1980). Itshould be emphasized that most of the crucial
results have been obtained in small series of three or four
subjects. This is not surprising, as cocaine has a notorious
reputation as a dangerous drug, and it is classified under
107
narcotic laws, so that legal problems are involved with its
experimental use. Investigators in the United States spent
approximately one year clearing the permissions and various
consent forms through the requisite committees (Byck et al.
1977). From the methodological view, a small number of subjects
is unfortunate, since the kinetic studies on nasal cocaine show
large interindividual differences (Wilkinson et al. 1980; Javaid
et al. 1983). .
Van Dyke and associates have reported extensively on nasal
cocaine kinetics (Van Dyke et al. 1976, 1978, 1982; Byck et al.
1977; Wilkinson et al. 1980). T h e i ~ first study was carried out
before they had solved the problem of the in vitro hydrolysis of
cocaine (Barnett et al. 1981), and the subjects were surgical
patients, who received other drugs concomitantly. However, the
study shows some interesting results. Cocaine plàsma levels could
already be detected within 3 min af ter giving a nasal solution
with 1.5 mg/kg of cocaine HCl, so the onset of nasal cocaine
absorption was extremely rapid. The presence of unabsorbed
cocaine on the nasal mucosa could be demonstrated for as long as
3 hours af ter administration, so the absorption was also
prolonged. The lat ter phenomenon was attributed to the potent
vasoconstrictive effects of the alkaloid (Van Dyke et al. 1976).
Van Dyke and associates have subsequently used healthy
volunteers with a previous history of recreational cocaine use
(Byck et al. 1977: Van Dyke et al. 1978, 1982; Wilkinson et al.
1980). In 1980, they reported on the influence of dose and dosage
form ön nasal cocaine kinetics. An increase in dose resulted in a
higher peak plasma level of cocaine: nasal solutions with 0.19
mg/kg to 2.0 mg/kg of cocaine Hel produced mean peak
concentrations of 13 ng/ml (af ter 41 min) to 170 ng/ml (af ter 91
min). The relative bioavailability was found to be independent of
the dose. Unfortunately, these results were obtained in only a
partially cross-over fashion. A cross-over comparison was made
between the levels from a nasal solution and levels af ter
snorting the same dose of crystalline cocaine Hel. The crystals
tended to produce an earlier and higher peak as weIl as a larger
area under the plasma concentration/time curve, but major
differences in kinetics were not observed (Wilkinson et al.
1980) .
Javaid et al. (1978, 1983) have tested nasal powders of 100 mg
(consisting of 16, 64 or 96 mg of cocaine Hel mixed with lactose)
in healthy volunteers with a history of cocaine use. In their
first study, plasma levels were analyzed without the use of an
internal standard, and Barnett et al. (1981) estimate the lower
limit of reliability of their analytical assay to be in the range
108
of 50-100 ng/ml. The highest dose in the study (96 mg) produced a
mean peak level of 206 ng/ml af ter 30 min (Javaid et al. 1978).
An internal standard was included in the analytical procedure of
the second study, which lowered the limit of sensitivity to 5
ng/ml. In contrast with the findings of Wilkinson et al. (1980),
not only the mean peak concentration was found to be dose-
dependent, but also the relative bioavailability. A nasal powder
with 64 mg of cocaine Hel gave an average peak level of 67 ng/ml
af ter 37 min, whereas a mean peak of 133 ng/ml was observed 41
min af ter the administration of 96 mg. The mean bioavailability
(relative to an intravenous dose of 32 mg of cocaine Hel in the
same subjects) was 28% for the dose of 64 mg, and 57% for the
dose of 96 mg (Javaid et al. 1983).
From the preceding data, it can be concluded that cocaine
absorption from nasal dosage forms is rapid in onset, but that
unabsorbed cocaine remains present in the no se for a considerable
time. This may explain, at least partly, why the bioavailability
of nasal cocaine powders was found to be incomplete.
Several studies have compared the plasma levels and subjective
effects of nasal cocaine in volunteers who had previously used
cocaine recreationally. In general, maximal central effects tend
to occur before the plàsma level has reached a peak value (Van
Dyke et al. 1978, 1982; Javaid et al. 1978), Van Dyke et al.
(1982) found that 0.75 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg of cocaine Hel as a
nasal solution produced maximal 'highs' within 30 min, whereas
mean peak plasma levels of 43 ng/ml and 108 ng/ml, respectively,
did not occur before 60 min. They also that central
stimulation is more intense during the rising phase of the plasma
concentration/time curve than during the falling phase. The same
phenomenon has been observed in coca chewers (Holmstedt et al.
1979) •
The subjective effects of nasal cocaine are, not unexpectedly,
dependent on dose, personality and setting. In the cross-over
study by Van Dyke et al. (1982), 1.5 mg/kg of cocaine Hel
produced a greater subjective response than 0.75 mg/kg. Their
report shows, however, that the 'highs' produced by 0.75 mg/kg
were less intense than those observed af ter an initial
familarization dose of 0.4 mg/kg. Apparently, the subjects
responded differently during the first experiment than during the
actual study. A dose of 0.2 mg/kg was also tested, but this dose
did not elicit a greater reponse than 0.2 mg/kg of lidocaine Hel,
alocal anaesthetic without euphorizing properties. It would
therefore appear that 0.2 mg/kg (14 mg170 kg) is below the
minimum threshold dose of cocaine Hel needed for central activity
by the nasal route, whereas 0.4 mg/kg (28 mg/70 kg) is probably
109
above this threshold level. Similar data have been obtained by
Resnick et al. (1977a,b). who compared subjective and somatic
effects of nasal cocaine with those of lidocaine and tetracaine
without analyzing cocaine plasma levels. Subjective effects af ter
placebo and af ter 10 mg of cocaine (as a sOlution) were the same,
whereas 25 mg of cocaine produced some significant subjective
changes. More experienced cocaine users rated subjective effects
lower than others who showed an equally large somatic repsonse.
2.2.2.5. Dimethyltryptamine and related compounds
There is substantial evidence to suggest that the active
tryptamines in Anadenanthera and Virola species undergo extensive
first-pass elimination by intestinal and hepatic enzymes (vide
1.1.2.2). Since the nasal route certainly can prov ide the
advantage of bypassing such presystemic inactivation, this may
explain why both genera are most of ten taken nasally in South
America. So far as I know, conclusive clinical support for this
assumption has not been published. Human studies on the nasal
application of tryptamine alkaloids were conducted in the
fifties. but they failed to demonstrate hallucinogen-like
activity via the nasal route. This is probably duet at least in
the case of DMT, to the testing of low and therefore subactive
doses.
Turner and Merlis (1959) have assessed the effects of nasal DMT
in one hea1thy volunteer and four schizophrenic individuals. DMT
powder in quantities of 5 to 20 mg merely caused a burning
sensation in the back of the nose and throat. On one occasion, 10
mg elicited a feeling of being 'hit on the head' in apatient,
and this sensation was concomitant with unilateral flushing of
the face and mydriasis. Since DMT is well lipid soluble at pH 7.4
(Glennon et al. 1979), po or nasal absorption is not the most
likely explanation for the observed lack of psychoactive
symptoms. A more obv ious reason is inadequate dos ing, as the
tested nasal amounts were below the threshold dose of 30 mg,
needed to elicit subjective perception changes in man by
intramuscular injection (Szára 1957).
Turner and Merlis (1959) have also given bufotenin nasally to
schizophrenic subjects. and just as in their nasal experiments
with DMT, the tested dose range was low. When bufotenin (as pure
base or as creatinine sulphate) was blown into the nares, quantities
of up to 10 mg merely produced a feeling of fear, associated with
flushing of the face, lacrimation, tachycardia, and tachypnea.
The inhalation of bufotenin by humans has a1so been studied by
Isbell. In a letter to Turner and Merlis (1959), Isbell stated
110
that 'no subjective or objective effects were observed af ter
spraying with as much as 40 mg of bufotenine creatinine
sulphate'. This compound consists of 1 part bufotenin base and
1.8 parts creatinine sulphate (Fabing and Hawkins 1956), so 40 mg
provides 14.3 mg of bufotenin base, In a letter to Wassén and
Holmstedt (1963), Isbell declared that 'inhalation of pure
bufotenine in aerosol suspension, or oral ingestion of bufotenine
in doses running up to 100 mg (total dose) were without effect'.
Isbell's statements provide insufficient details on the manner of
inhalation (nasalor tracheal), the test subjects (psychotic
patients or not), and the studied doses (100 mg by inhalation or
not). Fortunately, Isbell (pers. commun. 1984) has recently
informed me that bufotenin was inhaled nasally, and that the
subjects were physically healthy male volunteers, aged bet ween 25
and 50, who were imprisoned for narcotic law violations. His
communication leaves open, however, whether as much as 100 mg of
bufotenin was inactive by oral ingestion only, or also by
inhalation.
The subjects of Isbell experienced visual disturbances from 10-
15 mg of intramuscular bufotenin (Isbell, quoted by Turner and
Merlis 1959, and by Wassén and Holmstedt 1963), and other
investigators have reported visual disturbances from 4-16 mg of
intravenous bufotenin (Fabing and Hawkins 1956; Bonhour et al.
1967). This would seem to suggest that bufotenin may induce
perception changes more readily by injection than by nasal
application, which would be consistent with the chemical finding
that bufotenin is poorly lipid soluble at pH 7.4 (Glennon et al.
1979) and might thus not readily diffuse through the lipid nasal
membrane, Confirmation of this suggestion is still needed,
however, especially in view of recent reports that hydrophilic
drugs are absorbed from the nose in the rat (Hirai et al, 1981;
Su et al. 1984; Fisher et al. 1985),
2,2,2.6, Harmine
Experimental information on the nasal efficacy of harmine
appears to be lacking, The physicochemical properties of this
alkaloid (Hultin 1965) should permit a good diffusion through the
nasal membrane. Hàrmine may possibly undergo substantial first-
pass metabolism af ter oral ingestion, so that the nasal route
might be superior to the oral one (vide 1.1.3.2),
To test this hypothesis, I have taken the same dose of 0.5
mg/kg of harmine base (Fluka, Buchs) nasally and orally ontwo
different occasions. The dose was derived from a report by
Slotkin et al. (1970) that 0.5 mg/kg of harmine HCl intravenously
1 11
results in substantial plasma levels and in transient somatic
effects, but not in distinct central stimulation. At the time of
the experiment, I was a non-inhaling tobacco smoker and a regular
user of coffee and beer. First, harmine was self-administered
into one nostril with a plastic tube as a pure nasal powder,
consisting of needles with a length of 10-40 ~ m . Five days later,
harmine was ingested as an oral drink, preparedby dissolving the
pure base in 100 ml of tap water, to which some citric acid
(Merck, Darmstadt) was added. On both occasions, the harmine was
taken af ter an overnight fast, and venous blood samples were
drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min af ter administration (in
the case of the oral drink aiso at 90 min). Each sample was
centrifuged and the resulting plasma was kept frozen until
submission to analysis.
Plasma levels were assayed by Laurent Rivier (Institute of
Legal Medicine, Lausanne) and Pierre Baumann (Psychiatric
University Clinic, Lausanne). They used a gas chromatographical/
mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method comparable to that described by
Baumann et al. (1984) for harman and norharman. The assay is
sensitive down to 2 ng/ml. Details are provided in Appendix E.
On neither occasion was a notable psychoactive or somatic
effect felt, and harmine could not be detected in any of the
plasma samples. Since Slotkin et al. (1970) reported levels in
the range of 300-400 ng/ml at 10-60 min and 80 ng/ml at 240 min
af ter a similar dose intravenously, the last result is
unexpected, especially in the case of the nasal powder. Without
additional experiments, it is difficult to ascertain, why there
is such a large discrepancy bet ween the nasal and intravenous
data. The good nasal absorption of caffeine in another self-
experi ment (vide 2.2.2.3) would seem to argue against faulty
absorption as the major cause. A more plausible explanation might
perhaps be that the GC-MS method used in the nasal experiment is
more reliable than the fluorometric assay used in the intravenous
study.
2.2.2.7. Nicotine
In the last few years, smokeless tobacco products have received
increasing attention as potentially less harmful alternatives to
cigarettes, since they provide nicotine to the craving user
without introducing tar and carbon monoxide into the lungs and
without contaminating the atmosphere for non-users (Rasche
González 1980; Russell et al. 1980). This possibility has
prompted studies on the pharmacokinetics of tobacco
administration via the buccal route (Gritz et al. 1981), and via
11 2
the nasal route (Russell et aL 1980, 1981).
In the seventies, pharmacokinetic evidence that nicotine is
absorbed from nasal tobacco snuffs was provided by Temple (1976)
who demonstrated nicotine and its major metabolites in the urine
of tobacco snuffers.
RusselI et al. (1980, 1981) subsequently reported experimental
data on the plasma concentrations of nicotine in tobacco
snuffers, as measured by gas chromatography. Their first
publication describes extremely rapid absorption in an
experienced user of tobacco snuff: a single pinch of snuff raised
his nicotine plasma level in 5 min from a baseline level of about
20 ng/ml (due to previous snuffing) to more than 40 ng/ml
(RusselI et al. 1980). The second report confirms this
preliminary result, but substantial absorption could only be
demonstrated in experienced users. In twelve occasional snuffers,
the average increase in nicotine plasma concentration, measured
within 8-17 min af ter a single pinch of snuff, was only 2 ng/ml.
Four volunteers who had never used snuff before, did not show any
increase at all. This lack of nicotine absorption in the novices
may have been related to their initiation with small doses of a
very mild snuff. In contrast, a single pinch of snuff raised the
mean plasma level of nicotine in seven daily snuffers from 21.9
ng/ml to 34.5 ng/ml after 7.5-11 min. This mean value almost
matched the average peak level of 36.7 ng/ml found in a large
group of heavy cigarette smokers. As with cigarette smoking, the
interindividual differences in nicotine plasma concentrations
were large, and the observed increases varied èonsiderably from
2.6 to 34.8 ng/ml. This divergence is probably partly due to the
fact that the strength of the snuff, the size of the pinch, and
the exact way of snuffing were uncontrolled variables (RusselI et
al. 1981).
Nicotine is said to undergo substantial first-pass elimination
after oral ingestion (vide 1.1.9.2), and snuffing may provide
the advantage of avoiding such an effect (vide 2.2.1). However,
the principal Indian manner of tobacco use is not oral ingestion
but smoking (vide 2.1.11.1). The latter method is rather complex,
as it may lead to a bypass of the liver on the one hand and to
partial pyrolytic conversion of nicotine (Larson 1960) on the
other. RusselI et al. (1983) have compared nicotine plasma levels
produced by a nasal viscose solution containing 2 mg of pure
nicotine with the levels from a commercial cigarette expected to
deliver the same dose of nicotine. Both preparations already
produced peak plasma levels at 7.5 min, and these levels averaged
about 14 ng/ml and 26 ng/ml for the nasal solution and the
cigarette respectively. The area under the plasma concentrationl
11 3
time curve found af ter nasal administration amounted to 75 % of
that produced by smoking. This result cannot be viewed without
caution, however, since only three subjects were studied.
More recently, Hussell and co-workers have studied thekinetics
of repeated nasal doses of pure nicotine in viscose solution. The
ini tial doses of 2 mg produced increases of 0.9-25.7 ng/ml after
7.5 min, and resulted in noticeable light-headedness in four of
the five subjects (West et al. 1984),
2.2.2.8. Scopolamine and related compounds
In the fifties, Tonndorf and co-workers conducted various
experiments on the nasal administration of scopolamine and
atropine in healthy human subjects. Comparisons were made with
other routes of administration. The influence of certain
parameters on the nasal absorption of these tropane alkaloids was
also studied (Tonndorf et al. 1953: Hyde et al. 1953). Data were
not obtained in a proper c r o s s ~ v e r fashion, but in most
experiments at least ten subjects were used for each different
treatment. Gas chromatographical/mass spectrometric methods
(Bayne et al. 1975) or radioimmunoassays (Wurzburger et al. 1977)
with sufficient sensitivity to measure the very low therapeutic
plasma concentrations of tropane alkaloids were not yet
available. Instead, the research group assessed the anti-
sialogogic activity during the first two hours af ter
administration as an indication for the rapidity and degree of
drug absorption. This test period of two hours is rather short,
especially for the oral experiments, since the anti-sialogogic
activity of oral scopolamine and atropine reaches a peak value
af ter 1-2 hours (Mirakhur 1978). In other words, the results say
more about the onset and degree of activity than about the
duration of effects.
Scopolamine was studied because of its protective action
against motion sickness. If its nasal absorption would be rapid,
nasal dosing might be a practical way of self-administration with
an obvious advantage over oral dosing in already nauseated
patients. To test this premise, subjects received 0.65 mg as a
subcutaneous injection, as an oral capsule or an oral liquid, and
as nose drops. In all cases, the salivary flow dropped below
control values. The decline was most marked and rapid af ter
subcutaneous administration. The effect of nasal instillation
occupied an intermediate position, and oral ingestion produced
the slowest and least marked decrease. Testing of other doses
revealed that nasal quanti ties of 0.1-'0.4 mg gave a perceptible
drop in salivary production, whereas an oral quantity of 0.35 mg
11 4
was without effect. An apparent superiority of the nasal route
over the oral one was also found when a dose of 1.0 mg was given
via both routes (Tonndorf et al. 1953).
There is substantial evidence t ~ suggest that scopolamine
undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism af ter oral
administration (vide 1.1.4.2), so the observed superiori ty of
nasal dosing may wellbe due to a bypass of presystemic
elimination.
The efficacy of nasal atropine was tested, because this tropane
alkaloid is an antidote against organic phosphoryl compounds. A
comparison was made between 1.0 mg as subcutaneous injection, 1.5
mg as a nasal spray with detergent and as nose drops, and 1.6 mg
in the form of sublingual tablets. The preparations did not yield
the same reponse at each measure point, but there were no major
differences which persisted throughout the test period. It is
rather difficult to draw firm conclusions from these results,
since nasal instillation of different doses did not clearly show
that 1.5 mg was more effective than 1.0 mg or less effective than
2.0 mg (Hyde et al. 1953).
A comparison between nasal application and oral ingestion was
not included in the studies. It may well be that oral atropine
undergoes first-pass elimination (vide 1.1.4.2), so an
advantageous bypass via the nasal route may be suggested not only
for scopolamine, but also for atropine. In a recent cross-over
study on the peripheral activity of these alkaloids, the ratio of
equivalent intramuscular to oral doses appeared to be about 1 :
5-6 for scopolamine and 1 : 2 for atropine (Mirakhur 1978).
Consequently scopolamine may profit more markedly than atropine,
if nasal administration indeed povides the advantage of avoiding
first-pass metabolism of tropane alkaloids.
As to the systemic toxicity of nasal atropine, it is noteworthy
that instillation of 2.0 mg produced mild symptoms in some cases.
One subject, who accidently received more than 3.0 mg as a nasal
spray with detergent, suffered from a moderatelysevere reaction,
consisting of mydriasis, mild nausea, dizziness, and
disorientation (Hyde et al. 1953).
2.2.3. Conclusion
The literature yields convincing clinical evidence that
atropine, cocaine, nicotine and scopolamine are effective
following nasal application, but experimental confirmation of the
efficacy of nasal tryptamine alkaloids is still awaited. This
seems to be due, at least in the case of DMT, to the testing of
11 5
low and therefore inadequate doses.
In self-experiments, caffeine produced substantial plasma
levels via the nasal route, but harmine, when 40 mg was taken as
a nasal powder, did not produce measurable plasma levels. Without
additional experiments, it is difficult to give a definite
explanation for this negative result.
116
CHAPTER TWO PART THREE
THE CHEMISTRY OF YOPO SNUFFS OF THE VENEZUELAN PIAROA INDIANS
2.3.1. Introduetion
The Piaroa Indians are a tropieal forest people of the Salivan
family. They are settled along tributaries of the Orinoeo in the
Guiana Highlands of the Federal Territory of Amazonas, Venezuela
(Wilbert 1958; Kaplan 1975). Several sourees indieate that the
men of this tribe use an intoxieating snuff ealled yopo, niopo or
niopa (Wavrin 1948; Gheerbrant 1952; Wilbert 1958; Wurdaek 1958;
Kaplan 1975). Gheerbrant (1952) states that this snuff is the
erushedblaek-brown mixture of unidentified ingredients and the
fine white ash of eertain herbs. The evidenee available from
other authors suggests that Anadenanthera seeds are a eommon
ingredient of Piaroa snuffs. The genus Anadenanthera, formerly
eonsidered as the seetion Niopa of the genus Piptadenia, is the
probable souree of various South Ameriean yopo snuffs (von Reis
Altsehul 1972). Aeeording to Wilbert (1958), the Piaroa obtain
their yopo snuff from the seeds of Piptadenia trees. The
pulverized seed is passed around in a round tray with a handle in
the form of a fish-fin and the men snuffing use Y-shaped tubes of
bird bone. Wurdaek (1958) reports that the Piaroa are avid yopo
snuffers, who annually visit the savannas of the up per Ventuari
River and those of the middle Parguaza River tó collect mature
Piptadenia seeds. To prepare the snuff, the bark of Coco de mono
(a species of the Lecythidaeeae) is burned and the ashes are
added to the pulverized seeds. Von Reis Altschul (1972) has
identified a yopo specimen, the seeds of which were said to be
the source of an intoxicating Piaroa snuff, as Anadenanthera
peregrina (formerly known as Piptadenia peregrina). The seeds of
this species eontain the indole alkaloids N,N-dimethyltryptamine
(=DMT), bufotenin (=5-0H-DMT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl-
tryptamine (=5-MeO-DMT) (Sehultes et al. 1977).
Although the Piaroa appear to be familiar with tobacco
(Chaffanjon 1889; Gheerbrant 1952; Wurdack 1958; Kaplan 1975),
the consulted literature has not yielded evidenee that they ever
use tobaceo as a snuff souree. Yet it would appear that
ingredients other than Anadenanthera seeds may enter the
eomposition of Piaroa snuffs. There is a vague field report that
the Ventuari Piaroa also employ the vegetative parts of an
unidentified bush for preparing a snuff (Wurdack 1958). Much more
significantly, Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967) have provided
117
chemical evidence that Anadenanthera is not the only snuff souree
of the Piaroa. They isolated not only Anadenanthera tryptamines
(DMT, 5-QH-DMT, 5-MeO-DMT), but also harmine from a paricá snuff
sample of this tribe, collected by Bolinder. The beta-carboline
harmine is not an Anadenanthera constituent, but a major
Banisteriopsis alkaloid. Unfortunately the snuff was collected
without botanical voucher specimens, so it remains unknown,
whether the harmine originated from Banisteriopsis or from some
other vegetal ingredient. The most comprehensive review on the
use of Banisteriopsis by South American natives does not include
the Piaroa as a tribe familiar with Banisteriopsis drinks
(Fr iedberg 1965).
Since h a r ~ i n e only rarely occurs in South American Indian
snuffs (Bernauer 1964; Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967), the
opportunity to study two different yopo samples of the Piaroa
Indians was welcomed.
Sample A was obtained from an European art dealer, who had
purchased the snuff and some snuff-taking paraphernalia of the
Piaroa tribe from the missionary museum in Puerto Ayacucho in
Venezuela. The equipment is now in a private collection.
Sample B was collected by a German named Baumgartner, probably
during the fifties or sixties. It is presently deposited in the
Royal Museum of Central Africa at Tervuren, Belgium. Other than
its name would suggest, this museum has a large collection of
objects from Venezuelan Indians, including various snuff-taking
paraphernalia. Among these items is a Piaroa snuff, which is
still in its original 'kherime' container (museum number
74.76.594).
Sample A consisted of dry snuff lumps, while sample B was a dry
granular powder.
2.3.2. Analytical methods
In cooperation with Laurent Rivier (Institute of Legal
Medicine, Lausanne), both samples were submitted to gas
chromatographicall mass spectrometric procedures comparable to
those described by Schultes et al. (1977). Details are reported
in Appendix A.
To determiné the presence of alkaline substances, 20 mg of
ground snuff material was dissolved in 2 ml of freshly distilled
water by ultrasounds for 5 min. The pH was determined by a
combined electrode (RadiometerPHM 83 Autocal pH meter,
Copenhagen) •
118
2.3.3. Results and discussion
Sample A turned out to contain 10 mg/g of 5-DH-DMT, whereas
sample B yielded a trace of 5 - D H ~ D M T «1 mg/g), as identified by
retention time on capillary column and mass spectrum. The pH
measurements gave values of 9.4 for sample A, and 9.2 for sample
B. Ne i ther the presence of the Anadenanthera alkaloi"d 5-DH-DMT
nOr the alkaline reaction of the snuffs is surprising, since the
Piaroa Indians are reported as using Anadenanthera seeds and plant
ashes as snuff ingredients. The substantial difference in
quantitative 5-DH-DMT yield might perhaps be related to the
condition of the two snuff samples, viz. solid lumps (sample A)
versus granular powder (sample B).
Sample B also contained a trace of a second substance with the
same retention time on capillary column and mass spectrum as
those of harmine. This finding is quite significant and
corroborates thereport of Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967), who
also found harmine in a Piaroa snuff. Harmine is substituted at
C-7. 50 it could not be produced by ring closure of an
Anadenanthera tryptamine. In other words, there is at last
additional evidence thatthe Piaroa must have prepared snuffs not
only from plants rich in tryptamines. but also from an vegetal
source yielding harmine. This conclusion indicates that the
tracing of Indian drug rnaterials in European museums and private
collections for chemical analysis may lead to interesting
results.
119
CHAPTER THREE
SOME FACTORS TO BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION IN THE
INTOXICATING PLANTS
121
3.1> Some botanical considerations
In the multidisciplinary approach to native ritual plants,
botany forms the crucial hinge between field observations and
laboratory results. By providing the scientific identity of the
ritual plant, botany opens the way to chemical and
pharmacological studies. It goes without saying that careful
botanical recording requires the collection of a herbarium
voucher specimen. Any field report which does not indicate
voucher specimen numbers, does not live up to modern scientific
standards and may therefore be open to question. Especially in
the early days, many explorers failed to do this, which usually
makes it impossible to check the validity of their botanical
information. However, a voucher specimen in itself is not the
ultimate proof of reliability. Indigenous informants may
deliberately supply wrong matèrial, because they do not want to
disclose the botanical source of their sacred drug, or because
they like to pull the investigator's leg. It is, of course, not
the responsibility of the natives, but that of the botanist to
collect accurate data.
Original data may be obtained not only by going out into the
field but also by studying already collected material. The
Amerindian collections of many ethnographical museums comprise
paraphernalia for ritual drug-taking, and sometimes the drug
itself or its vegetal source is also present. Such materials have
of ten been gathered by travellers who merelyrecorded
ethnological data because they lacked specific botanical interest
or training. In such cases, botanical examination may still
reveal the identity of the drug source, especially if it can be
backed up by the results of chemical analysis. For instance, the
Museum for Ethnology in Vienna possesses well preserved paricá
seeds of the Brazilian Maué Indians, who are said to have used
these seeds as an enema and snuff ingredient. The seeds certainly
look like Anadenanthera seeds, and this botartical impression is
corroborated by the recent isolation of the Anadenanthera
alkaloid bufotenin (vide 1.3). This example clearly illustrates
the importance of museum material as a tool to extend our
ethnobotanical knowledge on native ritual practices.
Botanical reviews on hallucinogens tend to offer relatively
much information about the western hemisphere. This is hardly
surprising in the case of proven hallucinogens, for nowhere in
the world has the aboriginal use of truly hallucinogenic plants
been more varied and extensive than in Middle and South America.
122
The same tendency. however, is also seen with alleged
hallucinogenic plants which have not been properly evaluated by
additional field studies, phytochemical analysis, and
pharmacological experiments. This appears to be due not only to
cultural and botanical differences bet ween the western and the
eastern hemisphere, but also to a scientific predilection for the
New World. Appendix F clearly illustrates this point by providing
an ethnobotanical view of ritual plants and reputed botanical
intoxicants of New Guinea natives. It must be emphasized that the
table has been compiled wi tho.ut regard to pharmacolog ic al
validity andthat New Guinea sorcerers commonly try to obtain a
magical 'heat' or power which is unfolded or augmented by the
chewing of spicy plants like ginger (Sterly 1970; Glick 1972;
WOlff-Eggert 1977). In other words, certain plants in thé tabIe,
such as cinnamon, curry and stinging net tIes are most probably
valued for their 'heating' properties rather than for specific
effects on the central nervous system. Other plants, however, may
ultimately be proven to have profound pSychoactive effects. An
interesting candidate would seem to be the Elaeagnus species,
which is ritually smoked by the Gimi of the Highlands (Glick
1967). The genus Elaeagnus is rich in beta-carbolines like
tetrahydroharman (Hegnauer 1966; Allen and Holmstedt 1980), and
such alkaloids are not likely to be pyrolyzed during s·moking
(Holmstedt, pers. commun. 1983). Nothing appears to be known at
present about thé effects of tetrahydroharman in man, but central
neurochemical changes have been observed af ter intraperitoneal
administration to mice (Buckholtz 1979). W h i l ~ these data are far
from sufficient to draw any conclusion, they are interesting
enough to warrant closer examination.
A last specific point which should be outlined here, is a
tendency in the ethnological and botanical literature to
disregard pharmacological definitions of certain terms. For
instance, the pharmacological literature associates systemic oral
therapy with gastrointestinal absorption. Consequently it is
somewhat a misnomer from the pharmacological point of view to
denote coca chewing as oral administration, as this practice
involves significant buccal absorption (vide 2.1.7.2). A more
notabIe example is the cu stom to designate hallucinogenic plants
as narcotic plants. In pharmacological parlanee, the term
'narcotic' does not refer to hallucinogens, but to stupifying
agents in genera I and to morphine-like analgesics in particular
(Jaffe and Martin 1980).
123
3.2. Some chemical considerations
In multidisciplinary studies on ritual plants, chemistry is an
important link between the botanical and pharmacological
disciplines. It is difficult to speak in scientific terms of the
pharmacology of psychoactive plant material until the relevant
constituents have been identified and made available for
pharmacol og ical stud ies.
Chemical reports on ritual plants must give careful at tent ion
to the investigated material. Voucher specimens are as essential
for chemical laboratory data as they are for botanical field
data. The material should preferably come from the area where the
plant is ritually utilized. For example, suggestions that North
American Indians may have taken Acorus calamus in a ritual
context, are frequently accompanied by statements that this plant
has sedative properties due to its asarone fraction.
Unfortunately, such statements are based on studies with samples
from India. There is considerable evidence that a substantial
asarone fraction cannot be expected in diploid plants of North
America, but only in triploid and tetraploid specimens of the Old
World (vide 2.1.1.2),
It is weIl known that the composition of a plant may vary with
its parts. In other words, chemical research on ritual plants
should include the plant parts used by the natives. Less obvious
factors, which mayalso be relevant, include the method of
harvesting and the freshness of the studied sample. For instance,
the scopolamine content of a peach flowered Datura candida form
varies with leaf age (Griffin 1976), and storage may alter the
tryptamine spectrum of Anadenanthera peregrina seeds (Schultes et
al. 1977).
Chemists should not limit their research to the botanical
sources of ritual dosage forms, but they must also include the
ultimate dosage forms, as the original composition may alter
during preparation. For example, one step in the preparation of
Virola snuffs involves concentration of the exudate to a more
viscose liquide The effect of such a treatment has been assessed
in the laboratory for 6-methoxy-tetrahydroharman. This is the
major alkaloid in V.cuspidata, which species could possibly serve
as a snuff source. Refluxing in water for eight hours results in
partial aromatization to 6-methoxy-harmalan and 6-methoxy-harman
( vide 2. 1 • 15. 2) •
The usefulness of chemical results clearly depends on the
specificity and sensitivity of the analytical method by which
they have been obtained. Illustrative are the paper chromato-
graphical studies on tree Daturas in the sixties. Their failure
124
to distinguish between l-hyoscyamine and atropine is
pharmacologically relevant, since atropine is the racemic mixture
of active l-hyoscyamine and practically inactive d-hyoscyamine
(vide 1.1.4.2). Chemical data may not only be devalued by
of the final assay, but also by the reactivity of the
workup procedure. For instance, ecgonine methyl ester is not a
genuine Erythroxylum alkaloid, but an artifact arising from
prolonged extraction with sulfuric acid or chloroform (Rivier
1981). Similarly, the cannabicyclol-type and cannabielsoin-type
eannabinoids reported for Cannabis sativa are artificial (Turner
et al. 1980).
3.3. Some pharmacological considerations
In the scientific approach to native ritual drugs, there is a
clear-cut distinction between ethnological field observations and
pharmacological test results (Alger 1976). All ethnological data
on the psychoactivity of indigenous vegetal drugs require careful
pharmacological evaluation, whereby due attention must be paid to
differences between native and experimental drug administration.
From the pharmacological point of view, the best aid to enter
supernatural worlds is an hallucinogenic agent. At present, there
appears to be no generally applicable method for detecting
hallucinogenic activity except by administering an agent to man
and observing its effects. The use of a animal model
can already be rejected on the ground that there are several
classes of hallucinogens which have different effects and
different mechanisms of action. Only within a specific class of
closely related agents, animal testing may be useful to obtain an
impression of the hallucinogenic potency in man. A plausible
example is the observed correlation between the human central
potency of classical anticholinergic hallucinogens like the
Datura alkaloid atropine and the abili ty to bloek oxotremorine-
induced tremors in laboratory animaIs. In the majority of cases,
however, it is still too early to assess the predictive value of
an animal model, or the method has already been found to have
insufficient specificity (Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975). In other
words, animal testing is not very useful, when a compound does
not belong to a group of weIl established hallucinogens, and even
when this is the case, the results may weIl be inconclusive. If a
relationship with an established hallucinogenic class is laeking,
animal studies can merely assess the somatic toxicity of the test
compound prior to human experiments.
125
The type and degree of hallucinogenic symptoms depend on
individual personality, ment al condition, and experimental
setting, and they may vary with the dose level (Szára 1961;
Faillace and Szára 1968; Stark-Adamec et al. 1981). Perceptual
changes are not a re1iable criterium, as their origin may be
peripheral rather than central, and they may be less prominent
than alterations in thought and mood. Nor can these latter
symptoms be used indiscriminately as a diagnostic feature, since
many non-hallucinogenic drugs are known to affect mood (Schultes
and Hofmann 1980b; Grinspoon and Bakalar 1981). A simple and
objective criterium for hallucinogenic activity would be cross-
tolerance with LSD, but this phenomenon is not observed with
hallucinogens in the broader sense (Fanchamps 1978; Jaffe 1980).
All in all, the classification of a new compound as a
hallucinogen will depend primarily on the integrity and
experienced judgement of the clinical investigator and the test
subjects. Obviously, observed effects must be carefully recorded
to allow comparison with future results on the same compound and
with clinical data on other substances which are already
recognized as hallucinogens.
Ethnological reports on the trance-inducing effects of tobacco
(Wilbert 1972) attest to the fact that a ritual plant may have
effects in the native which are more based on cultural
preconditioning than on pharmacological activity.
Methodologically, the only conclusive way to çiistinguish between
pharmacological and psychological actions is the cross-over
double-blind design. Hereby the subject receives the test drug
and a dummy drug (placebo) on two different occasions, and
neither the subject nor the investigator knows at the time of
administration, which drug is being taken. In an experiment by
Manno et al. (1974), subjects who had been given placebo
cigarettes, but thought that they had received marihuana
cigarettes, indicated that they were high and some became
actually stimulated. Only af ter marihuana cigarettes had been
smoked in the next testing session, did several subjects question
whether they had received marihuana the first time. Hochman and
Brill (1971) tested cigarettes withmarihuana extracts, varying
in strength from 0 mg to 7.5 mg of 119-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
in regular marihuana users. These volunteers reported the
greatest intoxication fromthe most potent material, but they
experienced a higher degree of subjective intoxication from the
THC-free extract than from low-potency cigarettes. This might
indicate that the THC-free extract contained some other
psychoactive constituent, but it mayalso signify that only the
126
most potent extract exceeded the threshold level needed for a
pharmacological intoxication. A similar pattern has been observed
in a recent study on the activity of nasal cocaine in healthy
recreational users of this alkaloid. Central stimulation from 0.2
mg/kg, 0.75 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg of cocaine HCl was compared wi th
that from 0.2 mg/kg of lidocaine HCl as a placebo. This local
anaestheticinduced a more intense 'high' than did the same dose
of cocaine HCl, and it was only slightly less psychoactive than
0.75 mg/kg of cocaine HCl (Van Dyke et al. 1982). Such data show
that any vegetal drug or constituent which is only mildly
psychoactive in uncontrolled studies must be properly compared
with a placebo. For potent principles, the placebo-controlled
approach is needed to determine the pharmacological threshold
level of the drug.
The validity of clinical data is not only enlarged by the
inclusion of a placebo in the experimental design, but also by
testing a compound in more than one subject. It should be clear
that individual experimentation is one thing and that a
scientific dose-response study is something else. An experiment
in a single individual will seldom, if ever, provide sufficient
information. This may be particularly true, when the subject is
an experienced user of hallucinogenic drugs. It is weIl
documented that non-hallucinogenic stimuli may precipitate a
flashback phenomenon in individuals with a history of LSD-use
(Abraham 1983).
Other relevant factors include the influence of concom i tant
drug use and the mental state of the test subjects. For example,
the response to LSD is attenuated by pretreatment with the
Rauwolfia alkaloid reserpine and accentuated by pretreatment with
the monoamine oxidase inhibitor isocarboxazide (Resnick et al.
1967). It is also known that schizophrenics are less sensitive to
the hallucinogenic effects of LSD than normal or neurotic
individuals (Fanchamps 1978).
Another point of interest is the duration of the experimental
administration. When pharmacological data do not relate to acute
effects, but to symptoms of prolonged use, they should not be
applied to native practices, unless there is substantial
ethnological evidence that the frequency and duration of the
native use are equal. For instance, alcohol can induce a
psychotic syndrome in alcoholics (Jaffe 1980), but it would be
absurd to extrapolate this chronic effect to non-alcoholic
natives, who indulge in drinking alcoholic beverages during
occasional ri tual festivi ties.
Pharmacological data are mostly not obtained by testing the
127
whole indigenous dosage form via the indigenous route of
administration. Most experiments are performed with isolated
constituents, which may be taken in another dose and by another
route of administration. Such differences between experimental
and native drug uses must be given careful consideration.
It must be verified that the amount of active constituent,
which is present in the usual native dose, exceeds the threshold
level observed in the pharmacological experiment. Obviously, a
native dose will be limited by the somatic toxicity of the active
constituents, and the dose problem will be especially relevant
for trace components, which occur next to a potent major
principle. For instance, among the numerous identified
constituents of tobacco smoke, there are various compounds with
suspected hallucinogenic properties, such as carbon dioxide,
myristicin, nitrous oxide, and beta-carbolines, and there are
also hydrocarbons and ketones with deliriant effects. However,
all of these compounds appear to be present in such small
amounts, at least in commercial tobaccos, that any suggestion of
endogenous hallucinogens present in Nicotiana in behaviourally
active amounts must be viewed with appropriate caution (Siegel et
al. 1977). Another example is the presence of beta-carbolines in
Virola species. Since such compounds have monoamine oxidase
inhibiting properties, it is sometimes suggested that they
prevent the degradation of hallucinogenic tryptamines, which are
the main alkaloids in indigenously utilized Virola species.
However, the trace amounts in which the Virola beta-carbolines
occur, are unlikely to be of pharmacological importance (vide
2.1.15.2).
It must be checked whether there are pharmacological data on
the activity via the native route of administration. The
difference between oral ingestion in the aboriginal ritual and
parenteral injection in the clinical setting could be of
particular importance. Some drugs, such as quaternary ammonium
compounds, show a poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract
because of their low lipid solubility. Other drugs are
inactivated by the acid gastric juices or undergo elimination by
intestinal or hepatic enzymes before they reach the general
circulation. This last phenomenon, which is commonly known as
first-pass metabolism, is observed with many drugs, including the
opium alkaloid morphine (Routledge and Shand 1979), A
parenterally active amount will only be effective via the oral
route, when the drug is absorbed, and is not degraded
prematurely. In general, centrally active compounds can be
expected to be absorbed weIl, since passage into the brain and
absorption from the gastrointestinal tract are bath processes
128
which require sufficient lipid solubility. Consequently poor
absorption of hallucinogenic principles would not appear to be a
general problem, although exceptions might occur. There is
substantial evidence to suggest, however, that first-pass
inactivation is not uncommon for naturally occurring
hallucinogens. Extensive metabolism and route-dependent activity
have been repörted for the tryptamine derivative dimethyl-
tryptamine, for the beta-carbolines harmine and harmaline, and
for the tropane alkaloid scopolamine (vide 1.1).
Among the native inhabitants of the western hemisphere, oral
ingestion is certainly not the only way to elicit ritual
intoxication. Major non-oral ways are rectal application (vide
chapter one); snuffing (vide chapter two), and smoking (vide
Appendix G). Rectal administration is not generally an adequate
method to avoid first-pass metabolism, but nasal administration
can undoubtedly provide a bypass, and this mayalso apply to
smoking, As to the last way of administration, the picture is
complicated by the possibility that the developing heat may
destroy existing components (pyrolysis) and may form new ones
(pyrosynthesis). For instance, the beta-carbolines harman nnd
norharman in töbacco smoke are largely formed during smoking
(Janiger and Dobkin de Rios 1976), whereas the 6
9
-tetrahydro-
cannabinol present in a marihuana cigarette only partially
survives the burning process (Ohlsson et al. 1980; Turner 1980).
Another Indian practice which may lead to a direct passage into
the sytemic circulation is the holding of a chewing quid between
the gum and the cheek or lip (Wilbert 1975; Plöwman 1981b). This
is not a pure method to avoid first-pass metabolism, however,
when the juice or the plant material is swallowed (vide 2.1.7).
The substantial influence of drug absorption, distribution and
elimination on drug act ion has long been recognized by
pharmacologists, who have even devoted a special part of their
discipline, viz. pharmacokinetics, to the investigation of such
processes. On analogy, ethnopharmacology deserves a branch called
ethnopharmacokinetics, which must be aimed at the fate of
indigenous drug constituents in the body. This branch must
assess whether adequate concentrations of native drug principles
are reached and sustained at their appropriate sites of action.
In practice, it is quite laborious or even impossible to
perform direct measurements at a specific site of action in the
human body. Instead, most pharmacokinetic studies perform
measurements in a readily accessible body fluid, such as blood,
urine or saliva. Although monitoring at these convenient sites
has its limitations, it has proved to be very useful in many
129
cases (Rowland and Tozer 1980). A good ethnopharmacokinetic
example is the recent demonstration of substantial cocaine plasma
levels in coca chewers (Holmstedt et al. 1979; Paly et al. 1980),
which puts an end to speculations that cOéaine might be
hydrolyzed in the mouth before it is absorbed (vide 2.1.7.2).
The pharmacological activity of a naturally occurring mixture
may be different from that of the most active isolated
constituent or fraction. Classical in this respect are the rabbit
studies by Hijmans (1961) on the expectorant effects of thyme
herb, ipecacuanha root, and Allium cepa. This investigator was
able to demonstrate that different fractions derived from the
same plant were more secretolytic in combination than alone. An
interesting experiment on the difference bet ween a crude
hallucinogenic preparation and a pure active constituent has been
performed by List et al. (1969), who measured the permeation of
l-hyoscyamine through the isolated small intestine of the rat.
When an aqueous solution with pure l-hyoscyamine was compared
with a fresh extract of Atropa belladonna leaves, the permeation
rate was found to be 70-80% higher in the case of the extract. As
it is difficult to assess the clinical significance of this in
vitro result, it is unfortunate that the experiment was not
followed by an in vivo investigation.
The most str ik ing example of super iori ty of a whole native
dosage form over its isolated principles may weIl be the South
American beverage ayahuasca, containing mostly Banisteriopsis
beta-carbolines like harmine, together wi th dimethyltryptamine
from Psychotria. Although conclusive clinical evidence has not
been published, there is growing evidence to suggest that the
beta-carbolines may protect the dimethyltryptamine from first-
pass inactivation by monoamine oxidase A enzymes, thus rendering
the tryptamine derivative less inactive orally (vide 1.1.3.2).
The activity of a constituent mayalso be modified by other
components of the native dosage form, which do not have a
systemic action by themselves. Many South American tri bes prepare
their intoxicating snuffs by mixing psychoactive vegetal
ingredients with lime or plant ash, Such alkaline admixtures may
facilitate the absorption of the psychoactive alkaloids through
the nasal mucosa (vide 2.2.1).
It is clear from these data "that the influence of accompanying
substances should not be neglected, but it should not be
exaggerated either. Hofmann (1982) gave some pills with pure
psilocybin to the famous Mexican curandera Maria Sabina who
attested that there was no difference in efficacy between the
pills and her own psilocybian mushrooms. In contrast with this
130
report, some ethnological and botanical publications tend to
overemphasize the difference between isolated constituents and
whole native dosage forms. This may even reach the point where
vegetal constituents are assumed out of hand to act in a
synergistical manner. It should always be borne in mind, however,
that antagonism mayalso occur, and in many cases the effects
will be additive rather than synergistic. For example, Heimann
(1965) showed that a mixture of the ololiuhqui constituents d-
lysergic acid amide, d-isolysergic acid amide and lysergol in
healthy volunteers merely elicits the combined symptoms of each
separate alkaloid.
The pharmacological view on hallucinogenic drug rituals must
not only consider the influence of accompanying ingredients in
the aboriginal dosage form, but also the concomitant use of other
separate drugs. This is weIl illustrated by the clinical finding
that alcohol adds significantly to the subjective effects of
marihuana smoking (Manno et al. 1974). As is the case with
single drugs, folkloristic data on combinations should not be
accepted without experimental confirmation. In India, the
tamarind fruit is reputed to antagonize the effects of bhang
(Cannabis), but Hollister (1976) found the fruit to be
ineffective in doses up to 180 g, when it was given an hour
before, simultaneously, or an hour af ter administration of 6
9
_
tetrahydrocannabinol orally to man.
3.4. Concluding remarks
Many factors which have been discussed here, are so obvious
that it may seem superfluous to review them. Nothing is less
true, however, for various publications fail to afford them
proper attent ion. Perhaps the most poignant example why they
should never be overlooked is the famous case of the reports by
Castaneda (1970, 1972). This author described the use and
hallucinogenic effects of a smoking mixture consisting of dried
mushrooms with the addition of other dried plants as sweeteners.
The mushrooms were vaguely suggested to be a Psilocybe species,
possibly P.mexicana. There are substantial scientific reasons to
believe that these reports are not authentic, but fictional. For
instance, there are no voucher specimens, and the suggestion that
these mushrooms could have been P.mexicana must be refuted on the
basis of their habitat (de Mille 1980). What is more, the smoking
mixture is unlikely to have contained sufficient psilocybin to
elicit the profound effects described by Castaneda. In addition,
psilocybin is said to be largely degraded during smoking in a
131
pipe, whereby its availability is further reduced by condensation
and deposition on the inner surface of the bowl and stem of the
pipe (Siegel 1981). In other words, if proper attent ion had been
given immediatelyto dose and to way of administration,
scientific doubts about the authenticity of Castaneda's accounts
would have arisen sooner.
On the other hand, it rnay also be hazardous to dismiss field
data too rapidly as being inval id. This. might be illustrated by
an early claim that the South American Makusi Indians used
Capsicum as a stimulant and excitant (Roth 1924). Since the
fruits of most Capsicum forms contain the vèry pungent principle
capsaicin (Hegnauer 1973), I was inclined to conclude that a
native Capsicum preparation will not produce any psychoactive
effect, but merely extreme local irritation. This idea was
somewhat unsettled, however, by the following passage in a 19th
century account of travels in Brazil by the German scientists
Spix and Martius (1828): 'Auf der Tafel des gastfreien Pfarrers
von Chapada fandenwir eine kleine Art von spanischem Pfeffer
(Malaqueta), welche hier zu Lande, wie in ganz Brasilien, nebst
der kleinen grünen sauren Citrone (Limao acedo) das gemeinste
Gewürz ist, und sich in reinlichen Porcellanschaalen schon durch
die schönrote Farbe empfiehlt. Ihr Genuss brachte aber, obgleich
die Früchte nicht auffallend scharf waren, uns Beiden die übelste
Wirkung: plötzliche Kopfschmerzen, Schwindel, Flimmern vor den
Augen und alle Zeichen einer narkotisch-scharfen Vergiftung; doch
verschwanden diese Symptome alsbald nach dem Einziehen von
Essigdampf in die Nase und einigen Löffeln Essigs innerlich
genommen. Weder früher, noch später im Verlaufe der Reise, wo wir
diess Gewürz mit Vorliebe gebrauchten, erfuhren wir ähnliche
Wirkung desselben. Es ist deshalb wahrscheinlich, dass sich
bisweilen das sogènannte Capsicin, welches der Frucht die
brennende Schärfe ertheilt vorherrschend in derselben entwickeln
könne, während in andern Fällen, wie in den unsrigen, das
narkotische Alkaloid entschiedener hervortritt, das den
säurefähigen Basen in andern Solaneen, dem Atropin, Daturin,
Hyoscyamin u.s.w., entspricht. Welche äussere Verhältnisse zu
dieser Verschièdenheit disponieren, verdiente eine genaue
Untersuchung'. This report does certainly not provide proof that
South American Indians could have valued Capsicum for
psychoactive properties, as the uncommon reaction to the
malaqueta might have been due to infestation with a toxin
producing fungus (Hegnauer, pers. commun. 1984). Yet it shows the
risk of dismissing such a possibili ty off-hand.
132
APPENDICES
133
APPENDIX A
PROCEDURES FOR THE CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF
THE MAUË SEEDS AND THE PIAROA SNUFFS
by
Laurent Rivier
[Institute of Legal Medicine, Lausanne, Switzerland]
I. MAUË SEEDS (vide 1.3)
Isolation of alkaloids
Ground dry seed material (200 mg) was extracted with ethanol
and a small amount of sodium hydrogen carbonate overnight at room
temperature. Af ter filtration and evaporation to dryness under
nitrogen, the residue was dissolved in a suitable amount of
ethanol and submitted to gas chromatographical/mass
spectrometric procedures comparable to those described by
SchuIt es et al. (1977).
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
Analyses were carried out on a combined GC-MS instrument (Model
5985A, Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto). Typical GC conditions used
throughout were: SE-54 WCOT fused silica capillary column (25 m x
0.3 mm Ld.), temperature of the oven isothermal at 100°C for 1
min and programmed at 10°C/min to 260 oe. Spli t mode lnjections of
1.5 \ll were used at a helium carrier gaz-flow of 1,2-1,5 mI/min
through the column and a split ratio of 50:1. The capillary
column was connected directly to the MS source which was kept at
250°C. The ion source parameters were set by the Autotune program
providing a 70 eV ionization energy and a 300 \lA emission
current. Repetitive scanning from m/z 40 to m/z 340 was performed
at one Scan per sec. The tryptamines that may occur in
Anadenanthera seeds were used as reference compounds. Mass
spectrometric data for these substances are given bySchultes et
al. (1977), Both retention time and mass spectrum of authentic
reference compounds served as criteria for the identification of
the unknown compounds.
Quantitative analyses were performed by using the same
analytical conditions. Solutions of known concentrations of
reference compounds were injected af ter each extract sample.
ealculation was made by external standardization of the detector
response for each detected compound.
In order to check the occurence of minor alkaloids, a more
sensitive setting of the GC-MS was used. By using the selective
ion monitoring mode (SIM) the detectioncould be increased 20 to
134
50 fold. Appropriate MS peaks of each compound to be detected
were chösen and extracts injected. If the selected peaks emerged
at the expected retention time for the reference compound, it was
concluded that the substance was present in the extract.
11. PIARDA SNUFFS (vide 2.3)
Isolation of alkaloids
Ground dry snuff material (100-200 mg) was extracted with ethanol
overnight at room Af ter filtration and evaporation
to dryness under nitrogen, theo residue was dissolved in a
suitable amount of ethanol and submitted to gas chromato-
graphical/mass spectrometric procedures comparable to those
described by Schultes et al. (1977).
Gas chromatography /mass spectorometry (GC-MS)
Analyses were carried out on a combined GC-MS instrument (Model
5985A, Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto). Typical GC conditions used
throughout were: SE-54 WCDT fused silica capillary column (25 m x
0.3 mm Ld.), temperature of the oven isothermal at 100°C for 1
min and programmed at 10°C/min to 240°C. Split mode injections of
1.5 IJl were used at a helium pressure of 0.5 kg/cm
2
giving a
carrier gaz-flow of 1 mI/min through the column and a split ratio
of 50:1. The capillary column was connected directly to the MS
sourceO which was kept at 200°C. The ion source parameters were
set by the Autotune program providing a 70 eV .ionization energy
and a 300 emission current. Repetitive scanning from m/z 40 to
m/z 340 was performed at one scan per sec. The tryptamines and
beta-carbolines that may occur in South American snuff materials
and their source-plants were used as reference compounds. Mass
spectrometric data for these substances are given by Holmstedt
and Lindgren (1967), by Agurell et al. (1969), and by Rivier and
Lindgren (1972). Both retention time and mass spectrum of
authentic reference compounds served as criteria for the
identification of the unknown compounds.
Quantitative analyses were performed by using the same
analytical conditions. Solutions of known concentrations of
reference compounds were injected af ter each extract sample.
Calculation was made by external standardization of the detector
response for each detected compound.
In order to check the occurence of minor alkaloids, a more
sensitive setting of the GC-MS was used. By using the selective
ion monitoring mode (SIM) the detectioncould be increased 20 to
50 fold. Appropriate MS peaks of each compound to be detected
were chosen and extracts injected. If the selected peaks emerged
135
at the expected retention time for the reference compound, it was
concluded that the substance was present in the extract.
136
APPENDIX B
PRINCIPAL DIAGNOSTIC ACCESSORIES OF MAYA ENEMA SCENES
by
Nicholas M. Hellmuth
[Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research,
St.Louis, Missouri, United StatesJ
1978, revised November 1984
[Figure numbers refer to plate numbers in Appendix C of the thesis]
1. ENEMA JUG: Furst and Coe were the first to recognize a
certain shaped pottery jug as a central feature in the enema
ritual (1977). The direct association between jug type and
specific"ritual comes from the Coe scene and from a second Tepeu
1 jug in a private collection (Hellmuth Photo Archive A-313).
None of the three Tzakol 3 cylindrical tripods which show enema
administration include a jug (or any other ceremonial
paraphernalia in the simple scenes (Figs. 1a-b; 2). The two
paintings showing the actual enema administration are both on
vases of the ··enema jug·· shape. Fi ve addi tional vases show jugs
of the same shape with enema clysters on top or nearby (e.g. Fig.
18b). These paintings of the definite enema clyster in direct
association with a pottery container of a specific shape suggest
this type of pot was characteristic of the enema ceremony. More
than 100 Classic period pictures of such jugs are now known for
Petén and Campeche-Yucatan style paintings. Some throne scenes
have two to five jugs, of ten of varying size.
The shape, not the size, is the distinguishing characteristic.
Enema jugs have a neck much narrower than the rim. The neck may
either be tal 1 or squat. The top rim is wide and Sometimes quite
thick. The ratio between the rim, neck, and body dimensions
varies widely. The jugs can vary in height from .25 m to over one
meter, holding an estimated 4 to 20 liters (1 to 5 gallons) of
liquid if filled. Some enema jugs have handlés on the body. Two
jugs - possibly of the enema sort - on a Chipoc style painting
(R. Smith 1952: Fig. 15h, C.I.W. Contrib. 56) have handles on the
neck. Occasional enema jugs are bound wi th ropes. One petén vase
and a Petén plate each show a Dance af ter Decapitation Sacrifice
dancer carrying an enema jug with a tumpline (native carrying
strap around the forehead holding the jug on the back). One of
these scenes includes a clyster. In a complex jug preséntation
scene (Hellmuth 1976; not a sacrifice related portrait) two
137
monkeys and a deer-like animal each carry enema jugs on netted
tumplines. Enema jugs may be plain, painted with a variety of
designs or with a single hieroglyph. Since some enema jugs have
round bottoms and thus would have tended to tip over, certain
jugs are pictured resting securely in pot stands. One painting
pictures an enema jug with a lid (Middle American Research
Institute, Tulane University, labeled as being from Honduras).
Once the basic shape of an enema jug is recognized, two can
readily be identified from Tikal polychrome vases, one from
Temple I's Burial 116; another which I excavated in Burial 196
from Structure 50-73. the burial of a ruler closely related to
Ruler A in Burial 116. Many of the sherds of large jugs found in
excavations on thepalace floors of Tikal and of Uaxactun,
labeled traditionally in technical pottery monographs as -water
jugs- or "storage jugs" could in fact have been used in enema
rituals. Chemical analysis needs to be done on the residue on the
bottoms of excavated jugs.
Several enema scenes picture celebrants drinking next to the
same jugs from which the clysters are evidently filled. This fact
has led me to recognize that the overall ritual was dedicated to
deliberate consumption of large amounts of a certain liquide
Taking an enema was only part of a much longer ceremony. Thê
enema manner of ingestion was used af ter the celebrant could take
no more orally. Thus the jugs which conservative colleagues
prefer to term ·-water jugs" does not rule out their simultaneous
utilization in the enema ritual. And, in all those cases where
any special use can be determined for these jars, that use is
associable with enema clysters. Enema clysters are easy to
identify on vases, even when they are not inserted into anuses
(see Trait 3).
Although jugs of ten seen in the Dresden Codex have the same
general shape as 8th century enema jugs, no enema symbolism is
yet identified in any codex. In the Classic period, smaller,
portable jugs, have handles on them and are carried by dancers in
the Dance af ter Decapitation. Such jugs sometimes are decorated
with Akbal hieroglyphs. Whether these are portable versions -
containing the same essentially alchoholic beverage - as the
large enema jugs is not yet ascertained. I do not believe they
are "copal bags'"
2. -ROW IN JUG TOP" of unidentified objects sticks out of the
top of some enema jugs (Fig. 17). These objects are usually in a
parallel row, standing out 2 to 6 inches. They are each about the
size of a large, wide, bird plurne. These objects are not always
rigid; otherwise their constitution is unknown. They may be of
cloth or perhaps even actual plurnes. In one instance a pair of
138
stylized ··smoke·· curls issue from the jug through the row of
bars. I postulate that these may be essence bars - leaves or
segments of a plant steeping in the watery concoction to add
flavor or other chemical essence deemed a necessary ingredient
for this apparently potent liquide There is though, no proof
whatsoever for this hypothesis. Fûrther study of additional
examples from privatecollections is needed.
Several Yucatecan/Campeche reg ion polychrome paintings on low
bowls have fat, rounder, nipple-ended objects sticking out from
enema jugs. These are either a regional variation or a different
substance. It is also possible that these are food solids meant
to soak into themselves essence already in the enema jug liquid,
so the bar can later be sucked, eaten, or smoked. We need to find
a painting where these bars are being handled outside of the jug
to see their full size, and perhaps thereby learn something of
their content and function.
3. ENEMA CLYSTER. The clyster is most likely formed of a bone
tube (which is insterted into the anus) and a squeezable bulb (of
native rubber or animal intestine). The whole apparatus is the
same size and shape of modern ··ear ·syringes·· used for blowing
water into the ear to cleanse them. A beautiful specimen is
pictured in color on the polychrome graffiti at Tikal in the
palace buried intact by the Maya under Structure 5E-55 (Orrego
and Larios 1983: front cover and Lam. 11,A). More than 25 other
examples are clearly rendered in Petén paintings (Figs. 3; 7a; 8;
10; 11; 12a; 14b; 16a; 17; 24; 32b; 33; 42). The long bone tube
is clearly pictured in a polychrome painting in the Museo Pop ol
Vuh (Fig. 42). Another naturalistic rendering is in Fig. 16a. The
specimens of Fig. 18b were repainted in Miami and are not
accurate in minute detail (the Miami painter misunderstood the
bone tube), though the overall scene is correct in a general
sense. Sometimes a li ttle ··gasket·· can be seen holding the bone
tube in place on the bulb. The bulbous end of the clyster of ten
has a nipple-like end. A frequent, diagnostic trait of the
clyster is the oval or semi-circular black design on the top
middle of the bulb. Feline personage 22 on the Grolier Vase of
the 31 Gods holds an exellent example (M.Coe 1973: Grolier 37).
The seashells held by personages 1 and 24 on the same vase
includes the same symbol.
In use, the enema clyster was dipped into the water jug to suck
the liquid into the bulb. Then the enema was either self-
administered (especially during the Early Classic; Hellmuth 1985)
or insterted or assisted by a young female attendant (Late
Classic), Several scenes picture an enema clyster and a drinking
cup or U ~ t h i n g resting directlyon top of the enema jug.
139
To get a rigid bone tube into the anus could have been painful
without a preliminary lubricant, and indeed on one bowl a
celebrant has his hand near his anus seemingly applying something
(Fig. 13e). while a spider-monkey-man behind him holds the
syringe readyto inject.
I suspect that many of the deer bone tubes found in excavations
of Maya tempIes, palaces, middens, and burials are actually the
tubes of enema clysters. Willey comments on the frequency of such
bone tubes: "The bone tube, usually a short poli shed sect ion of
an animal long bone, is a very typical Maya Lowland artifact-
(1978:168), which to him (before the Furst and eoe artiele) were
of then unknown function.
Musical rattIes may at first be confused with enema syringes,
since they both consist of a bulb on a stick. But, enema clysters
never have pendants or attached decorations as do musical
rattIes. No enema celebrant ever has two clysters, one in each
hand (or one rat tIe and one drum (tucked under the arm)) - the
standard arrangements for rattIe musicians. The clyster has its
characteristic side decoration, and the person holding a rat tIe
will not usually wear the clothing of an enema participant or
attendant. Associations and costumes - in addition to differences
in the object itself - permit ready differentation for the
iconographic specialist.
4. BIB of overlapping segments of material is the single most
diagnostic trait af ter the enema jug and clyster (Figs. 7a-b;
13a-c; 17). The direct association of these b ~ b s to scenes with
enema jugs or syringes is so fixed that I originally termed these
-enema bibs,- but of course they are worn on the wrong end for
that. The identification as vomit bib came from a Tepeu 1 bowl in
the Museo Popol Vuh (Fig. 25). Regurgitation was a natural result
of the excessive drinking which was a prelude to the enema (Figs.
24; 25; 27). Bleeding af ter mouth torture or tooth pulling is a
possibility for Fig. 24 but is not yet suspected in the other
scenes. Artistic portrayal of bleeding af ter tongue sacrifice is
not documented even in scenes of known relationship to tongue
piercing, such as at Yaxchilan. Anthropologists have recorded
that when the Lacandon Maya consume fermented balche beer that
the natives normally regurgitate the first sips they take due to
the unpleasant and harsh taste of this intoxicating beverage.
Late Classic paintings demonstrate that most of the "enema"
ceremony involved ritualized preliminary drinking and toasting.
Af ter I had identified the bibs, during a presentation of the
enema ritual diagnostics at a lecture, Dept. of History of Art,
Yale University. ca. 1978-79, Michael Coe accepted the bib
identification and pointed out to me that the bib was the same
140
size, shape, and of the same material as the turbans worn in the
same enema scenes. From this observation I suggest the term bib-
turban (when worn on the head) or turban-bib (when worn as a
bib). The Whipple Vase and a vessel in a West Berlin museum each
show the turban-bib held by a female attendant near the man who
will be dressed.
These special items of dress are made of hundreds of
overlapping segments of unidentified material. On some paintings
the segments look like feather ends, in other paintings like
flower petals. They could also be bits of painted cloth, The
suspicion that perhaps the little oval units of the bib
construction might possibly be flower petals (or painted copies
on cloth) comes from the overlapping pattern of suspected flowers
on sterns in bouquets being sniffed in certain throne room enema
scenes. One of the pots I excavated from Tikal Burial 196 shows a
suspected bouquet of flowers or leaves in a wicker basket next to
a small enema jug. In the only scene yet found where the contents
of the enema jug i tself are pictured (when the jug is turned
upside down and emptied) comparable little overlapping units are
coming out of the jug (Fig. 4).
When the accessory is worn as a bib, then an enema ceremony is
thereby identified. When worn as a turban (especially in Chama
style paintings) an enema ceremony is not necessarily being
enacted.
5. U-THING: a Red Band style, Tepeu 1 bowl in the Museo Popol
Vuh shows three enema enactments, each with two net-headdressed
God N devotees on either side of a large 5 gal. enema jug (Fig.
7a-b). Two of the jugs have clearly identifiable enema syringes
on top. All three jugs include an enigmatic U-shaped thing on top
also. Since other enema jugs picture drinking cups on top (with
or without an adjacent enema clyster) perhaps the U-things are
just a special shape of drinking cup. Three of the celebrants
hold identical U-shaped things as though they were going to eat
them - or drink out of them. A woman on the Whipple Vase holds a
U-thing while she applies make-up (?) to an enema participant.
Whatever its use, it appears restricted to enema scenes.
6. OFFERING BALLS: On the right of the throne in the Princeton 7
scene is a ceramic container with five little balls which Coe
correctly identifies as ··offerings.·· Wi th the advantage of a
photographic archive of other Maya paintings from private
collections and museums it is now possible to relate this bowl to
others, and then to use this identification to recognize the same
balls on vases of the traditional corpus, such as on a Tikal
Burial 116 vase under a lord's throne. In the adjacent panel is
another throne with an enema jug underneath it. This ceramic
141
container in the palace scene has tripod supports and con ta ins
the same little oval offerings as on a lively presentation of
enema celebrants, a syringe, enema jug with stick bundle (Fig.
17) (see i tem 7, next). I suspect the offering balls were edible.
They may have a little semi-circle painted at their tops,
sometimes just like the design on the enema clyster.
A bowl possibly from Campeche shows a man seated in front of a
large enema jug holding a large bowl (different than the plat es
with the offering balls) full of what seems to be comparable
offering balls, except here they seem almost to be some kind of
fruit. Four of the identical round objects are sticking out of
the top of an enema jug in the same position that essence bars
are normally found. Still another Campeche or Yucatan bowl has
two more clearly defined balls right on top of the jug with the
diagnostic little split or semi-circle (really a thin ""U""), These
little balls may well be to steep in the enema liquid to impart
essence, or to soak up essence already in the jug's liquide
7. STICK BUNDLES are pictured just below the bowl of offering
balls on the scene wi th a Holmul Dancer backrack. These sticks
are in two bundles projecting out of a medium sized enema jug. A
man holds a clyster nearby and several other attendants wear
vomit bibs. On a vase in a West Berlin museum a woman (wearing
clothing wi th a painted, tabbed ""turtle carapace"" symbol
associated with enema attendants, see diagnostic trait 12) offers
a bundle of sticks to a man. On a Dance af ter Decapitation vase
(Fig. 33) the sticks are again projecting out ,of an enema jug,
here carried by a feline actor with turban-bib and with a syringe
strapped onto his belt front. He looks like a drug peddler coming
into town with his wares. Any such sticks as these would
traditionally be identified as perforators, especially for
bloodletting by penis perforation. But so far no personal
bloodletting is associated with the enema ceremony. The only
blood is from occasional decapitation. Since in two cases the
stick bundles are inside the enema jug, possibly again they are
steeping or soaking up some flavor or stimulant. They seem too
thin to be cigars. but tobacco should not be ruled out. Their
identity and function is unclear. Are the little bundles held in
Grolier 43 (non-enema scene) and contained in a serving dish in
Grolier 48 (a definite enema jug scene) the same? We can only
hope to find in a private collection a painting where these
sticks are being handled in some manner where their full size and
shape is clearer. So far they are partially obscured by the
container in which they are held.
8. DRINKING CUPS in a variety of sizes and shapes are held by
enema attendants and celebrants in many scenes. The normal
142
pattern is two men on either side of an enema jug drinking and
toasting one another for some time before actually receiving an
enema. Of ten atractive young ladies serve the cups. Obviously
drinking cups are so common in other non-enema contexts that the
mere presence of a drinking cup is not enough to identify a scene
as related to an enema unless the celebrants are wearing a bib.
Paintings of ten show a drinking cup resting on top of the enema
jug. It is possible that U-things (Trait 5) are a special form of
drinking cup.
The Cholula murals of the drunkards is certainly similar to
many of the drinking scenes around enema jugs on Maya polychromes
(Artes de Mexico, Ano XVIII, No. 144,1971).
9. PELLETS: is a general name for small unidentified objects.
In two or three scenes with enema jugs the celebrants are popping
little pellets or cookie sized edibles into their mouth. The way
they hold these items so reverently as they eat them, the general
posture of the celebrant in his setting, suggests that these
little snacks are either mighty tasty or else pack quite a
stimulating effect upon ingestion into the body system. My
original notes nicknamed these ··ecstasy cookies·· but that term of
course could not be objectively substantiated. The pellets are so
small that it was hard for the Maya artist to add any symbols to
aid in the identification of their content or meaning.
10. CIGARS are smoked in several enema rituals (figs. 12c; 13b-
c), but are so widely used elsewhere that they are not diagnostic
of the enema ceremony. Robicsek's book describes the effects of
smoking a Mesoamerican cigar.
11. PETAL BOUQUETS on long sticks are held by lords and
attendants in several throne scenes where enema jugs are nearby.
That they are in fact pleasantly scented flowers is suggested by
a little bird hovering over a bouquet on Grolier 28 (not an enema
scene) and also by one vase where the lord seems to be sniffing
at the bouquet. Did the Maya also take stimulating snuff? If sa,
they consumed drugs through every opening of their body except
their ears. Their ears received stimulants from pulsating drum
and rattIes. The traditional tendency in Maya academia to render
conservative interpretations is inappropriate in a situation such
as the highly evolved Maya rituals which involved a total
chemical assault on every sense organ from a wide variety of
stimulants administered in sequence. We must also remember that
certain of these drinking and injecting rituals took place before
the bloody sacrifice of babies (Hellmuth 1978: 212 and two other
vases, unpublished, Hellmuth Photo Archive) as weIl as of adults
followed by a gory dance of crazed priests and ritual attendants.
12. BUMP OUTLINED DECORATIONS ON WOMEN'S HUIPILS are
143
noticeable on enema related scenes (Hellmuth Photo Archive A-
358a; 456981-66 (West Berlin); and 48667-2), Some stylized water
lilies (in other, unrelated scenes) have the water lily pad with
the same pattern of bumps around the edge.
13. CONGLOMERATE MONSTER GOD HUT is a special construction seen
three times in front of enema rituals, on the Whipple Vase (Fig.
18a), on the other side of Fig. 22 (Hellmuth Photo Archive A-
358a); and on the other side of Fig. 21 (Hellmuth Photo Archive
486667-2). This hut is composed of a stack of monster faces.
Whereas the Whipple Vase is totally overlined and partially re-
created in Miami, discovery of the other two untouched Maya
paintings in original condition certifies reality of the overall
layout of the Whipple Collection scene.
PARTICIPANTS
Standardized enema ceremony participants include:
(a) Water Lily Jaguar is as frequent in enema jug scenes as he is
in Dance aftel' Decapitation paintings though his costume may be
different in each situation. For the Dance aftel' Decapitation he
wears a red or orange scarf. For the enema ritual he wears a
turban-bib. Several Tepeu 1 multiple resist style paintings show
one of each feline together (private collection, Zurich),
demonstrating that the two costumes are both separate yet can be
worn in a combined ritual - an enema associated with sacrifice.
That i t is a human actor wearing a costume is clear from another
vase where the celebrant's head sticks out from his feline
costume (Hellmuth 1978:210, upper left).
(b) Spider Monkey is as common in enema jug scenes as he is in
Dances af ter Decapitation. In death ceremonies, though, the
monkey conflates with a deer, and may wear a red or orange scarf,
or carry a fruit-like object. In enema scenes the monkey more
likely has an enema turban-bib and may wear a loincloth (Figs.
13a-e). The deer is not as prominent in enema scenes as is the
monkey, except where God D is present.
(c) Drug bird is distinguished by a beak with fat, out-turned
end. This beak is unlike any real bird yet this avian character
is present in at least four enema scenes. Hellmuth 1978:210
illustrates one. On a matched set of two nearly identical Late
Classic Petén plates an anthropomorphic dancer in net weave body
stocking (yet not in this case a God N) has one of these special
bird beaks attached to his face. Of the many different birds in
enema rituals, this is the easiest character to recognize.
(d) Enema birds in general are more common in highland Guatamalan
paintings (Fig. 9), but birds do occur on petén plates together
wi th enema jug drinking scenes. One Late Classic plate in the
144
Denver Art Museum has highland type bird celebrants next to enema
jugs. Some of the birds shake musical rattIes, just as on the
series of highland vases (one of which is in the American Museum
of Natural History, New York). Altogether at least five different
species of birds are represented in this group of highland vase
paintings and other species are sure to be recognized as
additional vases become available for study. Whereas birds in
Dance af ter Decapitation scenes tend to be raptorial, have slit
stomachs, or carry snakes, enema birds tend to be simplier and
more anthropomorphic. Birds also occur in lowland paintings, as
on a Red Band style bowl (Fig. 12b).
(e) Big lipped frogs are dominant personages on one Tepeu 1 enema
scene (Fig. 13a). One holds a giant water lily in his lap. The
frogs on this one bowl have large, round eyes and thick, almost
bird-beak like lips. Other frogs, but differing in anatomical and
mythical detail, appear on the Vase of the 31 gods (Grolier 37).
In some of these 7th-8th century paintings it is hard to
distinguish between toads and frogs, or even iguanas.
(f) Other animals appear in enema scenes. One may be an armadillo
(Fig. 12b). The Vase of the 31 Gods (Grolier 37) pictures other
beasts. Since every rendering is a little bit different it is
difficult to ascertain whether the differences are stylistic or
anatomical.
(g) Rain Beast is the name given by eoe to the officiating deity
on the Whipple Vase. He is generally considered to be GI (though
eoe keeps them separate).
(h) God N or devotee is the principal celebrant. A full-fledged
God N is elderly and wears a conch shell (or turtle shell or
snail shell). A devotee may be of any age, and shows his devotion
to the God N cult by wearing net weave napkin headdress (Figs.
7a-b; 9b). God N, and devotees, appear in many other ceremonies
besides those related to enemas.
(i) God D (Fig. 14c), especially when seated on a planetary band
throne of ten has enema jugs associated with him (Fig. 15). This
elderly slouching god may have a rabbit or young woman (the Moon
Goddess most likely) on the throne behind him. God D appears in
many scenes other than those related to enemas. He appears
himself, rather than in the guise of devotees.
(j) Women wearing huipils decorated with bump-outlined forms are
diagnostic of enema attendants.
145
DISTINCTIVE RITUAL TYPES WHICH EMPLOYED ENEMAS AS PART OF LaNGER
ENACTMENTS.
There is not really just one ··enema ritual.·· Actually, enemas
were taken in:
A) plain palace settings with minimal special costumes and
pagentry (Figs. 16; 35).
B) multi-actor settings but still with minimal costumes (Fig.
36) •
C) With God N devotees, of ten with the Cauac Monster God Hut, and
female attendants (Figs. 7; 11; 18; 19; 20; 21; 22; 23).
D) As complex enema rituals, generally with animals (Figs. 5; 12;
13; 17; 24 [Type E alsoJ; 34).
E) As part of the Dance af ter Decapitation Sacrifice (Figs. 24
[aspects of Type DJ; 27; 28; 31; 32; 33; 40; 42).
F) By God D (Figs. 14; 15; 38 [God D is on other sideJ).
As catoIoging of photographs continues additional categories of
enema ritual can be classified.
Based on more than 50 Late Classic scenes, I propose the
following hypothetical reconstruction of the ceremony, Type C,
which shares many features wi th Type D.
Two specially dressed men seat themselves on either side of a
giant enema jug, of ten with an attractive young female attendant.
A clyster and drinking cup are ready on top of the container of
special drink. With small cups the celebrants dip into the jugs,
fill their containers, and drink. They keep drinking to a state
of intoxication. 16th-17th century Spanish chronicIers document
that such alcohol consumption was a standard part of Maya
rituals. One purpose was to induce visions, a form of
communication with their gods. Celebrants or attendants costumed
as deer, felines, and spider monkeys dance in bearing additional
jugs in tumblines. Other bizarrely costumed characters also
appear.
All of this interaction takes place in front of a Monster Face
Conglomerate ··God Hut;· a ceremonial structure of perishabIe
material. Inside the hut reigns the supervising or honored deity.
in two cases GI (Whipple Vase and the vase of Fig. 22 [on the
other sideJ); in one case a God K-like supernatural, (Fig. 21,
other side, Hellmuth Photo Archive 486667-2). In the background a
musical group plays, with gourd rattIes, turtle carapace rasped
with deer antIer, and small drums. Women attend to the pre-enema
preparation, fanning, undressing, massaging, costuming, and
applying make-up to the men who will receive the clyster. Two
paintings picture the women holding the bib-turban ready to dress
the man nearby. All the while the men continue drinking from cups
dipped into the enema jugs. The participants also make use of
146
spec ial li ttle ··cook ies·· and ··U-things·· (ei ther another edible or
make-up material). Flower-like bouquets are offered and sniffed
and potent cigars are smoked continuously. At a certain point the
God N devotees parade near their enema jugs, with the female
attendants behind them, getting ready to take off their loincloth
apron. The devotees render obsequience to the god in the
conglomorant hut. As a final event, the men recline and bend over
to receive the enema, administered themselves, or by the women.
The Vase of the 31 Gods (Grol ier 37) depicts a variant, and
even more complicated enema ritual, featuring God D (though not a
sky band God D type enactment). The multiple-resist Tepeu 1 vases
(Figs. 31; 32) and the same ceremony on vases of other styles
(Figs. 24; 25; 27; 28; 42), present the combined enema ritual
together with the Dance af ter Decapitation Sacrifice. Figs. 16
and 35 show the simpler, Type A enema administration.
I feel it is a fair conclusion from the frequency of drinking
scenes on Maya pottery, combined with Landa's and Margil de
Jesus' comments on native Maya alchoholic consumption in
religious rituals to recognize that drinking in the Maya palace
reached high levels comparable to that of ancient Greece and
Rome, if not more. The Cholti-Lacandon of Sac Balam, Chiapas
(Nuestra Senora de los Dolores de Lacandon, 1694-ca.1710) had
attendants whose job it was to keep the caciques drinking and
intoxicated four days in a row for a single ceremony (Margil de
Jesus 1984). And the Maya were religious all year long.
Considering that at the same time the Maya were smoking native
cigars of considerable potency in nicotine alone, not to mention
other stimulants not found in a Havanna puro or in a Marlboro,
eating pellets and balls of potential stimulating action, and
then injecting chemical sub stances directly into their body
through an enema clyster, would certainly affect them. We cannot
discount the effect of music and dance. Ecstatic states can be
obtained through suggestive music and dance alone, and bare
breasted young females may not have gone entirely unnoticed
either. Imagine what condition they were in on the morning af ter
a four day ceremony. Aztec excesses are simply bet ter documented.
Maya polychrome paintings at last make available for the Maya
what Spanish chronicles and Aztec codices long ago provided for
central Mexico.
147
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES
[Other than those already cited in the dissertation bibliography]
HELLMUTH, Nicholas
1976 Tzakol and Tepeu Maya Pottery Drawings. Foundation for Latin
American Anthropological Research, Los Angeles.
1985 cylindrical tripods
MARGIL DE JESUS
1984 (Frank Comparato, editor). Revised edition of Tozzer (1913)
ORREGO, Miguel and Carlos Rudy LARlOS
1983 Reporte de las investigaciones arqueologicas en el grupo 5E-
11 Tikal. Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala,
parque Nacional Tikal, Guatemala.
WILLEY, Gordon
1978 Artifacts. No. 1 of Excavations at Seibal, Department of
Petén. Peabody Museum, Memoirs, Vol. 14, No. 1. Harvard
University, Cambridge, Mass.
148
APPENDIX C
A PICTORIAL APPROACH TO ENEMA SCENES ON ANCIENT MAYA POTTERY
[All plat es originate from the archive of the Foundation for
Latin American Anthropological Research (SLLouis, Missouri),
except plate 3 (Peter Furst), plate 40 (Royal Museums of Art and
History. Bruxelles) and plate 41 (John Justeson). Where possible,
information on time period, (tentative) provenanee, present
location and condition is given on basis of personal
communications by Nicholas Bellmuth in 1984. Previous
publications are sometimes indicated, but no attempt has been
made to be exhaustive.J
PLATE 1. Painted polychrome Maya cylindrical tripod.
Time period: Early classic.
(Tentative) provenanee: Petén. Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Condition: feet are broken off.
Description: Both sides show a personage bending forward, who is
giving himself an enema (1a, 1b).
PLATE 2. Painted polychrome Maya tripod bowl.
Time period: Early classic.
(Tentative) provenanee: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Previous publication: Robicsek 1978.
Description: A personage bending forward is giving himself an
enema (cf. plate 1).
PLATE 3. Painted polychrome Maya pot.
Time period: Late classic, probably Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenanee: Petén. Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Previous publication: Furst and Coe 1977.
Description: Plate 3a shows the actual shape of the vase. Plate
3b is a painting of the whole vase by Diane Peck. It shows seven
pairs of a male and a female. One of the females is inserting a
syringe into the anus of her companion (bottom middle), and a
second male is himself performing this task (top right). Two
other males have an enema syringe tucked into the belt (top Jeft
and bot tom right). Between the couples, there are nine jugs with
painted dots at their mouth. Several males have a bib around
their neck, and some of them are wearing this garment as a head-
dress. Most females are holding an U-shaped object in the hand,
149
and some of them offer a bib to their companion. Between the top
and bottom, a glyph appears in a repetitive band. Coe (1978)
suggests that this glyph may be the sign for the enema ri tual,
and adds the speculative notion that it represents an anal
sphincter muscle.
PLATE 4. Carved Maya bowl.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Yucatan, Mexico.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A personage is pouring black-eyed circular forms out
of a jug.
PLATE 5. Painted polychrome Maya bowl.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén. Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A jug emitting scrolls is flanked by an
indeterminate creature (left) and a Water Lily Jaguar (right).
PLATE 6. Painted polychrome Maya bowl.
Time period: Late classic, probably Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén. Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A seated figure is surrounded by two large jugs,
which are emitting dotted lines.
PLATE 7. Painted polychrome Maya bowl (Red Band style).
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: petén or Motagua, Guatemala.
Present location: Museo Popol Vuh, Guatemala City.
Previous publication: Robicsek 1978.
Description: The scene shows large jugs with an U-shaped object
on toP. which are flanked by two males wearing bibs (7a, 7b). On
one side of the bowl, the right male is holding a second U-shaped
object, and there is also an enema syringe on top of the jug
(7a) •
PLATE 8. Painted polychrome Maya bowl.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Campeche or Yucatan, Mexico.
Present location: private collection.
Description: The scene shows a large jug with a probable syringe
on top (8a) and seated figures holding a bowl full of large
black-eyed forms (8a, 8b).
150
PLATE 9. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Highlands, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Condition: possibly repainted.
Description: A bird-like creature holding a probable enema
syringe (9a) is being offered a cup by a second bird-like
creature (9b). A large jug is shown between them.
PLATE 10. Painted Maya vase (Codex style).
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: ?
Present location: private collection.
Description: A large jug with a syringe on top of it is flanked
by a canine creature (left) and by a male holding a drinking cup
(right).
PLATE 11. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: petén or adjacent area, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: There is a large jug with a probable enema syringe
on top of it. A male is painted on the jug or sitting in front of
it. According to Coe (pers. commun. 1985), this personage is
probably God N.
PLATE 12. Painted polychrome Maya bowl (Red Band Style).
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Previous publication: Robicsek 1978.
Description: The centre of the scene shows a large jug with small
circular forms on top of it, and dotted lines are coming out of
it (12b). A personage is either painted on the jug or sitting
next to it. The jug is flanked by a large black bird (left) and
another animal (right). Left of this scene, two males are
gathered around a huge enema syringe, out of which evidently
something is pouring (12a), while the right part shows a smaller
jug, again with small circular forms on top (12c). It is
surrounded by two males, the left one holding a possible enema
syringe.
151
PLATE 13. Painted polychrome Maya bowl.
Time period: Late Classic, Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Previous publications: Anonymous 1976b; Hellmuth 1978; RObicsek
1978; Torres 1984.
Description: The scene shows three Water Lily Jaguars with
objects that might be small jugs at the tip of their tail (13a
middle; 13c middle; 13e left). Out of the objects the same
scrolls are coming as out of the cigarette held by one of the
Jaguars, who also has a jug in front of him with a possible
syringe on top (13d right). Besides the Jaguars, there are four
monkeys, each of them with a cigarette from which scrolls are
being emitted (13b middle; 13c left; 13d middle; 13e right). One
of the smoking monkeys seems to hold up an enema syringe, while
the figure in front of him is conspicuously holding his hand near
his anus (13e middle). There are four of such indeterminate
creatures in the scene (13b left; 13b right; 13c right; 13e
middle). Hellmuth (1978) suggests that they are frogs, but this
view is not shared by Robicsek (1978). One of them is holding
something that might be a water lily flower in his hand (13b
left). Several personages are wearing a bib.
PLATE 14. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenanee: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Previous publications: de Smet 1981b, 1984.
Description: The scene shows two males (14a, 14b), who are
kneeling in fornt of God D on a throne (14c). The left male has a
cup in his hand and a cigarette in his mouth (14a). The other one
is holding a deer antI er in his left hand. He is kneeling next to
a jug with a probable enema syringe on top of it. Besides the
jug, there is a plate filled with segmented rectangular forms
(1 4b) .
PLATE 15. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: Museum of the American Indian, New York.
Description: God D is seated on a throne (cf. plate 140). Under
the throne, jugs are depicted with plume-like forms coming out
of them.
152
PLATE 16. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenanee: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Previous publications: Torres 1984.
Description: Two large jugs are standing next to a throne, on
which a male with a large enema syringe in his hand is seated
(16a). A female companion is offering a bowl to the male (16c).
and there i s a smaller jug under the throne (16b).
PLATE 17. Painted polychrome. Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenanee: Petén. Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: Two persons are sitting around a jug, filled with
bundIes of stick-like forms (cf. plate 14b). The left person is
holding an enema syringe. Above the enema jug stands a tripod
full of large circular forms (cf. plate 18d).
PLATE 18. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Campeche, Mexico or Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Condition: repainted.
Previous publications: Coe 1978; Hellmuth 1978.
Description: In the left part of the centra 1 scene (18b), there
are two pairs of a male and a female. The females have their
hands tucked under the armpits of the companion. In front of the
males, there are two jugs with enema syringes on top, and scrolls
are being emitted from one of the syringes (bottom). The right
part of the centra 1 scene (18c) shows two female servants (left
side). who are facing two males (middle). accompanied by two
other females (right). The up per male is fanned by his servant.
He has a jug in front of him and the female behind him offers him
a bib. The lower servant holds up a mirror to the male who is
apparently painting his face. He has an U-shaped object in his
left hand, possibly apaintpot. Coe (1978) identifies all the
four males as God N.
Behind the central figures, three monsters are playing a
musical instrument (18d). They are almost identical to the one,
who is sitting in a hut on the Ie ft (18a), and who seems to be
their conductor. According to Coe (1978), they may represent Rain
Beasts. The orchestra instrumentarium consists of a rattIe (top),
a drum (bottom left), and a turtle shell struck with a deer
antler (bottom left). There is a jug with a syringe on top, out
153
of which scrolls are coming, behind the rattle player. A tripod
filled with oval forms is shown in front of him.
PLATE 19. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenanee: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Condition: repainted.
Previous publications: Robicsek 1978; Torres 1984.
Description: A male is standing in front of a large jug with a
syringe and a drinking cup on top of it (19a), while a female
companion is untying his loincloth (19b). The netted head-dress
of the males indicates that they represent God N's or his
devotees. This vase painting is one of a series, all of which
show females undressing males (plates 19-23).
PLATE 20. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenanee: Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Condition: possibly repainted.
Description: Both sides of the vase show a male standing in front
of a jug with a drinking cup on top (20a, 20b). The male is
followed by a female, who appears to untie his loincloth (cf.
plate 19),
PLATE 21. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenanee: Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A male Is standing in front of a jug, out of which
scrolls are being emitted (21a). Behind him a female is standing,
apparently untying his loincloth (21b) (cf. plate 19).
PLATE 22. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: Bath sides of the vase show males standing in front
of a jug (22a, 22b). They are followed by females, who appear to
untie their loincloth (cf. plate 19).
154
PLATE 23. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenanee: ?
Present location: private collection.
Condition: repainted.
Description: A male is standing in front of a jug, followed by a
female, who appears to untie his loincloth (cf. plate 19).
PLATE 24. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenanee: Petén. Guatemala.
Present location: private collect1on.
Previous publication: Coe 1982.
Description: This part of the vase shows a bird (top). an animal
with canine and rodent features (middle), and a male vomiting
over an enema syringe (bot tom). Coe (1982) identifies this lat ter
personage as God A'.
PLATE 25. Painted polychrome Maya bowl.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: Museo Popol Vuh. Guatemala City.
Previous publication: Hellmuth 1978.
Description: A jug with a possible enema syringe on top is
surrounded by a vomiting creature (left) and a Water Lily Jaguar
(right).
PLATE 26. Painted polychrome Maya bowl.
Time period: Late classic, probably Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: ?
Present location: private collection.
Condit1on: repainted.
Description: A b1b-wearing male has his hand in a large jug,
apparently to fill up a drinking cup or enema syringe.
PLATE 27. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, probably Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A vomiting Water Lily Jaguar with a bib around his
neck is stand ing next to a jug wi th a cup on top of it.
155
PLATE 28. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A Water Lily Jaguar is wearing a bib and holding a
drink ing cup.
PLATE 29. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A Water Lily Jaguar (29b) is standing in front of a
large jug full of stick-like forms, on top of which there are
circular forms (29a).
PLATE 30. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: One side of the vase shows a male holding a brush or
some other flexible object in each hand. He is seated in front
of a jug (30a). The other side shows a giant toad- or frog-like
monster, characterized by the 'ear' with three dots. There is a
vaguely painted jug in front of him (30b).
PLATE 31. Painted polychrome Maya vase (Multiple Resist).
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: One side of the vase shows a Water Lily Jaguar
wearing a bib (31a), while the other side displays a Dance after
Death Jaguar, character ized by his red-orange scarf (31 b). The
lat ter character is a common participant in scenes representing a
special dance performed af ter human sacrifice. This vase
therefore raises the possibility of arelation between the enema
ritual and the dance after death ritual (cf. plate 32).
PLATE 32. Painted polychrome Maya vase (Multiple Resist).
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 1.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: On one side of the vase, a smoking male is seated,
who has tucked a jug under his left arm (32a). The other side
shows a Water Lily Jaguar (32b). He is wearing a red-orange scarf,
which is characteristic of a Dance af ter Death Jaguar (cf. plate
156
31), but under this scarf, he may be wearing a bib. In his left
hand, he carries a portable jug which is commonly seen in Dance
af ter Death scenes, and in his right hand he is holding a
possible enema syringe. The simultaneous occurrence of objects
characteristic for the enema scenes and for Dance af ter Death
scenes raises the possibility of arelation between the two
rituals (cf. plate 31).
PLATE 33. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Previous publication: Hellmuth 1978.
Description: A bib-wearing jaguar is carrying a jug full of
pointed forms in his backpack. A possible enema syringe is
sticking out of his belt.
PLATE 34. Painted polychrome Maya plate.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Campeche, Mexico or Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: Denver Art Museum, Denver.
Condition: repainted.
Description: The middle of the plate shows a male on a throne,
who is being offered a probable cup by aservant, The rim shows
jugs with things sticking out of them and personages holding
drinking cups. One of the jugs is flanked by musicians with
rattles and a drum (rim left).
PLATE 35. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A man who is sniffing or closely looking at a
bouquet-like object, is standing next to a large jug with a row
of things on top of it.
PLATE 36. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: The scene shows large jugs (36a, 36b) and a man
holding a bouquet-like object close to his face (36a far left),
157
PLATE 37. Painted Maya vase (Codex style).
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: ?
Present location: private collection.
Previous publication: Robicsek and Hales 1981.
Description: A large jug appears to be tumbling over, thereby
spilling its contents.
PLATE 38. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: Mint Museum of Art, Charlotte.
Condition: possibly repainted.
Description: A female holding an animal is seated on a throne.
Hellmuth (pers. commun. 1984) identifies her as the Moon Goddess
holding a rabbit, her sexual companion. A jug is standing in
front of her and other jugs are seen under the throne. The lat ter
ones show black-eyed circular forms on top of smaller plain ones.
PLATE 39. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A female is carrying a jug.
PLATE 40. Painted polychrome Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: ?
Present location: Royal Museums of Art and History, Bruxelles.
Description: An animal is carrying a small jug.
PLATE 41. Painted Maya vase.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Highlands or Motagua, Guatemala.
Present location: ?
Description: A large jug with protruding rod-like objects (41b)
is surrounded by an animal personage (41a) and a human figure
(41c) with a cup in their hand.
PLATE 42. Painted polychrome Maya bowl.
Time period: Late classic, Tepeu 2.
(Tentative) provenance: central Petén, Guatemala.
Present location: Museo Popol Vuh, Guatemala City.
Previous publication: Hellmuth 1978.
Description: On the right, a jaguar is carrying a syringe and a jug.
158
PLATE 43. Painted polychrome Maya bowl.
Time period: Late classic.
(Tentative) provenance: Petén. Guatemala.
Present location: private collection.
Description: A mammal is jumping out of a jug.
159
APPENDIX D
PROCEDURE FOR THE PLASMA LEVEL DETERMINATIONS OF CAFFEINE
by
Jan H.G. Jonkman and Wim J.V. van der Boon
[Pharma Bio-Research International, Assen, The NetherlandsJ
Extraction procedure
100 ~ l of plasma was brought in a centrifuge tube of 5 mI. 100
~ l of the internal standard solution (D4030 50 mg/l in water),
1 0 0 ~ 1 of water, 100 ~ l of ammonium sulphate solution (saturated)
and 3.0 mI of dichloromethane were added. The tube was vortexed
for 2 min and centrifuged for 5 min at 4900 t . ~ m . The water
phase was removed, and the organic layer was transferred to a
centrifuge tube with a conical bottom and evaporated at 55°C
under nitrogen. The residue was resolved in 1000 ~ l of the mobile
phase by vortexing for 30 sec. 10 ~ l was injected into the HPLC
system.
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
--rhe HPLC system consisted of the following components: Pump:
Waters, type M45; Detector: Waters, Model 441 U.V. 280 nm R=0.01;
Injection sytem: Waters, wisp 710B; Integrates: Spectra Physics,
SP 4100j Column: Merck, Hibar column packed with Lichrosorb Si-
60-5 ~ m . catalogue number: 50388, length: 250 mm, LD.: 4.0 mmo
The sample was concentrated wi th the aid of the sample
concentrator type SC-3 of Techne.
The chromatographical conditions were: room temperaturej flow
rate: 1.0 ml/m in.; pressure: 1300 p.s.i.; composi tion of mobile
phase: chloroform 55%, n-heptane 41%. methanol 4%, and acetic
acid 0.05%.
160
APPENDIX E
PROCEDURE FOR THE PLASMA LEVEL DETERMINATIONS OF HARMINE
by
Laurent Rivier
[Institute of Legal Medicine, Lausanne, SwitzerlandJ
and
P ierre Baumann
[Psychiatric University Clinic, Lausanne, SwitzerlandJ
Extraction procedure
Typically, 1 ml of plasma was diluted with 1 ml of water and 50
ng of harmane added as internal standard. The pH of the water was
brought to 9 with 2N NaOH and 1 ml of a toluene/isoamyl alcohol
mixture (85:15) was added. The toluene/isoamyl alcohol fraction
was reduced to 50 ~ l and 3 ~ l were injected into the GC-MS
system.
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
--Xnalyses were carried out on a combined GC-MS instrument (Model
5985A, Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto). Typical GC conditions used
throughout were: SE-54 WCOT fused silica capillary column (25 m x
0.3 mm Ld.). The column was connected directly to the MS source
and the carrier gas flow ra te (helium) was 1.5 ml/min at 200°C
through the end of the column. Temperature conditions were:
initialoven temperature 155°C for 0 min; heating rate 30°C/min;
final temperature 260°C f6r 10 min. Injection port for splitless
injections was maintained at 280°C and the tranfer line and ion
source were 250°C and 200°C, respectively. For allowing the
sensitivity and specificity necessary for accurate harmane and
harmine quantifications, Selective Ions Monitoring (SIM) or Mass
Fragmentography was used. Us ing this mode, the MS was set up for
detecting 4 ions representative of the molecules (182.0 for
harmane and 169.0, 197.0 and 212.0 for harmine). Each ion was
measured for 100 msec. Calibration curves were obtained by
proceeding standard solutions in the same way as the plasma
samples.
The calibration curve obtained by SIM with harmane as internal
standard indicated that the response of the detector was linear
over the 0 to 50 ng/ml levels.
The limit was set up to 2 ng/ml as it was from such a level
that a clear signal emerging from the noise could be measured. It
was found that harmane is a good internal standard as no signal
at all could be detected at the place of emergence when drug free
161
plasma was used. This is not the case for norharmane (*).
(*) Baumann,P., Rivier,L. and Perey,M. (1983) In: A.Frigerio
(Ed.) Recent Developments in Mass Spectrometry in
Biochemistry, Medi cine andEiiV'Ironmental Research, Vol.8.
pp.7-18
162
0'1
UJ
Scientific name
Acalypha insulana
(Euphorbiaceae)
Acorus calamus
( A r a c e a ~
Alocasia sp.
(Araceae)
APPENDIX F
SCME RlTUAL PLANTS AND REPUTED BOTANICAL INTOXICANTS OF NEW GUINEA NATIVES (*)
Vernacular
name
api
Tribe or
area
IAI-people
Raiapu
Enga
Baining
Wewäk-
Boikin
Uses
is also known as Acalypha hellwigii;
New Guinea natives are sometimes said to smoke
the leaves of var. mollis (1,41)
Rhizome is eaten in certain ceremonies,
whereafter the participants feel able to
contact spirits (4B)
Huntsmen spit chewed sweet flag into the
nose of their dogs to promote their
ability to locate game (10)
Participants in dancing ceremonies are said
to eat Colocasia esculenta or tubers of
Alocasia indica, followed by Laportea leaves
to counteract the pOisonous action (19.20)
Malevolent sorcerers may start with eating a
'gombi' mixture which includes wild taro, wild
lemen, grated cocc-nut, bark of the 'mali'
tree, and several kinds of ginger (12)
Additional remarks
Leaves are also used
as tobacco wrapper (26)
North American
Sioux Indians spit
masticated sweet flag
into the mouth of a
puppy to make it a
fierce watchdog (23)
The New Guinea flora
does not include the
Javanese A.indica,
but other Alocasia
species (41); in
Australia, juice of
Alocasia macrorhiza
is considered an
antidote for Laportea
gigas (25)
(J\
"'"
Scientif ie name
Amaracarpus sp.
(Rub iaceae)
Amaranthus sp.
(Amaranthaceae)
Archontophoenix sp.
(Palmae)
Beaumontia sp.
(Apocynaceae)
Bubbia sp.
(Winteraceae)
Capparis sp.
(Capparaceae)
Vernacular
name
tumeni
kikisira
kara
Tribe or
area
Gimi
Orokaiva
New
Bri tain
Lake area
or Kema
valley
Gimi
Western
islands
Torres
Strai ts
Uses
Vide Elaeagnus sp.
'Turneni.' and 'siroru' (flame-coloured
coxcomb) are included in a mixture intended
to provoke a ceremonial shaking-fit (44)
Nut is chewed as intoxicant (26)
Smoked instead of tobacco (22)
Man of power smokes tobacco with 'kikisira'
bark to pass into a dream-like state during a
healing ceremony (13)
To become a magician, the novice must eat
the unripe fruit; leaves and root are eaten by
magicians wanting to be wild (15)
Additional remarks
The collection of the
State Herbarium in
Leiden contains only
Archontophoenix from
Australia (41)
Misspelled as
'Bomoncia'; said to
occur al1Xlng the
Australian Arunta as
well (22)
Q'\
UI
Scientific name
Castanopsis
acuminatissima
(Fagaceae)
Cinnamomum sp.
(Lauraceae)
Citrus hystrix

Citrus sp.
(Ru taceae)
Codiaeum
variegatum
(Euphorbiaceae)
Vernacular
name
kawang
kai-yau-
kwera
tadi
ximbung
kundama
Tribe or
area
Banz area
Mailu
is land
Kukukuku
Marind-
anim
Wewäk-
Boikin
Marind-
anim
Marind-
anim
Uses
Seed is said to have similar intoxicating
effects as certain mushrooms, when steamed
and eaten in quantity (16)
Death sorcerer may chew cinnamon bark to
become 'hot' or powerful (29)
Cinnamon leaves are mixed with dog's food
to make it a good hun ter (8)
To become a sorcerer, the novice must take a
mixture of various ingredients, including the
leaves of Citrus hystrix, Codiaeum variegatum,
Cordyline rrutiëosa, Crinum asiaticum and
several unidentified plants (46)
Vide Alocasia sp.
Leaves of the wild lemen tree are used to
induce ecstasy (46); sometimes even their
smell is claimed to be sufficient (40)
Vide Citrus hystrix
Additional remarks
Against the advice of
their parents,
children sometimes
persist in eating the
raw kernels, because
of their pleasant
taste; this of ten leads
to emaciation,
anaemia and mouth
ulceration (7,17)
Mixture of tobacco
and cinnamon is some-
times claimed to cause
marihuana-like effects
in the New World (28)
Cl'
Cl'
Scientific name
Colocasia esculenta
(Araceae)
Cordyline fruticosa
(Liliaceae)
Costus sp.
(Zingiberaceae)
Crinum aslatlcum
(Amaryllidaceae)
Cryptocarya
aromatica
(Lauraceae)
Curcuma longa
(Zingiberaceae)
Cycas circinalis
(Cycadaceae )
Vernacular
name
ngasi
jangun ,
jangun
fagata
jarangar
a seren-
gachi
oa
söuwaa
baibai,
bebai
Tribe or
area
Baining
Marind-
anim
Adzera
Marind-
anim
Baining
Sent ani
sea
Pawaia
Gunantuna
Uses
Vide Alocasia sp.
Vide Ci trus hystri x
Fruit is chewed as substitute for betel nut (18)
Vide Ci trus hystrix
Aromatic massoibark is chewed with lime and
a species of betel leaf as substitute for betel
nut (21,24)
Bark is chewed during various ritual actions,
for instance by media who want to contact
supernatural beings (47)
Before young men are admitted to the circle of
adults, they must drink a beverage prepared
from the rhizome (48)
Pollen are used as a narcotic (33)
Additional remarks
Cycas pollen or male
brä'ëts are also
reputed to be narcotic
in India (38,43)
(J\
'-J
Scientific name
Cycas sp.
(Cycadaceae)
Diospyros sp.
(Ebenaceae)
Elaeagnus sp.
(Elaeagnaceae)
Endospermum
moluccanum
(Euphorbiaceae)
Euodia cf.
boiiWTëkii
(Rutaceae)
Ficus subnervosa
(Moraceae)
Galbul1mima
belgraveana
(Himantandraceae)
Vernacular
name
budzamar
kub ilg im
kilt
agara
Tribe or
area
Western
islands
Torres
Straits
Western
islands
Torres
Straits
Gimi
Jimi or
Mt. Hagen
Mt. Hagen-
people
Rossel
Island
Okapa area
Uses
Young leaf shoots are eaten by sorcerers
wanting to be wild (15)
To become a magician, the novice must inter
alia chew this plant (15)
In divination rites, a mixture of tobacco with
leaves of Elaeagnus sp. and Amaracarpus sp.
is smoked to pass into a trance-like state (13)
Used in a ritual context to make young
warriors fierce (26)
Bark is chewed by men during dancing
feasts (37)
Leaves are chewed as substitute for betel nut
(17)
Natives chew a mixture of 'agara' bark and
'ereriba' leaves (Homalomena sp.) to
provoke premonitory visions; sometimes the
rhizome of 'kaine' (Zingiber zerumbet) is
added as weIl; direct observation of an user
has revealed violent tremor with miosis,
followed af ter an hour by calmness and
euphoria, and thereafter drowsiness (5,6)
Additional remarks
Is also used in a
ritual context to make
young warriors fierce
(26,42)
0\
<Xl
Scientific name
Galbulimima
belgraveana
(contTnued)
Homalanthus sp.
(Euphorbiaceae)
Homalomena sp.
(Araceae)
Kaempferia
galanga
(Zingiberaceae)
Lactuca indi ca
(Asteracë"ä8)
Laportea sp.
(Urticaceae)
Palmeria sp.
(Monimiaceae)
Vernacular
name
ereriba
maraba
kuntigea
kada-a
a mingual,
a mangarai
salak
boma kan
Tribe or
area
Gimi
Uses
For divination, men may pass into a
trance-like state by chewing the bark (13)
New Britain Used in a ritual context to make young warriors
fierce (26)
Okapa area
Okapa area
Kukukuku
Baining
Komba
Chimbu
Leaves are used, sometimes together with
Galbulimima bark, to provoke dreams and
vlslons, followed by serious neurological
symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease (4,5)
Root is said to be hallucinogenic (6)
Seeds are chewed as substitute for betel
mixture (8)
Laportea leaves of the large-leaved 'a
mingual' and of the small-leaved 'a mangarai'
are taken by dancers af ter the ingestion of
Alocasia tubers (vide supra) (20)
Death sorcerer eats leaves of astinging
nettle (Laportea sp.?) to become 'hot' (33)
Leaves are eaten by men as a stimulant in time
of war (36)
Additional remarks
lndicated as Ornalanthus,
which is a synonym (41)
Leaves are also eaten by
women as an abortivum
(34,36)
(j'\
\D
Seientif ie name
Pandanus sp.
(Pandanaeeae)
Ptyehoeoeeus
paradoxus
(Palmae)
Pueraria
phaseoloides
(Leguminosae)
Stryehnos minor

Zornia gibbosa
(Leguminosae)
Vernaeular
name
amugl keja
tayuaka,
hamanga
Trlbe or
area
Chimbu
Uses
Natives are said to beeome 'long long' (mad)
in the beg inning of the year, when pandanus
fruits are ripe; this temporary folly is reputed
to be provoked by the ingestion of raw or
immature nuts of the pandanus tree or even
by the smell of its rotting fruit shells
(6,16,27,3Q,Q2)
Kukukuku Fruit is eaten by boys in puberty eeremony (8)
Barriai Fruit is used as substitute for betel nut (11)
New Britain Leaves are used as intoxieant (26)
Bark is erushed with ginger and fed to dogs,
to stimulate them for hunting (17)
Used for soreery (30)
Additional remarks
The nuts are said not
to be from loeal trees,
but from Jimi valley
(16); pandanus leaves
are used in New
Guinea as a eigarette
wrapper (22,26)
Leaves of Zornia
latifolia are-sIDoked in
Brazil as substitute
for Cannabis (30)
Notes:
(*) Specific exclusions from the table are:
- well-known plants and preparations like tobacco
(14,22,33.39), betel (32,33,48), kava (31,33,48), ginger
(33.48). alcoholic beverages (26), opium (2) and hemp
(35) ;
- psychoactive plants which are merely reported to have
caused unintentional poisoning, such as hallucinogenic
Brugmansia species (7,9,17);
- certilin mushrooms, which are possibly associated with a
native frenzy (16,27);
- plants which are merely used as cigarette wrappers, such
as Donax canniformis, Ficus sp., Hibiscus sp., Kleinhovia
hosj)'It'ä,'" Macaranga brassii and Rubus
moluccanus (22,26,36); --
- plants without botanical identification, such as the kevo
tree in the Bismarck Mountains (3), the kumani creaper in
the western islands of the Torres Straits (15), the nong'n
plant of the Danga (27),the sota and tsinimp leaves of the
Adzera (18) and the yiragai herb of the Kutubu (45).
References:
(1) Airy Shaw 1980 (2) Anonymous 1920 (3) Aufenanger and Höltker
1940 (4) Barrau 1957 (5) Barrau 1958 (6) Barrau 1962 (7) Bell
1973 (8) Blackwood 1940 (9) Bridgewater 1968 {10) Feachem 1972-73
(11) Friederici 1912 (12) Gerstner 1954 (13) Glick 1967 (14)
Haddon 1946 (15) Haddon and Seligmann 1904 (16) Heim and Wasson
1965 (17) Henty 1980 (18) Holzknecht 1971 (19) Laufer 1946-49
(20) Laufer 1963-64 (21) Laufer 1965-66 (22) Le Roux 1948 (23)
Morgan 1980 (24) Parkinson 1907 (25) Plowman 1969 (26) Powell
1976 (27) Reay 1960-61 (28) Reko 1949 (29) Saville 1926 (30)
Schultes and Hofmann 1980b (31) Serpenti 1962 (32) Seyfarth 1981
(33) Sterly 1970 (34) Sterly 1973 (35) Sterly 1978-79 (36)
Sterly, pers. commun. 1985 (37) Stopp 1963 (38) Thieret 1958 (39)
Van Nouhuys 1932 (40) Verten ten 1916 (41) Vink, pers. commun.
1983 (42) Webb 1960 (43) Whiting 1963 (44) Williams 1928 (45)
Williams 1941-42 (46) Wirz 1925 (47) Wirz 1928 (48) Wolff-Eggert
1977 •
170
-...J
APPENDIX G
MULTIDISCIPLINARY TABLE ON SOME REPUTEDLY PSYCHOACTIVE FUMIGATORIES AMONG MIDDLE AND SOUTH AMERICAN NATIVES (*)
Scient1fic name
Amanita muscaria
(Amanitaceae)
Anadenanthera
colubrina var.
cebll
(Leguminosae)
Anadenanthera
peregrina
( Le guminosae)
Area
Valley of
Puebla,
Mexico
Paraguay and
Argentina
Br1tish
Guiana
Ethnobotany (**)
A curandero is reputed
to smoke dried A.mus-
caria mixed with tobac-
an intoxicant and
to perform ritual diag-
noses (17)
Aboriginal smoking of
çevil pods is mentioned
in an early souree on
Paraguay (18), and
Argentinian natives are
said to smoke jatáj
mixed with
tobacco (8). Botanical
identifications are not
given, but such prepara-
tions are associated
with A. colubrina var.
cebll\53,63)
Aboriginal smoking of
the pulverized seeds is
mentioned in an early
source (52)
Phytochemistry (***) Psychopharmacology
Muscimol, ibotenic
acid (15)
DMT, 5-OH-DMT in
the seed and in the
seed pod (26)
DMT, 5--Meü-DMT,
in the
seed (15)
Evidence for hallu-
cinogenic activity
is less impressive
than in the case of
psilocybian mush-
rooms (15,39)
True hallucinogenic
activity is
definitely estab-
lished for DMT,
but not for 5-OH-
DMT (15)
True hallucinogenic
activity is
definitely estab-
lished for DMT and
5--Meü-DMT, but not
for (15)
Efficacy of smoking
DMT is claimed to be
effective, when
smoked (6)
The smoking of 6-10
mg 5--Meü-DMT is ef-
fective (15). DMT is
claimed tb be effec-
tive, when smoked
(6)
-...J
N
Scientific name
Calea zacatechichi
(Asteraceae)
Cannabis sativa

Area
State of
Oaxaca,
Mexico
Brazil
Cytisus canariensis Northern
(Leguminosae) Mexico
Ethnobotany (**) Phytochemistry (***) Psychopharmacology Efficacy of smoking
Chontal curanderos pre- Caleines and
pare an infusion and a zexbrevin in aerial
cigarette from the dried parts (25,44)
leaves for clarification
of the senses (17,31)
The Tenetehara Indians
smoke the dried flower
and leaf as a recrea-
tional stimulant (64).
Among Mexican natives
like the Tepehua Indians,
the principal way of
Cannabis use is oral
administration (23,68)
This plant is also known
as Genista canariensis
shaman
prepares cigarettes
from the dried blossoms
(19 )
Delta-9-tetrahydro-
cannabinol and many
other cannabinoids
(60)
Cytisine, N-methyl-
cytisine and
anagyrine in the
leaf (69)
C.zacatechichi was
mildly psychoactive,
when inhaled and in-
gested in an uncon-
trolled study (17)
The mild hallucino- Well established
genic activity is (2,38)
well established
(36,53)
Cytisine and C.canariensis was
N-methylcytisine mildly psychoactive,
have similar periph- when smoked in an
eral effects as uncontrolled study
nicotine, but their (19)
central activity may
be different (1,70)
-...J
W
Scientific name
Datura sp.
(Solanaceae)
Erythroxylum sp.
(Erythroxylaceae)
Area
Mexico
Peru
Ethnobotany (**) Phytochemistry (***) Psychopharmacology
Spiked ceramics might be Scopolamine, hyos-
associated with Datura cyamine in the
use (30), so finds of leaf
archaeological clay
pipes with spiked bowls
should be mentioned here
but substantial
evidence for pre-Hispanic
Datura smoking in Mexico
is lacking. Contemporary
data are limited to a
vague statement that
dried toloachi leaves are
added to tobacco cigaret-
tes in the Guanajuato
region but this
may be a non-aboriginal
practice
Aboriginal smoking is
reported for the Omagua
Indians (7), but no
primary reference is
given. The non-
aboriginal smoking of
coca paste is weIl doc-
umented (27)
cocaine in the
leaf
The deliriant
activity is weIl
established (15)
The psychostimula-
ting properties are
weIl established
(21)
Efficacy of smoking
WeIl established
(56,67 )
WeIl established

-...J
.po
Scientific name
Lobelia tupa
(Campanulä'ëëae)
Nicotiana spp.
(Solanaceae)
PSllocybe sp.
(Strcphariaceae)
Area
Chlle
Widespread
Mexico
Ethnobotany (**)
The Mapuche Indians are
said to smoke the leaves
as an intoxlcant (32)
Tobacco is undoubtedly
the most common fumiga-
tory of Middle and South
American aboriginals.
The principal species
are N.tabacum and
N.rustlca in Mlddle
America and N.tabacum
in South America (48,66)
The contemporary smoking
of psilocyblan mush-
rooms by a Yaqui Indian
has been described (9,
10), but the authentic-
ityof this report is
very gravely doub,ted
The ancient
Aztecs smoked mushrooms
as an admixture to
tobacco (50), but the
botanical identity is
unkown
Phytochemistry (WWW) Psychopharmacology
Lobeline,
lobelanidine,
norlobelanine in
the leaf (28)
Nicotine in the
leaf (15)
Psilocybin, psllo-
c in (53)
Lobeline has similar
peripheral effects
as nicotine, but its
central activity may
be different (49,59)
The psychostimula-
ting properties are
weIl established
(15,59)
The hallucinogenic
activity is weIl
established (15)
Efficacy of smoking
Recent references on
the efficacy of
smoking have not
been found; there is
merely a report as-
80ciating a smoking
mixture of Lobelia
inflata and-oatUra
Bträiiiöili um wi th the
sudden death of an
asthmatic (35)
WeIl establlshed
)
The availability of
psilocybin is said
to be compromised by
pyrolytic degrada-
tion and by conden-
sation, when lt is
smoked in a pipe
(57)
-..J
V1
Scientific name Area Ethnobotany \**) Phytochemistry (***) Psychopharmacology
Quararibea funebris Mexico
(Bombacaceae)
The Aztecs used funebrine (45)
poyomatli, the flower of
Tagetes lucida
(Asteracë"ii""e)
Trichocereus
pachanoi
(Cactaceae)
Trichocline spp.
(Asteraceae)
the cacauaxochitl plant,
as an admixture to
smoking tobacco (50,51).
One of the suggested
identifications is
Q.funebris (33,65).
Sierra Madre, The Huichol Indians
Mexico smoke the dried leaves
and flowers, either
alone or mixed with
Nicotiana rustica (58)
The root con ta ins
BBT (11); various
non-alkaloidal
constituents have
been reported for
the genus (17,53)
Las Aldas,
Peru
This plant is also known Mescaline (13)
as EChinopsis pachanoi
Argentina
(53). Archaeological
excavations have yielded
what appear to be cigars
made from a cactus
thought to be T.pachanoi
(55)
The Chaco Indians smoke
the powdered root of
T.reptans, either alone
or mixed with tobacco.
Other species said to be
used are T. auriculata,
T.dealbatä; T.exscapa and
T.incana (20,63,71)
Isop impinellin,
phellopterin and
trichoclin in
T. incana (37)
The hallucinogenic
activity is weIl
established (15)
Efficacy of smoking
.......
Q'\
Scientific name
Virola sebifera
(Myristicaceae)
Virola sp.
(Myristicaceae)
Area
Venezuela
Brazil
Ethnobotany (**)
Witch doctors are repu-
ted to smoke the inner
bark to cure fevers
(53,63)
The bark of an indeter-
mina te Virola species
reportedly is smoked
by witch doctors as an
additive to tobacco (34)
Phytochemistry ("') Psychopharmacology
DMT and 5-Meo-DMT
in the bark (12,
34 )
A collected bark
sample was devoid
of alkaloids (34)
The hallucinogenic
activity is well
established (15)
Efficacy of smoking
The smoking of 6-10
mg 5-MeO-DMT is ef-
fecti ve (15). DMT is
claimed to be effec-
tive, when smoked
(6)
Notes:
(*) Reported North American Indian fumigatories other than
tobacco include Achillea millefolium (61), Arctostaphylos
uva-ursi (62), Cornus stolonifera (29), Datura meteloides
(3) = D.innoxia? (24,53), Eriogonum sp. (58), Eupatorium
solidaginifolium (62), Leptotaenia californica (22), Lobelia
inflata (61), Rhus glabra (61), Sassafras officinale (61),
Verbascum thapS'iiS (61), Vi burnum opulus (61)
(**) Since their use as a fumigatory is or may be non-aboriginal,
the following plants have been excluded : Canavalia maritima
(16), Cestrum laevigatum (53), Leonurus sibiricus (16),
Myristica fragrans (54), Salvia divinorum (16), Sida acuta
(16), Stropharia cubensis (42), Zornia
(***)The following abbreviations are used to indicate constituents:
DMT = N,N-dimethyltryptamine
5-GH-DMT 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
5-MeO-DMT 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
BBT 5-(3-buten-l-ynyl)-2,2'-bithienyl
References:
(1) Barlow and McLeod 1969 (2) Barnett et al. 1982 (3) Barrows
1900 (4) Benowitz et al. 1982 (5) Benowitz et aL 1983 (6)
Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975 (7) Bühler 1948 (8) Califano 1975
(9) Castaneda 1970 (10) Castaneda 1972 (11) Chan et aL 1979 (12)
Corothie and Nakano 1969 (13) Crosby and McLaughlin 1973 (14) de
Mille 1980 (15) de Smet 1983b (16) Dfaz 1976 (17) Dfaz 1979 (18)
Dobrizhoffer 1822 (19) Fadiman 1965 (20) Giberti 1981 (21)
Grinspoon and Bakalar 1976 (22) Harrington 1932 (23) Heffern 1974
(24) Hegnauer 1973 (25) Herz and Kumar 1980 (26) Iacobucci and
Ruveda 1964 (27) Jeri et al. 1978 (28) Kaczmarek and Steinegger
1958 (29) King 1977 (30) Litzinger 1981 (31) MacDougall 1968
(32) Mariani Ram!rez 1965 (33) Martinez 1979 (34) McKenna et al.
1984b (35) McLaren 1968 (36) Meyer 1972 (37) Miyakado et al. 1978
(38) Oh 1 ss 0 net aL 1 980 (39) 0 t t 1 97 6 (4 0) Pal y eta 1. 1 982 (4 1 )
Perez-Reyes et al. 1982 (42) Pollock 1975 (43) Porter 1948 (44)
Quijano et al. 1979 (45) Raffauf et al. 1984 (46) Reko 1949 (47)
Rivier 1981 (48) Robicsek 1978 (49) Rosecrans et al. 1978 (50)
Sahagun 1961 (51) Sahagun 1963 (52) Schomburgk 1848 (53) Schultes
and Hofmann 1980b (54) Schulze 1976 (55) Sharon and Donnan 1977
(56) Siegel 1976 (57) Siegel 1981 (58) Siegel et aL 1977 (59)
Taylor 1980 (60) Turner et al. 1980 (61) Vogel 1970 (62) von Reis
and Lipp Jr. 1982 (63) von Reis Altschul 1967 (64) Wagley and
177
Galvao 1949 (65) Wasson 1980 (66) Wilbert 1975 (67) Wilcox Jr.
1967 (68) Williams-Garcia 1975 (69) Wink et al. 1983 (70)
Zachowski 1938 (71) Zardini 1977
178
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am grateful to my promotor Prof. Frans Nelemans and my co-
promotor Prof. Henriëtte Bosman-Jelgersma for their faith in an
uncommon approach to an unorthodox subject.
I would also like to thank the referees Prof. Michael Coe,
Prof. Robert Hegnauer, Prof. Bo Holmstedt and Prof. Richard
Schultes; and the members of the university board, Prof. Alex
Indemans, Prof. Rudy Labadie and Prof. Eppo van der Kleijn.
1 owe a gratitude of debt to Laurent Rivier for his willingness
to perform analyses and for his communications, and to Nicholas
Hellmuth for his guidance through the iconographical world of the
Maya.
I would like to thank Pierre Baumann, Henk de Smet, Jan
Jonkman, Paul LeBrun, Frans Schenkelaars, Kees Smulders, and Wim
van der Boon for their contributions to my rectal and nasal self-
experiments.
I am indebted to David Aberle, Georg Brongers, Michael Coe,
Emile and Lin Deletaille, Marlene Dobkin de Rios, Jan Elferink,
William Emboden, Peter Furst, Huguette van Geluwe, Conrad
Gorinsky, Robert Hegnauer, Bo Holmstedt, Sven-Erik Isacsson,
Harris Isbell, John Justeson, Peter Kann, Tim Knab, William
Litzinger, Karl Herbert Mayer, Dennis McKenna, Mary Miller, Frits
Moolenaar, Juan Negrfn, Timothy Plowman, Ghillean Prance, Sergio
Purin, Karl-Georg Scheffer, Linda Schele, Richard Schultes,
Alexander Shulgin, Hans Siwon, Joachim Sterly, Omer Stewart,
Miguel Torres, Willard Van Asdall, Siri von Reis, Willem Vink,
Henry Wassén, Johannes Wilbert and Peter Zweipfenning for their
personal views, unpublished data, photographical material,
ethnobotanical samples and/or librarian assistance.
I am grateful to the Museo Popol Vuh (Guatemala City), the
Museum of the American Indian (New York), the Denver Art Museum
(Denver), the Mint Museum of Art (Charlotte), the Royal Museums
of Art and History (Bruxelles), and various private collectors
for the permission to show their Maya objects.
I am indebted to Pat Dekker for her stylistic suggestions on
the text and to Peter Mason for his help as a publisher.
Photographs were purchased by a grant from the Greshoff Funds
of the Royal Dutch Society for the Advancement of Pharmacy, The
Hague. The printing of my personal copies was sponsored by the
Onderlinge Pharmaceutische Groothandel (OPG), Utrecht.
227
SUMMARY
The general outline of the thesis is given in the preface. The
first two chapters review the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and
psychopharmacology of ritual intoxicating enernas and snuffs among
the aboriginal inhabitants of the western hemisphere. They are
supplemented by a third chapter, which gives a general outlook
on some factors to be taken into consideration in the muIt i-
disciplinary approach to ritual intoxicating plants.
Chapter one is an overview of intoxicating enema rituals in the
western hemisphere.
Part one discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and psycho-
pharmacological aspects. The following categories of ritual enema
ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach:
1) It is weIl established that the plant provides one or more
psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a
ritual enema ingredient is confirmed or is quite probable:
Agave, Anadenanthera, Brugmansia.
2) rt:[S weIl established that the plant provides one or more
psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a
ritual enema ingredient is not weIl recorded or is even
unlikely:
Banisteriopsis. Datura, Ilex guayusa, Lophophora williamsii,
Nicotiana.
3) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual enema ingredient is
confirmed or is quite probable, but it is not weIl established
that the plant provides one or more psychoactive principles:
none.
4) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual enema ingredient is
not weIl recorded, and it is not weIl established that the
plant provides one or more psychoactive principles:
Capsicum.
Part two discusses the rectal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of
possible ritual enema constituents. The literature yields
convincing clinical evidence that caffeine and nicotine are
effective following rectal application. A good rectal efficacy
could also be expected from mescaline and from tropane alkaloids,
but this is a hypothetical view which still awaits experimental
confirmation,
In self-experiments, ethyl alcohol produced substantial blood
levels via the rectal route, but dimethyltryptamine did not
228
produce any effect when parenterally active quantities were taken
as an enema. First-pass elimination is the most likely
explanation for the observed inactivity of dimethyltryptamine via
the rectal route.
Part three reports the chemistry of paricá seeds of the
Brazilian Indians. These seeds date from the first half of
the 19th century, and seem to be t'he only ethnobotanical material
from the western hemisphere, which has ever been directly
associated with ritual rectal intoxication. Despite their
considerable age, the seeds still y ielded as much as 15 mg/g of
the Anadenanthera alkaloid bufotenin. This analytical finding
supports the botanical view that the seeds are Anadenanthera
seeds.
Part four discusses enema scenes on classic Maya pottery. These
scenes undoubtedly represent rituals and may very well indicate
that the ancient Maya took intoxicating enemas in a ritual
context. This idea is quite contrary to the traditional view that
the ancient Maya were a contemplative people, who did not indulge
in ritual ecstasy. The occasional display of vomiting actors
would seem to provide a plausible reason why the Maya opted for
rectal application. Some scenes present a fair amount of evidence
that an alcoholic beverage may have been taken rectally. Other
scenes open up the possibility that tobacco and the water lily
may have served as an enema ingredient. It is sometimes
speculated that the latter plant is hallucinogenic, but
pharmacological confirmation of this view is still awaited.
Chapter two is an overview of intoxicating snuff in the
western hemisphere.
Part one discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and psyche-
pharmacological aspects. The following categories of ritual snuff
ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach:
1) It is well established that the plant provides one or more
psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a
ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or is quite probable:
Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Nicotiana, Virola.
2) It is well established that the plant provides one or more
psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a
ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded or is even
unlikely:
Banisteriopsis, Cannabis, Datura, Ilex guayusa.
229
3) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is
confirmed or is quite probable, but it is not well established
that the plant provides one or more psychoactive principles:
Justicia pectoralis, pagamea macrophylla, Tanaecium nocturnum.
4) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is
not well recorded, and it is not well established that the
plant provides one or more psychoactive principles:
Acorus calamus, Capsicum, Maquira sclerophylla, Piper
interitum. -----
Part two discusses the nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of
possible ritual snuff constituents. The literature yields
convincing clinical evidence that atropine, cocaine, nicotine and
scopolamine are effective following nasal application, but
experimental confirmation of the efficacy of nasal tryptamine
alkaloids is still awaited. This seems to be due, at least in the
case of dimethyltryptamine, to the testing of low and therefore
inadequate doses.
In self-experiments, caffeine produced substantial plasma
levels via the nasal route, but harmine, when 40 mg was taken as
a nasal powder, did not produce measurable plasma levels. Without
additional experiments, it is difficult to give a definite
explanation for this negative result.
Part three reports the chemistry of two yopo snuffs of the
Venezuelan Piaroa Indians. One snuff yielded 10 mg/g of
bufotenin, and the other one contained traces of harmine and of
bufotenin. The isolation of harmine is quite significant,
since this Banisteriopsis alkaloid is only rarely found in South
American snuffs.
Chapter three provides a general outlook on the multidisciplin-
ary approach to native ritual plants by reviewing some botanical,
chemical and pharmacological factors, which should be taken into
consideration with this approach.
With respect to botanical aspects, emphasis is laid on the
importance of voucher specimens, on the Qsefulness of material in
museum cOllections, on geographical predilection, and on non-
pharmacological terminology in ethnobotanical references.
Significant chemical factors are a careful selection of the
studied material, and the specificity, sensitivity and reactivity
of the analytical procedure.
The pharmacological discussion focuses on experimental design
and on common differences between native and experimental drug
230
taking: clinical data are mostly obtained by testing an isolated
constituent instead of the whole indigenous dosage form and this
constituent may be administered in another dose and by another
route of administration. It is argued that ethnopharmacology
deserves a branch called ethnopharmacokinetics which must be
aimed at the fate of indigenous drug constituents in the body.
Some points in chapter three are illustrated by separate
appendices.
Appendix F provides an ethnobotanical survey of the ritual
plants and reputed botanical intoxicants of New Guinea natives.
The enumeration of thirty-seven different genera suggests that
New Guinea practices are underrepresented in those general
reviews on ritual botanical intoxication, which do not use
pharmacological validity as a strict criterion for inclusion.
Appendix G gives multidisciplinary information on fifteen
different genera, all of which are established or suggested
ingredients of ritual fumigatories in Middle and South America.
Taken together with chapter one and chapter two, this appendix
demonstrates the enormous variety in non-oral ritual intoxication
among Latin American aboriginals.
231
Abipon 45-46
Acacia niopo 24, 75
Acalypha-h'ë'Üwigii 163
Acalypha insulana 163
N-acetylmescaline 38
acetyl norharmine 30
Achillea millefolium 177
acoragermacron 74-75
acorenone 74-75
acorone 74-75
Acorus calamus 74-75, 101,
124, 163
Adzera 166, 170
agara 167
Agave 20-21, 42, 62, 66
alcohol: vide ethyl alcohol
alcoholic beverage: vide ethyl
alcohol
Algonquin 36
Allium cepa 130
Alocasia-T63, 165. 166, 168
Alocasia indica 163
Alocasia macrorhiza 163
alpha-asarone 74
alpha-truxilline 84
a mangarai 168
Amanita muscaria 67. 69. 171
Amaracarpus 164, 167
Amaranthus 164
a mingual 168
aminophenazone 104
aminophylline 45
aminopyrine 104
amugl keja 169
anabasine 41
Anadenanthera 11, 22, 25-29.
42. 47-48, 53. 75. 77, 93,
96, 99, 101,110, 117-119.
122
Anadenanthera colubrina 22,
25 27, 53. 75, 77, 171
INDEX
Anadenanthera peregrina 22,
25-26,53,75-78,117,124,
1 71
anagyr ine 172
anatabine 41
angico 23, 52, 75, 93
anhalamine 38
anhalidine 38
anhalonidine 38
anhalonine 38
Annona 59
ap i 163
apomorphine 70-71
aporphine 70-71
aposcopolamine 33
Archontophoenix 164
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi 177
Artemisia annua 9
Arunta 164---
asarone 74, 124
a serengachi 166
Atropa belladonna 130
atropine 22, 33-34, 46, 50,
106, 114-lt5, 125, 132
ayahuasca 31, 79, 100, 130
ayukuma 14
Aztec 20, 36, 40, 58, 174-175
baduhu-tsifia 14
baibai 166
Baining 163,166,168
balché 55, 58, 66
Banisteriopsis 10, 29-31. 42.
78-79,100-101,118,130
Banisteriopsis caapi 30-31
Barasana 94 -----
barium sulphate 105
Barriai 169
BBT [5-(3-buten-l-ynyl)-2,2'-
bithienyl] 175. 177
Beaumontia 164
bebai 166
232
beer 47-48,106,112
belladonna 50
benzaldehyde 95
benzoylecgonine 84-87
benzoylmethylecgonine 84
benzoyltropine 84
beta-asarone 74
beta-truxilline 84
betel 166-170
bhang 131
bilca tauri 26
boma kan 168
boo-hanák 89
Bora 97
Brugmansia 32-33, 36, 42, 68,
82, 170
Brugmansia arborea 32-33
Brugmansia sanguinea 33
Brugmansia suaveolens 32-33
Bubbia 164
budzamar 167
Bufo 71
bUfogenin 71
bufotenin: vide 5-oH-DMT
bufotoxin 71
buhenak 90
buserilin 102

bithienyl: vide BBT
butylscopolamine 50
Caburiwe-Teri 89
cacauaxochitl 175
Cacharary: vide Casharari
caffeine 11, 37, 47, 51, 89.
106-107.112,116
calamu$ 74
calcium carbonate 91
Calea zacatechichi 172
caleine 172
Canavalia maritima 177
cannabicyclol 125
cannabielsoin 125
cannabinoid 80, 125, 172
Cannabis 27. 80, 92, 101, 131.
1 69. 1 72
Cannabis sativa 92, 125, 172
Capparis 164
capsaicin 35. 132
capslcln 132
Capsicum 34-35, 43, 81, 101,
132
Capsicum annuum 35
carbon dioxide 74, 128
carbon monoxide 112
Caripuna 22-23. 46, 52
Casharari [Cacharary] 24-25
Castanopsis acuminatissima 165
castor oil 55
Catauxi: vide Catawishi
Catawishi [Catauxi] 23-25
cebil 77. 171
Ceiba 68-69
ëeStrum laevigatum 177
Çlevil 77, 171
Chaco 175
chicha 26
chili pep per 81
Chimbu 168-169
Chippewa 74
choline 84
Chontal 172
Cinnamomum 165
cinnamon 123, 165
cinnamoylcocaine 85-86
cinnamoylecgonine 84
cis-cinnamoylcocaine 84-85
citric acid 112
Citrus 165
Citrus hystrix 165-166
clofilium 105
coca 82-84. 86-88. 104. 109,
123. 130
cocaine 84-88, 103, 105, 107-
110, 11 5, 1 27. 1 30, 1 73
Cocama 24-25
coca paste 83. 88, 173
coco de mono 117
coco-nut 163
codeine 45
Codiaeum variegatum 165
233
coffee 47-48, 106, 112
cohoba 77
Colocasia esculenta 163. 166
Cordyline fruticosa 165-166
Cornus stolonifera 177
Costus 166
coumar in 90-91
Crinum asiaticum 165-166
Cryptocarya aromatica 166
Cuiva 76
curare 70
Curcuma longa 166
curry 12-3--
curupa 24
cuscohygrine 84
cyanide 95
Cycas 166-167
Cycas circinalis 166
cytisine 172
Cytisus canariensis 172
Danga 170
Datura 22, 32-33. 35-36, 42,
68-69,81-82,101,124-125.
173
Datura arborea 32-33
Datura candida 32. 68, 124
Datura ceratocaula 35-36
Datura innoxia 35-36, 68, 81-
82, 177
Datura meteloides 177
Datura stramonium 35-36, 174
daturin 132
3-demethylmescaline 38
Den! 14, 93
desmopressin 102
digitalis 70
dihydrocuscohygrine 84
dihydroshihunine 30
dihydroxytropane 84
3.4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine
38
N,N-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-
methoxyphenylethylamine 38
N,N-dimethyltryptamine: vide
DMT
Diospyros 167
2.3'-dipyridyl 41
DMT [N,N-dimethyltryptamine]
26-29.31.47,51,77-79,
90, 98-100, 110. 115, 117-
118, 129-130, 171, 176-177
DMT-N-oxide 26-27, 29
Donax canniformis 170
ebene 96
ecgonine 84-87
ecgonine methylester 85-86,
125
Echinopsis pachanoi 175
Elaeagnus 123, 164, 167
Endospermum moluccanum 167
epéna 79, 96
ereriba 167-168
Eriogonum 177
Erythrina 67, 70
Erythroxylum 82-84, 86, 93,
101,125,173
Erythroxylum coca 82-85
Erythroxylum fGTIbriatum 82-84
Erythroxylum macrophyllum 82-
84
Erythroxylum novogranatense
82-84
Erythroxylum recurrens 84
Erythroxylum steyermarkii 84
ethyl alcohol [alcohol;
alcoholic beverage] 10, 20-
22,26,48-49,51.55-58,
62, 6 5-6 6, 69, 72, 81, 86.
92.127,131,170
Euodia cf.bonwickii 167
Eupatorium solidaginifolium
177
Ficus 170
Ficus subnervosa 167
flame-coloured coxcomb 164
fly agaric 10, 67. 69
funebrine 175
Gal bulimima 168
Galbulimima belgraveana 167-
168
234
Genista canariensis 172
gentamicin 104
Gimi 123, 164, 167-168
gingel" 123, 163, 169-170
glucagon 102
gombi 163
Guahibö 53
guayusa 36. 88
Gunantuna 166
H: vide harmine
hamanga 169
harmaline 10, 30-31, 7&-79,
100, 1 29
harmalinic acid 30
harmalol 30
harman 41-42, 100, 112, 129
harmic acid methyl ester 30
harmic amide 30
harmine [H] 11. 25, 30-31, 49,
78-79,100,111-112,116,
11&-119, 129-130
harmine-N-oxide 30
harmol 30, 100
hashish 80
hemp 80-81, 170
Hibiscus 170
hisioma 75-76
Homalanthus 168
Homalomena 167-168
honey 20, 58, 66
honey wine 58
hordenine 38
5-HT [5-hydroxytryptamine] 2&-
29, 31
Huastec 20-21
Huichol 37-38, 175
huilca 26, 77
hydrogen cyanide 95
7-hydroxycoumarin 90-91
7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronide
90
5-hydroxyindole acetic acid 29
5-hydroxytryptamine: vide 5-HT
hygrine 84
hygroline 84
hyoscine 33
hyoscyamine 33, 36, 125, 130,
132, 173
IAI-people 163
ibotenic acid 171
Ilex guayusa 36-37. 42, 56,
--s8-89, 101
imbauva 23. 52
imcakare.he.raha 93
Inca 25-26, 56
indoleacetic acid 29
insulin 102, 104
ipecacuanha 130
isocarboxazide 127
isolysergic acid amide 131
isopimpinellin 175
Jamamadf 93
jangun 166
jangun fagata 166
jarangar 166
Jarawara 93
jatáj 77, 171
Jivaro 32, 35-36, 56, 93
Juri 24-25
Justicia 97
Justicia pectoralis 89-91. 101
kada-a 168
Kaempferia galanga 168
kaine 167
kai-yau-kwera 165
kara 164
Karimé 14
Karuk 93
kava 170
kawang 165
ketotetrahydronorharmine 30
kevo 170
kikisira 164
kilt 167
Kleinhovia hospita 170
kokoime 14
Komba 168
korib6 95
kubilgim 167
Kukukuku 165. 16&-169
235
Kulina 94
kumani 170
kundama 165
kuntigea 168
Kutubu 170
Lacandon Maya 69
lactose 108
Lactuca indica 168
Laportea 163, 168
Laportea gigas 163
lemon 132:-Tb}. 165
Leonurus sibiricus 177
Leptotaenia californica 177
lidocaine 45, 109-110, 127
lignan 101
limao acedo 132
lobelanidine 174
Lobelia inflata 174, 177
Lobelia tupa 174
lobeline1'74
Lonchocarpus longistylus 66
Lonchocarpus violaceus 66
longistyl ine 66
Lophophora williamsii 37-39,
42
lophophorine 38
LSD [lysergic acid diethyl-
amideJ 10, 27, 30-31, 69.
75,80,126-127
lypressin 102
lysergic acid amide 131
lysergic acid diethylamide:
vide LSD
lysergol 1 31
Macaranga 170
maguey 20, 58, 62, 64
Mahekodotedi 14
maikoa 32-33
Maina 24
maize 20, 59, 66
Makusi 34-35, 81 , 132
malaqueta 132
mali 163
ma-nu-su-ka-ta 94
Mapuche 174
Maquira calophylla 92
Maquira sclerophylla 91-92.
101
maraba 168
Maraguá 52
Marauá 52
marihuana 83, 126, 129. 131,
165
Marind-anim 165-166
marmesin 92
mashahara 90
masha-hára-hanak 89
mashahari 90
mashihiri 89
massoi 166
mass wine 10
Maué [MauhéJ 12, 23. 25. 27.
46, 52-54. 77, 122
Mauhé: vide Maué
Maya: 11-14, 21, 40, 55-68,
70-71
5-MeO-DMT [5-methoxy-N,N-
dimethyltryptamineJ 26-29,
77-79, 91, 98-100, 117-118,
171. 176-177
6-Meo-DMTHC [6-methoxy-l,2-
dimethyl-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-
beta-carbolineJ 78, 98-100
5-MeO-MMT [5-methoxy-N-mono-
methyltryptamineJ 78, 98-100
6-MeO-MTHC[6-methoxy-2-
methyl-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-
beta-carbolineJ 78, 98, 100
mescal-button 37
mescaline 15, 30, 38-39, 49,
51, 175
meteloidine 33
6-methoxy-l,2-dimethyl-
l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-
carboline: vide 6-Meo-DMTHC
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl-
tryptamine: vide 5-MeO-DMT
6-methoxy-harmalan 99, 101,
124
6-methoxy-harman 99. 101, 124
236
6-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2.3,4-
tetrahydro-beta-carboline:
vide 6-Meo-MTHC
5-methoxy-N-monomethy1-
tryptamine: vide 5-MeO-MMT
5-methoxypsoralen 45
6-methoxy-tetrahydroharman 99,
101,124
6-methoxytryptamine 30
methylatropine 50
N-methylcytisine 172
methylecgonidine 84
methylecgonine 84
methylhomatropine 46
N-methylmescaline 38
2-methyl-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-
beta-carboline: vide MTHC
Mimosa acacioides 24, 75
MMT [N-monomethyltryptamine]
78, 98-100
N-monomethyltryptamine: vide
MMT
morphine 123. 128
Mt. Hagen people 167
MTHC [2-methyl-l,2,3,4-tetra-
hydro-beta-carboline] 98-100
Mundurucu 92
Mura 23. 52-53, 77
muscimol 10, 69-70, 171
myosmine 41
Myristica fragrans 177
myristicin 128
Myrmecodia brassii 170
ngasi 1 66
nicotelline 41
Nicotiana 36, 39-42, 75, 92-
93, 96, 1 01. 1 28, 1 74
Nicotiana rustica 39-41, 92-
93. 174-175
Nicotiana tabacum 39-41. 92-
93. 174
Nicotiana thyrsiflora 92-93
nicotine 41-42, 49-51, 84,
112-115, 172, 174
nicotyrine 41
niopa 117
Niopa 117
niopo 75-76, 117
nitroglycerin 102
nitrous oxide 128
nong'n 170
Nootka 93
noratropine 33
norcocaine 85-86
norecgonine 84
norformylecgonine 84
norharman 41-42, 112, 129
norhyoscyamine 33
norlobelanine 174
nornicotine 41
norscopolamine 33
nupharidine 70
nupharine 70
nyakwána 96, 99
Nymphaea 68, 70
Nymphaea alba 70
Nymphaea ampla 59-61, 67-68,
70-71 --
Nymphaea caerulea 70
nymphal ine 70
oa 166
octli 20, 58
5-0H-DMT [bufotenin] 26-28,
46,53,71,77,79,99.106,
110-111, 117-119, 122,171,
177
5-0H-DMT-N-oxide 26-27. 29
Olmedioperebea sclerophylla 91
ololiuhqui 131
Omagua [Umaua] 24-25. 45, 83,
173
Omaha 74
Omalanthus 168
opium 24, 128,170
Orokaiva 164
oscine 33
oxotremorine 125
oxypeucedanin 92
pagamea macrophylla 94, 101
Palmeria 168
237
palm wine 23
pandanus 169
Pandanus 169
pango 80
Pánobo 83
paracetamol 45
paricá 11, 22-25, 27. 46, 52-
53, 75-77, 79-80, 96, 118,
122
paricarama 77
parica tobacco 80
Pasé 24-25
paumari 95. 97-98
Pawa ia 166
paxararok 89
pellotine 38
pepper 34, 81, 132
peyote 37-39, 56
phellopterin 175
phenylbutazone 45
Piaroa 12, 78-79.117-119
pineapple 20, 66
Piper 81
Piper interitum 94, 101
P1Ptadenia 24-25, 75, 105. 117
Piptadenia colubrina 27
Piptadenia macrocarpa 27
Piptadenia peregrina 25-26,
75. 117
pituitary powder 102
Poruporo [Purupuru] 23-24
poyomatli 175
pranferol 92
preisocalamendiol 74-75
progesterone 103
promethazine 45
propranolol 45, 103
N-propylaporphine 71
protireline 102
pseudotropine 33, 84
psilocin 69, 174
Psilocybe 22,69.131,174
PSilocybe mexicana 69. 131
psilocybian mushroom
69. 130, 171. 174
psilocybin 15.69, 130-131,
174
Psychotria 31, 130
Ptychococcus paradoxus 169
Pueraria phaseoloides 169
Puinave 97
pulque 20-21
Purupuru: vide Poruporo
qinghaosu 9
Quararibea funebris 175
Quiché Maya 67
Ra iapu Enga 163
rapé dos indios 91
rat root 74-75
Rauwolfia 127
reserpine 127
Rhus gla bra 177
Rubus moluccanus 170
saakona 14
salak 168
salicylamide 45
salicylate 49
Salvia divinorum 177
Sanema 14
saponin 21, 105
Sassafras officinale 177
scilla 71
scopolamine 15, 33-34, 36. 50,
104. 11 4-115. 124, 1 29, 17 3
séb il 77
shihun ine 30
Shuar-Jivaro 35
shyobunone 75
Sida acuta 177

siroru 164
solanidine 35
solanine 35
Solanum 35
Sophora secundiflora 9
sota 170
söuwaa 166
stinging nettIe 123
Stropharia cubensis 177
Strychnos minor 169
238
sugar-cane 66
Surára 78-79
sweet flag 74, 163
T [tryptamine] 98-100
tadi 165
Tagetés lucida 175
Taiwano 98
tamales 59
tamar ind 131
Tanacetum vulgare 27
Tanaecium 93
Tanaecium nocturnum 95, 101
Tanimuka 83
Tariana 79
taro 163
tayuaka 169
Tenetehara 80, 172
Tepehua 80, 172
testosterone 102-103
tetracaine 110
vide
THC
tetrahydroharman 123
tetrahydroharmine [THH] 30-31.
78-79
tetsi94
THC
15, 27, 80-81, 1 26, 1 29.
131,172
theophylline 107
THH: vide tetrahydroharmine
thyme 130
tlapatl 36
toad poison 68, 71
tobacco 56, 65-
66, 69, 72, 77, 83. 92-95,
97. 1 05-1 07. 11 2-11 3, 11 7,
126,128-129.163-165,167.
170-171. 173-177
toh-ku 68
toloache 82
toloachi 82, 173
topasayri i 4
trans-cinnamoylcocaine 84-85
Trichocereus pachanoi 175
trichoclin 175
Trichocline 175
Trichocline auriculata 175
Trichocline dealbata 175
Trichocline exscapa 175
Trichocline incana 175
Trichocline reptans 175
3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetic
ac id 39
tropacocaine 84
trop ine 33, 84
tryptamine: vide T
tsinimp 170
tsité 67
Tukano 79, 81, 97
tumeni 164
Ua inuma 24-25
Umaua: vide Omagua
umbelliferone 90-91
Verbascum thapsus 177
Vi burnum opul us 177
vilca 26, 56, 77
villca 26
Virola 25, 76, 96-101,
110, 124, 128, 176
Virola calophylla 96, 98-99
Virola calophylloidea 96, 98-
99
Virola cuspidata 96, 98-99.
101,124
Virola élongata 95-96, 98-99.
101
Virola rufula 96, 98-99
Virola sebifera 96-97, 99, 176
Virola theiodora 96, 98-99
Vitis vinifera 10
Waiká 76, 78, 89-90, 96-99
water lily 67-68, 70-72
Wewäk-Boikin 163, 165
wilka 26
wine 20-21, 62
Witoto 83.97
wysoccan 36
ximbung 165
yá-kee 96-97
239
Yanomamö 89-90
Yanonami 89
Yaqui 172. 174
yá-to 96
Yecuaná-Makiritare 76
yiragai 170
yopo 12, 75-76, 79, 117-118
Yukuna 83
yupa 75-76
zexbrevin 172
Zingiber zerumbet 167
Zornia gibbosa 169
Zornia latifolia 169, 177
240
PLATES
Plate 1 a
Plate 1 b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American AnthropoZogicaZ Research
Plate 2
Plate 3a
Photographs Foundation for Latin A merican A nthropo logica I Research (2), Peter Furst (3a)
Plate 3 b
Plate 4
Photographs Peter Furst (3b), Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Re-
search (4)
Plate 5
Plate 6
Photographs Foundation for Latin American AnthropoZogicaZ Research
Plate 7a
Plate 7b
Photographs Foundation [or Latin American Anthropological Research. Courtesy Museo
Popol Vuh, Guatemala City
Plate 8a
Plate 8b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 9a
Plate 9b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
o

Plate 12a
Plate 12b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 12c
Plate 13a
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 13b
Plate 13c
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 13d
Plate 13e
Photographs Foundation [or Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 14a Plate 14b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 14c
Plate 15
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research. Courtesy Museum
of the American Indian, New York (15)
Plate 16c Plate 17
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
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Plate 18a Plate 18b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 18c Plate 18d
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 19a Plate 19b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 20a Plate 20b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 22a Plate 22b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American AnthropoZogicaZ Research
Plate 25 Plate 26
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Rpsearch. Courtesy Museo
Popol Vuh, Guatemala City (25)
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Plate 31a Plate 31 b
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 32a Plate 32b
Photographs Foundation [or Latin American Anthropological Research
Plate 33 Plate 34
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research. Courtesy Denver
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Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research. Courtesy Mint
Museum of Art, Charlotte (38)
Plate 40 Plate 41a
Photographs Royal Museums of Art and History (40), John Justeson (41a). Courtesy
Royal Museum of Art and History, Bruxelles (40)
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Plate 43
Photographs Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research. Courtesy Museo
Popol Vuh, Guatemala City (42)

The objectives of ethnopharmacology are to rescue and document a vast cultural knowledge before it is lost to the world, and to investigate and evaluate the agents employed without any prejudice or bias in order to find the rationale for their use. Jan G. Bruhn and Bo Holmstedt

To my parents Aan mijn ouders

CONTENTS Contents Preface Abbreviations of chemical compounds Chapter 1. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating enema rituals in the western hemisphere Part 1. The ethnobotany. chemistry and psychopharmacology of ritual enemas in the western hemisphere 1.1. 1. Agave species 1 .1. 1.1. Ethnobotany 1.1. 1.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1.1. 2. Anadenanthera species 1.1. 2.1. Ethnobotany 1.1. 2.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1.1. 3. Banisteriopsis species 1 .1. 3.1. Ethnobotany 1.1. 3.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1.1. 4. Brugmansia species 1.1. 4.1. Ethnobotany 1.1. 4.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1.1. 5. Capsicum species 1 .1. 5.1. Ethnobotany 1.1. 5.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1.1. 6. Datura spec ies 1.1. 6.1. Ethnobotany 1.1. 6.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1.1. 7. Ilex guayusa 1.1. 7.1. Ethnobotany 1.1. 7.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1.1. 8. Lophophora williamsii 1.1. 8.1. Ethnobotany 1.1. 8.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1.1. 9. Nicotiana species 1.1. 9.1. Ethnobotany 1.1. 9.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1.1.10. Conclusion Part 2. Rectal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible ritual enema constituents 1.2. 1. General introduction 1.2. 2. Specific constituents 1.2. 2.1. Atropine
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37 37 37
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1.4. Analytical methods 1. 5. Bufotenin 1. Scopolamine and related compounds 1.2. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere Part 1.2. 2. Conclusion Chapter 2. 2.4. Ethnobotany 2. Ethnobotany 2. Ethnobotany 2.2. Capsicum species 2. 2.1. 3. Banisteriopsis species 2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2. Results and discussion Part 4. Iconographical approach 1. The ethnobotany.1.2. 2.1. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 46 47 47 48 49 49 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 55 55 57 57 61 65 65 69 71 73 74 74 74 74 75 75 77 78 78 79 80 80 80 81 81 81 6 .2.3.4.7.1. Cannabis species 2.4. Ethnobotany 1.1.3.1. Linguistic approach 1. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 1. 3. 2. 3. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2. 3.1.4.1.2.2.1. Ethyl alcohol 1. Harmine 1.2. 2. Ritual Maya intoxicants 1. Nicotine 1. 2.4.6.2. 1.1. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2.3.4.2.2.3. 2.1.1. 1. 2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2. 3. Introduction 1. Ethnobotany 2. Dimethyltryptamine and related compounds 1.4.1.2.2.1. The chemistry of paricá seeds of the Brazilian Maué Indians 1.9. chemistry and psychopharmacology of ritual snuffs in the western hemisphere 2. 1.1.2.1. 4. 3. 2. 4. Mescaline 1. 4. 5.2.8.1.1.5. 4. Anadenanthera species 2.2. 1. 3. Caffeine 1. Acorus calamus 2.3. Introduction 1.4. 1. 2.2.1. Ethnobotany 2. Conclusion Part 3. Enema scenes on ancient Maya pottery 1.1. 2.1. 5. Maya enema paraphernalia 1.2.2.2.1.

1.10. Caffeine 2.14. Ethnobotany 2.1.1.2. Nicotiana species 2. Conclusion 81 81 82 82 82 84 88 88 89 89 89 90 91 91 92 92 92 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 98 101 102 102 106 106 106 106 107 110 111 112 114 115 7 .1. Cocaïne 2.13.2.2.11.14. General introduction 2.10. 8. 2. 2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2.1. 9.1.13.2.1.1.1:-Ethnobotany 2.1.1.1.1.1. Pagamea macrophylla 2. 2. 7. Ethnobotany 2. Harmine 2. Maquira sclerophylla 2.1.15.15.2.1.1.1. 2.11.2.2. 9. Nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible ritual snuff constituents 2.1.1. 8. Atropine 2.1. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2. 8.12. 6. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2.1. Ethnobotany 2.1.1.10.1. Erythroxylum species 2.2.8.13. 9. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2. 7.11.12.1.1. Bufotenin 2. Justicia pectoralis 2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2.1. Ethnobotany 2.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2.1. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2. Ethnobotany 2. Conclusion Part 2.1.1. 2.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2.2.1.1.2. Scopolamine and related compounds 2. 6.6. Ethnobotany 2.2. Ilex guayusa 2. Nicotine 2.2.1.2. 6. Dimethyltryptamine and related compounds 2.2. Specific constituents 2.2.1.14. Piper interitum 2.1.1.2. 2.3.1. Datura species 2. Ethnobotany 2.2. 3.2. 2. Ethnobotany 2.1.16.1.1.2.4.7. Ethnobotany 2. 7.2. Tanaecium nocturnum 2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology 2. Virola species 2.2.5.2. 15.1. 2.1.12.

Same ritual plants and reputed botanical intoxicants of New Guinea natives G. A pictorial approach to enema scenes on ancient Maya pottery D. Analytical methods 2.Part 3. Procedure for the plasma level determinations of caffeine (by Jan H. 2.3. Jonkman and Wim J.G.1.3. Results and discussion Chapter 3.2. 3. Procedure for the plasma level determinations of harmine (by Laurent Ri vier and Pierre Baumann) F.4. Some chemical considerations 3. Some botanical considerations 3. Concluding remarks Appendices A. Some factors to be taken into consideration in the multidisplinary approach to ritual intoxicating plants 3. Principal diagnostic accessories of Maya enema scenes (by Nicholas M. van der Boon) E. Multidisciplinary table on some reputedly psychoactive fumigatories among Middle and South American natives References Acknowledgements Summary Index 117 117 118 119 121 122 124 125 131 133 134 137 149 160 161 163 171 179 227 228 232 8 .3. Hellmuth) C.3. Procedures for the chemical analyses of the Maué seeds and the Piaroa snuffs (by Laurent Rivier) B.V. 1. Some pharmacological considerations 3. Introduction 2. The chemistry of yopo snuffs of the Venezuelan Piaroa Indians 2.

When a biologically acti ve principle of anatural product cannot be applied as such.PREFACE From prehistoric times till the present day. The efficacy of useful indigenous drugs may be improved. Dobkin de Rios 1984). VOlger et al. In contrast to common belief. over the last fifteen years. philology. It is obvious that the results of a critical scientific evaluation will permit an advantageous feed-back to traditional medicine. Not only studies of aboriginal medicinal plants. In various parts of the world. Ethnopharmacological research mayalso give impulses to modern western medicine. description and experimental investigation of the ingredients and the activity of the agents used. whereas harmful or ineffective herbal therapies may be discouraged. The scientific evaluation of these practices requires a multidisciplinary approach that comprises the observation. 1981. but to document the use of traditional preparations and to validate or invalidate their alleged activity (Bruhn and Holmstedt 1981).b. Li et al. This complex field of research between anthropology. divination. mankind has employed biologically active agents for various purposes. For instance. Schultes and Hofmann 1980a. investigations of tradionally used plant material still lead to the discovery of new substances that may des erve a place in our modern therapeutic arsenal. Furst 1976a. overwhelming evidence has been obtained that many plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids should no longer be used because of their hepatotoxicity (Buurma and Vulto 1984). zoology. archaeology. aboriginal peoples and tribes have taken intoxicating vegetal preparations as facilitating agents in religious trance induction. 1984). identification. it still may be useful as a lead in drug design by providing a novel molecular structure wi th potentially interesting effe cts (Krogsgaard-Larsen et al. chemistry. with the antimalarial compound qinghaosu from Artemisia annua as a spectacular example (Jiang et al. The recovery of Sophora secundiflora from weIl dated archaeological sites in northeastern Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas suggests that such 9 . Emboden 1979a. once their therapeutic principles have been identified. lts principal objective is not to advocate a return to aboriginal practices. 1982. The evaluation of Chinese medicinal plants would seem to be particularly fruitful in this respect (Xiao 1981). 1967. witchcraft and healing ceremonies (Efron et al. pharmacology and medicine has now become known as ethnopharmacology. but also investigations of ritually used psychoactive drugs are within the scope of ethnopharmacology. 1984). botany.

only a few western clinicians consider hallucinogens to have any therapeutic value. (Vi taceae) and that i t contains about 13 per cent of the inebriating substance ethyl alcohol before it is diluted by the priest. or because the elaborate precautions required to minimize adverse psychological reactions dampened enthusiasm and rendered its therapeutic use impractical (Jaffe 1980). 1978. The essence of the catholic mass for the church-goer is certainly missed by saying that mass wine is prepared from Vi tis vinifera L. Firstly. it is not merely allowed. thèy may prov ide new pharmacolog ical tools for neurochemical research. Young et al. whereas the latter tries to reach an intoxicated state that will enable him to enter supernatural realms.ritual plant uses may date back to millenia before our era (Adovasio and Fry 1976). Stienstra et al. the use of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) has been abandoned. For instance. Fourthly. however. There is an essential difference. might there never come another time when the present categorical condemnation of 10 . 1982). Secondly. It is obvious that only the ethnological discipline can highlight the attitude of the aboriginals themselves towards their sacred drugs. the Banisteriopsis alkaloid harmaline has turned out to be a valuable selective inhibitor of MAO-A enzymes (Fuller et al. A recent example is the development of specific agonists of the central GABA-ergic system from the fly agaric constituent muscimol (Flach et aL 1984). Nobody has put this into words more eloquently than the peyotistQuanah Parker: 'the whi te man goes into his church and talks about Jesus. to supplement field observations of native drug rituals with the results of laboratory experiments on the alleged activity of the drugs employed. Due to this fundamental difference. 1981. they may result in the discovery of synthetic substances with potentially therapeutic properties. TOday. 1981)0 Thirdly. Such investigations have perhaps nowhere arrived at more scintillating results than in the domain of hallucinogenic plants. they may lead to an improved clinical management of careless western youngsters who arrive in emergency wards af ter self-experiments with herbal 'highs' derived from native practices (Hall et al. the Indian goes into his tipi and talks to Jesus' (Gr inspoon and Bakalar 1981). but even necessary. Yet ethnopharmacological studies on ritual psychoactive drugs may have an impact on medical care in western society. The former has no intention whatsoever of becoming drunk. either because controlled studies have failed to demànstrate its therapeutic value. between the catholic priest and the native shaman. According to a chapter in an authoritative pharmacological text book.

It constitutes an important culture trait of primitive man which. Nasal self-experiments became possible by the clinical facilities and plasma level determinations of Jan Jonkman and Wim van der Boon (caffeine) and those of Laurent Rivier and Pierre Baumann (harmine). deserves to be carefully documented and evaluated. I became interested around 1978 when I was shown an enema scene On a polychrome Maya vase. Their analytical procedures are described in Appendix D and Appendix E. I started to collect additional data on enema rituals in the New World. The remaining gaps are filled as much as possible with unpublished information from experts and wi th the results of some self-experiments. and then in a general overv iew of the subject (de Smet 1983b). that the compilation of an up to date overview appeared to be warranted (de Smet 1985a). Adapted and extended versions are presented in chapter one and in chapter two. which first resulted in brief articles on South American Anadenanthera enemas (de Smet 1981a) and on ritual enema scenes on ancient Maya pottery (de Smet 1981b). 1984 are summarized and a few important references appearing af ter this date are also included. 11 . I therefore intensified my literature search. The relevant data pUblished before October 1. respectively. ritual native intoxication is a fascinating area of research in its own right.hallucinogenic drug therapy will be reevaluated (Grieco and Bloom 1981 )? Aside from any direct or indirect medical significance. So many new data had come to light. snuffs had already been givena comprehensive outlook in the sixties (pp. just as other parts of our cultural heritage. In contrast to ritual enemas. however.231-373 in Efron et al. since this survey had been published. I kept looking for information on other non-oral ways of ritual intoxication among Indians. During my search for ritual enemas. I thus learnt that intoxicants have always been more widely useà as snuffs than as clysters. My reviews on ritual enemas and on ritual snuffs in the western hemisphere form the basis of this thesis. and soon found out that a comprehensive approach to the subject had never been published. 1967). Here I saw an opportunity to combine my artistic preference forpre-Hispanic American cultures with my pharmaceutical education in botany. chemistry and pharmacology. especially on the South American continent. and their existence had only just been brought to light by Furst and eoe (1977). Such scenes were thought to represent intoxicating enema rituals.

I review the ethnobotany. phytochemistry and basic psychopharmacology of the intoxicating dosage form. In other words. a revised vers ion of this paper is included here as Appendix B. distribution. To set an example. metaboli3m and excretion of the constituent. if at least one active constituent (or active biotransformation product) reaches an appropriate central site of action in an adequate amount.). Cooperation with other researchers has allowed me to present original chemical and archaeological data in chapter one and chap ter t wo. still has to be fully recognized by many non-pharmacological scholars. Part four of chapter one discusses enema scenes on pottery of the classic Maya civilisation (300-900 A. in part two of chapter two. who outlines his procedures in Appendix A. I could not have written this part without the help of Nicholas M. which reportedly were used as an enema and snuff ingredient by the Brazilian Maué Indians (de Smet and Rivier 1985b). but also by its manner of administration and by its subsequent fate in the body. which I propose to call the ethnopharmacokinetic aspect of native ritual intoxication (vide chapter three). the pharmacological validation of the reputed central effects of a native ritual dosage form must take into account that its active constituents. besides having intrinsic pharmacological effects. This amount is governed not only by the dosage of the constituent.D. Part three of both chapters is devoted to thè gas chromatographical/mass spectrometric investigation of some Indian enema and snuff materials.q. are molecules with a characteristic pharmacokinetic profile. Part three of chapter one describes the chemistry of 19th century paricá seeds. Part three of chapter two reports the composition of two contemporary yopo snuffs of the Venezuelan Piaroa Indians (de Smet and Rivier 1985a). In part one of each chapter. by the absorption. A psychoactive plant may only elicit a pharmacologically induced subjective response. data on the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible enema and snuff constituents via their native route of administration are reviewed separately in part two of chapter one c. The analyses were generously performed by Laurent Rivier. who unseHishly guided me through the complex iconography of Maya enema scenes. Le.Chapters one and two have been given a similar structure. Hellmuth. Hellmuth has based his 12 . located by me in European collections. however. This concept. To give him credit. This Maya specialist already reviewed the principal diagnostic accessories of Maya enema scenes in an unpublished paper in 1978.

Wh en Richard Schultes invited me to contribute a chapter to a new book on ethnobotany. Some of the ideas in chapter three are not derived from my quest for Indian enernas and snuffs. Sy courtesy of the Foundation. that readers trained in pharmacology will find few. As a consequence. viz. if any. One of the most striking mistakes in some sources on ritual drugs is the inappropriate handling of pharmacological data. viz. The former communication sterns from my eagerness to learn more about ritual drug practices in former Dutch colonies. chemical and pharmacological pitfalls in the multidisciplinary approach to native ritual intoxication (de Smet 1985c). I therefore decided to review some botanical. An inevitable drawback of this objective is. The publication of so many photographs is essential. of-course. 13 .review primarily on photographical material from the large archive of his Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research. and the ritual use of fumigatories in Middle and South America (de Smet 1985b). and then provides a multidisciplinary outlook on reputed Maya intoxicants (de Smet and Hellmuth 1985). the taking of intoxicating drugs by New Guinea natives (de Smet 1983a). Part four of chapter one firstly presents an iconographical and linguistic view. This more general paper on certain methodological aspects underlies the third and f inal chapter of this thesis. because authors in this field of ten lack a pharmacological background. the latter is a logical consequence of my continuing interest in nonoral intoxication among American Indians. I discovered various scientific flaws in the consulted literature. I feIt that the inclusion of these papers in the thesis would not only enforce certain points in chapter three. the concluding chapter is particularly meant to provide a non-pharmacological audience with an easily readable outline of a few important pharmacological principles. since the ritual enema paraphernalia on classic Maya pottery can only be fully highlighted by showing vase painting af ter vase painting. Actually. this material is largely presented here (vide Appendix C). but would also contribute to the general usefulness of the thesis as an ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological work of reference. but from the preliminary results of other research projects. During the preparation of my reviews on enernas and snuffs. I decided to add them as appendices. startling points of view in the concluding chapter. Since the preliminary character precluded the presentation as fullfledged chapters. this does not come as a great surprise.

The scope of the data presented in the thesis is determined by its particular purpose. Heizer 1944. the iconographical and linguistic approach to enema rituals on ancient Maya pottery is limited to the enema paraphernalia portrayed in these scenes. Details are mostly restricted to certain secular aspects. HalloweIl 1935. misspelled or obsolete scientific names.appendix F on New Guinea practices and appendix G on Latin American fumigatories. In contrast. For _instance. Cobo 1964. Appendix F may seem to compromise the coherency of the thesis by focusing on another part of the world. the ethnobotanical uniformity of the thesis remains unaffected. Nordenskiöld 1930. and pays little attention to other aspects. the vernacular name. such as the identification of the participants and their occurrence in other Maya rituals. From the methodological point of view. the multidisciplinary search for scientific evidence of the alleged psychoactivity of Indian ritual preparations. as this would go beyond the bounds of the subject. The former type is included as muchas possiblè so that sometimes even vague and unsubstantial data are discussed. the kokoime snuff of the Karimé tribe (Salathé 1931). Since botanical information is crucial for any experimental approach. the method of preparation. the saakona snuff of the Sanema Indians (Wilbert 1963).e. the botanical identity. the snuff review bypasses the topasayri snuff of the early Peruvians (Cobo 1964). the baduhu-tsina snuff of the Denis (prance 1972) and the ayukuma snuff of the Mahekodotedi (Zerries and Schuster 1974). Complete 14 . and the indication of a herbarium voucher specimen is far from common. the availability of at least some tentative botanical identification has been applied as a decisive factor for the inclusion of field data. but this is only true in the geographical sense. i. the vegetal ingredient. Vogel 1970). the lat ter type may only be mentioned when the reported ingredient is a plant with proven or reputed psychoactive properties. In many cases. As aresuIt. but also as a medicinal cure (Densmore 1928. ethnological refere-nces designate plants with incomplete. No systematic attempt is made to place the various practices into their cultural context. Ethnobotanical data American Indians-have used the enema and the snuff not only as a ritual intoxicant. such as the native group. the specific use and the claimed activity. To avoid false impressions of botanical accuracy. the authors of Latin binomials have been excluded throughout the text.

but sometimes classified as hallucinogens (e. In the thesis.g. the thesis focuses on the most eloquent evidence of psychoactivity. The abbreviations used in the thesis are listed at the end of this preface. data are mostly restricted to the parts used as an ingredient by Indians. hallucinogens in a broader sense. Instead. current ideas on the neurophysiology of hallucinogens (Jacobs 1984) and other ritual plant constituents have been left out of the discussion.scientific names of the species and varieties mentioned in the ethnobotanical sections are found at the beginning of each section. Chemical data Chemical information is given about the qualitative and quantitative composition of the vegetal sources and. on the ultimate dosage forms themselves. where possible. The consulted literature of ten indicates lengthy chemical names of plant constituents with an abbreviation. occurring alone or in concert. without causing serious disabilities like major disturbances of the autonomie nervous system. An hallucinogen is often defined as a non-addictive substance which consistently produces changes in percept-ion. tropane derivatives like scopolamine and dibenzpyran derivatives like ~9-tetra­ hydrocannabinol). high doses may elicit disorientation. Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b.g. i. 15 . indolalkylamines like psilocybin and phenethylamines like mescaline). the term hallucinogen is used in its broader sense. which are always classified as hallucinogens (e. Peripheral actions in man are not listed consistently and a glance at behavioural activity in laboratory animals is mostly reserved for those cases where no or few human data are available. thought and mood. but some authors apply it more rigorously than others (Hoffer and Osmond 1967. on the demonstration of central symptoms in human studies.e. Pharmacological data The pharmacological approach to intoxicating enemas and snuffs is specifically directed to the question of whether they may effectively produce a state of central intoxication. which are not always. With respect to the phytochemistry of the source-plants. but these reactions are not characteristic. Grinspoon and Bakalar 1981). hyperexcitation. This definition is widely accepted. memory disturbances. so that two types of hallucinogenic agents emerge from the literature: hallucinogens in a very strict sense. stupour or narcosis. As this question may well be answered without in-depth attention to biochemical mechanisms. Dfaz 1979.

It is restricted to the native plants and drugs. and appendices F and G. and chemical substances mentioned in the preface.Index The index does not contain broad terms like names of countries or plant families. 1985 16 . botanical genera and species. chapters one. two and three. The Hague. indigenous tribes and peoples.

2'-bithienyl N.3.4-tetrahydrobeta-carboline N-monomethyltryptamine 2-rnethyl-1.2.2.N-dimethyltryptamine tryptamine ~9-tetrahydrocannabinol = THC THH tetrahydroharmine 17 .N-dimethyltryptamine harmine 5-hydroxytryptamine lysergic acid diethylamide 5-methoxy-N.3.N-dimethyltryptamine 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptamine 5-HT LSD 5-+1eo-DMT 5-+1 e O-+1M T 6-MeO-MTHC 6-Meo-DMTHC MMT MTHC 5-0H-DMT T = = 6-methoxy-2-methyl-1.4-tetrahydro-betacarbol ine 6-methoxy-1.2-dimethyl-1.ABBREVIATIONS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS BBT DMT H 5-(3-buten-l-ynyl)-2.2.4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline 5-hydroxy-N.3.

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CHAPTER ONE A MULTIDISCIPLINARY OVERVIEW OF INTOXICATING ENEMA RITUALS IN THE WESTERNHEMISPHERE - 19 .

bored drinking wine with their mouths .. ranging from public disgrace to death by stoning or beating (Ross 1978). Among the ancient Aztecs.1. the Huastecs also knew octli. According to the early chronicler Sahagun (1961).CHAPTER ONE PART ONE THE ETHNOBOTANY. distillation was unknown in the New World. the men are great sodomites. An anonymous companion of Cortés (El Conquistador Anonymo 1941) states: '(they) worship figures showing different forms of pleasure between a man and a woman and figures of human beings wi th their 1egs lifted different ways .1. Wilder drinking habits prevailed among the Huastecs of the Mexican northern Gulf Coast. referred to as pulque by the Spaniards. A similar description is found in yet another anonymous early record 20 . Furst and Coe 1977. drunkards could receive severe punishments.1. it was prepared from the sap of Agave species (Goncalves de Lima 1956. Ethnobotany Before the conquest. CHEMISTRY AND PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY OF RITUAL ENEMAS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE 1. de Barrios 1971). maize. Nordenskiöld 1930. Erosa Barbachano 1976.1. and this is done among them in the same way as among us an enema is applied'. The conquistador Diaz del Castillo (1916) gives the following account.1ie down and..1. Robicsek 1978). Furst and Coe 1977). Several early records speak of rectal administration in connection with their inebriating practices (Bourke 1892. who were considered barbarian by the Aztecs (Wasson 1980). Agave species Amaryllidaceae 1. getting drunk without incurring the wrath of society was a privilege of old age. I wish to note only one here which we found in the province of panuco. Sahagun 1963. clearly from his European point of view: 'About drunkards I do not know what to say. cowards. The principal alcoholic beverage of the Aztecs was octli. they make an injection by the anus with some (hollow) canes and distend the intestines with wine. but Mesoamerican Indians were familiar with a variety of alcoholic drinks prepared by fermenting maguey (Agave). have the wine poured into their anus through a tube until the body is full'. Goncalves de Lima 1956. and . so many obscenities take place among them. honey or pineapple (Tozzer 1913. extending their legs. and 'always went about as if drunk'.

1. which in its turn is determined by factors like the 21 .1. There is circumstantial evidence that other Middle American peoples besides the Huastecs may have known of ritual alcoholic clysters. Isbell et al. Some caution in accepting the term at face value may be in order. since the Spaniards lacked experience with and a vocabulary for hallucinogenic drinks (Wasson 1980). According to Hegnauer (1963. there is evidence from scenes on classic Maya pottery that the ancient Maya may have taken alcoholic clysters (vide 1. the absorption rate depends on the rate of gastric emptying.1. Evidence of a relationship bet ween these so-called 'bed figures' and the alcoholic beverage pulque has been reviewed by Von Winning (1972). mentioned by El Conquistador Anonymo (1941). They occur usually af ter a prolonged drinking bout (Eckardt et al 1981) but are sometimes experienced while the alcoholic is severely intoxicated (Jaffe 1980). A definite explanation for their peculiar raised leg position cannot be offered. Agave species are rich in saponins. who were given different amounts of 95% alcohol: sudden abstinence induced hallucinations in most of the subjects who had been drinking 383-489 mI for 48-87 days but in none of the subjects who had been taking 266-346 mI daily for 7-34 days. commun.4. Eckardt et al. 1981). 1985). Furst and Coe 1977). but perhaps it is concomitant with the Huastec way of taking intoxicating enemas (Von Winning 1972. The 'wine' in these reports most likely refers to pulque (Von Winning 1972. and only contained about 3-6% of ethyl alcohol (Erosa Barbachano 1976). healthy volunteers. are reminiscent of certain rather poly-interpretable pre-Hispanic clay figurines from the central Veracruz region in Mexico. alcohol can be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. and its acute ingestion can lead to an inebriation characterized by stupour (Ritchie 1980. Hallucinations may be expected only after chronic administration. as this beverage was not prepared by destillation. Firstly. Secondly. Furst and Coe 1977). Since most absorption occurs in the small intestine.(Relaci6n Anonima Segunda 1963). Ethyl alcohol is a reversible general central nervous system (CNS) depressant. however. Taken orally. as signs of a withdrawal syndrome (Thompson 1978).2. the worshipped human figures with lifted legs. Chemistry and psychopharmacology Early Mesoamerican alcoholic drinks were prepared from Agave sap or other sources by fermentation.2). in particular. pers. and such constituents may weIl have entered into the pulque drink. (1955) studied withdrawal symptoms in well-nourished.

von Reis Altschul 1972. These statements can be traced back to the 22 . Indirect interactions involve the pharmacokinetic level. 1. Unfortunately the ethnological literature on these practices is of ten vague. e.) Brenan var. known as paricá.properties of the beverage and the presence of food in the stomach (Wilkinson et al. Eckardt et al. von Reis Altschul 1972).g.2. e. It has been shown only that atropine taken together with alcohol can impair attention more strongly than either substance alone (Linnoila 1973) and that pretreatment with atropine may cause a reduction in alcohol absorption. von Reis Altschul 1972). Wassén 1965. Several tribes of the Amazon Basin made small rubber syringes which were used occasionally to blow paricá into the nostrils (Métraux 1949). 1967. the medical literature contains some undetailed claims that the drinking of alcohol potentiates the act ion of tree Daturas (Anonymous 1976a) and of Psilocybe mushrooms (Benjamin 1979.1. 1982). falcata (Benth. Direct interactions occur at the pharmacodynamic level.2.1.1. 1981) • Alcohol is known to affect the actions of many other drugs. The Caripuna Indians of the Brazilian Madeira River are said to have provoked a state of trance by taking paricá in the form of an enema (Horwitz 1921. Young et al. but most of ten to administer clysters prepared with the same intoxicant (Horwitz 1921. var. cebil (Griseb. Anadenanthera species Leguminosae Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. As to classical New World hallucinogens. as a ritual intoxicant (Wassén and Holmstedt 1963. Ethnobotany Many South American Indians valued a snuff. Welldocumented clinical studies on this subject do not seem to be available. when alcohol increases the absorption rate of a drug by enhancing its gastric solubility or the gastrointestinal blood flow (D'Arcy and Merkus 1981).) Altschul 1. Métraux 1948a. generalizing and repetitious. Wassén 1972a). 1977. presumably because this anticholinergic inhibits the rate of gastric emp ty ing (Gibbons and Lan t 1975). Nordenskiöld 1930. Ritchie 1980.g. when alcohol enhances the deleterious effects on performance and skills of another CNS depressant.) Speg.) Altschul Anadenanth~eregrina (L.

He collected numerous ethnographical objects. in welchem ein kleiner Vogelknochen als Rohr steckt. resisting. Marcoy (1867) reports that on such occasions the rectal use of paricá was preceded by the snuffing of paricá and the drinking of palm wine in copious quantities. Porupurus und Catauixis nehmen auch solche Klystiere. but also by other early travellers.Austrian zoologist Johann Natterer. commun. Wird namentlich bei den Mauhés. dann mit Wasser angemacht werden. womit die Caripuna berauschende Parica-Klystiere nehmen. Parica heissen die flachen Samenkörner des Angicobaumes. Barbosa Rodrigues (1875) states that 'All those who have been flagellated take parica either as snuff or dissolved in water as a clyster ••. continue the dance ••• Usually. For this once much feared tribe of the Madeira River. 1984). welche zerstossen und mit der Asche des Imbauvabaumes gemischt. Muras. According to Spix and Martius (1831) the Mura clyster had a similar but not so strongly intoxicating effect as the snuff. as it describes a large sample of well preserved paricá seeds. Nimuendaju 1948b. Wassén and Holmstedt 1963. The initiation ceremony of the Mura started with a general mutual flagellation which was followed by the nasal and rectal application of paricá (Marcoy 1867. must have been of outstanding importance (Martius 1867. Mauhés. 23 . while still others. Barbosa ROdrigues 1875). Man heisst dies tomar paricá'. von Reis Altschul 1972). Number 1050 of the inventory list refers to a small rubber syringe provided with a bird-bone tube: 'Kleine Spritze. but fortunately there is still a museum inventory of his ethnographical collection. written under his supervision (Kann 1981. besteht aus einem länglichen Ballen aus Gummi elasticum. which are now in the Museum for Ethnology in Vienna. both as a snuff and as an enema. His travelling diaries were destroyed by fire before they could be published. Caripunas und andere Nationen gebraucht'. who undertook several travels in the inlands of Brazil in the first half of the 19th century. collected from the Brazilian Maué tribe: 'Samenkörner des Paricábaumes (in Matogrosso Angico genannt). the effect is terrible and so violent that many die of suffocation or fall unconscious. Diese Körner werden zerstossen (zerrieben) und mit der Asche des Imbauvabaumes gemischt und dann zum Schnupfen und zu berauschende Klystieren gebraucht. Number 1369 of the list is even more interesting. the use of paricá. Taken ei ther way. the clyster causes a violent intoxication'. The rectal use of paricá seeds among the Mura Indians is mentioned not only by Natterer. pers. Die Murás.

Nimuendaju 1948b) as weIl as the curupa leaves from which the Omagua prepared their enemas (Marcoy 1867. According to Spruce (1864. Métraux 1948c) have been attributed to a plant named Mimosa acacioides or Acacia niopo. The vagueness of the ethnological literature on paricá enemas is especially evident from the absence. Nordenskiöld (1930) describes the effects of the paricá enema as follows: 'Af ter about five minutes it acts in about the same way as intoxication from opium. and does not appear to suffer from any af terdiscomfort as is the case af ter snuffing paricá'. Juri and Uainuma Indians (Métraux 1948c). 1949). Kennedy 1982). Martius 1867) and there seems to be some doubt about the curupa use among the Cocama (Wassén 1967). The paricá seeds which the Mura used for their clysters (Martius 1867. Sometimes the source is not identified at all (Horwitz 1921. paricá was taken as a snuff to speedily induce a sort of intoxication. it is a purge.Likewise. Martius 1867. inducing lovely and blissful dreams. Natterer. more or less violent according to the dose'. These Tupian tri bes are said to have used powdered curupa leaves which were blown into the nose or administered as a clyster with the help of small rubber syringes (Métraux 1948c). To the north of the Casharari lived the Omagua or Umaua Indians and further west the Coca ma Indians. an Arawakan tribe of the western Amazon Basin. Lowie 1948. or insufficient reliability. Usually only the Omagua are implicated as curupa users (Veigl 1785. of botanical data. the Poruporo Indians (Naterrer. Marcoy 1867. Métraux 1948b. are the Maina Indians (Métraux 1949). Cooper 1949. Spruce adds that before the hunt the Catawishi administered the paricá clyster not only to themselves but also to their hunting dogs for a clearer vision and greater alertness. According to De La Condamine (1778). Horwitz 1921) and the Pasé. known merely to have made rubber syringes (Chantre y Herrera 1901. The Casharari or Cacharary Indians. Barbosa Rodrigues 1875. 1949) or more specifically Piptadenia seeds (Nordenskiöld 1930). are reputed to have known paricá clysters (Métraux 1948b. when an obliging host distributed them to all his guests. vide supra) and sometimes the source is said to be Piptadenia (Métraux 1948a.c. but 'taken in injection. Other South American tri bes claimed to have taken paricá clysters. 24 . the Omagua employed enema syringes especially at feasts. the Catawishi or Catauxi Indians of the Purus River took a paricá decoction rectally (Horwitz 1921. Nordenskiöld 1930). Drawing from a Portuguese source on these Indians (Maso 1919). 1908). This statement clearly opposes the general view that such enemas were intoxicating. vide supra. Twenty minutes later the dreamer is fully normal again.

peregrina. there is no good botanical evidence that the Catawishi. I believe that A. It has now become clear that the vernacular term paricá is not used exclusively for the genus Anadenanthera. von Reis Altschul 1972). Casharari.colubrina (von Reis Altschul 1964). especially P. Wassén and Holmstedt 1963. as exact botanical evidence is lacking in some cases. and is now considered to belong to the genus Anadenanthera which comprises the two species A. In other words. Schultes (1972a) who speaks of a widespread rectal administration of Anadenanthera in South America. Pasé. the tree is unknown anywhere near the area of the Omagua and Cocama.peregrina and A. The reason is that snuffs.peregrina is questionable. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Schultes 1967b). well-known inhabitants of ancient Peru.1972. Sei tz 1967) and to snuffs containing harmine (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967). It is quite likely that the Maué and other tri bes of the Madeira area prepared enemas and snuffs from A. Cooper 1949. The tree occurs in this region (Schultes 1967b. it is uncertain that Anadenanthera peregrina is the species used throughout the Amazon.colubrina.peregrina is a species primarily of the Orinoco and adjacent parts of the northern Amazonia of Brazil.peregrina (Roth 1924. It is sometimes claimed that the Incas. as it also refers to Virola preparations (Schultes 1954. so its use by these tribes of Amazonian Peru is open to serious question (von Reis Altschul 1972. Juri or Uainuma Indians knew A. Similarly. points out in a personal communication (1981) that 'Other species may be used. On the other hand. Cooper (1949) has rightly cautioned.3). intoxicated themselves with rectal infusions of 25 .peregrina (von Reis Altschul 1972). have not been accompanied by voucher herbarium specimens'. Lowie 1948.This leguminous tree has also been known under the binomial Piptadenia peregrina. and the paricá seeds collected by Natterer from the Maué Indians are apparently Anadenanthera seeds (v ide 1. that some of these attributions may not be correct. Whether the species used in the Peruvian Amazon or the central Amazon of Brazil are A. however. The botanical identifications of paricá clysters correspond well with the once common view that paricá snuffs were generally prepared from seeds of a Piptadenia species. It should be noted that there are two varieties of Anadenanthera peregrina: the variety peregrina occurs in northern parts of South America and in the West Indies. the variety falcata in southern Brazil and Paraguay (von Reis Altschul 1964). Furthermore. such as A. etc. Schultes 1967b). the geographical distribution of Anadenanthera peregrina is now assumed to be far more limited than was previbusly believed (von Reis Altschul 1964.

1. 1971). DMT.wilka or huilca seeds (Furst 1976a.colubrina (Rowe 1946. In other samples 5-QH-DMT was present in amounts up to 3. not in the least since various forms of the word vilca meant enema. Schultes and Hofmann 1980a. including the original report on the vilca clyster.5% (Schultes et al.N-dimethyltryptamine (=5-MeO-DMT) (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967. A Venezuelan sample was reported as containing as much as 7. its corresponding N-oxide (=DMT-Noxide): 5-hydroxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine or bufotenin (=5-QHDMT).N-dimethyltryptamine (=DMT). 1. emphasize the laxative properties of vilca seeds (von Reis Altschul 1967) and it is not sufficiently clear whether the seeds helped to produce visions or were taken only for their purgative qualities (Rowe 1946). whereas the variety A. Poma de Ayala (1969) says that the Incas purged themselves once a month with bilca tauri. half of which was drunk and half of which was taken 'por debajo' to give strength. 1972). its corresponding N-oxide (=5-QH-DMT-N-oxide). health and a 200 years life span. 1977).b) and that A.colubrina var.2. 1977). During storage. 1982). in particular A. 5-QH-DMT. commun. Schultes et al. Larrain Barros (undated) suggests that the phrase 'por debajo' implies nasal administration. for which they intoxicated themselves with villca. but it is far more likely to indicate the rectal route.colubrina occurs in eastern Brazil. Furst and Coe 1977). Most early records. Chemistry and psychopharmacology Seeds of Anadenanthera peregrina (Piptadenia peregrina) were found to contain one or more of the following indole alkaloids: N. cebil is known in Peru (von Reis Altschul 1964). The botanical source of the vilca clystér is usually thought to be Anadenanthera (Larrain Barros. 26 . as Saxton (1965) points out that DMT may be oxidized on exposure to air. The early chronicler Poma de Ayala (1969) indeed refers to such enemas and another early writer stat es that Inca witch doctors foretold the future by speaking with the devil. however. Wass'n 1972b).4% of 5-QH-DMT (Chagnon et al.2. According to Schultes (pers. DMT and 5MeO-DMT may transform into 5-QH-DMT (Schultes et al. 5-methoxyN. 1972. this report is not based on identified herbarium voucher specimens. syringe or the giving of an enema (von Reis Altschul 1967. 1977). Furst and Coe 1977). undated). pouring its juice into the alcoholic beverage chicha or taking it another way (von Reis Altschul 1967. The question arises of whether the Noxides might be artifacts. It should be noted that the evidence for this attribution is circumstantial rather than conclusive (von Reis Altschul 1967.

Kaplan et al. DMT is a well-established hallucinogen. Peripherally.1 mg/kg. intramuscular doses of 25-50 mg can induce psychological changes (Turner and Merlis 1959). Iacobucci and Rûveda 1964). reaches a plateau in the 2nd to 3rd minute. 4 males and 5 females.DMT-N-oxide and 5-DH-DMT-N-oxide were reported to be present in seeds of Piptadenia macrocarpa (Fish et al. Centrally. The paricá seeds of the Brazilian Maué Indians. 1963. have recently been submitted to gaschromatographical/ mass-spectrometric analysis.1. 5-DH-DMT is mostly found to act briefly.7 to 1. 1977). and occasional mydriasis. In schizophrenics.25 mg/kg (17. such as exacerbation of the psychosis (Gillin and Wyatt 1977). I have personally conducted no oral experiments and do not know its effects via this route'.1). which corroborates their botanical identification as Anadenanthera seeds (v i de 1. withinthe age range of 33 to 65 years. 1955. reportedly used as an enema source (vide 1. all with considerable experience with drugs that can alter one's state of consciousness. The onset of act ion occurs in less than 60 seconds. In 1981. some eyes-closed imagery and a general feeling of being enclosed and isolated in a sensory sense. when given in intramuscular doses of 10-15 mg (Isbell. the following details were revealed in a letter to me: 'My clinical studies involved a total of 9 subjects. who reported briefly that aparenteral dose of 5-10 mg is active. These effects are from 6 to 10 mg of the free base. 5-DH-DMT has been isolated (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967). there is the loss of some reality sense. quoted by Turner and Merlis 1959 and by Wassén and Holmstedt 1963) and in 27 . From seeds of Anadenanthera ëälübrina (Piptadenia colubrina). 49-77 mg170 kg (Szára 1956. 1974).e.5 mg/70 kg) has similar effects in certain tests measuring psychoticism as the Cannabis constituent ~9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Bickelet al. which elicits a brief but profound LSD-like response when given in intramuscular doses ranging from 0. Rosenberg et al. The parenteral route of administration was in all cases by inhalation of the fused free base suspended on Tanacetum vulgare in cigarette form. and is largely dissipated at 20 minutes. Despite their considerable age. All were healthy volunteers. now considered to be Anadenanthera colubrina var. Human experiments with 5-MeO-DMT seem to have been conducted only by Shulgin (1970). although there may be some lingering awareness for the remainder of an hour.2. i. altering the perception of colours and sometimes of space. the seeds still yielded as much as 15 mg/g of bufotenin. there have been occasional tremors noted. cebil (von Reis Altschul 1964).3). Intramuscular administration of 0.

20 mg in 77 min). The structurally related neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is promptly degraded by intestinal and hepatic monoamine oxidase 28 . Luchins et al. For this reason. 1979). 1978. it is not possible to push the dose in man and it would be difficult to differentiate whether psychotic reactions were due to central effects or to cardiovascular actions. 10 mg within 1 min) or by infusion (e. 1967). Chemical evidence for inactivation by gastric juices has not been found. it is difficult to say whether 5-0H-DMT is a hallucinogen or not because of its powerful and dangerous cardiovascular effects. quoted by Wassén and Holmstedt 1963). DMT and 5-0HDMT are almost completely metabolized in man when gi ven parenterally.intravenous doses of 4-16 mg (Fabing and Hawkins 1956) or 12-16 mg (Bonhour et al. the urinary recovery of unchanged drug was 1-6% of an injected dose of 5-0H-DMT (Sanders-Bush et al.07% in the case of DMT (Kaplan et al. This suggests that the reported effects of 5-üH-DMT may weIl be somatic symptoms of intoxication rather than signs of true hallucinogenic activity. exclude a defective absorption. DMT was ineffective in a normal subject who took this compound in quantities of up to 150 mg (Szára 1957). produced neither visual disturbances nor the psychological changes seen af ter DMT administration (Turner and Merlis 1959). Experiments with laboratory animals have demonstrated that. 5-0H-DMT does not cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable amounts (Sanders and Bush 1967.g. intravenous quantities of up to 20 mg. 1978. 1974). as weIl as in schizophrenics who received single doses of up to 350 mg (Turner and Merlis 1959). This inefficacy of oral dosing is likely to be due principally to extensive first-pass metabolism. Glennon et al. although the tested amounts were much higher than parenterally active doses. 1976) and as low as ab out 0. in contrast with the lipid soluble DMT (Cohen and Vogel 1972) and 5-MeO-DMT (Sanders and Bush 1967). The physicochemical properties of Anadenanthera alkaloids. Oral experiments with Anadenanthera alkaloids have failed to demonstrate hallucinogen-like effects. Luchins et al. 1979). Many secondary sourees doubt the hallucinogenic capacity of 5-0H-DMT following peripheral administration and then point to its poor lipid solubility at physiological pH and its consequent inability to enter the centra 1 nervous system readily (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967. Glennon et al. According to Isbell (1967).g. 1979). given by bolus injection (e. In schizophrenics. in particular those of DMT and 5-MeO-DMT (Glennon et al. 5-0H-DMT was without effect when ingested by a healthy individual in doses of up to 50 mg (Hofmann 1963) or in doses of up to 100 mg totally (Isbell.

This implies that deamination is a major metabolic pathway for these compounds. 29 . MAO-inhibi tion was found to double the urinary excretion of endogenous DMT (Oon et al. however. Other animal experiments have shown that 5-MeO-DMT is deaminated by MAO and.1. preferentially by MAO-A (Squires 1975). Some recent sources (Furst 1976a. MADinhibition prolongs the half-life of DMT in rats (Wang Lu and Domino 1976). The deamination of 5-HT leads mainly to 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid. whereas in an early study on DMT the urinary excretion of indoleacetic acid. Despite the apparent lack of substantial ethnobotanical data on such dosage forms. Intravenously given 5-oH-DMT was found to be excreted for 68-74% in the form of 5hydroxyindole acetic acid (Sanders-Bush et al. The N-oxides of DMT and 5-oH-DMT have not been studied extensively by pharmacologists. the chemistry and pharmacology of Banisteriopsis preparations are discussed here. They are said to have much less cardiovascular activity in the dog and the cat than the bases themselves (Fish and Horning 1956).1. which is the principal urinary metabolite (Douglas 1980).(MAO) when taken orally (Douglas 1980). just as with 5-HT. especially not in the case of DMT. but not the only one. Schultes 1982). Although Anadenanthera alkaloids have a dimethylated amino-group. but fail to provide an original report on such practices. 1977). but also hepatic microsomal enzymes may be capable of oxidating the dimethylated amino~group of Anadenanthera alkaloids (Fish et al. Not only MAO. 1956). Banisteriopsis species Malpighiaceae 1. Ethnobotany The genus Banisteriopsis which comprises many species of tropical vines. Emboden 1979a) claim that Banisteriopsis may have been taken as a clyster. The comprehensive monograph by Friedberg (1965) on the ritual use of Banisteriopsis does not even hint at enemas prepared from this genus. free and in alkali-labile form. 1955). This alkaloid was reported to be 6-hydroxylated to the extent of about 5-20% of the administered dose (Gillin and Wyatt 1977). there is experimental evidence that they are inactivated in a similar way.3. Friedberg 1965. accounted for only one-third of the intramuscular dose (Szára. Rivier and Lindgren 1972. 1976).3. 1. is a major ingredient of certain intoxicating drinks taken in South American rituals (Cooper 1949.1. In a human subject.

harmaline and (+)-l.1. harmic amide. The well-studied species B. 0. Vargas (1959) states that harmine. McKenna et al. 1982). In addition. but the volunteers of Naranjo (1967) clearly distinguished the experience with harmaline from an intoxication with mescaline.4-tetrahydroharmine (Deulofeu 1967. LSD and mescaline produce essentially similar reactions in both normal and psychotic patients. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The principal alkaloids in Banisteriopsis species used by natives are beta-carbolines. It is doubtful that indigenous Banisteriopsis drinks. racemic tetrahydroharmine elicited subjective effects similar to those of 100 mg of harmaline. ketotetrahydronorharmine and harmalol (Hashimoto and Kawanishi 1975.3. Some other effects of these intravenous doses were also produced by oral quantities higher than 300-400 mg.14-0.2. In rodents. which elicited visual hallucinations in 5 out of 11 patients. These total alkaloid percentages consisted primarily of harmine (40-96%) and.11-0.64-1. harmic acid methyl ester. 1984a). when given to a single volunteer by mouth in quantities of up to 300 mg.37% in the branches. More recent analytical work on the same species has revealed that other beta-carbolines may be present as minor components: harmine-N-oxide. or 4 mg/kg orally (280 mg/70 kg). harmine was hallucinogenic at an intravenous threshold dose of 150-200 mg in mental patients.70% in the leaves and 0. known as 30 . to alesser extent.95% in the root. 1976. the pyrrolidine bases shihunine and S{+)dihydroshihunine have been shown to occur in Banisteriopsis caapi (Kawanishi et al.1. 6-methoxytryptamine and an unident i f ied compound were someti mes also present (Ri v i er and Lindgren 1972).28-0. 0.3. acetyl norharmine. but it is doubtful that indisputable visual hallucinations occurred with oral quantities of up to 960 mg.83% of alkaloids in the stem. m a study by Pennes and Hoch (1957). Small amounts of harmol. of tetrahydroharmine (1-44%) and harmaline (0-17%). It has not been unequivocally established why the psychoactivity of major Banisteriopsis constituents is largely route-dependent. harmine and harmaline are extensively O-demethylated by hepatic microsomal enzymes (Ho et al. Allen and Holmstedt 1980). In the same study. Burke and Tweedie 1979). 1971. Naranjo (1967) found harmaline (as the HCl salt) to be hallucinogenic in volunteers at dosage levels above 1 mg/kg intravenously (70 mg/70 kg). in particular harmine.2.caapi was found to contain 0. harmalinic acid. Extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism certainly cannot be discarded as an unlikely cause.

Based on an average():f:five samples. McIsaac and Estevez 1966.ayahuasca. due to an admixture of Psychotria leaves. 1984a). 1959. the response to DMT (Sai-Halász 1963). since the beta-carbolines in Banisteriopsis are known as potent reversible MAO-inhibitors (Udenfriend et al. especially by MAO-A (vide 1. that inhibition of degradation is not the only reported mechanism of interaction between MAO-inhibitors and DMT.01 ~g harmine and 0. 0-32 mg of DMT (Rivier and Lindgren 1972). and. 1984a). The intramuscular threshold dose of DMT for producing subjective perception changes is only 30 mg (Szára 1957).2). McKenna et al. 41 mg of harmaline. may generally contain mind-altering concentrations of harmine and other major Banisteriopsis alkaloids. but McKenna et al. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b. McKenna et al. In the sixties. as well as that to LSD (Resnick et al. Fuller et al. and this phenomenon was attributed to elevation of central 5-HT levels by the MAO-inhibitor.2. (1984a) offer in vitro evidence to support this suggestion. 0-5 mg of harmaline. 0-20 mg of an Unidentified Banisteriopsis constituent and. Furst 1976a. This finding is quite interesting. It should be noted.1. however. 60 mg of DMT. McKenna et al. 1958. so the implication of these analytical results is obvious: DMT can be present in ayahuasca beverages in parenterally active amounts. Decisive in vivo experiments have not yet been reported in the literature. 100 ml of ayahuasca contained 467 mg of harmine. Since there is evidence that oral tryptamines undergo first-pass inactivation by MAO. More recently. 1978. Pletscher et al. Emboden 1979a. not surprisingly i t is often suggested that the beta-carbolines enhance the effects of DM! (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967. In partièular as selective inhibitors of MAO-A (Fowler et al. was found to be diminished by pretreatment with a non-selective irreversible MADinhibitor. due to the Psychotria admixture. Buckholtz and Boggan 1977. plasma levels were determ ined to be in the range of 0. Af ter a dose of 200 ml. quantitative data on the composition of the tested drink are no 31 . 1967). The pharmacokinetics of an ayahuasca beverage with harmine and tetrahydroharmine as its main constituents have been assessed in two volunteers (Rivier and Holmstedt 1982). (1984a) found substantially higher alkaloid levels in Peruvian ayahuasca beverages prepared from Banisteriopsis caapi cultivars and Psychotria species. 160 mg of tetrahydroharmine. 1-46 mg of tetrahydroharmine. Chemical analysis of such drinks from the upper Purus region revealed that an average native dose of 200 ml contained only 6-38 mg of harmine.04 ~g tetrahydroharmine per ml by a gas chromatographical/mass spectrometric methode Unfortunately. 1981).

) Bercht.1. but frequently it is impossible for him to drink from the clay vessels of the last men in the rows.. ingested preparations from tree Daturas in a ritual context (Safford 1922. headhunters of eastern Ecuador and Peru. Ethnobotany Many South American tri bes. 1969). and PresI. Emboden 1979a). to apply this binomial to any white-flowered tree Datura (Bristol et al. Tree Daturas. ex Willd. but on morphological and biological grounds this section is now treated as a separate genus (Lockwood 1979). the rectal route of administration was employed as weIl (Wassén 1972b.Ïninga. 1982. 1984). 1 . all of which are native to South America. It is considered absolutely necessary. The novice must now go from the one to the other in due order and take a sip from each p. Generally it is easy for him to do this with the first ones.4. and B. Plowman 1981a).. commun. starting with the oldest member of the family. There is usually no danger of confusing Brugmansia with any other hallucinogen. have usually been regarded as the Brugmansia section of the genus Datura.) Lagerh. Brugmansia suaveolens (H. the statement is not usually supported by a voucher specimen (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Each man holds apininga containing a small quantity of maikoa. Among the Jivaro. i t should be understood. 1. According to Karsten (1935).longer available (Rivier. so it is 32 . the maikoa drink was simply prepared by squeezing the juice from the bark of Datura arborea. if the novice could not continue drinking this intoxicating liquid: 'The oldest men of the family or tribe arrange themselves in two parallel rows facing each other. pers.4. Lockwood 1979. Karsten (1935) tells that a Datura preparation called maikoa was given during the initiation ceremony in the form of a clyster. There has been a tendency in the past. especially in western South America. but when the older literature offers an indentification of the plant used. It is said that a decoction of a tree Datura was drunk or taken as an enema through a straw by Jivaro warriors desiring to gain power and foretell the future (Steward and Métraux 1948). that the novice should receive something from the clay vessel of each man'. Cooper 1949.1.1 . Brugmansia species Solanaceae Brugmansia arborea (L.. however. Their contents are then given him in the form of a clyster.

The central toxicity of the tree Daturas (Anonymous 1976a. Shah and Saoj i 1966. 1965). including aposcopolamine.3% of scopolamine. also called hyoscine. The delirium lasts for 6-8 h with scopolamine and for 10-12 h with atropine. Leary 1970). Shah and Saoji 1966.15-0. Other authors have attributed maikoa preparations to Datura candida (Emboden 1979a) and to Brugmansia suaveolens (Lockwood 1979).17 mg/kg (about 11 mg170 kg). Intramuscular scopolam ine was found to be 7.4. Var ious other minor Brugmansia alkaloids have been isolated. all Brugmansia species and hybrids contain tropane alkaloids (Hegnauer 1973.uncertain how frequently the plant actually did represent Brugmansia arborea. of which the dextro-isomer is practically inactive (Shader and Greenblatt 1971. contained about 0. even though information on the species utilized is of ten inconclusive. 8 and 11 ti mes as 33 . Ketchum et al. Bristol et aL 1969. The structurally related atropine and/or its laevo-isomer hyoscyamine mayalso be present (Evans et al.1. it should be noted that hyoscyamine is the pharmacologically active laevoisomer of the racemic atropine. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Chemistry and psychopharmacology As far as is known. has been isolated as the predominant alkaloid (Evans et al. oscine and meteloidine (Bristol et al. 1965. 1969. 1969). Bristol et al. scopolamine. 1. Shah and Saoji 1966. Aerial parts of white-flowered Brugmansia trees.5. 1965. 1969. Leary 1970). norscopolamine. noratropine.1-0. tropine. norhyoscyamine. (1973) have demonstrated that parenteral scopolamine and atropine produce a virtually indentical syndrome of delirium. It should be noted that the distinction between these two compounds can be affected by racemisation upon extraction (List and Hörhammer 1972) and by inseparability on a paper chromatogram (Evans et al. Reynolds 1982). 1965. Shader and Greenblatt 1971) is commonly known. The intramuscular dose of atropine necessary to produce hallucinations in half the subjects was estimated to be about 0. In most cases. so there seems to be no serious uncertainty about the active principles.2. Bristol et al. when allowances are made for differences in time of action and potency. referred to as Datura arborea from India (Shah andSaoji 1966) and as Datura candida and its Sibundoy cultivars from Colombia (Bristol et al. Belton and Gibbons 1979) and their pure alkaloids (Longo 1966. Leary 1970). whereas up to about 1% of this alkaloid could be found in the red-flowered Brugmahsia sanguinea (Evans et al. 1969). As the following discussion focuses on scopolamine and atropine. pseudotropine.

5. 30-50% and 70-95%. about 1.5. for oral and intravenous atropine (Beermann et al. 1953) have been shown to produce systemic effects wh en taken nasally. In a cross-over study by Mirakhur (1978) on peripheral activity of tropane alkaloids.1. If these ratios also àpply to central activity. the difference in central potency of both alkaloids would be reduced from 8. 1971). Ethnobotany Roth (1924) has included Capsicum in a review on narcotics and stimulants of the Guiana Indians. 1960). Ostfeld et al. Furthermore. Chandrasekaran et al. in contrast with only 4-5% and about 10% for oral and parenteral scopolamine. It may well be that scopolamine and atropine undergo substantial first-pass metabolism. 1971. 1980) and tropical application into the eye (Freund and Marin 1970) or on the skin behind the ear (Osterholm and Camoriano 1982). 1953) and atropine (Hyde et al. Capsicum species Solanaceae 1.4). viz.potent in this respect.3 mg170 kg).1. 1978).1.2 times orally. Although Spix and Martius (1828) once experienced a narcotic-like action of pepper (vide 3. respect i vely (Chandrasekaran et al. respectively. dependent on the test employed (mean 8. the ratio of equivalent intramuscular to oral doses of atropine appeared to be 1:2 and that of scopolamine about 1:5-6. 1959. 1978) are suggestive of a faulty absorption. i t is not possible to draw any ethnobotanical 34 . Furthermore. the observed activity ratios correspond rather well with reported urinary recoveries of nonmetabolized drug. Neither their physicochemical properties (Windholz 1983) nor the rapid appearance of peak plasma levels af ter oral administration (Beermann et al. including tracheal inhalation (Bergman et al.5 mg of scopolamine HBr orally causes illusions and hallucinations in half the subjects (Ostfeld et al. Naturally occurring tropane alkaloids have been found to produce delirium with various ways of administration (Shader and Greenblatt 1971). whereas 4. It is known only that oral doses of up to 10 mg of atropine sulphate or of up to 3 mg of scopolamine HBr do not induce delirium. Unfortunately. 1. because the Makusi of the Rupununi used peppers as a stimulant and excitant. which would explain why the activity of these alkaloids is route-dependent. a cross-over study comparing central effects af ter ingestion and injection does not seem to be available.8 times parenterally to 3.8 times. scopolamine (Tonndorf et al.

Roth (1924) also points out that. commun.1. The Jivaro of western South America employed Capsicum clysters for medicinal purposes.conclusion without further field observations (Schultes 1967a). 1982). 'in the Pomeroon district it is a very common practice for the Indian women to gi ve capsicum enemata to themselves and children'.1. of course. 1982). Hegnauer (pers. Perhaps it should be noted that solanine and solanidine have been reported as occurring in Capsicum annuum (Wojciechowska and Dombrowicz 1966) and that solanines are central intoxicants when taken in substantial quantities (Anonymous 1979). who mayor may not have been joking. so native preparations are much more likely to have strongly irritating properties than any central effect. 1. 1. commun.6. commun.1. to try to cure patients from the consequences of a snake-bite (Karsten 1935). Datura innoxia Mill. whether Solanum alkaloids are indeed present in the genus Capsicum. however. by the irritating properties of Capsicum. Ethnobotany Herbaceous Datura species have been widely employed by the 35 . The latter possibility is strongly supported. Among the Shuar-Jivaro. he fails to indicate whether the intended effect of the Capsicum clyster was stimulation or purgation (Heizer 1944).the Makusi of the Roraima area use Capsicum to discipline children by anal insertion of the fruit as severe punishment (Gorinsky. Datura stramonium L. pers. Since capsaicin selectively stimulates and then blocks the chemosensitive unmyelinated sensory afferents from the skin and mucous membranes. 1983) questions. at least those used in official western medicine.1. Reynolds 1982). According to an informant. the initial irritation may be followed by local anaesthesia (Anonymous 1983a).6. Unfortunately. the whole Capsicum fruit is inserted rectally to distract from the pain of the snake-bite and also the brok en fruit is rubbed on the wound itself (Van Asdall.2. Datura species Solanaceae Datura ceratocaula Ort. contain the pungent principle capsaicin (Hegnauer 1973. pers. 1.5. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The fruits of most Capsicum forms. For instance.

Dfaz 1979. Pat i fio-.stramonium (Safford 1922). are known to have valued Ilex guayusa as a ritual stimulant and emetic (Cooper 1949. commun. The ancient Aztecs of Mexico have been recorded as taking Datura rectally. This has raised the question of whether guayusa might have been employed as a clyster (Schultes 1972a. and the principal alkaloids in the leaves are mostly scopolamine and/or hyoscyamine (Hegnauer 1973. but only for medicinal purposes. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Bundles of I. a tribe of the eastern United States.1.7.ceratocaula (Dfaz 1979) • 1. such as the Jivaro (Karsten 1935).aboriginal inhabitants of North and Middle America (Safford 1922. 1981a. Tlapatl has been identified as D.2.1. Ilex guayusa Aqu ifoliac eae Ilex guayusa Loes. Ethnobotany Indians of the South American Montana region.1. Schultes 1972a).6.1.b). pers.1. Furst 1976a). Schultes and Hofmann 1980a.g68. It should be added that the grave also contained Nicotiana fragments in a skin pouch 36 . The deliriant activity and pharmacokinetic behaviour of tropane alkaloids are discussed in sect ion 1. 1.4. List and Hörhammer 1973. An authoritative early account on Aztec medicinal plants states that tlapatl leaves were applied in the form of suppositories to relieve fever (Hernández 1959).innoxia (Schultes. The ethnological record of their rectal administration is less impressive than the data on Brugmansia enernas (v ide 1. Emboden (1979a) points out that such a prolonged state of intoxication would more easily be maintained through enernas than through oral fluids. 1.4.2.1). In the ini tiatory ri tual of the Algonquin Indians. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Chemistry and psychopharmacology All herbaceous Datura species contain a mixture of tropane alkaloids.1. the youths were kept intoxicated for 18 or 20 days by means of wysoccan liquid (Beverly 1705). but it referred more probably to D. 1982) or D. The chief ingredient is believed to have been the root of Datura stramonium (Safford 1922.7.guayusa leaves have been found together wi th small syringes in an archaeological Tiahuanacoid medicine-man's tomb in Highland Bolivia (Wassén 1972b).

1. As it is unclear whether the enema will be easily retained this way. Ethnobotany The ritual use of peyote among North American and Mexican Indians has been documented extensively (Furst 1976a. tying the bone to it and sitting on the bladder'.8% of caffeine was present in a newly collected specimen (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1972). thereby masticating a lot (Negrfn. pers.b). Knab detailed the following: 'Old men and women use a mixture of either fresh ground peyote with its juice or dried peyote mixed with water. softened with saliva and swallowed without mastication.1. Chemistry and psychopharmacology I. 1976) and that small syringes were sometimes also used for nasal application (Veigl 1785. Métraux 1949 ) • 1.) Coult. usually af ter prolonged use of excessive doses (Mc Manamy and Schube 1936. use peyote in a different way. Lophophora williamsii Cactaceae Lophophora williamsii (Lem.8. They only leave one-third of the cactus. Shen and D'Souza 1979). Bruhn et al. La Barre 1975.8. it is unfortunate that actual use has not been witnessed. and use either the fresh ground form or the dried ground form. 1. which are usually taken into the mouth. 1. commun. This weIl known alkaloid is a CNS stimulant (Stephenson 1977).1. which only rarely has been reported as eliciting a psychotic reaction.1. 1983). renowned for their peyote pilgrimages (Furst 1976a).guayusa leaves from the grave in question were demonstrated to contain caffeine in amounts of 0. In a personal communication (1982) to me. the dried tops of the cactus. The mixture is applied by filling the bladder. The use of a peyote enema among the Huichols has been reported by the ethnographer Knab who was shown an enema syringe by an elderly female shaman in the community of Santa Catarina (Furst and Coe 1977). The Huichols of the Sierra Madre in western Mexico.1-1 %. SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980a. Peyote is mostly eaten in the form of so-called 'mescal-buttons'. 1981.7.(Bondeson 1972. They can also be soaked in water to yield an intoxicating fluid (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). At one 37 .2. Among the Huichols an enema is applied through a short piece of deer bone tied to a bladder. whereas 1.

1973). the main alkaloid in Lophophora williamsii. Furst (1976a) suggested that the practice probably has a deeper symbolic meaning. 1982). Negrfn adds that the Huichols. Shulgin 1979)" However. hordenine (8%). For the Huichols. 3-demethylmescaline (1-5%) and N. as the sacred cactus is equated with and identified as the deer by the Huichols. commun. may occur in peyote to the ex tent of 6%.1. 1982. anhalonidine. pers. 1. 1966). 1983). Negrfn. since the Huichols are very puritanical and would not give such delicate information to a visitor known for only a few weeks. A chemical study on fresh greenhouse-grown peyote revealed an average total alkaloid percentage of 0. On reconsideration. 1982. rectal instead of oral administration) and like to teIl scabrous jokes. Stewart. 1983) who seriously questions the truthfulness of the enema story. Mescaline is not the only peyote constituent with pharmacological activity (List and Hörhammer 1976. anhalonidine (14%). anhalonine <3%). commun.8. Knab. commun. 1973). 1982) may be quite right in wondering how many of these constituents are artifacts. commun. the common source of peyote is unquestionably Lophophora williamsii (Furst 1976a. anhalidine (2%). commun. but rarely exceeds 1% in the dried whole plant (Crosby and McLaughlin 1973.5-2%) (Lundström 1971). 1982). There does not seem to be clinical evidence for hallucinogenic activity of any minor peyote alkaloid in naturally occurring 38 .time. N-methylmescaline (3%). but SchuIt es (pers. There are no indications that peyote has ever been taken rectally north of Mexico (Aberle. even at rather high oral doses (Shulgin 1973. lophophorine (5%). lophophorine and anhalonine are not hallucinogenic in man. This view is shared by Negrfn (pers. Kapadia and Fayez 1970. pers.2.4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine (Shulgin et al. pers. Peyote is a vernacular term applied to a number of plants (Bruhn and Bruhn 1973). consisting mainly of mescaline (30%). more than 50 alkaloids have been isolated frOm peyote (Kapadia and Fayez 1970.like to reverse things (viz. commun. commun. anhalamine (8%). N-methylmescaline (Shulgin 1973) and 3. 1966). he suspects the reported event to have been idiosyncratic and not something to be generalized to Huichol culture. pers. pellotine (17%). Chemistry and psychopharmacology Mescaline. the peyote tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids pellotine. as the practice would be atypical of known Huichol behaviour (Furst.N-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethylamine (0. and neither are the minor phenylethylamine components N-acetylmescaline (Charalampous et al. In total.4%. 1981. 1979). pers.

the influence of minor peyote alkaloids on the effects of mescaline still needs to be properly tested in a clinical setting. mescaline taken orally is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract without undergoing extensive first-pass metabolism. 1984. i.quantities (Shulgin 1973. Ethnobotany Neither botanists nor pharmacologists consider tobacco to be a true hallucinogen. Several recent secondary sources state that tobacco was taken rectally in the western hemisphere (Schultes 1981a). 1. but so far as I know. Studies on certain synthetic modifications of the structure of mescaline have been more rewarding in this respect (Shulgin et al.Nicotiana species Solana. mainly as unchanged mescaline (55-60%) and its inactive metabolite 3. 1969). Wilbert 1972.1.9. a maximum of radioactivity appeared in the plasma within 3 h of oral administration of 14C-mescaline to humans. The references to its use in indigenous rituals are numerous and there are ethnological reports on its induction of trance-like states analogous to those induced by hallucinogens (Castiglioni 1943.4. Consequently mescaline seems to be mainly responsible for the visual hallucinogenic properties of L. Robicsek 1978).e.9.75 mg/kg. Nichols 1981). This classical hallucinogen is usually ingested in quantities between 300 and 500 mg of the sulphate (Shulgin 1979). 1969. Schultes and Hofmann (1980b) warn that there is an of ten overlooked difference between peyote intoxication and mescaline intoxication.1.1. 1. 1966).5trimethoxyphenylacetic acid (27-30%) (Charalampous et al. but it may be conceptually and functionally indistinguishable from hallucinogens in American Indian ritual practices (Wilbert 1972). Nicotiana tabacum L. In a later study. 1979). The average oral dose of mescaline needed for a medium response has been estimated at 3.ceae Nicotiana rustica L. about 260 mg170 kg (Shulgin et al. Early experiments on the fate of mescaline in man have yielded divergent results (Patel 1968). williamsii (Shulgin 1979. According to these results. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Siegel et al. 1977. Janiger and Dobkin de Rios 1976. 87% of the dose could be recovered from the urine during the first 24 h. Spinden 1950. in particular on the South American continent (Schultes 1972a. 39 .

4. 1982) are aware of any detailed primary reference on this subject. These data. but according to the original text purgation was intended (Anonymous 1940). The main ways in which South American Indians have used tobacco àre smoking. I am inclîned to interpret this dosage form as a rectal fluid rather than as an auricular one. chewing. Drawing from an early French account (De Charlevoix 1744).1. a preHispanic Bolivian grave was found to contain both tobacco fragments and small syringes (vide 1.1). 1941. but only as a medicinal cure. commun. The two principal tobacco or Nicotiana species which have been employed ritually in the western hemisphere. 1981) nor Wilbert (pers. snuffing. Several early sources describe the rectal administration of tobacco. Since it would be very peculiar to treat such a complaint by instilling liquid into the ear. Wilbert 1975. but neither the purpose nor other details are clearly mentioned. In past centuries. are N. however.Furst 1976a. 'taking i t as a suppository because it purged them' (Pornar 1941). eating and licking (Stahl 1925. and early accounts on Surinam (Fermin 1775) and Brazil (Spix and Martius 1831) touch lightlyon tobacco enemas.2. Hartmann 1981).tabacum and N. Decisive data are equally hard to find for Middle America. Then the victim was hung up by his feet to a tree so that he could cast up the water he had swallowed (Brooks 1937. Furst and Coe 1977).1938. Evidence suggesting that the ancient Maya may have used tobacco as an ingredient of their ritual enernas is discussed in sect ion 1. Van Wart 1948. Cooper 1949. resuscitation of drowned people by a rectal tobacco fumigation was practised in Europe as well (Brooks 1937. The 16th century physician Monardes (1574) includes the use of clysters among the var ious methods ofapplying tobacco as a medicine. The famous Aztec herbal known as the Badianus Codex recommends a 'clystere oriculario' prepared from tobacco and various other ingredients as a remedy for rumbling of the abdomen (Anonymous 1940). several references indicate that the Indians of eastern Canada revived those nearly drowned by forcing tobacco smoke up the rectum. can hatdly be considered as substantial evidence for the non-medical rectal use of tobacco by South American natives. As to the rectal route. the first species was known in Centra 1 and South America and much of the West 40 . a tobacco clyster is recommended to relieve recurrent disease. commun. drinking. At the time of the Spanish invasion. Emboden (1979a) feels that this enema was designed to produce inebriation. and the Relaci6n de Texcoco says that the Spaniards used the herb to clear malaria.1941.7. Neither Schultes (pers. Gorter 1953).rustica. Gorter 1953). In another passage of the Badianus Codex.

myosmine. Although smoking might contribute to mental changes (Janiger and Dobkin de Rios 1976).tabacum varies widely from 0. nicotyrine and nornicotine (Wenusch 1940. 1977.9. but depression may follow (Rasche González 1980. It acts on a variety of neuro-effector and chemosensitive sites and has both stimulant and depressant phases of act ion. The ultimate response of an organ or system is the product of such different and opposing effe cts.tabacum which comprises most varieties of commercially grown tobacco. The amount in the leaf of N. was introduced from the aId World to the North American continent (Schultes 1967b). Reynolds 1982). Rotenberg 1982). the amounts in the smoke are about 0. 1. commun.89 ± 0. is markedly stimulated by nicotine. nicotine is highly toxic and acute poisoning with a do se of 60 mg may cause death due to respiratory failure within a few minutes.01-0. Long af ter the conquest.1.3'-dipyridyl. nicotelline. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The principal Nicotiana alkaloid is nicotine. Taylor 1980. Reynolds 41 .6% to 9% (Hoppe 1975. Schultes 1981a). Minor constituents include many other pyridine alkaloids such as anabasine. List and Hörhammer 1977). anatabine. The central nervous system. Taylor 1980. very small amounts of the betacarboline alkaloids harman and norharman have been isolated from commerical tobaccos and their smoke.Indies. nicotine is not considered to be an hallucinogen from the pharmacological view (Siegel et al. Although the literature sometimes warns that there is no certain information to prove the existence of N. indicating that pyrosynthesis occurs in the leaves during burning (Janiger and Dobkin de Rios 1976). 1977.6% in west Mexic~n samples (Siegel et al. Schultes 1981a).tabacum in pre-Hispanic Mexico (Spinden 1950). Castiglioni 1943.5% to 8. In addition. but in commercial cigarette tobacco it seldom exceeds 3% (Siegel et al. 1977). Although practised smokers are tolerant of some of its effects.76 ± 2. Robicsek 1978). 1982). as it may account for about 95% of the total alkaloid content of tobacco (Wenusch 1940. pers. Hegnauer 1973. for instance. this species is frequently implied to have occurred there (Setchell 1921.02 mg per cigarette which is some 40-100 times greater than that in the tobacco leaf. which was found to range from 4.2.6% in African samples and from 1. and extreme acute doses of nicotine could produce hallucinations and catatonia (Siegel et al.rustica usually has a higher nicotine content.02% to the surprising figure of 18. N. 2. N. and the second one in North America and Mexico (Schultes 1967b. 1977).

might be hallucinogenic per se. Tobacco is knownto affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of many drugs. 1980. that any suggestion of endogenous hallucinogens present in tobacco in behaviourally active quantities should be viewed with appropriate caution (Siegel et al. 1976). 1981) and chewing (Gritz et al. 1984). 1983). Oral nicotine is said to be largely inactivated during its first passage through the liver (Russell et al. 1976. Other constituents in tobacco smoke. 1981) of tobacco can all lead to substantial blood levels of nicotine. Lophophora williamsii. but the Indian use of the plant as a ritual enema ingredient is not well recorded or is even unlikely: Banisteriopsis. snuffing (Russell et al. but most of these alterations appear to involve stimulation of hepatic drug metabolism by smoking and are caused probably by the polycyclic hydrocarbons present in tobacco smoke (Jusko 1978. Anadenanthera. the following categories of ritual enema ingredients arise: 1) It is well established that the plant provides one or more psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a ritual enema ingredient is confirmed or is quite probable: Agave. chemical and psychopharmacological approach to intoxicating enema rituals in the western hemisphere. 2) It is well established that the plant provides one or more psychoactive principles. Dawson and Vestal 1982. such as harman and norharman (Janiger and Dobkin de Rios. Ilex guayusa. Baumann et al. Datura. 1977. McNabb et al. but all of these compounds appear to be present in su eh small quantities. 1982.1982). oral tobacco infusions are considered qui te toxic and may even be lethal (Harrison 1964. at least in commercial tobaccos. 1 . the absorption of nicotine is apparently delayed because of slowed gastric emptying. Brugmansia. 1982). I t is also said that after oral ingestion of tobacco.10. 42 . Recent pharmacological studies have demonstrated that the smoking (Benowitz et al. Conclusion From the ethnobotanical. Nicotiana. Hansten 1982). Opitz 1982). so that vomiting caused by the central effect of the initially absorbed fraction removes much of the tobacco remaining in the stomach (Taylor 1980).1. Nevertheless. I am not aware of clinical studies on the combined use of non-smoked tobacco and a classical New World hallucinogen.

4) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual enema ingredient is not weIl recorded. and it is not weIl established that the plant provides one or more psychoactive principles: Capsicum. but it is not weIl established that the plant provides one or more psychoactive principles: none.3) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual enema ingredient is confirmed or is quite probable. 43 .

but this is impossible in the case of rectal application. The presence of food in the stomach delays the absorption of many drugs when they are taken orally (Welling 1977. Systemic therapy via the rectal route is considered particularly useful when the patient is unwilling or unable to take his medicine by mouth. Moolenaar 1979. It is approximately 15-20 cm long. that an enema usually provides the advantage of adequately bypassing hepatic inactivation.2. it has been demonstrated that numerous drugs reach effective plasma levels when given rectally. and in many countries rectal therapy is generally viewed as a convenient alternative to oral dosing (Senior 1974. Consequently. drug a. because of nausea and vomiting. A complicating anatomical factor. however.tic circulation. Another advantage of rectal application may be that the breakdown of acid-labile drugs by the stomach is avoided. The preceding pages amply demonstrate that the American Indian has not failed to notice this obvious advantage. General introduction Drug uptake from the rectum does not appear essentially different from that in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. when a patient has just enjoyed a meal. the rectum has no primary function as an absorbing organ. is the presence of 44 . Passive diffusion through a lipid membrane is probably the main governing mechanism of absorption. Despite these potential disadvantages. while the upper rectal vein drains into the hepa. de Boer et al. however. the rectum merely contains 2-3 ml of inert mucus. For instance. the absorption surface is far more limited than that of the duodenum. Sometimes the rectal route is also recommended as a means to prevent first-pass elimination by liver enzymes (Ansel 1976).1. In contrast to the small intestine. Thoma 1980. and there are no villi and microvilli on the rectal mucosa. Toothaker and Welling 1980). 1982).CHAPTER ONE PART TWO RECTAL PHARMACOKINETICS AND EFFICACY OF POSSIBLE RITUAL ENEMA CONSTITUENTS 1. the inferior and probably also the middle rectal veins pass directly into the systemic circulation.bsorption may be more rapid following rectal administration than it would be af ter oral dosing. There is considerable doubt. It is true that. In other words. so the small intestine has much more fluid available than the rectum for drug dissolution from solid dosage forms. Under normal conditions.

The principal drawback of rectal administration is the risk of interrupted drug absorption by the inability of the subject to retain the dosage form. this implies that substantial first-pass metabolism may not be avoided even when a non-voluminous enema is used. 1979).anastomoses between the rectal veins (de Boer 1980). a large enema cannot be expected to provide a substantial by-pass of the liver (Quevauviller and Jund 1951). 1981). depending on the enema volume. Rectal therapy is generally recognized as useful in West European countries on the continent. Opposite views on rectal administration are not only seen in western civilisation. 1979). because they were not prepared to accept a suppository. In a large British study on phenylbutazone suppositories in general practice. Jeronymo. However. a Spanish soldier who professed the art of medicine. but it is far from common in Britain and in the United States. but also in the native societies of South America. the systemic availability of a micro-enema did not substantially surpass that of an oral dosage form. Studies on the degree of enema penetration indicate that penetration as far as the ascending colon may be achieved and that. but move upward into a higher region (Moolenaar and Schoonen 1980). and half of them did not complete the eight-week course (Anonymous 1983b). The Peruvian Omagua Indians even distributed enema syringes to their guests (De La Condamine 1778). 1976. rectal dosage forms do not remain in the lower parts of thé rectum. Also. A recent study on lidocaine has shown that in principle the use of a micro-enema can result in partial avoidance of a hepatic firstpass effect (de Boer et al. in various other experiments with codeine (Moolenaar et al. paracetamol (Moolenaar et al. A second problem may be a lack of patient acceptability. Therefore. 1982). promethazine (MooIenaar et al. propranolol and salicylamide (de Boer 1980). being requested by Father Brigniel to attend upon a 45 . Anonymous 1980). retention time was a major determinant of bioavailability in studies on aminophylline suppositories (Zuidema et al. but such instruments were less appreciated among the Abipones of Paraguay (Dobrizhoffer 1822): 'They will not even bear the mention of an enema. 10% of the patients refused to participate. It certainly cannot be concluded from these experimental findings that a high-clearance drug will generally show higher systemic availability when it is taken as an enema. In the town of St. For instance. Unless the tested compounds were wel 1 absorbed af ter oral ingestion and poorly absorbed following rectal application. 5-methoxypsoralen (Stolk 1982). penetration at least as far as the descending colon is likely (Lima and Jusko 1980).

1978). Thi s admix ture has an alkaline nature (Rivier 1981). which in its turn might facilitate the rectal absorption of the alkaloid. and would have slain the soldier physician. viz. It should be borne in mind that the dosage form tested in a wèstern study will differ from the dosage form used in native ri tuals.2. Atrop ine Vide section 1.1).2. 1. As a consequence.1. No sooner did the sick man feel the syringe applied to him.2. declared the necessity of an injection.2. and that this may somewhat limit the pertinence of the clinical data to Indian practices. snatched up a lance.9. An animal study on suppositories with methylhomatropine shows thát the rectal mucosa is not generally an impenetrable barrier for ionized drugs (Cramer et al. 1. Only in the case of the paricá clysters of the Brazilian Caripuna and Maué Indians. (1982). These aspects of rectal drug administration and their clinical implications are extensively discussed in recent reviews by de Blaey and Polderman (1980). than he started furiously out of bed. Unfortunately. the addition of plant ash to the clyster (v ide 1.sick Abipon.2. Another disadvantage of rectal administration arises from the relatively small absorption surface of the rectum.2. but in principle non-ionized molecules diffuse much more easily through the rectal mucosa than ionized ones (Senior 1974.2. Datá on the rectal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ritual enema constituents are summarized below.2. and may thus enlarge the nonionized proportion of an alkaloid.2.4. some interesting information is given. 1982). and de Boer et al. had he not saved himself by hasty flight'.2. Thoma (1980). Bufotenin Vide section 1.2. de Boer et al.2. 46 .1. the usefulness of the rectal route may vary considerably with the physicochemical properties of the drug substance and with the biopharmaceutical properties of the dosage form. Specific constituents 1 . the ethnological literature rarely describes the properties of the native dosage form.

3. At the time of the experiment. it may be speculated that inactivation by intestinal MAO is avoided by rectal application. Caffeine The physicochemical properties of caffeine (Windholz 1983) and its rapid and complete absorption af ter oral administration (Blanchard and Sawers 1982.2). Even though this dose of 125 mg was much larger than 30 mg. colon. possibly because of the difficulty to retain the large volumes used.2.2. Since it is likely that the availability of drug metabolizing enzymes in the gut wall decreases in the direction jejunum. I failed to notice any 47 .2.6 mg/kg) of DMT in self-experiments.2. and it was taken with the aid of a syringe and a special adaptor. I took enemas containing up to 125 mg (1. Munich) in 15 ml of tap watèr. This may well explain why this genus is most of ten taken nasally. The highest rectal dose was 185 mg of DMT bioxalate (Schuchardt.2.1). I t is less easy to presume thatthe rectal taking of Anadenanthera will be advantageous. I was a non-smoker and a regular user of coffee and beer. thé reported threshold dose of intramuscular DMT (Szára 1957). so the Anadenanthera tryptamines may still be inacti vated following rectal administration.1.4. however. A recent case report describes two deaths related to unofficial therapy with voluminous coffee enemas. but these were assumed to be due to electrolyte disturbancesj toxicological results in both cases indicated that not enough caffeine had been absorbed to cause a substantial toxic effect (Eisele and Reay 1980). To obtain anecdotal experimental evidence. Indeed MaierLenz et al~ (1981).1).2. for the nasal route certainly can provide the advantage of bypassing the gut wall and the liver (vide 2. developed for the rectal application of Valium injection fluid (Anonymous 1981). rectum (de Boer et al. 1982). did not find a large difference between the serum levels of caffeine following oral and rectal application.2.1. Dimethyltryptamine and related compounds There is considerable evidence to suggest that the active constituents of Anadenanthera undergo extensive first-pass metabolism by intestinal and hepatic MAO and by hepatic microsomal enzymes (vide 1. 1. who recently compared the absorption of caffeine and ether drugs from a certain multiple drug tablet and suppository called Migräne-Kranit. 1983) suggest that its absorption from rectal dosage forms may'well be substantial. that the use of anenema is a reliable way to escape hepatic first-pass elimination (vide 1. caecum. There is considerable doubt.

I was a non-inhaling smoker and a regular user of coffee and beer. when orally inactive amounts are taken in the form of an enema. Pernarowski 1975).1 mg/ml. 48 . A percentage of only 5% was chosen. a rapid and complete absorption should be possible. it can neither be safely excluded nor concluded that Anadenanthera alkaloids produce systemic effects. alcohol blood levels were not monitored by blood analysis.2. Ethyl alcohol In view of the good oral absorption characteristics and physicochemical properties of ethyl alcohol (Offerhaus 1979). commun.02 mg/ml from actual blood levels (Zweipfennig. Utrecht) with tap water to 0. the oral drink and the enema had to be voluminous to provide a substantial dose of alcohol. the volume of an enema should be less than 0. since a clyster with analcoholic content of 20% is quite irritating to the rectal tissue (MooIenaar. which were administered within 25 min with the aid of a Flex-Klis flacon (Spruyt-Hillen. So long as such testing has not been done. Due to these precautions. Mintum). however. Because of this choice. commun. In a calibration test of the used apparatus. and since the early Indian drinks also had low alcohol percentages (vide 1. As the sole purpose of the experiment was to obtain an impression of alcohol absorption via the rectal route. if it be rectally administered. I twice took 0. The results presented here are therefore not test mode values.2).5 1. especially with still higher doses. pers. once as an oral drink and once in the form of clysters.discernible effect. 1. Therefore the total rectal volume was divided in four equal parts. Vianen).5. pers. but zero set values. At the time of the experiment.5 1 of 5% v/v alcohol. to ascertain whether or not any partial avoidance is possible.1. According to the pharmaceutical literature. zero set values turned out to be more accurate than test mode va lues and did not deviate more than 0. Solutions were prepared by diluting 26 mI of 96% v/v alcohol (OPG. but by simple breath testing wi th an Intoxilyzer Model 4011 A (CMI. 1982).2 I.5 1 turned out to be quite easy. The most likely explanation for the inactivity is that first-pass elimination was not completely avoided. and they were taken in a prostrate position. To test this theoretical view. The clysters had been warmed to body temperature before administration. 1984). Further experiments in more than one volunteer are needed. if it is to be retained in the intestine (Fishburn 1965.1.2. The manufacturer of this equipment guarantees an absolute error of less than 0. rectal retention of as much as 0.

there is no obvious reason to assume that an enema will be effective if it contains harmine in an orally inactive amount. This is a theoretical view which still awaits experimental confirmation. In view of the physicochemical properties of this alkaloid (Hultin 1965). 1. but in official Western medicine tobacco enernas certainly are considered obsolete 49 .4 mg/ml at 30-45 min.3.1. These results certainly support the theoretical suggestion that alcohol is absorbed well from an enema. Harmine There does not seem to be any study on the rectal taking of harmine. whereafter at 240 min the level fell again to 0.1). and resulted in maximal blood levels of 0.2 mg/ml at 120 min. Nicotine When tobacco is injected into the rectum.8. Mescaline The sOlubility profile of mescaline (Windholz 1983) and the reported good absorption of this hallucinogen af ter oral ingestion (Charalampous et al. for in the only rectal experiment known to me.1.2). 1982).2.4 mg/ml in a practically linear way.2.2. who tested 30 ml of 95% of alcohol (diluted to 150 ml) in fasting subjects. (1977).2. 1. Consequently. In the present context it is interesting to no te that in an experiment by Moolenaar (pers.The oral dose was taken af ter an overnight fast. it might sometimes operate as a cathartic (Osol and Farrer 1955). the presence of alcohol enhanced the absorption rate of the drug sodium salicylate from an enema.2. 200 mg of mescaline in a suppository caused nothing but a dubious mydriasis (Möller 1935).7. In the next 25 min. and there is recent evidence that rectal application is not a reliable way of adequately avoiding this phenomenon (vide 1.6. 1966) suggests that substantial absorption can be possible af ter rectal application. commun. and it produced a rise from 0. alcohol may affect the actions of many other drugs directly or indirectly. the total rectal dose was administered.2.1.6 mg/ml at 165 min. harmine may undergo substantial h€patic firstpass metabolism (vide 1. Similar data were reported by Wilkinson et al.2. rectal absorption should well be possible. As pointed out in section 1.2 mg/ml to 0. However. followed by a practically linear decline to 0. 1.2.

Scopolamine and related compounds The synthetic quaternary compounds butylscopolamine and methylatropine are very poorly absorbed after rectal administration (Soeterboek et al. However. In view of these data. who had received this alkaloid via the rectal route (Jenner et al. Well-designed studies on the rectal usefulness of natural tropane alkaloids are still awaited.02 mg/kg of atropine in smal! children. for rods prepared from cacao butter. 0. they did not find statistically significant 50 . More recently. (1959) studied the mydriatic activity of rodshaped suppositories with atropine sulphate in the rat. Tardos et al.2. A dose of 20 mg atropine or atropine sulphate produced mydriasis in all animals tested. there are only vague and conflicting experimental data on the efficacy of rectal atropine and scopolamine. which should allow a better rectal absorption. the large difference in mydriatic efficacy between a rectal dose of 20 mg (6-8 mg/kg) in the rabbit and a systemic dose in man should be attributed to the insensitivity of the rabbit for atropine. Rectal infusions prepared from 15 to 20 g of tobacco (Fabre et al. 0. Suppositories containing belladonna liquid extract were includedin the British Pharmacopeia of 1948 (Reynolds 1982). but a suppository with 10 mg of the sulphate did not have this effect in each rabbit. Hendrickx and Govaerts (1980) compared enemas wi th 0. nicotine could be recovered from the urine of a male non-smoking subject.because of their toxicity (List and Hörhammer 1977). 1. A recent case report describes nausea and confusion followed by hypotension and bradycardia due to unorthodox self-medication with an enema prepared apparently from 5-10 cigarettes (Garcia-Estrada and Fischman 1977).2.00. They reported a very large difference between equivalent intravenous and rectal doses of atropine. there can be no doubt that a tobacco clyster can produce systemic effects.5 mg/kg.9. viz. andthe differencewas even larger when the rod base was carbowax. but the natural tropane alkaloids scopolamine and atropine are tertiary compounds. although recovery af ter 15 g rectally has also been observed (Lewin 1962). 1957) or even as low as 2 g (List and Hörhammer 1977) are said to have caused fatal intoxications. (1962) examined the mydriatic effect of fatty suppositories with atropine base or atropine sulphate in rabbits. and 0. Furthermore. Apparently. 0. According to the authors.01.02 mg/kg vs. 1973). Neuwald et al. 1980).

whereas dimethyltryptamine did not produce any effect when parenterally active quantities were taken as an enema. A good rectal efficacy could also be expected from mescaline and from tropane alkaloids. 51 . and each tested drug preparation contained at least one other active substance besides the tropane alkaloid(s). All these studies were uncontrolled.2. Lehmann 1952). ethyl alcohol produced substantial blood levels via the rectal route. however. 1. but their report is too confusing to permit firm conclusions. Conclusion The literature yields convincing evidence that caffeine and nicotine are effective following rectal application. First-pass elimination is the most likely explanation for the observed inactivity of dimethyltryptamine via the recta 1 route.3. Lindahl et al 1981) and for the facilitation of delivery (Weinstock 1934. In self-experiments. In other investigations. Rittmeyer 1935.differences in cardiac and anti-sialogogic activity. but this is a hypothetical view which stills awaits experimental confirmation. rectal preparations containing one or more natural tropane alkaloids were found to be useful as premedication for children (Chayen and Sarnat 1973.

It should be noted that volume three of the renowned Handbook of South American Indians does not discuss the Marauá. At the request of King Max Joseph von Bayern. From the ethnobotanical view. Detailed descriptions of these paraphernalia are given by Wassén (1965. There are only two other collections of this kind in the world. however. Most of the expedition members returned to Europe in 1821. the German explorers Spix and Martius also joined this party. she was accompanied by an Austrian expedition. In contrast with Spix and Martius (1823-1831).3. the one from Spix and Martius (Zerries 1980). is his correspondence to Europe. because the Brazilian civil war broke out. the importance of these early Brazilian ethnographical objects is obvious. Wird namentlich bei den Mauhés. Both sources provide valuable information (Kann 1981. Diese Körner werden zerstossen (zerrieben) und mit der Asche des Imbauvabaumes gemischt und dann zum Schnupfen und zu berauschende Klystieren gebraucht. commun. when the roof of the Viennese court library caught fire. Natterer never published his travelling diaries. During this time. the Austrian Emperor Franz I. gave his daughter Leopoldine in marriage to the later Brazilian Emperor Dom pedro I. viz. which included the zoologist Johann Natterer (1787-1843). and unfortunately they were destroyed by fire a few years af ter his death. he collected not only numerous biological objects. Caripuna and Marauá Indians. Wh en the Archduchess made the crossing to the New World. collected from the Maué tribe (museum inventory 1369): 'Samenkörner des Paricábaumes (in Matogrosso Angico genannt). The Natterer collection includes several objects of the Maué. Still remaining. who are thought to be a probable subdivision of the Maué (Nimuendaju 1948a). which are related to ritual drug tak ing. but only the Maraguá. and the museum inventory of his collection. Introduction In 1817. but also almost 2000 ethnological items. 1984). Caripunas und andere Nationen 52 MAU~ INDIANS . pers. 1972a) and Kann (1971).CHAPTER ONE PART THREE THE CHEMISTRY OF PARICA SEEDS OF THE BRAZILIAN 1. but Natterer stayed behind and continued his travels in Brazil until 1835. and an unpublished one from a Russian expedi tion led by the Earl Langsdorff (Kann 1981). written under his supervision. Muras. which are now in the Museum for Ethnology in Vienna (Kann 1981). Since various Indian tribes from those days have become extinct or have lost their cultural identity. the most interesting item is a large sample of weIl preserved paricá seeds.1.

the seeds were submitted to a gas chromatographicall mass spectrometric analysis comparable to that described by Schultes et al. commun. which Richard Sprucehad collected in 1854 from the GUahibo Indians of the upper Orinoco River. It was to be hoped that the even older Maué seeds would also give a positive result. (1977) report that storage of freshly collected Anadenanthera seeds for two years results in the disappearance of all tryptamines except bufotenin.2. von Reis Altschul 1972). This chemical finding certainly supports the botanical view that they are Anadenanthera seeds. (1977) isolated 0. as it has of ten been implied that the Maué and Mura Indians of the Brazilian Madeira River prepared paricá snuffs and enemas from Anadenanthera seeds.colubrina (von Reis Altschul 1964). Analytical methods By cooperation of Laurent Rivier (Institute of Legal Medicine.3.peregrina. a flat and orbicular shape. corroborating their botanical identification as Anadenanthera seeds. It can 53 . however.6% of bufotenin from seeds of A. the seeds are unique in the sense that no other ethnobotanical material from the western hemisphere has ever been directly associated with ritual rectal intoxication • The seeds have a black-brown colour.3. Schultes et al. Furthermore.3. the species cannot be determined without the availability of additional plant parts. it was quite interesting to obtain data on their chemical composition. The tracing of these seeds is important. (1977). these assertions have not been supported by an early collection of the seeds (SchuIt es 1967b. Since there are no clear differences bet ween the seeds of the two Anadenanthera species A. Other tryptamine alkaloids could not be detected. and a diameter of 1-2 cm. 1. Lausanne).gebraucht'. since SchuIt es et al. Up to now. Results and discussion Despite their considerable age. and this botanical view is shared by von Reis (pers. These features are certainly reminiscent of Anadenanthera seeds (von Reis Altschul 1964). This is not surprising. Details are provided in Appendix A. as identified by retention time on capillary column and mass spectrum. the seeds still yielded as much as 15 mg of the Anadenanthera alkaloid bufotenin per g dry seed matter. 1984). 1. In view of the ethnobotanical importance of the seeds.peregrina and A.

54 .therefore not be excluded that the Maué seeds originally may have contained more than one alkaloid.

One male also has a bulbed enema syringe tucked into his belt. Furst and Coe (1977) added a new theme to this list af ter they had discovered à polychrome Maya jar showing the actual administration of an enema (vide plate 3 of Appendix Cl.1. in particular the polychrome pottery of the late classic period (A. fermented liquid that is probably balche. provides much information on this Mesoamerican culture by portraying a variety of scenes like palace scenes. a practice previously unrecorded for this culture'. The discovery of this crucial vessel allowed the identification of other Maya vase paintings as enema scenes (Furst and Coe 1977). Anonymous 1984. Nicholson and CordyCollins 1979. and special dances af ter human sacrifice by decapitation (Coe 1975.4. Introduction Pottery of the classic Maya civilization. According to early colonial references. 1982. there can be little doubt indeed that the enema 55 . and painted dots at the mouth of each represent a foaming. 1978. pers. the common alcoholic drink among the Maya at the time of the conquest. hunting parties. identical in shape to the actual vessel.D. 1985). are depicted in two horizontal rows. Hellmuth 1978. the women easily distinguished by their robes and long hair. commun. for while one man is inserting a syringe into his rectum. ball games. Nine vases. 600-900). are painted between the couples. this delicate task is being carried out for another male by his consort.CHAPTER ONE PART FOUR ENEMA SCENES ON ANCIENT MAYA POTTERY 1. Robicsek and Hales 1981). That one woman is fondling a. and soon others were also led to believe that the ancient Maya took intoxicating enemas for ritual purposes (Hellmuth 1978. the Maya employed clysters for diarrhoea and chills or for a swollen abdomen (Roys 1976). Robicsek 1978.child suggests a familial setting. Some years ago. In my opinion. Robicsek 1978. We must conclude that the people on the vase are taking intoxicating enemas. Yet the discovered scene was revealing. Dobkin de Rios 1984: Torres 1984: Schele. since it appeared to Furst and Coe (1977) that some non-medicinal ritualistic use of clysters was represented: 'Seven male-female pairs. The activity being portrayed would have brought blushes to the cheeks of the traditional Maya specialist. and present-day Maya have been reported as taking the purgative castor oil as an enema to treat constipation (Steggerda and Korsch 1943).

The recovery of pre-Hispanic smoking pipes (Porter 1948). I follow in the track of other researchers. may be the sign for the enema ritual and he added the speculative notion that this glyph represents an anal sphincter muscIe. viz.1). With respect to the rectal way of administration. It is therefore worthwhile to trace which ritual intoxicants were known to the Maya. The South American Jivaros. Additional accessories in the enema vase paintings were listed by Nicholas 56 . they found that the Indians living there were familiar with numerous botanical intoxicants like alcoholic beverages (Gonçalvez de Lima 1956). etc. Starting from the assumption that these enemas served a specific ritual purpose. Taking this as a starting point. tobacco (Robicsek 1978) and hallucinogens (Guerra 1967). number 627 in the Maya glyph catalogue of Thompson (1962). Coe (1978) subsequently proposed that a certain spiral glyph. Furst and Coe (1977) were already able to interpret previously baffling objects as enema syringes and to identify a specially shaped jug as a common object in the enema scenes. and what evidence for their rectal use can be found in the enema vase paintings themselves. Apart from this argument. and then provide a multidisciplinary outlook on the ethnobotany. but the Peruvian Incas seem to have employed their vilca clysters for cleansing (poma de Ayala 1969). the following pages first review which enema paraphernalia are shown in Maya vase paintings. This does not automatically signify. In my iconographical approach. however. that the Maya vases show the use of intoxicating retention enemas. When the Spaniards arrived in Middle America. purification falls weIl within the range of established Indian culture traits.1. It is also beyond question th at intoxicating practices had already occurred in Middle America far before the coming of the white man. purifying evacuation enemas. from Mexican archaeological sites all point in this direction. the idea that the ancient Maya took enemas to reach or intensify a state of intoxication. use a solution prepared from Ilex guayusa as a ceremonial mouth rinse. and animals or humans dressed up like animals are common actors in these scenes (vide Appendix B) leaves little room for another interpretation.scenes on Maya pottery. represent some kind of ritual. is a plausible and attractive suggestion. ritual purification may be less weIl documented. The mere fact that deities or their devotees. The concept of ritual . an alternative possibility could be raised. peyote buttons (Bruhn et al. or at least part of them. chemistry and psychopharmacology of Maya intoxicants. for instance.1. which is spat out instead of being swallowed (Karsten 1935). 1978). snuffing equipment (Furst 1974a). and that the rectal route was sometimes used to administer an intoxicant (vide 1.

so if the size of the syringe is realistic. 10. Maya enema paraphernalia 1. which still is the only detailed iconographical survey on the subject. 39.2.g. 13.g. 2) and on the late classic vase (3).1. rod.2. 21).4. which led to the discovery of Maya enema scenes (vide 1. and much of the underlying photographical material is also presented here (Appendix C). 41).and plume-like forms (15. but most scenes display large jugs. 29. and can thus be distinguished from a round rat tIe (18.2. 34). 7. 7. 1. Occasionally. 12). 37. which takes the edge off this pharmaceutical argument. In the next paragraphs. I refer to the photographs by giving their plate numbers bet ween brackets. portable size (e. I could easily retain an alcoholic enema with a total volume of 0. standing in front of a participant or near a throne. Hellmuth in an unpublished paper from 1978.g. Many scenes portray the enema syringe on top of a specially shaped jug (e.19. 19).5 1 by taking certain precautions (vide 1.g.42). 19). however. This assertion about the function of the jug is probably correct. In modern western practices.5). for instance. 6. 16. The syringe of ten has a clearly visible tube (e. Pernarowski 1975). 10. In many scenes.1).4. Actual insertion of this apparatus into subjects bending forward is depicted on some early classic pottery (1. it would seem to suggest a purifying evacuation enema rather than an intoxicating retention enema. 16)and an oval bulb with a semi-circle at the middle of the top (e. occasionally 57 .2 1 are only applied to evacuate the bowels (Fishburn 1965. The jug is also seen.2. the jug is of a small. 33. In a recent self-experiment. but its appearance is not limited to such scenes. Hellmuth 1978). 40). 7. enemas larger than 0. A striking feature of many syringes is their large size (e.4.g.M. when it occurs in enema rituals. Iconographical approach A principal diagnostic trait of the enema scenes on classic Maya vessels is the presence of an enema syringe. something is shown as coming out or sticking out of the jug: this may be scrolls (5. dots (3. This type of jug is seen so often in the enema ritual that it is assumed to contain the enema liquid (Furst and Coe 1977. Coe 1978. in scenes of ceremonial self-sacrifice (Stuart 1975) or in simple palace scenes (Coe 1978). A recently revised version of this paper is included in this thesis (Appendix B).

Since the enema may be present in the jug. Thompson 1972). Hellmuth (1978. 38). pers. commun. or a large flower (fig. 1984) or pungency (Hellmuth. pers. 6. dots are depicted above é! large jug. 34. Coe (1978) identifies the scrolls as stylized smoke. In another enema scene. cigars and objects that might be small jugs are shown as emitting similar scrolls (13). considered to contain fermented honey wine. some kind of mam mal is shown jumping out öf the jug (43).2). prepared from the maguey plant (Gon~lvez de Lima 1956. 35. and their vase painters of ten depicted smoke in this way (Robicsek 1978). In one scene (37). 58 . The smoke symbol would be an appropriate sign. de Barrios 1971. This seems to reinforce the idea that the syringes and jugs in enema scenes have the same content. pers. small circular forms (12. commun. A definite interpretationof the rod. A pungent clyster would. the scrolls might symbolize odour (Deletaille . because it bears the cib sign (Seler 1902. 1980). pers. 1984).arranged in bundles (17). such as the alcoholic honey mead balché. if the jug contained the same plant that was smoked. Alternatively. syringes are emitting scrolls (18) similar to those coming out of jugs in other scenes (5. commun. 29. for there is a bowl painting where both are coming out of the same jug (fig. they merely seem to indicate that fluid is spilling out of a tumbling jug (Robicsek and Hales 1981). Even on one bowl. Even if they are prominent (15. 38). of course. 1984). Furst and Coe (1977) and Robicsek (1978) may be right to postulate that the dots in Maya enema scenes signify the presence of some fermented liquid.2. For Hellmuth (pers. Gonçalves de Lima 1956. often black-eyed circular and oval forms (4. since the classic Maya were undoubtedly a smoking people. like the Codex Mendoza. a closer look at current ideas on the protruding items is certainly warranted. The forms should be distinguished from scrolls. it is difficult to come up with a botanical suggestion (Schultes. 12) has its counterpart in pre-Hispanic Mexican codices. The display of dots at the mouth of a jug (3. such dots indicate the alcoholic drink octli. Justeson (pers. Ross 1978)~ In the Maya Codex Dresdensis from the post-classic period. commun. 21). 1985) feels that the form of the rod-like objects (41) is roughly consistent with maguey leaves. 29). In Aztec codices. the dots do not have a specific meaning. commun. In an elaborate enema scene. larger. In view of such data.5 in Boglár and Kovács 1983). commun.120 in Boglár and Kovács 1983). but admits that the execution is not distinctive enough to make a specific botanical identification (vide 1. This is an acceptable suggestion. be more suitable for cleansing than for intoxication.4.and plume-like forms in Maya jugs is not yet available.

this would raise the possibility that the effect of the enema was enhanced by self-torture. commun. The syringe on top of the enema jug is sometimes réplaced by a cup (20. There is also an enema scene. Furst 1976b. in which an indeterminate creature is holding an enormous flower (13). 1984). The jaguar is wearing a netted bib and a netted headdress. If food was ingested during the ritual it could have a pharmacological bearing. In accordance with this view. Fig. if the round forms might be some kind of food such as cookie balls or fruits. The circular and oval forms on top of the jug (12.commun. which could be eaten or used ~o prepare a fermented beverage. These scenes open up the possibility that such flowers served as an ingredient of ritual Maya enemas. and this is also the case with the flower in fig. If the correctness of the last suggestion could be proven. Hellmuth (pers. 38) or coming out of it (4) are as enigmatic as the oblong forms. 1984) feels that the small circles are real objects. commun. they might represent cigars or pointed blood-letting perforators. whereas Hellmuth (pers. 8. eoe (1978) remarks about such round objects in a throne scene. 29. both of which are garments worn in the enema ritual (vide infra). from which a huge flower emerges. The ancient Maya are known to have practised ritual self-mutîlation. as the presence of food in the stomach of ten delays drug absorption af ter oral ingestion (Welling 1977. 1984) wonders. 38) indicates the presence of a fermented liquid. Hellmuth (pers. they may possibly be plant segments or actual bird plumes. This flower is so stylized. commun. especially by scarifying the penis or the tongue (Joralemon 1974. but they look suspiciously like disembodied death-eyes. According to Schultes (pers.ampla should not be accepted without reserve. 27).5 of Boglár and Kovács (1983) shows a Maya vase painting with à jaguar next to a large jug. they might be the maize preparation tamales. but this cannot happen af ter rectal application. that its identification as N. however. Toothaker and Welling 1980). sa ritual drinking must have occurred as well. 1984) rightly draws attention to thé 59 . Robicsek 1978). 1984) considers the flow er in plate 13 to represent the water lily. and about others. the large round items (4. such as that of Annona. 34. which raises the issue of their botanical identity. 35. Rands (1953) associates comparable floral forms in Maya art with the American water lily Nymphaea ampla. 38) might possibly répresent some kind of fruit. 18). commun. Hellmuth {pers. Robicsek (1978) suggests that the small variety (12. 17.1984) wonders about some forms.5 of Boglár and Kovács (1983). The larger variety mayalso be stacked up in a plate or bowl elsewhere in the scene (8.

Once more. which may appear together with enema paraphernalia. pers. since it is difficult. 34). 36). 25. apparently to fill up a syringe or cup (26). 13. a bib-wearing male has his right hand in the jug. 25.g. 18). Hellmuth (1978. include vegetation decorating the head of a jaguar (e. Other objects. In one scene. both objects could obviously be used in the same ritual. which suggestion corresponds with the painted faces in other scenes showing U-shaped objects (3. the rectal route of administration offers an obvious advantage over the oral one.13). analogous to an oyster bib (3. God N is holding such an object in his left hand. and not every vomi ting personage is wearing the bib (24). 19). as some scenes portray a vomiting creature (24. however. Robicsek 1978. The participants in the ritual of ten wear a special garment around the neck as a bib. Whatever the bib may mean. pers. if not 60 . 1980) has suggested that the bib is worn in the ritual because of vomiting. 32). Hellmuth. Coe (1978) suggests that it is a paint-pot in this scene. so the enema scenes and drinking scenes may weIl represent different stages of the same intoxication ceremony. 27). commun.14. for the bib may also be worn as a head--dress (3). This remains uncertain. cigars or cigarettes (12. Robicsek and Hales (1981) have elegantly demonstrated that different Maya vases may show successive scenes of one event (Robicsek and Hales 1981). and bouquet-like objects (35. commun. 1982. 1984).7). 28). even to the point that the jaguar in question is indicated as the Water Lily Jaguar (Coe 1978. 19). Occasionally U-shaped objects are displayed on top of the jug (7) or in the hand of actors (3.13.similarity between these drinking scenes and the Mural de los Bebedores in the pyramid of Cholula at puebla in Mexico. musical instruments like drums and rattIes (18. these plant parts are commonly associated with the water lily Nymphaea ampla.7. In one of the scenes. while painting his face with his right hand (18). who regularly wears a netted element in his headdress (e. If a subject is vomiting or is going to vomit.32). A jaguar with a leaf or flower sprouting from the head is of ten displayed besides a jug and/or with a bib around the neck (e. Robicsek (1978) thinks that the bib is in some way related tothe iconography of God N.g. Just like the flower in plate 13 (vide supra). which is partly shown on the cover of de Barrios (1971) and on the wrapper of Guerrero Guerrero (1980). As some vases show the drinking cup and the enema syringe together (9. the display of vomiting actors does provide a plausible reason why the Maya opted for rectal application. 27. á botanical reserve should be kept in mind.g.

the special jug appearing in Maya enema rituals and related scenes has a plain surface or a simple painted design.40. Dobkin de Rios 1984). commun.14. 2) Justeson (pers. 1985) has found the manik glyph.30. whereas the presence of musicians could possibly signify nonpharmacological potentiation. In this connection. Robicsek (1978) describes a Multiple Resist vase painting with smoking and dancing skeletons (vase A-14). the sign of darkness (number 504 in Thompson's catalogue). since Thompson focused on glyphs from monuments and manuscripts and not on glyphs from pottery. The bouquet-like objects are so stylized that it is not possible to interpret them as any known psychoactive plant (Schultes. this sign represents the day Manik.15. and in ~ne case it is even possible to give an interesting interpretation: 1) In his book on tobacco among the Maya.ampla.impossible.34. pers. since the name is preserved from Chol and/or Tzeltal as <manich> in calendrical names in the Comitan Libro de Bautismos (see Baroco 1970: 138. the interpretation of such glyphs is of paramount importance. to exclude all other plants. The day name in Yucatec is clearly ancient. Some glyphs can be identified.g. 1984). Most of the jug glyphs cannot readily be found in the Maya glyph catalogue of Thompson (1962). This day name corresponds to the 61 . however.2. 1985) remark on the occurrence of the manik glyph on the jug in plate 41: 'Logographically. 146) and the Yajalon Libro de Bautismos y Matrimonios (Campbell in press). He interprets the infix on a small portable jug in this scene as akbal.35. as judged from photographs of a herbarium specimen (Emboden 1981a) and of the living plant (Torres 1984). which represents the name of a day (number 671 in Thompson's catalogue). Since the jug is thought to contain the enema. commun. 1. This is not surprising. it should be emphasized that the leaf of the so-called Water Lily Jaguar may be much more acuminate (e.2. but some jugs are provided with an obvious glyph. The presence of smokers opens up the possibility that the effect of the enema may have been enhanced by smoking.4. on a large jug (41).41). commun. although not always the same glyph is shown (10. In an unpublished manuscript from 1982 on 'Hieroglyphic evidence for the languages of the classic Maya'. There is ample ethnographical evidence that the American Indian valued rythmical music as a means of intensifying drug-induced experiences (Wasson 1980. Fox and his co-author Justeson (pers. Linguistic approach Mostly. 28) than the leaf of N.

but indicates nothing concerning a Cholan-Tzeltalan involvement in any spellings which make use of it in either value. Other good examples in the codices are the spelling k'u-è(i) for k'uè.' In this comment on the manik glyph. leaning toward a central vessel with cups in their outstrectched hands. and this is the context that initially suggested the reading. (The figure) illustrates a vase depicting two seated figures. This sign-origin supports Cholan-Tzeltalan development of either the sign's phonetic value èi or semantic value DEER. The sign is in alteration with T669. which is the k'u1'i 'buzzard'. the reading of the glyph as 'ei' and the connection of this phonetic value with terms like maguey· (Agave plant) and alcoholic beverage. a preposition is spelled i-Ci-l(a) that must have the function of marking a day as falling within or in a 62 . as an adjective. which is marked with the sign ei. First the contrast between it and the sign T534 la in the words for 'west' and 'east' (Cik'in and lak'in) are generally acknowledged. Justeson sent me a second letter (1985) detailing the following: 'The evidence for the ei value is varied. and the sign is used as a logogram DEER in the codices. These terms are cognate with Yucatecan kih 'maguey' and ki? 'sweet. 'inebriated'. At Chichen Itza. According to Roys (1976). two separate steps are taken. while *a:x-èi is 'drunkard'. however. The sign is never read phonetically as ke. We suspect that the sign and the leaves are intended to indicate that the figures are drinking. means by extension-'alcoholic beverage' or. an alcoholic extract of the maguey. do implicate the CholanTzeltalan group. the spelling is in posi tion to be the name of the bird depicted. In Cholan and Tzeltalan languages. in spelling what should be the same word in different pageso f the Madrid Codex. which Yucatecan ké:h 'deer' terms would suggest as phonetic generalization. The same sign marks depicted vases in a scene on a polychrome vase which Kerr suggests represents a drunken display. Bolles (1981) indicates that 'ci' in Yucatecan texts may be translated as wine. delicious. there is ample evidence for its value ei. èih means 'maguey': èi?. whose basic meaning is 'sweet: delicious'. or are preparing to drink. viz.day Deer of other Mesoamerican calendars. which has the two values k'a and Ca. which presupposes the Cholan-Tzeltalan *Öihx 'deer'. Some such spellings. however. Yucatecan parallels of the latter step are easily found in the literature. the Yucatecan Maya had at least nine names all ending in 'ci' for various species of Agave. alcoholic beverage: inebriated' and x-ki? 'drunkard'. namely pa-l5(a) and pa-ë(i). With respect to the former step. Long leaves appear to be rising from the (enema?) vase. which verifies the consonant at least.

1962). at Tortuguero. but can be interpreted as i-5(i)-ki or as i-èi-VL for i~-k-il 'baptism'. the variation is in order of signs. pp. Also. In all the above examples. not the s or sh sound) is the word for -'deer' in proto-Tzeltalan. used as a verb for enter. I think all of this evidence is reasonably solid. so the spelling i-~1-l1a) makes a prima facie case for both the consonant and vowel of the ~i value. 5i/5a alternations: James A. Justeson. only the prepositions ti?. References: k'u5 and ~ik'in contexts: generally known. and *~ihx (or chihj in Spanish-based orthography. but the words are clearly the same so-reordering must be assumed. Phoneticism in Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing. first argued in 19th century. 17-76. it would take special pleading to see other terms or values being involved. although I'm not sure in quite this form.""Polyvalence in Mayan hieroglyphic wri ting". my x is the velar fricati ve. there is an infixed or suffixed T671...e. 'deer' = èihx: first argued.~ox and John S. by Kelley in his phoneticism paper (Fonetismo en la escritura maya. iOk or perhaps *o:k). in texts accompanying baptism scenes. represents Yucatecan *ok.given tun in the long count. the spellings are somewhat defective. i~. eds. the choice depends on data I don't have~ncerning accent in Chontal. 63 .Mesoamerican Studies: Albany . Institute for. with the possible exception of the gestural origin for the 5i value in pYu *~i? Other contexts that may be interpretabie in terms of the ~i value do not have as much solid semantic contra 1 or Iinguistic con trol over the terms that are being represented. being also the sign for the day nameOc (i. The sign is älso used in the Madrid in varying spellings of the word for 'bathing. Cholan *05 'to enter'. presumably for è1 as a phonetic complement to indicate the final è of oè and perhaps the i as a grammatical suffix. the form of the sign is a pan-Mayan gesture for eating. baptism'.e. which is demonstrably a Cholan-Site and thus would have read this verb as *o~.. The sign is used for the day Deer.1984 i~(i)-ki or i-ci-VL for iè-k-il 'baptism': also in the above. and perhaps proto-Cholan (I think protoCholan is actually *~ih. *èi? is proto-Yucatecan for 'to bite. an accented form pOinting to *~ihx and an unaccented for pointing to *~ih). Justeson and Lyle Campbell. the-first i sometimes being last. to eat meat' from protoMayan *ti? A telling case that the sign T765. proto-Chölan-Tzeltalan. in John S. but I'm not positive. . and i5-il could serve that function. Estudios de Cultura Maya. although the basic baptism reading and the recognition of the i-5i elements goes back again to the 19th century. i.

pYu *~i? 'bite. There is another scene. He apparently assumes the pot read in Cholan-Tzeltalan and comments that there is no substantiation for a ki value for the 'manik ' hand. Lyle Campbell. As Justeson's linguistic interpretations have great ethnobotanical implications. Norman. cited above. but it is rather problematic to identify this side-sign (Justeson. ' A i-~i-l(a) Since the scene in plate 41 fails to show any specific enema related object.2. unpublished manuscript (the same one from which you have the discussion of the maguey). the phrase 'ah ci' occurs in colonial Yucatecan Mayan texts and may be translated as drunk or drunkard. commun. and this would make sense as Ah Chih. "Hieroglyphicevidenë'ë" for the languages of the Classic Maya··.4. Justeson. The i-M-lCa) case is also discussed in Peter M"athews and John S. Tulane University: New Orleans. and Terrence Kaufman. When asked for this second opinion. He reads the 'manik' hand as chi (he uses linguistic orthography so the diacritic in hisc. Middle American Research Institut-e---Publication 53.mments indicates a phoneme we would record in our alphabetic system as chi). 1985): 'The best match in form I think is with T238.~cording to Bolles (1981). which lagree wi th. where a probable enema syrlnge is lying on top of a similar jug which is unquestionably ornamented wi th the same manik sign (14). but this discussion relies on Fox and Justeson (1982). 185ff of Justeson and Campbell. however. his suggested reading does not requi~ Yucatec chi value for the 'drunken' term is in the same correspondence set. pp.1). 'Maguey' or 'He of Maguey' (or 'Liquor' or 'He of Liquor'). ··Patterns of sign substi tution in Mayan hieroglyphic wri ting: the Affix Cluster··. 1985) first expressed some reservations: 'Justeson's suggestions seem very plausible to me. AH5. by John S. His proposal is possible. eat meat as the basis for the form of the ~i sign is discussed in Fox and Justeson (1982) and equivalëntly in a forthcoming source The Foreign Impact on Lowland Mayan Language and Script.for i~-il and T765~i for o~ or oÖ-i 'enter(ed)' in Fox and JustesolïTi982). commun. Schele (pers. The 'deer'~erm is part of the k/ch correspondence set in Yucatec (keh 'deer ')1 Cholan (chih 'deer ').. William M. 64 . Therefore. i t could be argued that the jug wi th the manik glyph in this scene contains an oral drink rather than anenema liquid (vide 1. There is a prefix on the left of this glyph. Justeson. it appeared essential to obtain an independent expert's comment on the manik glyph. pers.

of course.even probable. An alcoholic liquid. commun. does not require a ki reading in Yucatec. I think the question is still open. Rectal use of such preparations has not been reQorded for the Maya. I have found evidence sufficient to convince me that the manik hand T671 was indeed phonetic chi in the Classic period and not ti. I would rate Justeson's reading as a good possibility to be further tested by watching for new examples. My only reservation is that there is evidence from the west glyph (Yucatec chik'inl Cholan ti-k'in) and from other substitutions that the 'manik' hand participated in the correspondence set that requires ch in Yucatec and t in Cholan. The lat ter glyphs in which the 'man ik ' hand replaces signs with the value of ti do not have accepted readings as words.' 1. In other words. Torres 1984). Ritual Maya in toxicants 1. Schele (pers. Hellmuth 1978. As outlined above. which intoxicating enemas the Maya may have taken. The weight of this evidence now makes me about 90% certain that John is correct in his reading of the chi glyphs as ""sweet"" and "" intoxicating"". Furst and Coe 1977. However. so they can only be taken as supporting evidence for the ch/t correspondence set. especially the round bodied ones. ' Just before this thesis went to press. the 'manik' hand may be used on the pot solely as a phonetic glyph without a meaning assigned to it.3. The 'deer' set is equally strong evidence for the other side.3. but I would not consider it secure enough to be used to prove the 'manik' hand was used for the k/ch correspondence set in the inscriptions. Robicsek 1978.4. that have the manik hand on them. It is well established that alcoholic beverages were known to the Maya in early-contact times (Tozzer 1913. Landa 1978).4. I have also been able to seea great many photographs of pottery scenes that include pots. 1985) informed me in a second letter that her former doubts have waned substantially: 'In the process of pursuing other research in the last months. the chi reading for the pottery glyph does not have an equivalent in the codices and. therefore. tobacco and hallucinogens have all been proposed as possible ingredients (Furst 1976a. the enema scenes themselves present a fair amount of evidence to support the first suggestion. however.1. but it is 65 . as he seems to be doing. Ethnobotany The principal ethnobotanical question is.

or honey. Unfortunately. early historical records on the Maya relating to tobacco appear to be questionable and confusing. With respect to the botanical identity of the fumigatories on Maya pottery. This admixture has been reported to contain antibacterial longistylines (Delle Monache et al. This (review). however weIl supported. The only thing we know for certain is that the Mayas smoked something. is the psilocybian mushroom (Dobkin de Rios 1974.g. therefore. 1976.3. Gonçalves de Lima et al. as this plant was introduced by the Europeans (SchuItes. The only hallucinogen which is suggested again and again as a possible ritual Maya intoxicant. together with maize or the root of an Agave.2). 13). It should be added.1.1). Coe. ceramic artifacts. As pointed out in section 1. Robicsek (1978) rightly remarks: 'Of course. stone monuments. Gonç:alves de Lima 1956. There can be no doubt. the evidence includes linguistic findings (entries found in early Maya vocabularies relating to inebriating 66 .4. 1977).reported for other early native inhabitants of Middle America (vide 1. there were other alcoholic beverages as weIl: their base is said to have been pineapples and sugar-cane (Tozzer 1913).longistylus) (Roys 1943. enema paraphernalia are occasionally shown to emit similar scrolls.2. speculative. commun. commun. pers. that numerous Maya vase paintings from the classic period portray fumigatories. concocted of fermented honey and water. Robicsek 1978. The use of tobacco among the Maya has been reviewed extensively by Robicsek (1978). Torres 1984). the only ~ay to state with absolute certainty that the ancient Maya indulged in tobacco smoking would be to discover tobacco cigars or cigarettes or pipes stuffed with tobacco (preferably still smoking) in Classic graves. Landa 1978). but it is not known to contain any hallucinogenic principle. however. however. Apart from the chemical and pharmacological data (vide 1. 1984. 1977. In contrast with the sourees on alcohol. that sugar-cane cannot have entered into the composition of pre-Hispanic Maya drinks.' The conjecture that the Maya employed hallucinogenic clysters necessitates a glance at the current ideas about Maya hallucinogens. the only bona fide discovery of tobacco at a Maya site was the cache of cigars discovered by C.1. 1985). to which was added the bark or root of the balché tree Lonchocarpus violaceus (= L. Rudy Larios in Group H at Tikal. According to early sources. and codices. The balché drink of the Maya has been described as a mild intoxicant. is. pers. a conclusion based on archaeological material found at Classic and post-Classic sites.4. which are of ten provided with smoke scrolls (e. This something was most likely tobacco. and roots of unidentified plants (Roys 1943).

1984). In 1970. Robicsek 1978). The literature on ritual plants mentions various other potential Maya intoxicants besides mushrooms. pers. but the objects interpreted as mushrooms might also be rattles. This paper is na langer available (Furst. the available evidence for the suggestion that the water lily was a ritual Maya plant has been surveyed by Emboden (1981a. especially with the Highlands. commun. pers. Wasson 1980. 1981b) and by Torres (1984). 1985). Mayer. Furst (1974b) presented a paper about this subject at the Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Mexico. 1984). befare they can be accepted without hesitation. Ruinours that Guatemalan shamans ingest Erythrina beans for ritual purposes are still extremely tenuous and open to doubt (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Dobkin de Rios (1974) has put forward that the Maya rnay have taken the water lily Nymphaea ampla in a ritual context. it is certainly not safe to claim that the Maya prepared ri tual enemas from mushrooms. Even though it cannot be excluded that mushrooms could have been brought into the central region by trade (Brown 1984. Torres 1984). Mayer 1977. The divinatory tsité tree of the Popol Vuh. The fly agaric Amanita muscaria also occurs in the Maya highlands and it has sometimes been suggested that it is represented in post-classic Maya codices (Lowy 1972. It should also be noted that the evidence of such use is not associated with the central Maya area. botanical findings (psilocybian mushrooms found in the Maya region). Not every scholar . At present. and archaeological findings (mushroom-shaped stone objects found at pre-Hispanic Maya sites) (Greene Robertson 1972. however. Schultes 1972b). a famous epic of the Quiché Maya. The vase paintings fail to provide any evidence for this conjecture. commun. but other scholars did not generally approve of this idea. The mushroom-shaped objects.3.2) and/or from the ethnobotanical field. commun. pers. from which most enema vase paintings originate. Torres 1984). but with other Maya regions. there would not seem to b-e paramount evidence that the ancient Maya may have preferred the fly agaric to psilocybian mushrooms (Mayer. is said to have been an Erythrina species (Girard 1960. maces or fans (Thompson 1972. Enema paraphernalia and 67 . -but all of these possibilities still require more evidence from chemical and pharmacological studies (vide 1. which sometimes appear in front of a face on classic Maya pottery. More recently.mushrooms). unquestionably represent nose-beads. cons id-ers the mushroom-shaped stone objects as substantial evidence of the Maya mushroom use in early times (Brown 1984).4. Lowy 1977.

which I have seen in the Museum for Ethnology in Vienna.ampla is said to be considèred an aphrodisiac in Yucatan (Morton 1981). the rootstock of N. a possible water lily flower is even shown to emerge from the specially shaped jug.2). commUn. characterized by its 'ear' with three dots (30). Litzinger (1981) has reported that ceramics resembling the spîny fruit of Datura have been found in the Maya area. commun. but this conjecture was not generally approved of either. This corresponds with a herbarium annotation that the bulbs of an indeterminate Nymphaea species from Mexico are dug and eaten during the dry season (von Reis Altschul 1973). Li tzînger (pers. What is more.' Dobkin de Rios (1974) has also suggested toad poison as a ritual Maya intoxicant. but there is no ethnobotanical record that the Maya intoxicated themselves with this plant. There is a vague claim. but Schultes (pers. but Hellmuth (pers. commun. Furthermore. or the earth. sexual. as all the Brugmansia species are South American. The lat ter view is supported by the cylindrical form of spiny ceramics from the Amátitlan Lake in southern Guatemala.4. its characteristic spiny fruit does not occur in classic enema scenes. of which the Maya made many medicines for hemorrhoids. which features in enema scenes on other vases (vide 1. 1982) doubts very much that this tree occurred in Central America in ancient times. Toh-ku. for instance. It should be noted that these ethnobotanical data refer to the submerged parts and not to the flowers. It is still insufficiently clear. And.--Consequently. but it is unclear whether i t is a toad or a frog. A non-materialistic suggestion is offered by Furst (pers. 1982) himself informed me that the 68 .3. There is a classic Maya vase which displays one or more jugs together with a toad-like creature. In one case. such as nutritional. or symbolic purposes. that the farinaceous rootstocks of N.plant parts associated with the water lily are known to occur together in Maya vase paintings. The Maya flora is known to include Datura candida (Hopkins 1974). This raises the possibility that the flower could have entered into the composition of ritual Maya enemas. and the watery lower reg ions.ampla are edible (Sturtevant 1972). 1981) feels that these may represent the stem of the Ceiba tree rather than the fruit of Datura. as being impossible. however.4. it would be unwise at this stage to discard alternative explanations. 1982) who feels that the Maya water lily 'is a perfect visual metaphor for the connection between the surface of the water. whether or not Nympaea ampla can serve to induce a central intoxication (vide1. has been identified as Datura innoxia (Roys 1976). commun.2).

which is probably not a genuine constituent but an artifact formed during drying or extract ion (Eugster 1967. is said to be 4-8 mg.b). Young et al.02% could be detected in 3-5 year old samples (Stijve 1982). which elicits symptoms similar to those induced by about 2 g of dried Psilocybe mexicana.1 and 1.4. Schultes and Hofmann 1980a.3. Recent analytical work suggests that the muscimol Content may decrease with time: fresh material was found to contain 0. Berkenbaum 1969. Beug and Bigwood 1982. 1958. The fly agaric Amanita muscaria is also frequently classified as an hallucinogen. and psilocin. Heim et al. lts major active principles are stated as being ibotenic acid and muscimol.22%. which may be present as well. ingestion of 7. The truly hallucinogenic nature of Psilocybe mexicana and related mushrooms is well documented. and this resulted in sedation and slight visual phenomena. tobacco and Daturas can be found in sections 1. McDonald (1978) drank an aqueous extract from 30 g of the dried mushroom.present-day Lacandon Maya still make spiked ceramic vessels.2. 1. A truly visionary experience has no more been found in Clinical experiments with isolated constituents. which is an important symbolic plant for them. Chemistry and psychopharmacology Data on alcohol. Experimental data on the rectal application of Psilocybe alkaloids do not seem to be available. 1958. Clinical evidence for hallucinogenic activity is not so impressive as it is in the case of psilocybian mushrooms. which is usually the main active principle. who partly reported visual and auditory distortions. are LSD-like hallucinogens (Schultes and Hofmann 1980a. and refer to the spikes as to those of the Ceiba tree. 1982). Gray 1978. In healthy subjects. Wasson 1967. Plomp (1982) felt some heightened perception of colours and deeper awareness.5-10 mg of muscimol elicited changes in mood. and did not experience hallucinations or obvious visual distortions. both psilocybin. calculated on dry matter. but 'no sensational action' from oral doses up to five fresh caps. Hofmann 1963.2. Ott (1976) ingested about 30 g of dried caps. doses of 6-20 mg evoke more profound psychic changes than doses of up to 4 mg (Delay et al. affective detachment and 69 . Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). whereas a maximum of 0.15-0. The medium öral dose of psilocybin. The physicochemical properties of psilocybin (Windholz 1983) are not suggestive of a good and rapid absorption from rectal do sage forms. but not overt hallucinations. He also gave an oral dose of 12 g/72 kg body wt to healthy volunteers.b.

many of which have a peripheral curare-like action (Deulofeu 1959. Early phytochemical data on the genus Nymphaea have been reviewed by Hegnauer (1956). 1985) has recently informed me of an experiment with negative results: 'About 2 months ago. 1981a) claims that apomorphine-like compounds as well as nupharine and nupharldine were found in the flowers of N. manifestations. oral administration of 7-10 mg of muscimol caused exacerbations ofcertain psychotic.ampla contains apomorphine-like alkaloids (Emboden 1979a. so it is open to question that the behavioural effects of muscimol are due to the compound itself. whether or not muscimol will be absorbed well af ter rectal application. In the same study. a psychiatrist friend. 1968). The effect of the decoction was very mild and more akin to a hypnotic. The experiment was done according to instructions given me by Emboden'. Hill 1967. The genus Erythrina appears to be rich in alkaloids. Boekelheide 1960. Torres 1984). with absolutely no effects. studies on the fate of tritiated muscimol in the mouse indicate substantial metabolism and poor penetration of the intact substance into the brain (ott et al. Maggi and Enna 1979). but there were alterations in visual and auditory perception. and a mixture of unstable alkaloids with hypno-sedative effects. ibotenic acid in a dose of 75 mg produced a weaker and less characteristic effect (Theobald et al. but the intensity of action was considerably lower than that observed in the case of peripheral activity (Boekelheide 1960). Pharmacological evidence for hallucinogenic properties appears to be lacking (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b. 1981a. It is rather difficult to predict from these properties. Torres (pers. Nymphaea alba contains the non-alkaloidal compound nymphaline with digitalis-like activity. tried to experience the hallucinogenic effect of Nymphaea ampla collected in Lake Petén Itzá (in the center of the Maya Classic area). commun. Dobkin de Rios 1984. northern Guatemala.ampla and that aporphine could be extracted from its bulbs and 70 . in Petén. Dyke and Quessy 1981). but also a low molecular weight (Eugster 1967). the water lily of the New World. 1975. Dyke and Quessy 1981). According to this survey. but hallucinations did not occur. 1984) who twice drank a decoction of its flower buds. Various sources indicate that N. In schizophrenics. Central depressant and convulsant activity has also beenreported for some Erythrina alkaloids. Emboden (1979a. but deterioration of hallucinations was not observed (Tamminga et al. Schultes and Hofmann 1980a. Muscimol has extreme water-solubility. pers. The Old World species Nymphaea caerulea has been tested by Emboden (1979b. With respect to Nymphaea ampla. 1978). For instance.loss of concentration. commun.

2. 1976).2). There were no detectable psychological modifications.ampla (Emboden. 1985: Torres. may be present (Stoll 1937: List and Hörhammer 1972: Flier et al.4. 1985). It has been demonstrated that poison from the sk in glands of various Bufo species contains bufotenin (Bonhour et al. with a similar chemical structure and cardiotoxic act ion as scilla glycosides. It should not be overlooked. In a later publication. commun. pers. 1977. 1971. 1967. that only aporphines like apomorphine and N-propylaporphine. It should be noted that D!az (1976. Besides bufotenin. and subsequently at the central dopaminergic acti vityof apomorphine. this anatomical section is the most likely plant part to have served this purpose (vide 1. The cardiotoxicity of these compounds would obviously place severe restrictions on the use of toad poison in ritual practices (Alger 1974).4. may be expected to have substantial dopaminergic activity (Pinder et al. which have (or obtain in vivo) an intact dopaminergic moiety in their structure. 7 g of the pulverized dried bulb were ingested and on another. however.arilpla. an aqueous extract equivalent to 35 g of the bulb was taken. On one occasion. 1979) does not provide experimental data on the flöwers of N. which has an aporphine structure. commun.ampla. commun.1. for if the Maya used the water lily as a ritual intoxicant.2. This is rather unfortunate. who did not indulge in ritual ecstasy. Diaz (l976) points at the presence of tetraisoquinoline. Diaz (1979) reports on auto-experiences with the intact bulb and extracts. steroidal bufogenins and bufotoxins. this investigator has merely reported the isolation of an unidentified alkaloid from the leaves (D!az 1976. This idea is quite contrary to the traditional view that the ancient Maya we re a contemplative people. pers. All such statements are said to be based on the analytical work of D!az on N. The occasional display of vomiting actors would seem to providea 71 . however. pers. 1.roots. As to the possible psychcrpharmacology of N. Conclusion The enema scenes on classic Maya pottery undoubtedly represent rituals and may very well indicate that the ancient Maya toak intoxicating enemas in a ritual context.4. So far as I have been able to ascertain. 1977) and several unspecified alkaloids from the submerged parts (D!az 1979). benzylisoquinoline and aporphine alkaloids in other Nymphaeaceae. 1984: Dobkin de Rios. This tryptamine alkaloid is extensively discussed in section 1. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). 1980). Cotzias et al.

Some scenes present a fair amount of evidence that an alcoholic beverage may have been taking rectally. but pharmacological confirmation of this view is still awaited. Other scenes open up the possibility that tobacco and the water lily may have served as an enema ingredient.plausible reason why the Maya opted for rectal application. 72 . It is sometimes speculated that the lat ter plant is hallucinogenic.

CHAPTER TWO A MULTIDISCIPLINARY OVERVIEW OF INTOXICATING SNUFF RITUALS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE 73 .

however.b). commonly known as rat root or sweet flag. Stahl and KeIler 1981. Brown and Malone 1978. Emboden 1979a. acorone. It is of ten stated th at this oil has sedative effects. Röst 1979.1. 1983). There is now considerable evidence. preisocalamendiol.2.1. Stahl and KeIler 1981). These data confirm the general impression that North American Indians valued the rhizomes of sweet flag as a medicine and stimulant rather than as a true ceremonial intoxicant (Morgan 1980) • 2.1. Dandiya and Menon 1965. Röst and Bos 1979. that a substantial asarone fraction can only be expected in triploid and tetraploid plants from the Old World. which are thought to be due to its constituents alpha-asarone and betaasarone (Hoffer and Osmond 1967. acorenone.1. is of ten included in reviews on ritual botanical intoxicants (Farnsworth 1972. 1960. 2.1.1. Chemistry and psychopharmacology Most publications on the phytochemistry of Acorus calamus concern the rhizomes.1.4 to 10. The Chippewa Indians snuffed pulverized rat root to treat colds (Densmore 1928). Acorus calamus Araceae Acorus calamus L. Such statements are based on phytochemical and pharmacological studies with Old World samples. and not in diploid plants from the New World (Hegnauer 1963. in particular with samples from India (Baxter et al.b). SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980a. Ethnobotany Acorus calamus. when the oil is extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide 74 . and hydrocarbons as its main constituents. SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980a. and the Omaha gave the plant as a snuff to horses to make them spirited and run faster (Morgan 1980). CHEMISTRY AND PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY OF RITUAL SNUFFS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE 2. Dhalla and Bhattacharya 1968).8 % of essential oil (Hegnauer 1963. Therefore its nasal use by North American tribes should not go unrecorded here. which may contain 0. Calamus oil from rhizomes of the North American diploid variety americanus con ta ins acoragermacron.CHAPTER TWO PART ONE THE ETHNOBOTANY.

Wassén 1965. in particular Piptadenia peregrina (Roth 1924. 75 . Schultes 1967b). but somewhat enigmatic group of intoxicating snuffs.) Altschul 2.1. cebil (Griseb. acorenone. denoted as paricá. falcata (Benth. yopo. Lowie 1948. and hydrocarbons (Röst and Bos 1979. hisioma. and the major principles are shyobunone derivatives. yupa.) Altschul Anadenanth~eregrina (L. 1972a. This report should not be viewed wi th out caution. von Reis Altschul 1972). 1967. kept alive by the uncritical acceptance of infirm or invalid botanical data.peregrina reflects the genera 1 belief in those days that South American snuffs had either Nicotiana or Anadenanthera as their botanical origin. the thermolabile compound acoragermacron is no longer present.(Stahl and KeIler 1983). it has become increasingly clear that this generalization is amisconception. niopo. From southern Brazil and Paraguay the variety A. 2. Ethnobotany The ethnological literature on South America includes numerous references on a most interesting. acorone. var. so perhaps they were preconditioned to have a similar experience (Morgan 1980). which occurs in northern parts of South America and in the West Indies. Wassén and Holmstedt 1963. falcata is known (von Reis Altschul 1964). Keller and Stahl 1983). Since the fifties. An unspecified type of Acorus calamus is said to haveproduced an LSD-like response in two sophisticated subjects who had both taken 10 inches of rat root 5 times (Hoffer and Osmond 1967).1. and angico (Wassén and Holmstedt 1963. for the subjects had taken LSD several times under controlled conditions. SchuIt es and coworkers have rightly emphasized this fact again and again. This leguminous tree has a rather complex nomenclatural history.2.) Speg. Cooper 1949.1. for it has also been known under the binomials Acacia niopo and Mimosa acacioides. preisocalamendiol. At one time.peregrina var. The once common attribution of all paricá snuffs and the like to the seeds of Anadenanthera species like A.) Brenan var. It is now considered to be~enanthera peregrina.2. Anadenanthera species Leguminosae Anadenanthera colubrina (VeIl. however. When it is obtained by water destillation. such snuffs were generally attributed to thé seeds of Piptadenia species.

the actual use of A. and this amount may be taken one to three times a day. and hisioma (Wurdack 1958: Granier-Doyeux 1965: Wassén 1965. 1967: Chagnon et al. 1967: Coppens and Cato-David 1971: von Reis Altschul 1972). where it is probably cultivated from imported seeds (Wassén 1965: Schultes and Holmstedt 1968). and in many cases vegetable ash or lime obtained from shells is added (Granier-Doyeux 1965: Wassén 1965. Among the Venezuelan Cuiva Indians. A detailed discussion of all the snuffs. Interestingly. Detailed accounts by early traveilers like van Humboldt (1958) and Spruce (1908) indicate that the use of such snuffs is not a recent culture trait of the Orinoco region. One dose is said to cause an intoxication of 1/4 to 2 hours (Coppens and Cato-David 1971).peregrina. producing great excitement and the onset of hallucinations. which of ten passes to a hypnotic or unconscious state (Granier-Doyeux 1965).peregrina is beyond the scope of this section. This tree can be expected to occur in open savannah country. which rightly or wrongly have been associated with A. where they collect the seeds of A. the snuffs have a stimulating effect.thereby pointing at the abundance of Virola snuffs in the Amazon basin. 1977: SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980a. 1967. principally known there as yopo. This is followed by sleepiness. A Waiká group of the Brazilian Marauiá river yearly undertakes a long canoe journey to open pastures.peregrina with the purpose of preparing a snuff (prance 1972).peregrina seeds and shell lime. 76 . Schultes and Holmstedt 1968: Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). and at the relatively restricted geographical range of A. However. niopo. the reader is referred to the meticulous publications of Wassén (1965. 1984. 1967b.peregrina and the trade in its seeds have also been reported in the Orinoco basin (Granier-Doyeux 1965: Chagnon et al. According to the classical descriptions. From the available botanical evidence it would appear that this territory is the major South American area of A. For good overviews of this subject.peregrina snuffs. 1971). who prepare a yopo snuff from A.b). There is some evidence to suggest that the Yecuaná-Makiritare Indians of southern Venezuela may employ the bark (Fuchs. a single dose does usually not exceed 5 grams. Most snuffs are prepared from the roasted and powdered seeds. The domestication of A.peregrina is not necessarily confined to its natural distribution range. but it is not likely to grow spontaneously in the deep forest areas of Amazonian Brazil (Schultes 1954. quoted by Wassén and Holmstedt 1963). yupa. the tree has been observed in the Marauiá area itself. "971: Coppens and Cato-David 1971: von ReiS Altschul 1972: Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975: Schultes et al.

von Reis Altschul 1967. not in the least because phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of tryptamine alkaloids in the seed of A.5% of the Anadenanthera alkaloid bufotenin from 19th century paricá seeds of the Maué Indians supports this botanical assertion (vide 1. The genus Anadenanthera comprises a second species. von Reis Altschul 1972). cebil (Safford 1916. Cooper 1949.peregrina in British Guiana and gives paricá and paricarama as vernacular names.1.peregrina.1. and cébil or sébil in northern Argentina. Barbosa Rodrigues 1875. von Reis Altschul 1972).3). the natives of this region burnt the pulverized beans and inhaled the smoke. De Budowski et al. Schultes et 77 .2.2. Paraguay. are the paricá snuffs of the Mura Indians and other tribes of the Brazilian Madeira region (Martius 1867.2. Schultés and Hofmann 1980b).peregrina.1). Peru. SchuIt es 1967b. The variety cebil has been frequently associated with certain early snuffs cäïIed vilca or huilca in southern Peru and Bolivia. 1967. According to this 19th century traveIler.colubrina var. It occurs in eastern Brazil. Schomburgk (1848) describes the occurrence of A. 2. SchuIt es 1967b. A. 5-MeO-DMT and/or 5-oH-DMT (=bufotenin) in Venezuelan and Colombian snuffing material has been repeatedly demonstrated (Fish and Horning 1956. Examples of snuffs. 1972. Various South American tri bes have been reported as having taken paricá as an enema (vide 1. There is a recent report that a mixture of tobacco and cebil (or jatáj) is smoked by Argentinian aboriginals (Califano 1975). Schultes 1967b. and severa-l---localities in southeastern Brazil (von Reis Altschul 1964). Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967. The recent isolation of 1. Indians of the Paraguay region inhaled the smoke of burnt pevil pods. There is evidence to suggest that snuffing was not the only method of using A.1972a) and von Reis Altschul (1972). it is quite possible that the association is correct. According to the 18th century missionary Dobrizhoffer (1822).2.2. Wassén 1965. which have probably correctly been attributed to the seeds of A.1. Although the evidence is circumstantial and sometimes weak. The occurrence of the Anadenanthera alkaloids DMT. Chemistry and psychopharmacology Chemical data on the seeds of Anadenanthera species and the psychopharmacology of Anadenanthera tryptamines with a dimethylated aminogroup are summarized in section 1.peregrina as its probable source (Safford 1916. The famous cohoba snuff of the early colonial natives of the West Indies is also said to have had A.colubrina. and its variety cebil is known in Argentina. 1974. Bolivia.

3. Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967.4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (=6-MeO-DMTHC) are occasionally found in the bark (Schultes et al. 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptam ine (=5-MeO-MMT).peregrina are discussed in section 2.3. but it has also been reported that Indians of the upper Orinoco area chew the dried stem (Spruce 1908. Ethnobotany Banisteriopsis preparations are widely employed by the indigenous inhabitants of the South American continent (Cooper 1949. Friedberg 1965.al.3). SchuIt es 1982).2. 78 .1. However. The bark of A.3. N. Banisteriopsis species Malpighiaceae 2.N-d imethyltryptamine (=DMT). na botanical material was collected together with the snuffs. In chemical studies. so their botanical origin remains uncertain. Roth 1924).3. harmine was found in snuffs from the Venezuelan Piaroa Indians. Most reports concern the use of Banisteriopsis as an ingredient of intoxicating drinks.15. so these chemical findings certainly open up the possibility that Banisteriopsis may have been used as a source of snuff (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967.1.1.1. 1980). 1984). SchuIt es 1982). harmaline. small amounts of 6-methoxy-2-methyl-1.1. however. There does not appear to be any ethnobotanical evidence for the preparation of snuffs from Banisteriopsis (Friedberg 1965. and 5-methoxy-N . Unfortunately. harmaline. 2. Besides these tryptamine alkaloids.4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (=6-MeO-MTHC) and 6-methoxy-1.peregrina has been shown to contain N-monomethyltryptam ine (=MMT). and tetrahydroharmine could be isolated from a snuff of the Surára Indians. Schultes 1982.2-dimethyl1. 1977.N-dimethyltryptamine (=5-MeO-DMT) (LegIer and Tschesche 1963. the beta-carbolines harmine. vide also section 2. In South American ethnobotany. while harmine. Such compounds might be expected from the point of view of biosynthesis and workup procedure (Holmstedt et al. 1977).2.2). SchuIt es et al.3. and tetrahydroharmine are commonly associated with Banisteriopsis. 1977). the most comprehensive review on the use of Banisteriopsis by South American Indians (Friedberg 1965) includes neither the Piaroa nor the Surára as tribes familiar with Banisteriopsis drinks.2. The pharmacological effects of the beta-carbolines and the monomethylated tryptamines found in the bark of A. a Waiká group of northwestern Brazil (vide 2.

once by Biocca et al.2. He isolated harmine (H). H. 79 .1. Biocca (1983) has recently provided a photograph of such a liane. Becher.3.4-tetrahydroharmine (THH) and an unidentified amorphe compound (X) with yields of 1. who also supplied the epéna sample studied by Bernauer (1964). and 0. Biocca et al. Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967) have found harmine together with DMT. 9 of the original publication). Bernauer (1964) has analyzed an epéna snuff of the Surára Indians of northwestern Brazil. reports on the isolation of harmine and bufotenin from a yopo snuff of the Piaroa Indians. and Holmsledt (pers.2. 0.3. which result corroborates the unusual f indings in the sixties.only two actual snuffs seem to be involved. 1983) is inclined to agree with this view.3 of this thesis.2. and the snuff was collected by Dr. the collectors have not been able to witness the preparation of the snuff. Section 2. from which they isolated harmine. According to table I of their review. On closer examination. (1964) did not study asnuff. The presence of Banisteriopsis constituents in South American snuffs has been reviewed by Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967). harmaline and tetrahydroharmine.3 % H. so it remains uncertain whether the liane actually served as a snuff source and not as an oral ingredient. however. In addition. and twice by the authors themselves. The material was said to serve as a source of paricá snuff among the Tukano and Tariana Indians of the Upper Rio Negro area. Other original publications on Banisteriopsis alkaloids in South American snuffs do not seem to be available.08 % THH after purification. thus duplicating the findings of Bernauer (1964). (1964). 5-QH-DMT and 5-MeD-DMT in a paricá snuff of the Venezuelan Piaroa Indians. Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967) have also demohstrated the presence of harmine and tetrahydroharmine in an epéna snuff of the Surára Indians. once by Bernauer (1964). (+)1.36 % X before purification.2.1. commun. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The chemistry and psychopharmacology of Banisteriopsis and its native beverage ayahuasca are discussed in section 1.3.38 % Hand 0.22 % THH and 0. Unfortunately. I t seems likely that the same snuff was studied twice. the presence of oneor more Banisteriopsis alkaloids has been demonstrated on four different occasions. The gaschromatogram pertinent to the second snuff shows a third Unidentified peak (fig. but the fragment of the stem of a liane.

In seized samples from various countries. the question arises as to whether the catalogue may possibly indicate the snuffing of hashish (Wassén 1972a).1 . To elicit LSD-like activity. Braude and Szára 1976. A 19th century Portuguese catalogue of objects from Amazonian tri bes states that 'parica tobacco' was much used as a snuff and that 'pango. Turner et al.1. Chemistry and psychopharmacology Since hemp has become a major recreational drug in western society. high doses of THC are needed.0% in unspecified Cannabis parts and 1. served as a substitute for pari ca (Teixeira de Aragäo 1892). 1980).1.1-8. Substantial data on the snuffing of Cannabis by American aboriginals appear to be lacking. 2. 1981 ).1. Plausible explanations might perhaps be that Cannabis was introduced af ter the conquest and had to compete with the numerous psychoactive plants already available (Partridge 1975). and some are considered' to be artificial (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b.7% in Cannabis resin (Baker et al. Up to now. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b. Most of these are tra ce components. WilliamsGarcia 1975). and that nowadays it is an illegal intoxicant in many colintries. Ethnobotany Although Cannabis is smoked among the Brazilian Tenetehara Indians (Wagley and Galväo 1949). In view of its minor role in native American practices. there are no additional data whatsoever to support this suggestion.4-5. more chemical and pharmacological research has been directed to this plant than to any other natural hallucinogen (van Praag 1972. The most important constituents of Cannabis are cannabinoids. more than sixty cannabinoids have been detected in hemp or in crude drugs prepared from hemp. 1980). However. and eaten among Mexican aboriginals like the Tepehua Indians (Heffern 1974.4. Miller 1974. the complex chemistry and pharmacology of Cannabis are not discussed in detail here. modest doses merely induce 80 .4. Since the word pango is a vernacular name for Cannabis. Turner et al.4. Cannabis species Cannabaceae 2. Acute intoxication with a Cannabis product appears to be a reasonably benign experience. ~9-tetrahydro­ cannabinol (THC) is by Tar the most psychoactive one.2. THC concentrations were in the range of 0. it is not a major intoxicant in native rituals of the western hemisphere. an African tobacco'.2.

6.5. The Tukano also practise this administration during their initiation period.5. In the last case.1.1.2.1. pers. --2. More recently. 2. using for this a small funnel made of a leaf (Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975).depersonalization and mild hallucinogenic effects (Meyer 1972). because the Makusi of the Rupununi used peppers as a stimulant and excitant (Roth 1924.1.6.1.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The chemistry and psychopharmacology of Capsicum fruits are discussed in section 1. they pour a mixture of crushed pep per and water into the nose to drive away the effects of the festivities.5. Cooper 1949). Capsicum species Solanaceae 2.1. Uscátegui Mendoza (1965) reported the nasal use of a Capsicum preparation among a Tukano group of the Colombian Vaupés reg ion. it either identifies pepper as Capsicum or fails to offer a botanical name. the initiates cleanse themselves by taking drops prepared from fresh chili peppers through the nose. it should be borne in mind that pep per is a vernacular term which might also refer to a Piper species (Hegnauer. The Makusi poured a liquid preparation from crushed peppers and water into the nostrils of patients with a headache (Roth 1924). 1983).1. 1980). When the consulted literature speaks about pepper. Ethnobotany Some reviews on South American 'narcotics and stimulants' have included Capsicum. 2.1. Occasionally. Ethnobotany From pre-Hispanic times until the present day. 2. Mexican Indians have known the hallucinogenic properties of oral Datura 81 .commun. Although neither smoking nor oral ingestion of hemp results in a high bioavailability of THC.5. Datura species Solanaceae Datura innoxia Mill. both methods of application can produce a subjecti ve response (Ohlsson et al. Af ter they have danced and drunk alcoholic beverages the night before.

Antonil 1978. Erythroxylum macrophyllum Cav. the dust of dry toloachi leaves was taken in the Mexican town of Guanajuato as a snuff (Reko 1949). Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). TOloachi. there does not seem to be evidence that they have served as a source of snuffs (Schultes 1967b).2 and 1.1. The principal lndian way of taking Coca is usually designated as chewing. 1981b: Wiedemann 1979: Scheffèr 1981). Although tree Daturas. 2.1. Erythroxylum spec ies Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum coca Lam. According to a journalistic rather than scientifîc source. Plowman 1981a). such as D. at least in present times (Cooper 1949.preparations (Safford 1922. lts role as a true ceremonial drug seems tö be of minor importance. 1979). and the juice is 82 . The wad is held reasonably still between cheek and gums.6.1. Cooper 1949. Dfaz 1979).7. Moistening of the powder with saliva results in a pasty quid which is held between the cheek and gums. Cooper 1949. now treated as the genus Brugmansia. are common intoxicants in South American rituals (Cooper 1949. more of ten denoted as tOloache. èonsists of taking coca powder prepared from pounded coca leaves and alkaline plant ash. 1981b. Schultes 1957. and lime or ash is added periodically.1.4. The juice is swallowed and some of the leaf material may occasionally be ingested (Bühler 1948. Holmstedt et al. var. is a vernacular name used for varîous Datura species.înnoxia (Dfaz 1979. Wiedemann 1979).1. Plowman 1979. truxillense (Rusby) Plowman 2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The chemistry and psychopharmacology of Datura species are discussed in sections 1. ipadu Plowman Erythroxylum fimbriatum peyr. Guerra 1967.7. 2.2.6.2. Antonil 1978. sometimes denoted as eating. Erythroxylum novogranatense (Morris) Hieron. Ethnobotany The widespread use of coca among the lndians of western South America is weIl established (Bühler 1948. A common method consists of placing coca leaves in the mouth and rolling them around or chewing them briefly until a wad has formed.1. var. Another common method.

Exceptional ways to utilize coca include the drinking of an infusion from the leaves . Such use would seem a considerably rare practice. Plowman 1981b.coca and E. There are various undetailed statements on the Indian use of coca snuffs (Hartmann 1890. ipadu is cultivated in many parts of the Amazon Basin. but only E. Wilbert 1975. The use of coca powder as a snuff by the Witotos has alsa been reported by Wavrin (1948).swallowed. Holmstedt et al. Plowman 1981b. ipadu. It is said that the Omaguas of northeastern Peru have smoked coca leaves (Bühler 1948).novogranatense are cultivated in South America. E. coca paste is a crude extract from coca leaves (Jeri et aL 1978). Schultes 1981b). Scheffer 1981).novogranätense var. the injection of coca powder into the mouth by means of a bag with a bone tube . novogranatense (Colombian coca) is grown in drier regions of Colombia and Venezuela. The genus Erythroxylum includes perhaps as many as 250 species. Plowman and Rivier 1983). is E. but this claim is not supported by a primary reference.among the Peruvian Pánobo Indians (Tessmann 1930. In later publications he reports. 1981b. Schultes (1967b) mentions the addition of powdered coca to tobacco snuff among the Colombian Witoto and Yukuna Indians. In contrast with a quid from whole leaves. whereas its variety truxillense (Trujillo coca) is cultivated in the dry Maranon valley and on the desert coast of northern Peru (Holmstedt et aL 1977. most and occasionally all of the coca powder will pass to the stomach (Schultes 1957. since the Witotos are a relatively well-known tribe. coca (Bolivian or Huánuco coca) occurs throughout the wet tropical valleys of the eastern Andes from Ecuador south to Bolivia. that the Yukunas as well as the Tanimukas may have utilized coca-ash powder as a snuff in certain annual ceremonies (Schultes 1981 b.fimbriatum and E. and most field workers fail to describe this method of administration (Plowman 1981b). 1979. but it should be added that the Witotos and other ttibes in this area mayalso employ the wild species E. Schultes 1981b).coca var. whereas E. which cannot be totally swallowed. 1984).macrophyllum (Schultes 1981 b). in particulat by certain tribes of the northwest Amazon (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Bühler 1948. The type of coca cultivated in the northwest Amazon. on the basis of reliable hearsay. 83 . 1981b. Scheffer 1981). Plowman 1979. where Coca snuffs are said to occur. Bath species include two varieties.by certain tribes in the Vaupés reg ion (Plowman 1981b. the urban youth of Peru has developed the practice of smoking cigarettes containg coca paste mixed with tobacco or marihuana. In recent years. E. And.coca var.coca var.

and o~ 1. There is some evidence to suggest a distinct phytochemical difference between E.1% or more could only be demonstrated in E. Plowman 1981b. tropacoca ine.340.fimbriatum and E. beta-truxill ine). ecgonine. cuscohygrine. Reynolds 1982. dihydroxytropane. 2 other alkaloids (choline. 1981.51-0. Chemistry and psychopharmacology Dried leaves from the two main cultivated Erythroxylum species are stated as having a total alkaloid content of about 0. coca. Their principal alkaloid is undoubtedly cocaine (=benzoylmethylecgonine). which contradicts the belief that Trujillo coca is lower in cocaine content than other varieties (Plowman and Rivier 1983). Plowman 1981 b. the dried leaves of the former yielded only 0.13-0.02% in E. nicotine). benzoyltrop ine). alpha-truxill ine. Plowman and Rivier 1983).recurrens and E. Novák et al. 1984). Apparently no or very little cocaine is present in most wild Erythroxylum species like E. novogranatense.7. Novák et al.11-0. i t might explain why Indlans of the Amazon Basin pulverize the coca leaf before use (Plowman 1981b.5-2 % (Hegnauer 1966. truxillense CHolmstedt et al.1. claimed as occurring in the two main cultivated Erythroxylum species (Hegnauer 1966.novogranatërlse var. a cocaine percentage of 0. cinnamoylecgonine. In a recent study of 29 different species.2. norecgonine. Reviews of the minor alkaloids.93% in E. pseudotropine.2.17-0. benzoylecgonine. 5 tropine alkaloids (tropine. It is of ten claimed that the Trujillo leaf has a higher total alkaloid content than the BOlivian leaf. whereas the latte I" showed consistently higher pèrcentages of 0.coca var. Evans 1981. methylecgonine. In other words. 84 . the highest percentage of cocaine was fou"nd in the last variety.novogranatense var.41% of cocaine. 1984). 0. but that the latter has a greater proportion of cocaine to other alkaloids (Grinspoon and Bakalar 1976.81 %.41 % in E. ipadu. 4 pyrrolidine alkaloids (hygroline. HOlmstedt et al. Recent studies on dried South American Coca leaves have revealed cocaine percentages of 0. methylecgonidine. If this finding can be confirmed. 0. show the following picture: 11 ecgonine alkaloids (cis-cinnamoylcocaine. 1977.steyermarkii (Plowman and Rivier 1983). dihydrocuscohygrine). Plowman and Rivier 1983).macrophyllum (Hegnauer 1966.coca var. Aftel" Amazonian and Andean coca plants had been grown in the greenhouse under the same uniform conditions.96% in E. norformylecgonine. coca (Andean coca) and the variety ipadu (Amazonian coca).coca var. Plowman and Ri vier 1983). hygrine. trans-cinnamoylcocaine. Grinspoon and Bakalar 1976). 1977.

growing attention has been paid to the metabolism of cocaine in man (Lindgren 1981. which in its turn might undergo hydrolysis (Stewart et al. and could only demonstrate cocaine. although sometimes dysphoria occurs . Rivier (1981) examined crude ethanolic extracts of E. Siegel 1982). cocaine may provoke a psychosis. 1983). which can result not only from intravenous injection.4). Lindgren 1981). The most striking acute systemic effect is stimulation of the central nervous system. cis-cinnamoylcocaine and trans-cinnamoylcocaine as endogenous alkaloids. 1983). 1982). 1980).• These effects may be accompanied by garrulousness. have been studied in the rat. 1982. No 85 . Wilkinson et al.2. Javaid et al. have been demonstrated in multiple intoxication and overdose cases (Lindgren 1981). and that the former one results from spontaneous. 1978. the cinnamoylcocaines may represent 2-60% of the total alkaloid content (Rivier 1981. who had been given 3 mI of a 10 % solution every 4 hours for more than two weeks (Lesko et al. af ter intravenous dosing. Over the last few years. Turner et al. Jindal and Vestergaard 1978) and ecgonine methylester (Inaba et al. The central stimulation manifests itself as a feeling of well-being and euphoria. A minor metabolic pathway in man is Ndemethylation or cocaine to norcocaine (Inaba et al. and to the plasma levels of this alkaloid (Barnett et al. but also from oral ingestion (Van Dyke et al. 1978. such as ecgonine. and smoking (Perez-Reyes et al. There is evidence to suggest that the lat ter compound is formed largely by esterases. Wh en used for a long time or in high doses. and anxiety (Ritchie and Greene 1980.2. 1981. 1978). The acute and chronic toxicity of cocaine is discussed at length by Grinspoon and Bakalar (1976). Oderda and KleinSchwartz 1982).The question arises as to how many of these reported minor constituents are artifacts instead of naturally occurring substances in living material. nasal application (vide 2. confusion. restlessness. Other minor metabolites. species and variety.coca leaves without any further purification by a GC-MS method. 1979. 1981). an iatrogenous case has been recently observed in a patient with oral stomatitis. Depending on leaf age. nonenzymatic hydrolysis in the body (Stewart et al. The pharmacological effects of cocaine and its metabolites. Only a small portion of cocaine is excreted unchanged in the urine. Major metabolites in human urine are the hydrolysis produets benzoylecgonine (Fish and Wilson 1969. apprehension. Ambre et al. Oderda and Klein-Schwartz 1982). excitement. 1979).

With respect to cinnamoylcocaines. Cocaine and norcocaine caused excessively rapid heart beat. Furthermore. convulsions and death af ter injection of 20 mg/kg.4% and 6.2% of an oral dose in two subjects (Inaba et al. Unfortunately. which is known as acute tolerance. the subjects feIt stimulated during the rising phase of the plasma curve. These data indicate that only norcocaine is a pharmacologically active metabolite of cocaine. 1980.8-48 mg of cocaine produced maximal cocaine plasma levels of 11-149 ng/ml af ter about 1-2 hour~ Only one of the studied subjects was an Indian. Spealman and Kelleher 1981). no discrimination is made between the c1s. norcocaine is effective in maintaining intravenous self-administration. Consequently it would appear that the activity of cocaine in man' is not principally due to metabolites. when the quid was still in the mouth. These results suggest that central stimulation by coca leaves or powder is primarily due to cocaine CHolmstedt et al. and a certain level during the increasing phase of the curve is associated with a more intense 'high' than the same level during the decreasing phase (Van Dyke et al. Norcocaine seems to be a minor metabolite in man. 1979). 1978). the survey claims a lack of pharmacological activity. This phenomenon. 1984). Studies on nasal application do not show a close correlation between the time course of effects and the curve of the plasma level. 1978. 1982). however.and trans-ferm (Novák et al. 1975). although it is less potent than cocaine itself (Bedford et al. 1980). which suggests that the two compounds do not have the same behavioural profile (Bedford et al. and thehighest level of 149 ng/ml af ter 1 hour was obtained when this subject chewed leaVes containing 21 mg of cocaine. but to the alkaloid itself.observable effects were noted with benzoylecgonine af ter doses of 250 mg/kg and with ecgonine methylester or ecgonine af ter doses of 200 mg/kg. material containing 16. and they reported no more stimulation during the falling phase. This v iew is supported by a recent survey on the p'harmacology of minor Erythroxylu~ alkaloids. In contrast to cocaine. Maximal central effects tend to occur prior to peak plasma levels. In monkeys. has also been observed with central depressants like alcohol CJaffe 1980). Just as is the case with pure cocaine. apparently the most important alkaloids besides cocaine. however. In a study on the chewing of coca powder and coca leaves. there is a recent report that water-soluble alkaloid-free fr'act10ns of coca leaves 86 . and lower doses of 5-10 mg/kg produced similar results without mortality (Misra et al. accounting only for 2. norcocaine does not stimulate locomotor activity or fixed-interval feeding behaviour of rats.

1). In the oral experiments. Such a time lag is not observed in coca chewers. Significant plasma levels of cocaine from coca chewing have also been demonstrated by Paly et al. in recent human studies on the oral and nasal application of 2 mg/kg cocaine HCl. it was commonly feIt that cocaine is ineffective af ter oral administration because of poor bioavailability. Burchard 1975). who show measurable plasma levels of cocaine af ter only 5 minutes of chewing (Holmstedt et al. 1979). 1984).7.are not centrally active in the mouse (Harland et al. and this effect is considered as an indication of the yield of alkaloid extracted from the coca quid (Antonil 1978). 1982). since coca chewers swallow the juice and mayalso swallow plant material (vide 2. Firstly. One of their test groups included pure Indians and subjects of"mixed ancestry who were experienced in the use of coca. Wilkinson et al. Until recently. whereas neither benzoylecgonine nor ecgonine have appreciable local anaesthetic properties (Novák et al. experienced coca chewers report local anaesthésia in the mouth.1. in which cocaine is hydrolyzed into benzoylecgonine and ecgonine before it is absorbed. They received 50 g of coca leaves containing 0. not cocaine itself. This hypothesis does not appear to be acceptable. recent in vitro experiments simulating natural conditions do not show an immediate extensive hydrolysis of cocaine in an alkaline environment (Rivier 1981). This implies that there is a significant buccal absorption in coca chewers. 1978. Cocaine is known to be a potent local anaesthetic (Ritchie and Green 1980). Some authors express the view that these admixtures produce an alkaline environment. but metabolites like ecgonine have a central place in the pharmacology of coca chew ing (N ieschulz 1971. The literature is not unanimous about the reason why coca chewers add alkaline material like lime or plant ash to their coca quid (Rivier 1981). However. Single blood samples drawn during the chewing yielded plasma levels ranging from 130 to 859 ng/ml with a mean value of 249 ng/ml. Since coca chewing invoJ. cocaine was given in a gelatine capsule. i t is somewhat a misnomer from the pharmaceutical point of view to denote this practice as oral administration. Intestinal absorption will occur as well. Secondly.65% of cocaine. Thirdly. the 87 . According to this supposition. 1980). oral administration did not result in less euphoria or in lower bioavailability than nasal dosing.ves significant buccal absot'ption. This finding suggests that orally ingested cocaine is not well absorbed until it reaches the small intestine (Van Dyke et al. (1980). and plasma levels could not be detected until half an hour af ter administration.

1980). each containing 75 mg of co·caine. Rivier 1981. Cases of acute overdosage or obvious chronic toxicity seem to beuncommon among South American coca chewers (Grinspoon and Bakalar 1976. Considerable controversy still exists as to whether the practice is detrimental or not (Holmstedt et al. Hanna and Hornick 1977. in a pre-Hispanic medicine-man's tomb of Highland Bolivia. Principal effects of coca chewing by South American Indians are said to be a reduction of hunger. Siegel 1982). the heavy use of coca paste is strongly associated with a variety of psychopathological states. Schultes 1972a). Wassén 1972b). Ethnobotany The use of Ilex guayusa as a ritual stimulant and emetic by natives of the South American Montana area is well established (Cooper 1949. Another. and ad libitum smoking of five cigarettes resulted in levels of 266-882 ng/ml af ter only 25-47 minutes (Paly et al. Patino 1968. Antonil 1978). Siegel 1982). that the alkaline material facilitates the cocaine absorption through the buccal mucosa (Antonil 1978. coca paste cigarettes. 2. Ilex guayusa Aquifoliaceae Ilex guayusa Loes. Recently. reported to contain 40-85% of cocaine sulphate (Siegel 1982). cold and fatigue (Hanna and Hornick 1977).1. The smoking of one cigarette in 3 minutes produced cocaine plasma levels of 91-462 ng/ml. together with several snuff trays. have been tested in regular users. Paly et al.guayusa have been found.metabolite hypothesis fails to explain why coca chewers show substantial plasma levels of cocaine and why they report central stimulation (Antonil 1978. In contrast. 1984. including full-blown psychoses (Jeri et al. Holmstedt et al. 1979).8. much more acceptable explanation is. Coca paste is a concentrated extract from boca leaves. of course. 2. the addition of lime is reported to transform the bitter and unpleasant flavour of coca leaves into a more sweet and agreeable taste (Antonil 1978. 88 . Furthermore.8. Bundled leaves of I. 1979. 1978. 1979.1 . "but there is no direct evidence for this supposi tion (Schultes 1972a. This joint occurrence in an archaeological context raises the possibility that guayusa leaves may have once served as a source of snuff. Siegel 1982). 1982). Holmstedt et al.1.

Yet here is evidence that the Waikás may use Justicia as the sole source of a snuff (Schultes 1967b. Justicia pectoralis Acanthaceae Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Since the powder is 89 . living in the border region of Venezuela and Brazil.9. In keeping with this suggestion. 1984b).9. 2. Schultes and Holmstedt 1968. Ethnobotany Several groups of Waiká Indians prepare a snuff from Virola exudate. In some Waiká villages of the Brazilian Rorairna territory.8. and vegetable ashes. which is cultivated for this purpose. Chagnon et al. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The chemistry of I.1. The Waikás of the Brazilian Tototob! River likewise prepare Virola snuffs without ashes.2.7. SchuIt es (pers. and J. Technically. has been identified as Justicia pectoralis var. but merely improves the aroma of the Virola snuff (Seitz 1965. Prance 1972). Prance 1972). commun. Chagnon et al.1. Schultes 1978). 2. but mashihiri can also be used alone.1. uses mashihiri powder mostly to strengthen their more powerful Virola snuff. The Caburiwe-Teri group. A Waiká name for this plant is paxararok (Schultes 1978). The rnashihiri plant. these Indians are known as the Yanomamö or Yanonami Indians (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968. apparently wi thout adding vegetable ashes (prance 1972). all Of which they tentatively classify as different varieties of Justicia pectoralis or as different forms of Justicia pectoralis var. 1967: Schultes and Holmstedt 1968.pectoralis (known as masha-hára-hanak or boo-hanák) is added very occasionally (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968) • Accörding to various field reports.2. which has no intoxicating effect. the dried leaves of Justicia pectoralis are commonly added to Virola snuffs. McKenna et al. Indians themselves consider Justicia leaves an aromatic admixture. Brewer-Carias and Steyerrnark 1976. stenophylla. to MacRae and Towers 1984b) feels that the variety stenophylla is a growth form of J.pectoralis rather than a genetic variant. 1971.guayusa and the psychopharmacology of its principal alkaloid ca'ffeine are discussed in section 1. 1967. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b. stenophylla (Seitz 1965.1 . (1971) report that different types of Justicia are cUltivated. the dried leaves of mashihiri.1.2. the varietal epiphet is left out of the following discussion.

it may produce nausea. coumarin and its 7-hydroxyderivative umbelliferone have been found in Peruvian J.9.pectoralis. lts pharmacokinetics in man have been studied by Ritschel et al. vomiting. (1977. This negative chemical result corresponds with ethnological reports that natives do not attribute hallucinogenic properties to the aromatic herb. dizziness. used as an admixture in the Roraima territory (prance 1972). it is generally mixed with plant ashes before use (Brewer-Carias and Steyermark 1976).pectoralis. and loss of consciousness (Lewin 1962. Braun and Dönhardt 1975). if at all. commun. 1979). Prance (pers. commun.pectoralis (MacRae and Towers 1984b). a small amount of an indole alkaloid had been isolated from J. At that time. 2. headache. These non-alkaloidal benzopyran compounds could also be isolated from two Venezuelan Yanomamö snuffs. In a recent study in gerbils. These statements go back to the end of the sixties. which in its turn undergoes glucuronidation. 1984b). 1984) has observed Waiká Indians at theTototob! River 'taking pre-Justicia snuff without Virolaj af ter the shaman took this he was apparently in a trance'. which has been used in cosmetics and detergents (Opdyke 1974). According to toxicological text books. 1984). labeled as mashahari and as buhenak + mashahara (McKenna et al. but only 2-6% reaches the systemic circulation in intact form because of extensive firstpass metabolisme The major metabolite is 7-hydroxycoumarin. intraperitoneally administered coumarin distributed rapidly into the cerebral tissue. Coumarin is a fragrant principle. the compound is absorbed completely. pers. The tested dose of 40 90 . so it may wel! have been contaminated (Holmstedt. Af ter oral ingestion.too fine by itself. Recently.1. Chemistry and psychopharmacology Many reviews on botanical hallucinogens have included J. stating that tryptamines (in particular dimethyltryptamine) might be present. but that the preliminary indications for this suspicion should be verified (Furst 1976aj Emboden 1979a. SchuIt es and Rofmann 1980a. when preliminary chemical indications for the presence of alkaloidal principles were reported (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968). but the material had been harvested by Indians with Virola exudate on their hands. Additional studies by Holmstedt failed to detect an hallucinogenic alkaloid in the dried leaves of J. Schultes and Farnsworth 1980.pectoralis.2. whereas its metabolites 7hydroxycoumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronide entered the brain only to a small extent.b).

All in all. known only by the general Portuguese term rapé dos indios. I f such cells would occur in J. Maquira sclerophylla Moraceàe Maquira sclerophylla (Ducke) C. is still far from clear. commun. The same intraperitoneal dose of 40 mg/kg of coumarin was found to cause a longer and deeper level of sedation in the rat. To test this possibility. Thi s could be of i mportance when the snuff is prepared from Virola and Justicia without the addition of alkaline plant ash. Direct observation of its preparation and use has never been possible. 1985) points out that many acanthaceous plants have cel Is enclosing calcium carbonate (cystoli ths).pectoralis extracts on the effects of the Virola alkaloid 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine (5Meo-DMT) in the mouse. especially in the Pariana region. pers. Schultes and Farnsworth 1980. which might facilitate the absorption of the Virola alkaloids (vide 2.2. which was first known as Olmedioperebea sClerophylla (SchuIt es 1967b. this admixture to Virola snuffs might give an alkaline reaction. 1984.10.mg/kg produced transient sedation. and coumarin will thus not readily show psychoactive symptoms when taken orally.1. but this species is a poor 7-hydroxylator of coumar in (Hardt and Ri tschel 1983). Ethnobotany An enigmatic snuff. None of the aqueous. Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). As Justicia pectoralis is mostly used as an admixture to Virola. 2. is said to have been formerly employed in the central part of the Brazilian Amazon. the question arises if this plant could modulate the activity of Virola. Whether coumarin might be centrally active in man via other routes of administration.C. 7-hydroxycoumarin (=umbelliferone) is unlikely to have any central effect. According to von Reis Altschul 91 . Berg 2.1. Hegnauer (1964.1).pectoralis. and this effect corresponded rather weIl with the time of maximal coumarin brain concentration and with the subsequent rapid removal of coumarin from the brain (Ritschel and Hardt 1983). MacRae and Towers (1984b) examined the influence of J.1. ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extracts tested had any significant effect upon the changes in behaviour and in locomotor activity induced by 5-MeODMT. The source of the snuff is reputed to be the fruit of Maquira sclerophylla.10.

Most South American tri bes of the twentieth century take tobacco in one form or another for magico-religious. SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980b).1. another research group has reported the isolation of the coumarin derivatives marrnesin. This author rightly cautions that. the three main reg ions for whiCh tobacco snuffs have been recorded.11. medicinal and/or recreational purposes.11. 2. 2. the Montana region. and early colonial Peru.(1972). Nicotiana species Solanaceae Nicotiana rustica L. Castiglioni 1943. Cooper 1949. drinking.10. tropical lowland areas like the Amazon valley (Schultes 1967b. in the 92 . eating.1. Recently. These investigators announced that their studies would be continued with extracts from leaves and flow ers of M. Cooper 1949. but results have not as yet been published (Schultes and Farnsworth 1980). Nicotiana thyrsiflora Bitter ex Goodsp.sclerophylla. Bondeson 1972.1. are the Orinoco territory. Elfèrink 1983). Snuffirtg is said to be the most widespread method of tobacco use in certain parts of South America. water and ethanol extracts from wood of the related Maquir~ calophylla are devoid of Cannabis-like activity in animal experiments. oxypeucedanin hydrate and pranferol from the stem bark of Maquira calophylla (Rovinski and Sneden 1984). 2. licking and snuffing are also weIl documented (Stahl 1925. even at doses ten times those required for Cannabis sativa to demonstrate such effects.2. 1975). Chemistry and psychopharmacology Chemical and pharmacological data on Maquira sclerophylla have apparently not been reported in the literature (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). with an extension down the Purus river.calophylla and M. Wilbert 1972. Zerries 1964. Nicotiana tabacum L. but chewing. especially in the wet. Ethnobotany South American Indians are known to have used tobacco since their earliest contacts with Europeans. The major South American method of using tobacco is smoking. According to Cooper (1949). and these practices undoubtedly go back to pre-colonial times (Stahl 1925. the seeds of this gigantic forest tree are said to be a traditional snuff source of the Mundurucu Indians.1. According to Carlini and Gagliardi (1970).

There appear to be few references of this kind. Consequently.he. Of the 36 Nicotiana species occurring in South America (Goodspeed 1954).thyrsiflora explicitly mentions the use of its leaves for smok ing (von Reis and Lipp Jr. Angico may well refer to Anadenanthera (Schultes 1967b).rustica. and Jamamad! Indians (prance 1972. and the Bush negroes of the Guiana region (Roth 1929). 1980). Harrington (1932) reports that the Karuk Indians of California use the express ion i mcakare. Elferink 1983). Other reported admixtures include Tanaecium (prance et al. the actual use of tobacco snuffs may have been somewhat less widespread than generalizing statements would suggest (Schultes 1967b). to be today a source of tobacco in South America. Tribes of the Brazilian Guaporé River are said to have mixed tobacco powder with vegetable ash and crushed angico seeds (Snethlage 1937). but most tobacco snuffs were and still are prepared from the dried leaves (Cooper 1949. Jarawara. tobacco snuffs are not always clearly distinguishable from truly hallucinogenic snuffs. 1977) and Erythroxylum (Schultes 1967b). and the Nootka Indians of the northwest coast are said to have snuffed tobacco (von Welck 1981). This statement would not seem entirely correct. but also to other genera (von Reis Altschul 1972). Not only tobacco snuff. such as the Den!. however. Nicotiana tabacum is undoubtedly the principal source of South American tobacco preparations (Schultes 1967b~ In his elaborate monograph on the genus. 93 . Goodspeed (1954) even goes so far as to state that no other species can be shown to have been. This practice has been documented for several tribes of northeast Peru (Tessmann 1930). i t has been reported that the Creoles of French Guiana and the Bush negroes of Surinam inhale a liquid through the nostrils. 1982). The mixing of tobacco powder with plant ashes has been recorded for Arawak groups of the Purus river (Cooper 1949). wi th the possible exception of N. but also tobacco juice has been used nasally. so the practîce is not believed to have been widespread in North and Middle America (Wilbert 1975. as a herbarium annotation on Peruvian N. The Peruvians of the early colonial days have been reported as taking a snuff prepared from tobacco root for medicinal reasons (Cobo 1964). 1978). Recently. Schultes 1967b).literature. which is prepared from tobacco leaves and plant ash. for recreational purposes (Plotkin et al.raha to designate the snuff ing of tobacco. The snuffing of tobacco powder in ancient Mexico has been recorded by the early authors Hernández (1959) and Clavijero (1970). the famous Jivaro Indians (Karsten 1935). or.

2. ex Macbr.2.1.2.2. Pagamea macrophylla Rubiaceae Pagamea macrophylla Spr. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The chemistry and psychopharmacology of Pagamea macrophylla appear to be unknown (Schultes 1980a.2. 2. 2. Ethnobotany Among the Kulina Indians of eastern Peru. Piper interitum is known as tetsi.1.13. Piper interitum Piperacea:e-Piper interitum Treal.1. The Barasana name for the plant is ma-nu-su-ka-ta (Schultes 1980a).13. Ethnobotany Among the Colombian Barasana Indians.1.1.12.1.11.12. 94 .13.9.1.2.1. 2. in the form of a snuff. ex Benth. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The chemistry and psychopharmacology of tobacco are discussed in section 1.12. during ceremonies of divination.1. 2.1. 2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology I am not aware of phytochemical or pharmacological research on Piper interitum. the pulverized leaves of Pagamea macrophylla are aspirated by medicine men. These Indians are said to prepare a snuff from the dried leaves and roots. which is used as a substitute for tobacco (Schultes 1980b). 1984).

2.1.14. Tanaecium nocturnum Bignoniaceae Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb.-Rodr.) Bur. et K. Schum. 2.1.14.1. Ethnobotany
The Paumarf Indians of the Brazilian Rio Purus region prepare a ritual snuff by mixing tobacco powder with the roasted, grounded leaves of a vine called korib6. This vine has been botanically identified as Tanaecium nocturnurn. According to the Indians, the snuff has the same effect as another snuff, which they prepare from the bark of Virola elongata. Paumarf women do not usually take the snuff, but they drink an aqueous brew from the root bark of korib6. This brew is said to produce drowsiness, inability to concentrate, and reduced awareness (prance et al. 1977).

2.1.14.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology
The fresh leaves of Tanaecium nocturnum have been reported as containing a very high concentration of hydrogen cyanide (Grajales Diaz 1967). Field investigators found the fumes from freshly collected material poisonous, causing dizziness and headache in one of them. When the snuff is prepared, however, the leaves are toasted and this probably removes the cyanide (prance et al. 1977). Which compounds are formed or left intact during the preparation of the snuff is still unclear. In 1978, chemical and pharmacological studies were announced (prance 1978), but to my knowIedge, the results of these investigations have not yet been published. The stem of Tanaecium nocturnum contains an essential oil consisting almost exclusively of benzaldehyde (Gottlieb et al. 1981). Animal experiments have shown that this compound has antispasmodic, local anaesthetic and antibacterial properties (Macht 1923). According to toxicological textbooks, it is also capable of producing centra 1 nervous depression (Gleason et al. 1969; Braun and D6nhardt 1975; Dreisbach 1977).

95

2.1.15. Virola species Myristicaceae Virola calophylla Warb. Virola calophylloidea Markgr. Virola cuspidata (Spr. ex Benth.) Warb. Virola elongata (Spr. eX Benth.) Warb. Virola rufula Warb. Virola sebifera Aubl. Virola theiodora (Spr. ex Benth.) Warb. 2.1.15.1. Ethnobotany Many South American Indian tribes prepare potent psychoactive snuffs from Virola species for ceremonial and recreational uses (Schultes 1954, 1967b, 1984; Uscátegui Mendoza 1959; Seitz 1965. 1967; Wassén 1965, 1967; Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Prance 1970, 1972; Chagnon et al. 1971; Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975; BrewerCarias and Steyermark 1976; Prance et al. 1977; SchOltes and Hofmann 1980a.b). All important ethnobotanical references to these snuffs appèar to be comparatively recent. Older reviews on the botanical sourees of South American snuffs tend to focus on Nicotiana and Anadenanthera, and fail to pay any attent ion to Virola (Cooper 1949). This raises the question as to whether this merely reflects the insufficiency of certain early ethnobotanical investigations, or whether it mayalso indicate a difference between past centuries and the present. Whatever the answer may be, it has become more and more clear that Virola is one of the major sources of psychoactive South American snuffs, and that the use of Anadenanthera snuffs is less widespread than was once believed (Schultes 1954, 1967b; Schultes and Holmstedt 1968). The principal native usérs of Virola snuffs are tribes in the Colombian Vaupés region, and the Waiká Indians inhabiting the upper Orinoco area in Venezuela and the Brazilian territory north of the Rio Negro (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Depending on tribe and locality. the snuffs are known under different native names, such as yá-kee, yá-to and paricá in Colombia, and epéna, ebene, paricá and nyakwána in Brazil (Seitz 1967; Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). It should not be forgotten that these indigenous names haVe no distinctive botanical value. Paricá mayalso refer to Anadenanthera (vide 1.1.2.1) and epéna or ebene tends to be a genera 1 term designating snuffs, regardless of their exact botanical origin (Chagnon et al. 1971; Brewer-Garias and Steyermark 1976), The preparation of Virola snuffs is described in detail by 96

field workers like Schultes (1954), Seitz (1967), Schultes and Holmstedt (1968), Prance (1970, 1972), Brewer-Carias and Steyermark (1976), and Prance et aL (1977), Most snuffs appear to be based on the powdered blood-red exudate from the inner bark of Virola species (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Schultes and Hofmann 1980b), but the Paumarl Indians of central Amazonia use the entire bark and not merely its exudate (prance et al. 1977), Seitz (1967) did not observe an admixture to Virola among the Tukano Indians, but several Colombian tribes are reported as mixing the Virola dust with plant ashes (Schultes 1954). Some Waiká groups use the dusted exudate wi thout an admixture, whereas other groups add aromatic Justicia leaves and/or vegetable ashes (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Prance 1970, 1972; Brewer-Carias and Steyermark 1976). Other admixtures have been reported as weIl, but unfortunately botanical identifications are not available (Seitz 1967; Chagnon et al. 1971). The addition of ashes is thought to serve as a means of drying, to free the alkaloids more easily from the exudate, to keep the snuff from rapid deterioration during storage, or merely for mechanical purposes (Schultes and Holmstedt 1968). The addition of Justicia is discussed in the section on this genus. The effects of Virola snuffs seem to vary. but in Indians they often include initial excitability, beginning within several minutes of the first snuffing. This is followed by numbness of the limbs, twi tching of the facial muscles, inability to coordinate muscular activity, nausea, visual hallucinations with frequent macropsia, and afterwards, a deep, disturbed sleep (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). The Indians themselves acknowledge that it can be a dangerous practice to use large doses of a Virola snuff. An informant illustrated this with the death of a medicine-man, from the Colombian Puinave tribe, during a yá-kee intoxication (Schultes 1954, 1967b). The Waiká Indians visited by Seitz (1965, 1967) usually inhale two coffee-spoons full, one in each nostril, which results in a short intoxication of approximately one hour. While snuffing is the most common way to administer Virola, it is certainly not the only method employed by South American natives. Venezuelan witch doctors are said to smoke the dried bark of V.sebifera to cure fevers (von Reis Altschul 1967; SchuIt es and Hofmann 1980b), and Brazilian witch doctors reportedly smoke the bark of an indeterminate Virola species as an additive to tobacco (McKenna et al. 1984b). In the past decade, the oral ingestion of Virola preparations by the Hitoto and Bora Indians of Amazonian Colombia and adjacent Peru has become weIl documented (Schultes 1969; Schultes and Swain 1976; 97

Schultes et al. 1978). A recent publication describes the effect of such oral preparations in a field investigator, who tested four different samples in amounts exceeding those recommended by native informants. Two of the samples exhibited oral activity, but no strictly hallucinogenic response could be observed. The most potent sample had the effect of a pressor amine or géneral anaesthetic rather than the effect of an hallucinogen (McKenna et aL 1984b). Principal Virola species utilized to prepare snuffs are V.calophylla and V.calophylloidea in the Colombian region, and V.theiodora in theWaiká area (Schultes 1954; SchuIt es and Hölmstedt 1968; Prance 1970, 1972; Holmstedt et al. 1980). Another important Virolà species appears to be V.elongata. This plant is used as a snuff souree by certain Waikás (Brewer-Carias and Steyermark 1976), by the Paumarl Indians in central Amazonia (prance et al. 1977), and possibly by the Taiwanos in Amazonian Colombia (Schultes 1954). In a recent taxonomie monograph on Virola, Rodrigues (1980) treats V.theiodora as equivalent to V.elongata, but Schultes (1982) prefers to consider the two as separate species, since they look very different in the field and are widely recognized as distinct by Indians who use them. Other species of which the nasal use has been suggested in the literature, include V.cuspidata and V.rufula (Biocca 1968). Unfortunately. these suggestions are not supported by herbarium voucher specimens (SchuItes. 1982). Rodrigues (1980) considers both binomials as synonyms of V.elongata, bu~ the different phytochemistry of V.cuspidata casts doubt on its disposition under V.elongata (Schultes 1982). 2.1.15.2. Chemistry and psychopharmacology The chemistry of Virola species has been studied by Agurell et aL (1969), Holmstedt et al. (1980), and McKenna et al. (1984b). These studies have shown that the following tryptamine a.lkaloids ean be present in the Virola genus: tryptamine (=T). N-monomethyltryptamine (=MMT), 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptamine (=5MeO-MMT), N,N--dimethy ltryptamine (=DMT). and 5-methoxy-N ,Ndimethyltryptamine (=5-MeO-DMT). Although the Indians usually employ only the bark and especially its exudate, tryptamines have not only been demonstrated in bark samples, but also in samples of leaves, flowering shoots, and roots. In addition to tryptamine derivatives, beta-carbolines could be isolated as minor components: 2-methyl-1 ,2,3. 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (=MTHC), 6-methoxy-2-methyl-1,2.3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (=6-MeO-MTHC). and 6-methoxy-1 ,2--d imethyl-1 ,2,3. 4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline 98

(=6-MeO-DMTHC). Such compounds might be expected from the point of view of biosynthesis and workup procedure (Holmstedt et al. 1980) • Bark samples of V.calophylla, V.calophylloidea, V.rufula and V.theiodora were found to have DMT and 5-MeO-DMT astheir main alkaloids (Agurell et al. 1969; Holmstedt et al. 1980). An exudate sample of V.elongata contained T, MMT, DMT andMTHC; a bark sample of this species yielded MMT and DMT as principal alkaloids (Holmstedt et al. 1980). The bark of V.sebifera may contain DMT, 5-MeD-DMT and MMT (Corothie and Nakano 1969; McKenna et al. 1984b), whereas 6-methoxy-harman, 6-methoxy-harmalan, and 6-methoxy-tetrahydroharman are present in V.cuspidata (Cassady et al. 1971). When these chemical data on Virola species are considered, the possibility must be kept in mind that a natural alkaloid composition might alter during the preparation and the storage of a snuff (Holmstedt et al. 1980). For instanee, one step in the preparation of Virola snuffs involves concentration of the exudate to a thick syrup. The effect of such a treatment on 6methoxy-tetrahydroharman, the major component in V.cuspidata, was determined in the laboratory. Refluxing in water for eight hours resulted in partial aromatization to 6-methoxy-harmalan and 6methoxy-harman (Cassady et al. 1971). However, snuffs from tribes familiar with Virola contain the same simple tryptamine alkaloids which are also found in Virola plant material (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967; Agurell et al. 1969; McKenna et al. 1984b). A nyakwána snuff, which had been prepared solely -fromthe exudate of V.theiodora by the Waiká Indians of the Brazilian Rio Tototobf, yielded an unusually high total alkaloid content of 11 %, consisting mainly of 5-MeD-DMT and DMT (Agurell et al. 1969). The Anadenanthera alkaloid bufotenin, which apparently does not occur in Virola plants, is also absent in Virola snuffs (Holmstedt et al. 1980). Pharmacological data on DMT and 5-MeD-DMT, the major alkaloids in utilized Virola spec ies, are summarized in section 1.1.2.2. The pronounced hallucinogenic activity of these N,N-dimethylated tryptamine derivatives is probably not seen with T, MMT and 5MeD-MMT (Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975). T was reported as producing changes in perception anti sensation in patients by intravenous infusion of 0.025-0.364 mg/kg/min for a total dose of 23-277 mg during an experlmental day (Martin and Sloan 1970). There is little doubt, however, that the observed effects were largely autonomie in nature (Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975; Kantor et al. 1979). In an earlier study, intravenous infusion of 1 mg/mirt for a total dose of 10-40 mg, did not change the 99

Over the years it has been demonstrated that series of beta-carbolines have this effect in vitro (Udenfriend et al. the tryptamines in oral Virola preparations stand little or no chance of being protected from first-pass metabolism by beta-carbolines. MMT and 5-MeO-MMT are rapidly and extensively metabolized into their corresponding indoleacetic acids. On a molar base. 6-MeO-MTHC and 6-MeQ-DMTHC (Holmstedt et al. McIsaac and Estevez 1966. 1984b). McKerma et al. Gillin and Wyatt 1977).3. 1979). It should be noted. but a recent study has compared 6-MeO-MTHC wi th various common betacarbolines. However. Human studies on the activi ty of MMT and 5-MeQ-MMT seem to be lacking (Kantor et al.2. 1980). Schultes and Hofmann 1980b). Since the tryptamine alkaloids in Virola species serve as subs"trates for MAO (vide 1. McKenna et al. Consequently 5-MeO-MMT is not likely to exert profound central effects. In the rat. 1958. 1959.2). Buckholtz and Boggan 1977.1. Pletscher et al. these beta-carbolines usually occur in Virola in trace amounts. Buckholtz and Boggan 1977. 5-MeQ-MMT was found to cross the blood-brain barrier only to an extremely small extent.subjective state or the blood pressure and pulse of depressed patients pretreated with a MAO-inhibitor (Coppen et al. Besides the tryptamines. however. and the Virola alkaloid 6-MeQ-MTHC was found to be in the same intermediate range of potency as harman and harmol (McKenna et al. McKenna et al. 1984a). unlikely to be of pharmacological importance (Holmstedt et al.1. whereas a rapid crossing of 5-MeO-DMT could be shown (Vogel 1969). Animal experiments show that T. and that their results are partly conflicting (McIsaac and Estevez 1966. these enzymes are held responsible for the convers ion (Vogel 1969. 1965). Since Tand its N-monomethylated congeners are good substrates for monoamine oxidases. Experimental data on MTHC and 6-Meo-DMTHC are still awai ted.2). One of the best studied pharmacological properties of such simple beta-carbolines is their MAO-inhibiting activity. 1984a). that studies on the relative potency of beta-carbolines have used different methods of assessing MAO-inhibition. unlike the DMT inayahuasca beverages (vide 1. 1984a). 100 . the Banisteriopsis constituents harmine and harmal ine were the most potent MAO-inhibi tors. the commonly utilized Virola species may contain small amounts of the beta-carbolines MTHC. 1980. In other words. Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975). it is sometimes speculated that 6-MeQ-MTHC and itscongeners may modify the activity of the Virola tryptamines by acting as MAQinhibitors (Furst 1976a. Behavioural studies in animals suggest that these compounds are probably not hallucinogenic (Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975.

Virola. Cannabis. is weIl documented (McIsaac and Estevez 1966. 3) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or is quite probable.5 mg/kg (Naranjo 1967). 2) It is weIl established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles. and it is not weIl established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Acorus calamus. Pagamea macrophylla. ----- 101 . It is not yet clear. whether the reported oral activity of native Virola drugs should be attributed to these lignan derivatives (McKenna et al. The MAO-inhibi ting act i v i ty of 6-methoxy-harman.1. 6-methoxy-harmalan and 6-methoxy-tetrahydroharman have been found to be psychoactive in man. the following categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise: 1) It is weIl established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or is quite probable: Anadenanthera. Erythroxylum.Recently. could be shown as reducing isolation induced aggression and spontaneous locomotor activity (MacRae and Towers 1984a). Nicotiana. 2. Interestingly. but the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not weIl recorded or is even unlikely: Banisteriopsis. In the case of 6methoxy-harmalan. subjective effects become apparent with approximate oral dosages of 1. Buckholtz and Boggan 1977. however. Piper interitum. when given intraperitoneally to mice. They appear to produce a state of inspiration and heightened introspection rather than an hallucinogenic experience in the strict sense. the alkaloids in V.cuspidata. Capsicum. McKenna et al. Ilex guayusa. and some of these non-alkaloidal constituents. 4) The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not weIl recorded. various lignans have been isolated from the bark of Virola elongata. 6-methoxyharmalan and 6-methoxy-tetrahydroharman. but it is not weIl established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Justicia pectoralis. 1984b). Datura. Conclusion From the ethnobotanical. Tanaecium nocturnum. Maquira sclerophylla. 1984a). chemical and psychopharmacological approach to intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere.16.

CHAPTER TWO PART TWO NASAL PHARMACOKINETICS AND EFFICACY OF POSSIBLE RITUAL SNUFF CONSTITUENTS 2.2.1. General introduction Since the 1920s, medical practitioners have treated diabetes insipidus with the nasal insufflation of posterior pituitary powder (Choay and Choay 1946; Carter and Shorr 1947). In the last two decades, this treatment has been superseded by the application of synthetic sub stances like lypressin and desmopressin. Just like the pituitary snuff, these pure compounds show substantial antidiuretic activity when applied to the nasal mucosa (Dashe et aL 1964; Kosman 1978). Despite this longstanding evidence, nasal administration has never been adopted in the medical profession as a generally useful method of systemic delivery of drugs. Until recently, the nasal route has been employed almost exclusi vely for local treatment. Common examples are the topical use of corticosteroids, sympathicomimetics and antihistamines for perennial rhinitis and the like (Empey and Medder 1981). Such topical drugs are not intended, of course, to be absorbed into the general circulation from the nose, but the occasional systemic side-effects of nasal sympathicomimetics and antihistamines indicate that systemic availability is not always negligible (Parr 1983). Recent case reports associate nasal sympathicomimetic preparations with the development of a psychotic syndrome af ter long-term abuse (Snow et al. 1980; Escobar and Karno 1982), and with central excitation or depression in small children af ter apparently normal dosing (Söderman et aL 1984). Before the seventies, human studies on the systemic efficacy of nasal preparations were limited to a handful of therapeutic drugs besides pituitary snuff and synthetic antidiuretic compounds (Riegelman and Sorby 1971; Gorman and Hall 1973; Ritschel 1973), In the last few years, the interest in nasal administration as a convenient way to introduce drugs into the body has revived. Recent research has especially confirmed the potential usefulness of nasal application for drugs, which show a very poor effect in man af ter oral administration, such as: insulin (Hirai 1982; Pontiroli et aL 1982), buserilin (Bergquist et aL 1979; Koch 1981), testosterone (Danner and Frick 1980), nitroglycerin (Hill et aL 1981), glucagon (Pontiroli et aL 1983), and protireline (Borkenstein 1983). The advantage which the nasal rOUGe appears 102

to have for certain drugs over the oral route, can be easily explained. Drugs which are absorbed through the nasal mucosa, immediately enter the general circulation, and thus evade any form of presystemic degradation by the acid gastric juice and first-pass elimination by intestinal and hepatic enzymes. Among the various drugs of which the oral efficacy is greatly reduced by first-pass metabolism, are the sex hormones progesterone and testosterone. In recent studies on the kinetics of these hormones in the rat, nasal and intravenous administration resulted in practically similar systemic availability, whereas the availability following duodenal administration was approximately 1 % that of intravenous dosing (Hussain et al. 1981, 1984). Wi th respect to humans, the most striking data have been obtained for the beta-receptorblocking agent propranolol Hel, which is known to suffer from an extensive first-pass effect when taken orally. Intravenous and nasal doses of 10 mg produced practically identical serum levels; an oral amount of 80 mg produced relatively low serum levels and, af ter adjustment for the dose difference, the oral availability was only 25% of the intravenous availability (Hussain et al. 1980). Nasal application does not only prevent presystemic elimination, it is also a rapid way of drug delivery. Most of the recent human studies mentioned above show peak levels and/or maximal activity within half an hour af ter nasal dosing. It is not difficult to understand such findings, when the anatomy and physiology of the nose are taken into consideration. The nasal cavity comprises an olfactory region in its extreme upper area and arespiratory reg ion in its lower and greatest part. In the different regions, the nasal mucous membrane varies in lts thickness and its vascularity. It is thick and most vascular in the upper area and over the septum, but on the floor of the nasal cavity and in the sinuses the membrane is very thin. The surface area is enlarged by the subdivision into sinuses, and it is further increased by the presence of microvilli comparable to those in the small intestine. In addition, the vascular bed of the respiratory mucosa within the nose appears to be designed for the rapid passage of fluid and dissolved materials from the blood vessels to the tissues and vice versa. All in all, the nose is a suitable site for drug absorption, and this seems to be particularly true for the respiratory region (parr 1983). The use of nasal dosage forms for systemic therapy may have its drawbacks. A large variability in systemic effects, resulting in an erratic response, has been strongly emphasized by some early investigators (Talledo et al. 1964; Hankiss 1982). In the case of cocaine, the rate of absorption from the nasal mucosa appears to 103

be highly variable, and as this alkaloid is a potent vasoconstrictor, this might be due to a fluctuating degree of local vasoconstriction (Wilkinson et al. 1980) . A recent major concern is the ciliotoxicity of active constituents and additives (van de Donk and Merkus1981) . Clinical studies onthe nasal application of psychoactive alkaloids are summarized below . Wherever possible, the relationship bet ween dose and activity is indicated. Field i nvestigators report that an Indian snuff dose usually does not exceed 5 g (Coppens and Cato-David 1971) or ab out one to two teaspoons full, which would be equal tö some 5-10 g (Schultes 1954; Turner and Merlis 1959). It seems difficult, if not impossible, to retain suéh large doses completely . In other words, when a snuff contains 1 % of a psychoactive alkaloid, the nasal threshold level of this alkaloid should be less than 50-100 mg to get an effect from one dose, and when only 0.1 % is present, a threshold level lower than 5-10 mg will be required . It must be emphasized, however, that the pertinence of clinical results to snuffing rituals may be somewhat limited . Nasal absorption does not only depend on the physicochemical properties of the active compound (pKa, partition coefficient, molecular size), but it is a l so governed by other factors . Potentially influential differences between experimental and native practices include: - characteristics of the drug product In si tu recirculation tests wi th the nasal .cavi ty of the rat have shown that the absorption rate of weak electrolytes is pHdependent. In the case of aminopyrine (=aminophenazone), the absorption behaviour even closely fol l owed the rules of the pHpartition theory. which assumes that only unionized drug molecules are capable of passive diffusion across a mucous membrane (Hirai et al . 1981) . It would thus appear that the common addition of alkaline plant ashes or lime to South American snuffs may be significant. Up to half of a snuff can consist of plant ash (Seitz 1967; Schultes and Holmstedt 1968; Prance 1972) . Just as is the caSe in coca chewing practices, the addition öf such a l kaline material may facilitate the diffusion of the a l kaloids through the mucous membrane. Vegetable ash might further promote absorption by helping to prevent agglomeration of the snuff powder (Schul tes 1967b). Clinical studies on insulin (Hirai 1982), gentamicin (Rubinstein 1983), and scopolamine (Tonndorf et al . 1953) have de m onstrated that surfactants have a great potential for enhancing nasal drug absorption. Consequently it would be i nteresting to ascertain , whether South American snuffs contain 104

surface-active compounds like saponins (Hegnauer, pers. commun. 1984), and if so, whether these compounds improve the absorption of the alkaloidal consti tuents. - characteristics of the user A potential difference between western individuals and South American Indians is that the western subjects may be less able to retain a nasal powder. In clinical studies on Piptadenia snuffs, most of the dose was discharged by sneezing and coughing, because of the inexperience of the test subjects (Turner and Merlis 1959). Another potential difference may be the condition of the nasal mucosa. British tobacco snuffers who had used commercial snuff for at least twenty years turned out to have a generalized atrophy of the nasal mucosa. Biopsy in four snuffers confirmed metaplasia of the ciliated columnar epithelium to squamous epithelium over the middle turbinal and adjoining nasal septum (Harrison 1964). Similarly, chronic abuse of cocaine via the nose may lead to inflammatory changes and perforation of the nasal septum (Sawicka and Trosser 1983). Natanson (1975) feels that the nasal perforation seen in immodera:te cocaine Sniffers should be attributed to the intense vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine. In view of such data, it may weIl be that the regular use of snuff by South American Indians results in degeneration of their nasal mucosa. This factor should be taken into account, since nasal drug absorption may be decreased (Ritschel 1973) or increased (Parr 1983) by local inflammation. In recent rat experiments, the nasal absorption of the quaternary ammonium compound clofilium was substantially bet ter when the administered concentration became so high that it damaged the nasal mucosa (Su et al. 1984). - method of administration Among some tribes, one Indian blows the snuffing powder forcefully through a tube into the nostril of another Indian, whereas other tribes know self-administration, either by direct inhalation through a bifurcated or straight tube, or by placing one end of a V-shaped tube into the mouth and the other end into the nostril (Cooper 1949; Wassén 1965; SchuIt es 1967b; Seitz 1967; Coppens and Cato-David 1971; Prance 1972; Reichel-Dolmatoff 1975). The forceful blowing through a V-shaped or straight tube is likely to give a more widespread deposition than direct inhalation (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967). When tobacco snuff is inhaled cautiously, the snuff will probably reach no further than the anterior part of the nasal tract, whereby a small quantity will go down into the pharynx (Fraser Roberts 1962). In a study with chronic tobacco snuffers, inhaled pinches of barium sulphate 105

powder with an average size of 20 ~m could be primarily collected in the middle meatus of every snuffer (Harrison 1964), The forceful blowing in Indian practices will project the snuff against the well perfused semicavernous tissue of the nasal conchae (Holmstedt, pers. commun. 1983), and small partieles may even reach the lungs (Chinachotiand Tangchai 1957; Fraser Roberts 1962; Huggins et al. 1962). According to text books, the partiele size of a nasal powder should not be below 10-20 micrometer to prevent passage into the tracheal and pulmonary area (Gor man and Hall 1973; Dolder 1978). Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967) assume that, even in the case of forceful blowing, the main part of the administered material will affect the brain from the nose. There does not appear to be solid evidence that snuff constituents may pass directly into the brain without being transported through the gener al circulation. Consequently it should be accepted that snuff constituents are absorbed through the richly vascularized nasal mucosa, and reach the brain via the general blood-stream (Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967). 2.2.2. Specific constituents 2.2.2.1. Atropine Vide section 2.2.2.8. 2.2.2.2. Bufotenin Vide section 2.2.2.5. 2.2.2.3. Caffeine Recent studies have demonstrated that an oral dose of 5 mg/kg of caffeine results in maximal plasma levels of 9-10 ~g/ml af ter half an hour, and in complete bioavailability (Blanchard and Sawers 1982, 1983). These good oral absorption characteristics and the physicochemical properties of caffeine (Windholz 1983) suggest that this alkaloid may be rapidly absorbed from nasal dosage forms. To obtain anecdotal experimental evidence for this supposition, I have taken pure anhydrous caffeine (OPG, Utrecht) as a nasal powder, The powder had a particle size of 10-30 ~m, but many agglomerates of 100-300 ~m were present. At the time of the experiment, I was a non-inhaling tobacco smoker and a regular user of coffee and beer. Af ter abstention from xanthine106

Assen). and a common method of rècreational administration is snorting into the nostrils (Jaffe 1980). Barnett et al.20. 1978. 1977a. Cocaine In official western medicine. some mild transient stimulation was feIt. a total dose of 6. not unlike the effect of a first tobacco cigarette in the morning. The plasma level was already 7. 1978. They Used a sensitive high pressure liquid chromatographical method comparable to that developed by Jonkman et al.4 mg/kg was self-administered into both nostrils with a glass tube. but this picturehas been changed completely by the recent development of specific and sensitive methods for the determination of cocaine in biological fluids (Lindgren 1981.10. The level was still 9. Plasma levels we re assayed by Jan H.3 ~g/ml at 360 min. 1983: Wilkinson et al.35. This is not surprising. Consequently the medical profession needs clinical data on the kinetic behaviour and systemic toxicity of this alkaloid af ter nasal administration.G. Some unabsorbed caffeine powder could be reCovered from the nasal cavity one hour af ter the end of the experiment. Each sample was centrifuged and the resulting plasma was kept frozen until submission to analysis. Byck et al. there has been a continuous flow of publications On the plasma levels and/or systemic effects of nasal cocaine in an experimental setting (Van Dyke et al. Jonkman and Wim J.4.2. Ri tchie and Greene 1980). Such data were not available some years ago. 1977: Resnick et al.9 ~g/ml at 10 min and 10.2. All in all.50. but still incomplete af ter seven hours. but because of its good local anaesthetic effects and potent vasoconstrictive properties. Venous blood samples were drawn at 0.120. as cocaine has a notorious reputation as a dangerous drug.100. 1980).9 ~g/ml at 20 min. Af ter administration. 1977. the nasal absorption of pure caffeine powder was rapid in onset. whèreafter it declined in a semilogarithmic way to 6.containing products for two days and af ter an overnight fast. Cocaine is also a major drug of abuse. Javaid èt al. cocaine is still applied as a surface anaesthetic.8 ~g/ml at 120 min.V. Details are provided in Appendix D. 1981). Itshould be emphasized that most of the crucial results have been obtained in small series of three or four subjects.b. especially in nasal surgery (Johns et al. (1980) for theophylline. 1976. 2. cocaine is no longer used systemically. and 360 min af ter administration. A small fraction of the dose was lost because of some nasal mucOus discharge.240. 1982. van der Boon (Pharma Bio-Research International. and it is classified under 107 . Since 1976.

(1981) estimate the lower limit of reliability of their analytical assay to be in the range 108 . A cross-over comparison was made between the levels from a nasal solution and levels af ter snorting the same dose of crystalline cocaine Hel. they reported on the influence of dose and dosage form ön nasal cocaine kinetics. 1981). 1983).0 mg/kg of cocaine Hel produced mean peak concentrations of 13 ng/ml (af ter 41 min) to 170 ng/ml (af ter 91 min). In 1980. these results were obtained in only a partially cross-over fashion. 1976). 1978. In their first study. The lat ter phenomenon was attributed to the potent vasoconstrictive effects of the alkaloid (Van Dyke et al. and the subjects were surgical patients. 1980).narcotic laws. Byck et al. An increase in dose resulted in a higher peak plasma level of cocaine: nasal solutions with 0. 1982. Unfortunately. 1983) have tested nasal powders of 100 mg (consisting of 16. 1980) . and Barnett et al. Wilkinson et al. Javaid et al. 64 or 96 mg of cocaine Hel mixed with lactose) in healthy volunteers with a history of cocaine use. The relative bioavailability was found to be independent of the dose. since the kinetic studies on nasal cocaine show large interindividual differences (Wilkinson et al. so that legal problems are involved with its experimental use. Wilkinson et al. so the onset of nasal cocaine absorption was extremely rapid. so the absorption was also prolonged. The presence of unabsorbed cocaine on the nasal mucosa could be demonstrated for as long as 3 hours af ter administration. The crystals tended to produce an earlier and higher peak as weIl as a larger area under the plasma concentration/time curve.19 mg/kg to 2. Investigators in the United States spent approximately one year clearing the permissions and various consent forms through the requisite committees (Byck et al. 1980). 1982. who received other drugs concomitantly. (1978. 1976. but major differences in kinetics were not observed (Wilkinson et al. . 1980. 1978. Javaid et al. Cocaine plàsma levels could already be detected within 3 min af ter giving a nasal solution with 1. However. 1977). Van Dyke and associates have subsequently used healthy volunteers with a previous history of recreational cocaine use (Byck et al. the study shows some interesting results. plasma levels were analyzed without the use of an internal standard. a small number of subjects is unfortunate. From the methodological view. 1977.5 mg/kg of cocaine HCl. Van Dyke and associates have reported extensively on nasal cocaine kinetics (Van Dyke et al. 1977: Van Dyke et al. Thei~ first study was carried out before they had solved the problem of the in vitro hydrolysis of cocaine (Barnett et al.

In the cross-over study by Van Dyke et al. 1982. whereas 0. whereas mean peak plasma levels of 43 ng/ml and 108 ng/ml. dependent on dose. not only the mean peak concentration was found to be dosedependent. Their report shows. respectively. From the preceding data. but this dose did not elicit a greater reponse than 0. Van Dyke et al. that the 'highs' produced by 0. The mean bioavailability (relative to an intravenous dose of 32 mg of cocaine Hel in the same subjects) was 28% for the dose of 64 mg. The highest dose in the study (96 mg) produced a mean peak level of 206 ng/ml af ter 30 min (Javaid et al. It would therefore appear that 0. A dose of 0. not unexpectedly. alocal anaesthetic without euphorizing properties. maximal central effects tend to occur before the plàsma level has reached a peak value (Van Dyke et al. (1982) found that 0. 1978. 1983). 1978). and 57% for the dose of 96 mg (Javaid et al.2 mg/kg of lidocaine Hel.2 mg/kg was also tested. but that unabsorbed cocaine remains present in the no se for a considerable time. An internal standard was included in the analytical procedure of the second study. This may explain. Javaid et al. They also demonst~ated that central stimulation is more intense during the rising phase of the plasma concentration/time curve than during the falling phase. why the bioavailability of nasal cocaine powders was found to be incomplete.75 mg/kg. The same phenomenon has been observed in coca chewers (Holmstedt et al. (1980).75 mg/kg were less intense than those observed af ter an initial familarization dose of 0. at least partly. Several studies have compared the plasma levels and subjective effects of nasal cocaine in volunteers who had previously used cocaine recreationally. which lowered the limit of sensitivity to 5 ng/ml. (1982). the subjects responded differently during the first experiment than during the actual study. personality and setting. 1.2 mg/kg (14 mg170 kg) is below the minimum threshold dose of cocaine Hel needed for central activity by the nasal route. 1978). In contrast with the findings of Wilkinson et al. but also the relative bioavailability.75 mg/kg and 1. did not occur before 60 min.4 mg/kg (28 mg/70 kg) is probably 109 . it can be concluded that cocaine absorption from nasal dosage forms is rapid in onset.4 mg/kg.5 mg/kg of cocaine Hel as a nasal solution produced maximal 'highs' within 30 min. however. 1979) • The subjective effects of nasal cocaine are.5 mg/kg of cocaine Hel produced a greater subjective response than 0.of 50-100 ng/ml. A nasal powder with 64 mg of cocaine Hel gave an average peak level of 67 ng/ml af ter 37 min. In general. Apparently. whereas a mean peak of 133 ng/ml was observed 41 min af ter the administration of 96 mg.

but they failed to demonstrate hallucinogen-like activity via the nasal route. conclusive clinical support for this assumption has not been published. More experienced cocaine users rated subjective effects lower than others who showed an equally large somatic repsonse. Human studies on the nasal application of tryptamine alkaloids were conducted in the fifties. DMT powder in quantities of 5 to 20 mg merely caused a burning sensation in the back of the nose and throat.5. po or nasal absorption is not the most likely explanation for the observed lack of psychoactive symptoms.4 (Glennon et al. So far as I know. Since DMT is well lipid soluble at pH 7. tachycardia. Turner and Merlis (1959) have assessed the effects of nasal DMT in one hea1thy volunteer and four schizophrenic individuals. (1977a. who compared subjective and somatic effects of nasal cocaine with those of lidocaine and tetracaine without analyzing cocaine plasma levels. to the testing of low and therefore subactive doses. Dimethyltryptamine and related compounds There is substantial evidence to suggest that the active tryptamines in Anadenanthera and Virola species undergo extensive first-pass elimination by intestinal and hepatic enzymes (vide 1. whereas 25 mg of cocaine produced some significant subjective changes. associated with flushing of the face. and tachypnea. needed to elicit subjective perception changes in man by intramuscular injection (Szára 1957). quantities of up to 10 mg merely produced a feeling of fear. Turner and Merlis (1959) have also given bufotenin nasally to schizophrenic subjects. The inhalation of bufotenin by humans has a1so been studied by Isbell. and this sensation was concomitant with unilateral flushing of the face and mydriasis. 1979). the tested dose range was low. A more obv ious reason is inadequate dos ing. and just as in their nasal experiments with DMT. Similar data have been obtained by Resnick et al.2.2.b). 10 mg elicited a feeling of being 'hit on the head' in apatient.2. lacrimation. On one occasion. Isbell stated 110 . 2. this may explain why both genera are most of ten taken nasally in South America. When bufotenin (as pure base or as creatinine sulphate) was blown into the nares. In a letter to Turner and Merlis (1959). as the tested nasal amounts were below the threshold dose of 30 mg. This is probably duet at least in the case of DMT.2). Subjective effects af ter placebo and af ter 10 mg of cocaine (as a sOlution) were the same.above this threshold level. Since the nasal route certainly can prov ide the advantage of bypassing such presystemic inactivation.1.

His communication leaves open.5 mg/kg of harmine base (Fluka. Isbell (pers. 1979) and might thus not readily diffuse through the lipid nasal membrane. Isbell declared that 'inhalation of pure bufotenine in aerosol suspension. Fortunately. The dose was derived from a report by Slotkin et al. and that the subjects were physically healthy male volunteers. Buchs) nasally and orally ontwo different occasions. so 40 mg provides 14. or oral ingestion of bufotenine in doses running up to 100 mg (total dose) were without effect'. 1984) has recently informed me that bufotenin was inhaled nasally.1. quoted by Turner and Merlis 1959. In a letter to Wassén and Holmstedt (1963).3. The subjects of Isbell experienced visual disturbances from 1015 mg of intramuscular bufotenin (Isbell. whether as much as 100 mg of bufotenin was inactive by oral ingestion only. I have taken the same dose of 0. 1967).3 mg of bufotenin base. The physicochemical properties of this alkaloid (Hultin 1965) should permit a good diffusion through the nasal membrane. and other investigators have reported visual disturbances from 4-16 mg of intravenous bufotenin (Fabing and Hawkins 1956.that 'no subjective or objective effects were observed af ter spraying with as much as 40 mg of bufotenine creatinine sulphate'. Isbell's statements provide insufficient details on the manner of inhalation (nasalor tracheal). the test subjects (psychotic patients or not).8 parts creatinine sulphate (Fabing and Hawkins 1956). Bonhour et al.5 mg/kg of harmine HCl intravenously 111 . however. and by Wassén and Holmstedt 1963). Hàrmine may possibly undergo substantial firstpass metabolism af ter oral ingestion. Fisher et al. however.4 (Glennon et al. (1970) that 0.2. Harmine Experimental information on the nasal efficacy of harmine appears to be lacking.2. and the studied doses (100 mg by inhalation or not). 1984. 1981. aged bet ween 25 and 50. To test this hypothesis. especially in view of recent reports that hydrophilic drugs are absorbed from the nose in the rat (Hirai et al. This would seem to suggest that bufotenin may induce perception changes more readily by injection than by nasal application. which would be consistent with the chemical finding that bufotenin is poorly lipid soluble at pH 7. who were imprisoned for narcotic law violations. so that the nasal route might be superior to the oral one (vide 1. Su et al. This compound consists of 1 part bufotenin base and 1.6. or also by inhalation. 1985). commun. 2.2). Confirmation of this suggestion is still needed.

This possibility has prompted studies on the pharmacokinetics of tobacco administration via the buccal route (Gritz et al.2. Darmstadt) was added.2. At the time of the experiment. why there is such a large discrepancy bet ween the nasal and intravenous data. the last result is unexpected.2. (1984) for harman and norharman. and harmine could not be detected in any of the plasma samples. First. Since Slotkin et al.3) would seem to argue against faulty absorption as the major cause. Details are provided in Appendix E. smokeless tobacco products have received increasing attention as potentially less harmful alternatives to cigarettes.7. I was a non-inhaling tobacco smoker and a regular user of coffee and beer. (1970) reported levels in the range of 300-400 ng/ml at 10-60 min and 80 ng/ml at 240 min af ter a similar dose intravenously. 1980). A more plausible explanation might perhaps be that the GC-MS method used in the nasal experiment is more reliable than the fluorometric assay used in the intravenous study. Five days later. Lausanne) and Pierre Baumann (Psychiatric University Clinic. Plasma levels were assayed by Laurent Rivier (Institute of Legal Medicine. 15. especially in the case of the nasal powder. 2. 60. harmine was self-administered into one nostril with a plastic tube as a pure nasal powder. Russell et al.2. The assay is sensitive down to 2 ng/ml. Nicotine In the last few years. consisting of needles with a length of 10-40 ~m. They used a gas chromatographical/ mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method comparable to that described by Baumann et al. it is difficult to ascertain. since they provide nicotine to the craving user without introducing tar and carbon monoxide into the lungs and without contaminating the atmosphere for non-users (Rasche González 1980. 1981). On neither occasion was a notable psychoactive or somatic effect felt. and venous blood samples were drawn at 0. harmine was ingested as an oral drink. The good nasal absorption of caffeine in another selfexperi ment (vide 2. Without additional experiments. 120 and 240 min af ter administration (in the case of the oral drink aiso at 90 min). On both occasions. to which some citric acid (Merck. the harmine was taken af ter an overnight fast. preparedby dissolving the pure base in 100 ml of tap water. but not in distinct central stimulation.results in substantial plasma levels and in transient somatic effects. 30. Each sample was centrifuged and the resulting plasma was kept frozen until submission to analysis. Lausanne). and via 11 2 .

In the seventies. as measured by gas chromatography. and snuffing may provide the advantage of avoiding such an effect (vide 2. as it may lead to a bypass of the liver on the one hand and to partial pyrolytic conversion of nicotine (Larson 1960) on the other. did not show any increase at all. The second report confirms this preliminary result.9 ng/ml to 34.5 min. and the exact way of snuffing were uncontrolled variables (RusselI et al.2. 1981) subsequently reported experimental data on the plasma concentrations of nicotine in tobacco snuffers. and the observed increases varied èonsiderably from 2. 1981). In twelve occasional snuffers. 1981). This mean value almost matched the average peak level of 36.the nasal route (Russell et aL 1980. Nicotine is said to undergo substantial first-pass elimination after oral ingestion (vide 1.6 to 34. Their first publication describes extremely rapid absorption in an experienced user of tobacco snuff: a single pinch of snuff raised his nicotine plasma level in 5 min from a baseline level of about 20 ng/ml (due to previous snuffing) to more than 40 ng/ml (RusselI et al. (1983) have compared nicotine plasma levels produced by a nasal viscose solution containing 2 mg of pure nicotine with the levels from a commercial cigarette expected to deliver the same dose of nicotine. In contrast. This lack of nicotine absorption in the novices may have been related to their initiation with small doses of a very mild snuff. 1980). the average increase in nicotine plasma concentration.1. (1980. The latter method is rather complex. the principal Indian manner of tobacco use is not oral ingestion but smoking (vide 2.5 ng/ml after 7.1). the size of the pinch. Four volunteers who had never used snuff before.7 ng/ml found in a large group of heavy cigarette smokers. but substantial absorption could only be demonstrated in experienced users. Both preparations already produced peak plasma levels at 7. The area under the plasma concentrationl 11 3 . RusselI et al. This divergence is probably partly due to the fact that the strength of the snuff.2). and these levels averaged about 14 ng/ml and 26 ng/ml for the nasal solution and the cigarette respectively. was only 2 ng/ml. measured within 8-17 min af ter a single pinch of snuff.1).9. However. the interindividual differences in nicotine plasma concentrations were large.8 ng/ml.5-11 min.11. pharmacokinetic evidence that nicotine is absorbed from nasal tobacco snuffs was provided by Temple (1976) who demonstrated nicotine and its major metabolites in the urine of tobacco snuffers. As with cigarette smoking.1. a single pinch of snuff raised the mean plasma level of nicotine in seven daily snuffers from 21. RusselI et al.

Testing of other doses revealed that nasal quanti ties of 0.2. In other words. More recently. If its nasal absorption would be rapid. as an oral capsule or an oral liquid. but in most experiments at least ten subjects were used for each different treatment. In all cases. since only three subjects were studied. 1975) or radioimmunoassays (Wurzburger et al. nasal dosing might be a practical way of self-administration with an obvious advantage over oral dosing in already nauseated patients. and resulted in noticeable light-headedness in four of the five subjects (West et al. and oral ingestion produced the slowest and least marked decrease. The ini tial doses of 2 mg produced increases of 0. Hussell and co-workers have studied thekinetics of repeated nasal doses of pure nicotine in viscose solution. Instead. Tonndorf and co-workers conducted various experiments on the nasal administration of scopolamine and atropine in healthy human subjects. the research group assessed the antisialogogic activity during the first two hours af ter administration as an indication for the rapidity and degree of drug absorption.4 mg gave a perceptible drop in salivary production. This test period of two hours is rather short. To test this premise.7 ng/ml after 7. however. Data were not obtained in a proper cross~ver fashion.9-25.8.65 mg as a subcutaneous injection. The effect of nasal instillation occupied an intermediate position. especially for the oral experiments. subjects received 0. The decline was most marked and rapid af ter subcutaneous administration. 1977) with sufficient sensitivity to measure the very low therapeutic plasma concentrations of tropane alkaloids were not yet available. Scopolamine and related compounds In the fifties. and as nose drops. Scopolamine was studied because of its protective action against motion sickness. the salivary flow dropped below control values. Comparisons were made with other routes of administration. 2. 1953: Hyde et al. since the anti-sialogogic activity of oral scopolamine and atropine reaches a peak value af ter 1-2 hours (Mirakhur 1978).2. Gas chromatographical/mass spectrometric methods (Bayne et al.time curve found af ter nasal administration amounted to 75 %of that produced by smoking.35 mg 11 4 . The influence of certain parameters on the nasal absorption of these tropane alkaloids was also studied (Tonndorf et al. the results say more about the onset and degree of activity than about the duration of effects. This result cannot be viewed without caution. 1984). 1953).5 min.1-'0. whereas an oral quantity of 0.

1.0 mg or less effective than 2. and disorientation (Hyde et al. The preparations did not yield the same reponse at each measure point. 1953).3. It is rather difficult to draw firm conclusions from these results. It may well be that oral atropine undergoes first-pass elimination (vide 1. dizziness. A comparison between nasal application and oral ingestion was not included in the studies.5 mg as a nasal spray with detergent and as nose drops. In a recent cross-over study on the peripheral activity of these alkaloids.2).0 mg produced mild symptoms in some cases.0 mg was given via both routes (Tonndorf et al. the ratio of equivalent intramuscular to oral doses appeared to be about 1 : 5-6 for scopolamine and 1 : 2 for atropine (Mirakhur 1978). but experimental confirmation of the efficacy of nasal tryptamine alkaloids is still awaited. but there were no major differences which persisted throughout the test period. Consequently scopolamine may profit more markedly than atropine.6 mg in the form of sublingual tablets. One subject. if nasal administration indeed povides the advantage of avoiding first-pass metabolism of tropane alkaloids. so an advantageous bypass via the nasal route may be suggested not only for scopolamine. As to the systemic toxicity of nasal atropine. cocaine.5 mg was more effective than 1.4. so the observed superiori ty of nasal dosing may wellbe due to a bypass of presystemic elimination.4. it is noteworthy that instillation of 2.0 mg as subcutaneous injection. Conclusion The literature yields convincing clinical evidence that atropine.1. There is substantial evidence t~ suggest that scopolamine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism af ter oral administration (vide 1.0 mg (Hyde et al. A comparison was made between 1. 1953). because this tropane alkaloid is an antidote against organic phosphoryl compounds.2. since nasal instillation of different doses did not clearly show that 1. to the testing of 11 5 . suffered from a moderatelysevere reaction. An apparent superiority of the nasal route over the oral one was also found when a dose of 1. consisting of mydriasis.2).1. This seems to be due. but also for atropine. nicotine and scopolamine are effective following nasal application. and 1. who accidently received more than 3. 1953).was without effect. at least in the case of DMT. 2. mild nausea.0 mg as a nasal spray with detergent. The efficacy of nasal atropine was tested.

116 . Without additional experiments. did not produce measurable plasma levels. when 40 mg was taken as a nasal powder. In self-experiments. it is difficult to give a definite explanation for this negative result.low and therefore inadequate doses. but harmine. caffeine produced substantial plasma levels via the nasal route.

is the probable souree of various South Ameriean yopo snuffs (von Reis Altsehul 1972). Gheerbrant 1952. The genus Anadenanthera. Kaplan 1975).N-dimethyltryptamine (=DMT). bufotenin (=5-0H-DMT). Von Reis Altschul (1972) has identified a yopo specimen. the Piaroa obtain their yopo snuff from the seeds of Piptadenia trees. Wurdack 1958. Gheerbrant (1952) states that this snuff is the erushedblaek-brown mixture of unidentified ingredients and the fine white ash of eertain herbs. Yet it would appear that ingredients other than Anadenanthera seeds may enter the eomposition of Piaroa snuffs. Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967) have provided 117 . The evidenee available from other authors suggests that Anadenanthera seeds are a eommon ingredient of Piaroa snuffs. There is a vague field report that the Ventuari Piaroa also employ the vegetative parts of an unidentified bush for preparing a snuff (Wurdack 1958). who annually visit the savannas of the up per Ventuari River and those of the middle Parguaza River tó collect mature Piptadenia seeds. The pulverized seed is passed around in a round tray with a handle in the form of a fish-fin and the men snuffing use Y-shaped tubes of bird bone. formerly eonsidered as the seetion Niopa of the genus Piptadenia. Wurdaek 1958. Venezuela (Wilbert 1958. Although the Piaroa appear to be familiar with tobacco (Chaffanjon 1889.3. as Anadenanthera peregrina (formerly known as Piptadenia peregrina). Kaplan 1975). Much more significantly. Gheerbrant 1952. Introduetion The Piaroa Indians are a tropieal forest people of the Salivan family.CHAPTER TWO PART THREE THE CHEMISTRY OF YOPO SNUFFS OF THE VENEZUELAN PIAROA INDIANS 2. Aeeording to Wilbert (1958). the bark of Coco de mono (a species of the Lecythidaeeae) is burned and the ashes are added to the pulverized seeds. niopo or niopa (Wavrin 1948. and 5-methoxy-N. Kaplan 1975). Wurdaek (1958) reports that the Piaroa are avid yopo snuffers. They are settled along tributaries of the Orinoeo in the Guiana Highlands of the Federal Territory of Amazonas. the seeds of which were said to be the source of an intoxicating Piaroa snuff. Wilbert 1958. Several sourees indieate that the men of this tribe use an intoxieating snuff ealled yopo. To prepare the snuff.1. The seeds of this species eontain the indole alkaloids N. the consulted literature has not yielded evidenee that they ever use tobaceo as a snuff souree. 1977).N-dimethyltryptamine (=5-MeO-DMT) (Sehultes et al.

5-MeO-DMT). Lausanne). the opportunity to study two different yopo samples of the Piaroa Indians was welcomed.2. while sample B was a dry granular powder. including various snuff-taking paraphernalia. this museum has a large collection of objects from Venezuelan Indians. 20 mg of ground snuff material was dissolved in 2 ml of freshly distilled water by ultrasounds for 5 min. so it remains unknown. Unfortunately the snuff was collected without botanical voucher specimens. The pH was determined by a combined electrode (RadiometerPHM 83 Autocal pH meter.3. Since har~ine only rarely occurs in South American Indian snuffs (Bernauer 1964. Analytical methods In cooperation with Laurent Rivier (Institute of Legal Medicine. (1977). They isolated not only Anadenanthera tryptamines (DMT. 2. The most comprehensive review on the use of Banisteriopsis by South American natives does not include the Piaroa as a tribe familiar with Banisteriopsis drinks (Fr iedberg 1965). Other than its name would suggest. probably during the fifties or sixties. To determiné the presence of alkaline substances. It is presently deposited in the Royal Museum of Central Africa at Tervuren. Belgium.chemical evidence that Anadenanthera is not the only snuff souree of the Piaroa. Details are reported in Appendix A.76. collected by Bolinder. whether the harmine originated from Banisteriopsis or from some other vegetal ingredient. Among these items is a Piaroa snuff. Copenhagen) • 118 . Sample A consisted of dry snuff lumps.594). who had purchased the snuff and some snuff-taking paraphernalia of the Piaroa tribe from the missionary museum in Puerto Ayacucho in Venezuela. The beta-carboline harmine is not an Anadenanthera constituent. but also harmine from a paricá snuff sample of this tribe. Holmstedt and Lindgren 1967). but a major Banisteriopsis alkaloid. The equipment is now in a private collection. Sample B was collected by a German named Baumgartner. which is still in its original 'kherime' container (museum number 74. 5-QH-DMT. both samples were submitted to gas chromatographicall mass spectrometric procedures comparable to those described by Schultes et al. Sample A was obtained from an European art dealer.

who also found harmine in a Piaroa snuff. In other words. there is at last additional evidence thatthe Piaroa must have prepared snuffs not only from plants rich in tryptamines. whereas sample B yielded a trace of 5-DH~DMT «1 mg/g). This finding is quite significant and corroborates thereport of Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967).2 for sample B. Harmine is substituted at C-7. Sample B also contained a trace of a second substance with the same retention time on capillary column and mass spectrum as those of harmine. 119 . solid lumps (sample A) versus granular powder (sample B). Ne i ther the presence of the Anadenanthera alkaloi"d 5-DH-DMT nOr the alkaline reaction of the snuffs is surprising. Results and discussion Sample A turned out to contain 10 mg/g of 5-DH-DMT. The pH measurements gave values of 9.4 for sample A. viz. 50 it could not be produced by ring closure of an Anadenanthera tryptamine.2. The substantial difference in quantitative 5-DH-DMT yield might perhaps be related to the condition of the two snuff samples. This conclusion indicates that the tracing of Indian drug rnaterials in European museums and private collections for chemical analysis may lead to interesting results. since the Piaroa Indians are reported as using Anadenanthera seeds and plant ashes as snuff ingredients.3.3. but also from an vegetal source yielding harmine. as identified by retention time on capillary column and mass spectrum. and 9.

.

CHAPTER THREE MULTïDÏSCIPLINARY-APPR~TölRITUAL INTOXICATING PLANTS SOME FACTORS TO BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION IN THE 121 .

the Museum for Ethnology in Vienna possesses well preserved paricá seeds of the Brazilian Maué Indians. 122 . Such materials have of ten been gathered by travellers who merelyrecorded ethnological data because they lacked specific botanical interest or training. Especially in the early days.1> Some botanical considerations In the multidisciplinary approach to native ritual plants. especially if it can be backed up by the results of chemical analysis. does not live up to modern scientific standards and may therefore be open to question. botany opens the way to chemical and pharmacological studies. because they do not want to disclose the botanical source of their sacred drug. For instance. It is. and this botartical impression is corroborated by the recent isolation of the Anadenanthera alkaloid bufotenin (vide 1. or because they like to pull the investigator's leg. which usually makes it impossible to check the validity of their botanical information. botany forms the crucial hinge between field observations and laboratory results. This is hardly surprising in the case of proven hallucinogens. In such cases. not the responsibility of the natives. botanical examination may still reveal the identity of the drug source. It goes without saying that careful botanical recording requires the collection of a herbarium voucher specimen. Botanical reviews on hallucinogens tend to offer relatively much information about the western hemisphere. Indigenous informants may deliberately supply wrong matèrial. The seeds certainly look like Anadenanthera seeds. for nowhere in the world has the aboriginal use of truly hallucinogenic plants been more varied and extensive than in Middle and South America. By providing the scientific identity of the ritual plant. many explorers failed to do this. Original data may be obtained not only by going out into the field but also by studying already collected material.3. a voucher specimen in itself is not the ultimate proof of reliability.3). and sometimes the drug itself or its vegetal source is also present. This example clearly illustrates the importance of museum material as a tool to extend our ethnobotanical knowledge on native ritual practices. of course. but that of the botanist to collect accurate data. However. The Amerindian collections of many ethnographical museums comprise paraphernalia for ritual drug-taking. who are said to have used these seeds as an enema and snuff ingredient. Any field report which does not indicate voucher specimen numbers.

Nothing appears to be known at present about thé effects of tetrahydroharman in man. but to stupifying agents in genera I and to morphine-like analgesics in particular (Jaffe and Martin 1980). phytochemical analysis. Other plants. 123 . Appendix F clearly illustrates this point by providing an ethnobotanical view of ritual plants and reputed botanical intoxicants of New Guinea natives. A last specific point which should be outlined here. but central neurochemical changes have been observed af ter intraperitoneal administration to mice (Buckholtz 1979). however. as this practice involves significant buccal absorption (vide 2. Glick 1972. commun. pers. which is ritually smoked by the Gimi of the Highlands (Glick 1967). and pharmacological experiments. however. In pharmacological parlanee. The genus Elaeagnus is rich in beta-carbolines like tetrahydroharman (Hegnauer 1966. Allen and Holmstedt 1980).ut regard to pharmacolog ic al validity andthat New Guinea sorcerers commonly try to obtain a magical 'heat' or power which is unfolded or augmented by the chewing of spicy plants like ginger (Sterly 1970. This appears to be due not only to cultural and botanical differences bet ween the western and the eastern hemisphere. is a tendency in the ethnological and botanical literature to disregard pharmacological definitions of certain terms. is also seen with alleged hallucinogenic plants which have not been properly evaluated by additional field studies. 1983). may ultimately be proven to have profound pSychoactive effects. An interesting candidate would seem to be the Elaeagnus species. For instance. In other words.1.The same tendency. they are interesting enough to warrant closer examination. It must be emphasized that the table has been compiled wi tho. but also to a scientific predilection for the New World. and such alkaloids are not likely to be pyrolyzed during s·moking (Holmstedt. Whil~ these data are far from sufficient to draw any conclusion. Consequently it is somewhat a misnomer from the pharmacological point of view to denote coca chewing as oral administration. WOlff-Eggert 1977).2). such as cinnamon. the term 'narcotic' does not refer to hallucinogens.7. A more notabIe example is the cu stom to designate hallucinogenic plants as narcotic plants. certain plants in thé tabIe. curry and stinging net tIes are most probably valued for their 'heating' properties rather than for specific effects on the central nervous system. the pharmacological literature associates systemic oral therapy with gastrointestinal absorption.

1.3. Unfortunately. are frequently accompanied by statements that this plant has sedative properties due to its asarone fraction. It is weIl known that the composition of a plant may vary with its parts. Illustrative are the paper chromatographical studies on tree Daturas in the sixties. the scopolamine content of a peach flowered Datura candida form varies with leaf age (Griffin 1976). 2) • The usefulness of chemical results clearly depends on the specificity and sensitivity of the analytical method by which they have been obtained.1. and storage may alter the tryptamine spectrum of Anadenanthera peregrina seeds (Schultes et al. Less obvious factors. 1977). Refluxing in water for eight hours results in partial aromatization to 6-methoxy-harmalan and 6-methoxy-harman ( vide 2. 1 • 15. which mayalso be relevant. This is the major alkaloid in V. but only in triploid and tetraploid specimens of the Old World (vide 2. Chemists should not limit their research to the botanical sources of ritual dosage forms. Chemical reports on ritual plants must give careful at tent ion to the investigated material. Voucher specimens are as essential for chemical laboratory data as they are for botanical field data. such statements are based on studies with samples from India. Their failure 124 . In other words. There is considerable evidence that a substantial asarone fraction cannot be expected in diploid plants of North America. chemical research on ritual plants should include the plant parts used by the natives. It is difficult to speak in scientific terms of the pharmacology of psychoactive plant material until the relevant constituents have been identified and made available for pharmacol og ical stud ies.2). but they must also include the ultimate dosage forms. suggestions that North American Indians may have taken Acorus calamus in a ritual context. Some chemical considerations In multidisciplinary studies on ritual plants. which species could possibly serve as a snuff source. For example. include the method of harvesting and the freshness of the studied sample. For example. The material should preferably come from the area where the plant is ritually utilized. chemistry is an important link between the botanical and pharmacological disciplines. as the original composition may alter during preparation. one step in the preparation of Virola snuffs involves concentration of the exudate to a more viscose liquide The effect of such a treatment has been assessed in the laboratory for 6-methoxy-tetrahydroharman. For instance.cuspidata.2.

2). Only within a specific class of closely related agents. In the majority of cases. 1980). At present. when a compound does not belong to a group of weIl established hallucinogens. The use of a univer~al animal model can already be rejected on the ground that there are several classes of hallucinogens which have different effects and different mechanisms of action. For instance. however. From the pharmacological point of view. Similarly. animal testing may be useful to obtain an impression of the hallucinogenic potency in man. the best aid to enter supernatural worlds is an hallucinogenic agent.4.to distinguish between l-hyoscyamine and atropine is pharmacologically relevant. Chemical data may not only be devalued by inaccu~acy of the final assay. ecgonine methyl ester is not a genuine Erythroxylum alkaloid.1. If a relationship with an established hallucinogenic class is laeking. 3. or the method has already been found to have insufficient specificity (Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975). whereby due attention must be paid to differences between native and experimental drug administration. All ethnological data on the psychoactivity of indigenous vegetal drugs require careful pharmacological evaluation. but also by the reactivity of the workup procedure. animal studies can merely assess the somatic toxicity of the test compound prior to human experiments.3. the cannabicyclol-type and cannabielsoin-type eannabinoids reported for Cannabis sativa are artificial (Turner et al. A plausible example is the observed correlation between the human central potency of classical anticholinergic hallucinogens like the Datura alkaloid atropine and the abili ty to bloek oxotremorineinduced tremors in laboratory animaIs. animal testing is not very useful. and even when this is the case. the results may weIl be inconclusive. since atropine is the racemic mixture of active l-hyoscyamine and practically inactive d-hyoscyamine (vide 1. it is still too early to assess the predictive value of an animal model. Some pharmacological considerations In the scientific approach to native ritual drugs. but an artifact arising from prolonged extraction with sulfuric acid or chloroform (Rivier 1981). 125 . there is a clear-cut distinction between ethnological field observations and pharmacological test results (Alger 1976). there appears to be no generally applicable method for detecting hallucinogenic activity except by administering an agent to man and observing its effects. In other words.

observed effects must be carefully recorded to allow comparison with future results on the same compound and with clinical data on other substances which are already recognized as hallucinogens. in regular marihuana users. indicated that they were high and some became actually stimulated. but this phenomenon is not observed with hallucinogens in the broader sense (Fanchamps 1978. subjects who had been given placebo cigarettes. ment al condition. In an experiment by Manno et al. as their origin may be peripheral rather than central. Obviously. (1974). All in all.5 mg of 119-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). the only conclusive way to çiistinguish between pharmacological and psychological actions is the cross-over double-blind design. Faillace and Szára 1968.The type and degree of hallucinogenic symptoms depend on individual personality. but thought that they had received marihuana cigarettes. Stark-Adamec et al. but they experienced a higher degree of subjective intoxication from the THC-free extract than from low-potency cigarettes. A simple and objective criterium for hallucinogenic activity would be crosstolerance with LSD. did several subjects question whether they had received marihuana the first time. Nor can these latter symptoms be used indiscriminately as a diagnostic feature. Hereby the subject receives the test drug and a dummy drug (placebo) on two different occasions. the classification of a new compound as a hallucinogen will depend primarily on the integrity and experienced judgement of the clinical investigator and the test subjects. varying in strength from 0 mg to 7. since many non-hallucinogenic drugs are known to affect mood (Schultes and Hofmann 1980b. This might indicate that the THC-free extract contained some other psychoactive constituent. which drug is being taken. Jaffe 1980). Only af ter marihuana cigarettes had been smoked in the next testing session. and they may be less prominent than alterations in thought and mood. and neither the subject nor the investigator knows at the time of administration. 1981). Methodologically. Grinspoon and Bakalar 1981). Hochman and Brill (1971) tested cigarettes withmarihuana extracts. but it mayalso signify that only the 126 . These volunteers reported the greatest intoxication fromthe most potent material. Ethnological reports on the trance-inducing effects of tobacco (Wilbert 1972) attest to the fact that a ritual plant may have effects in the native which are more based on cultural preconditioning than on pharmacological activity. Perceptual changes are not a re1iable criterium. and experimental setting. and they may vary with the dose level (Szára 1961.

the placebo-controlled approach is needed to determine the pharmacological threshold level of the drug. Central stimulation from 0. Other relevant factors include the influence of concom i tant drug use and the mental state of the test subjects. Another point of interest is the duration of the experimental administration.most potent extract exceeded the threshold level needed for a pharmacological intoxication. Such data show that any vegetal drug or constituent which is only mildly psychoactive in uncontrolled studies must be properly compared with a placebo. provide sufficient information.75 mg/kg and 1. Pharmacological data are mostly not obtained by testing the 127 . This may be particularly true. who indulge in drinking alcoholic beverages during occasional ri tual festivi ties. When pharmacological data do not relate to acute effects. unless there is substantial ethnological evidence that the frequency and duration of the native use are equal.2 mg/kg. 1982). For instance.75 mg/kg of cocaine HCl (Van Dyke et al. but also by testing a compound in more than one subject. A similar pattern has been observed in a recent study on the activity of nasal cocaine in healthy recreational users of this alkaloid. and it was only slightly less psychoactive than 0. The validity of clinical data is not only enlarged by the inclusion of a placebo in the experimental design. they should not be applied to native practices. For potent principles. For example. 1967). but to symptoms of prolonged use.2 mg/kg of lidocaine HCl as a placebo. the response to LSD is attenuated by pretreatment with the Rauwolfia alkaloid reserpine and accentuated by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor isocarboxazide (Resnick et al. when the subject is an experienced user of hallucinogenic drugs. but it would be absurd to extrapolate this chronic effect to non-alcoholic natives.5 mg/kg of cocaine HCl was compared wi th that from 0. This local anaestheticinduced a more intense 'high' than did the same dose of cocaine HCl. 0. An experiment in a single individual will seldom. alcohol can induce a psychotic syndrome in alcoholics (Jaffe 1980). It is also known that schizophrenics are less sensitive to the hallucinogenic effects of LSD than normal or neurotic individuals (Fanchamps 1978). It is weIl documented that non-hallucinogenic stimuli may precipitate a flashback phenomenon in individuals with a history of LSD-use (Abraham 1983). if ever. It should be clear that individual experimentation is one thing and that a scientific dose-response study is something else.

Such differences between experimental and native drug uses must be given careful consideration. nitrous oxide. However. such as quaternary ammonium compounds. It must be verified that the amount of active constituent. since passage into the brain and absorption from the gastrointestinal tract are bath processes 128 . In general.1. and beta-carbolines. at least in commercial tobaccos. the trace amounts in which the Virola beta-carbolines occur. which may be taken in another dose and by another route of administration. It must be checked whether there are pharmacological data on the activity via the native route of administration. and there are also hydrocarbons and ketones with deliriant effects. a native dose will be limited by the somatic toxicity of the active constituents. which is present in the usual native dose. show a poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract because of their low lipid solubility.15. Since such compounds have monoamine oxidase inhibiting properties. The difference between oral ingestion in the aboriginal ritual and parenteral injection in the clinical setting could be of particular importance. which are the main alkaloids in indigenously utilized Virola species. Obviously. myristicin. Most experiments are performed with isolated constituents.whole indigenous dosage form via the indigenous route of administration. it is sometimes suggested that they prevent the degradation of hallucinogenic tryptamines. and the dose problem will be especially relevant for trace components. which is commonly known as first-pass metabolism.2). Another example is the presence of beta-carbolines in Virola species. For instance. A parenterally active amount will only be effective via the oral route. that any suggestion of endogenous hallucinogens present in Nicotiana in behaviourally active amounts must be viewed with appropriate caution (Siegel et al. This last phenomenon. there are various compounds with suspected hallucinogenic properties. and is not degraded prematurely. centrally active compounds can be expected to be absorbed weIl. including the opium alkaloid morphine (Routledge and Shand 1979). Some drugs. when the drug is absorbed. 1977). is observed with many drugs. are unlikely to be of pharmacological importance (vide 2. However. such as carbon dioxide. exceeds the threshold level observed in the pharmacological experiment. all of these compounds appear to be present in such small amounts. Other drugs are inactivated by the acid gastric juices or undergo elimination by intestinal or hepatic enzymes before they reach the general circulation. which occur next to a potent major principle. among the numerous identified constituents of tobacco smoke.

which must be aimed at the fate of indigenous drug constituents in the body. however. This is not a pure method to avoid first-pass metabolism. most pharmacokinetic studies perform measurements in a readily accessible body fluid. to the investigation of such processes. it is quite laborious or even impossible to perform direct measurements at a specific site of action in the human body. snuffing (vide chapter two). Although monitoring at these convenient sites has its limitations. urine or saliva.1). oral ingestion is certainly not the only way to elicit ritual intoxication. Consequently poor absorption of hallucinogenic principles would not appear to be a general problem. and this mayalso apply to smoking.1. and smoking (vide Appendix G). For instance. when the juice or the plant material is swallowed (vide 2. the picture is complicated by the possibility that the developing heat may destroy existing components (pyrolysis) and may form new ones (pyrosynthesis). Rectal administration is not generally an adequate method to avoid first-pass metabolism. that first-pass inactivation is not uncommon for naturally occurring hallucinogens. Major non-oral ways are rectal application (vide chapter one). Another Indian practice which may lead to a direct passage into the sytemic circulation is the holding of a chewing quid between the gum and the cheek or lip (Wilbert 1975. 1980. such as blood. but nasal administration can undoubtedly provide a bypass.which require sufficient lipid solubility. On analogy. however. for the beta-carbolines harmine and harmaline. although exceptions might occur. As to the last way of administration. This branch must assess whether adequate concentrations of native drug principles are reached and sustained at their appropriate sites of action. Among the native inhabitants of the western hemisphere. it has proved to be very useful in many 129 . Extensive metabolism and route-dependent activity have been repörted for the tryptamine derivative dimethyltryptamine. Instead. There is substantial evidence to suggest. Plöwman 1981b).7). who have even devoted a special part of their discipline. whereas the 6 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol present in a marihuana cigarette only partially survives the burning process (Ohlsson et al. viz. pharmacokinetics. distribution and elimination on drug act ion has long been recognized by pharmacologists. The substantial influence of drug absorption. In practice. Turner 1980). and for the tropane alkaloid scopolamine (vide 1. ethnopharmacology deserves a branch called ethnopharmacokinetics. the beta-carbolines harman nnd norharman in töbacco smoke are largely formed during smoking (Janiger and Dobkin de Rios 1976).

but it should not be exaggerated either. When an aqueous solution with pure l-hyoscyamine was compared with a fresh extract of Atropa belladonna leaves.2). The most str ik ing example of super iori ty of a whole native dosage form over its isolated principles may weIl be the South American beverage ayahuasca. and Allium cepa. containing mostly Banisteriopsis beta-carbolines like harmine.cases (Rowland and Tozer 1980). Although conclusive clinical evidence has not been published. i t is unfortunate that the experiment was not followed by an in vivo investigation. It is clear from these data "that the influence of accompanying substances should not be neglected. (1969). Such alkaline admixtures may facilitate the absorption of the psychoactive alkaloids through the nasal mucosa (vide 2. together wi th dimethyltryptamine from Psychotria.3. This investigator was able to demonstrate that different fractions derived from the same plant were more secretolytic in combination than alone. there is growing evidence to suggest that the beta-carbolines may protect the dimethyltryptamine from firstpass inactivation by monoamine oxidase A enzymes. An interesting experiment on the difference bet ween a crude hallucinogenic preparation and a pure active constituent has been performed by List et al. Many South American tri bes prepare their intoxicating snuffs by mixing psychoactive vegetal ingredients with lime or plant ash. ipecacuanha root. 1979.1.7.2). In contrast with this 130 . A good ethnopharmacokinetic example is the recent demonstration of substantial cocaine plasma levels in coca chewers (Holmstedt et al. Classical in this respect are the rabbit studies by Hijmans (1961) on the expectorant effects of thyme herb. who measured the permeation of l-hyoscyamine through the isolated small intestine of the rat. thus rendering the tryptamine derivative less inactive orally (vide 1.2. the permeation rate was found to be 70-80% higher in the case of the extract. As it is difficult to assess the clinical significance of this in vitro result. which do not have a systemic action by themselves.1). Paly et al. 1980).1. Hofmann (1982) gave some pills with pure psilocybin to the famous Mexican curandera Maria Sabina who attested that there was no difference in efficacy between the pills and her own psilocybian mushrooms. The pharmacological activity of a naturally occurring mixture may be different from that of the most active isolated constituent or fraction. which puts an end to speculations that cOéaine might be hydrolyzed in the mouth before it is absorbed (vide 2. The activity of a constituent mayalso be modified by other components of the native dosage form.

mexicana must be refuted on the basis of their habitat (de Mille 1980). For example. and the suggestion that these mushrooms could have been P. In India. This may even reach the point where vegetal constituents are assumed out of hand to act in a synergistical manner. As is the case with single drugs. This author described the use and hallucinogenic effects of a smoking mixture consisting of dried mushrooms with the addition of other dried plants as sweeteners. The mushrooms were vaguely suggested to be a Psilocybe species. however. the tamarind fruit is reputed to antagonize the effects of bhang (Cannabis).4. The pharmacological view on hallucinogenic drug rituals must not only consider the influence of accompanying ingredients in the aboriginal dosage form. 3.report. simultaneously. or an hour af ter administration of 6 9 _ tetrahydrocannabinol orally to man. Nothing is less true. possibly P. some ethnological and botanical publications tend to overemphasize the difference between isolated constituents and whole native dosage forms. and in many cases the effects will be additive rather than synergistic.mexicana. This is weIl illustrated by the clinical finding that alcohol adds significantly to the subjective effects of marihuana smoking (Manno et al. d-isolysergic acid amide and lysergol in healthy volunteers merely elicits the combined symptoms of each separate alkaloid. the smoking mixture is unlikely to have contained sufficient psilocybin to elicit the profound effects described by Castaneda. that antagonism mayalso occur. Perhaps the most poignant example why they should never be overlooked is the famous case of the reports by Castaneda (1970. What is more. 1974). but also the concomitant use of other separate drugs. for various publications fail to afford them proper attent ion. It should always be borne in mind. when it was given an hour before. but fictional. 1972). psilocybin is said to be largely degraded during smoking in a 131 . There are substantial scientific reasons to believe that these reports are not authentic. Heimann (1965) showed that a mixture of the ololiuhqui constituents dlysergic acid amide. are so obvious that it may seem superfluous to review them. Concluding remarks Many factors which have been discussed here. there are no voucher specimens. however. For instance. but Hollister (1976) found the fruit to be ineffective in doses up to 180 g. In addition. folkloristic data on combinations should not be accepted without experimental confirmation.

doch verschwanden diese Symptome alsbald nach dem Einziehen von Essigdampf in die Nase und einigen Löffeln Essigs innerlich genommen. wo wir diess Gewürz mit Vorliebe gebrauchten. entspricht. das den säurefähigen Basen in andern Solaneen. it rnay also be hazardous to dismiss field data too rapidly as being inval id. Es ist deshalb wahrscheinlich. This. Since the fruits of most Capsicum forms contain the vèry pungent principle capsaicin (Hegnauer 1973). uns Beiden die übelste Wirkung: plötzliche Kopfschmerzen. welches der Frucht die brennende Schärfe ertheilt vorherrschend in derselben entwickeln könne. 1984). Daturin. Weder früher. Welche äussere Verhältnisse zu dieser Verschièdenheit disponieren. On the other hand. commun. This report does certainly not provide proof that South American Indians could have valued Capsicum for psychoactive properties.pipe.s. but merely extreme local irritation. dass sich bisweilen das sogènannte Capsicin. das narkotische Alkaloid entschiedener hervortritt. während in andern Fällen. by the following passage in a 19th century account of travels in Brazil by the German scientists Spix and Martius (1828): 'Auf der Tafel des gastfreien Pfarrers von Chapada fandenwir eine kleine Art von spanischem Pfeffer (Malaqueta). und sich in reinlichen Porcellanschaalen schon durch die schönrote Farbe empfiehlt. In other words. if proper attent ion had been given immediatelyto dose and to way of administration. 132 . scientific doubts about the authenticity of Castaneda's accounts would have arisen sooner.w. nebst der kleinen grünen sauren Citrone (Limao acedo) das gemeinste Gewürz ist. Schwindel. whereby its availability is further reduced by condensation and deposition on the inner surface of the bowl and stem of the pipe (Siegel 1981). This idea was somewhat unsettled. Hyoscyamin u. Flimmern vor den Augen und alle Zeichen einer narkotisch-scharfen Vergiftung. obgleich die Früchte nicht auffallend scharf waren. dem Atropin. pers. Yet it shows the risk of dismissing such a possibili ty off-hand. welche hier zu Lande.. noch später im Verlaufe der Reise. as the uncommon reaction to the malaqueta might have been due to infestation with a toxin producing fungus (Hegnauer. wie in den unsrigen. wie in ganz Brasilien. however. erfuhren wir ähnliche Wirkung desselben. might be illustrated by an early claim that the South American Makusi Indians used Capsicum as a stimulant and excitant (Roth 1924). Ihr Genuss brachte aber. I was inclined to conclude that a native Capsicum preparation will not produce any psychoactive effect. verdiente eine genaue Untersuchung'.

APPENDICES 133 .

Hewlett-Packard. temperature of the oven isothermal at 100°C for 1 min and programmed at 10°C/min to 260 oe.).5 \ll were used at a helium carrier gaz-flow of 1.3 mm Ld. Lausanne. Palo Alto). Spli t mode lnjections of 1. Switzerland] I. ealculation was made by external standardization of the detector response for each detected compound.3) Isolation of alkaloids Ground dry seed material (200 mg) was extracted with ethanol and a small amount of sodium hydrogen carbonate overnight at room temperature.2-1. In order to check the occurence of minor alkaloids. (1977). Mass spectrometric data for these substances are given bySchultes et al.APPENDIX A PROCEDURES FOR THE CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE MAUË SEEDS AND THE PIAROA SNUFFS by Laurent Rivier [Institute of Legal Medicine. a more sensitive setting of the GC-MS was used. Both retention time and mass spectrum of authentic reference compounds served as criteria for the identification of the unknown compounds. (1977). By using the selective ion monitoring mode (SIM) the detectioncould be increased 20 to 134 . Typical GC conditions used throughout were: SE-54 WCOT fused silica capillary column (25 m x 0. MAUË SEEDS (vide 1. The capillary column was connected directly to the MS source which was kept at 250°C.5 mI/min through the column and a split ratio of 50:1. Repetitive scanning from m/z 40 to m/z 340 was performed at one Scan per sec. The tryptamines that may occur in Anadenanthera seeds were used as reference compounds. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Analyses were carried out on a combined GC-MS instrument (Model 5985A. the residue was dissolved in a suitable amount of ethanol and submitted to gas chromatographical/mass spectrometric procedures comparable to those described by SchuIt es et al. The ion source parameters were set by the Autotune program providing a 70 eV ionization energy and a 300 \lA emission current. Quantitative analyses were performed by using the same analytical conditions. Af ter filtration and evaporation to dryness under nitrogen. Solutions of known concentrations of reference compounds were injected af ter each extract sample.

a more sensitive setting of the GC-MS was used. If the selected peaks emerged 135 . Repetitive scanning from m/z 40 to m/z 340 was performed at one scan per sec. Both retention time and mass spectrum of authentic reference compounds served as criteria for the identification of the unknown compounds.5 IJl were used at a helium pressure of 0.5 kg/cm 2 giving a carrier gaz-flow of 1 mI/min through the column and a split ratio of 50:1.3) Isolation of alkaloids Ground dry snuff material (100-200 mg) was extracted with ethanol overnight at room temperature~ Af ter filtration and evaporation to dryness under nitrogen. If the selected peaks emerged at the expected retention time for the reference compound.ionization energy and a 300 ~A emission current. In order to check the occurence of minor alkaloids. Palo Alto). theo residue was dissolved in a suitable amount of ethanol and submitted to gas chromatographical/mass spectrometric procedures comparable to those described by Schultes et al. The ion source parameters were set by the Autotune program providing a 70 eV . by Agurell et al.3 mm Ld. Appropriate MS peaks of each compound to be detected were chosen and extracts injected. 11. Split mode injections of 1. it was concluded that the substance was present in the extract. PIARDA SNUFFS (vide 2. The tryptamines and beta-carbolines that may occur in South American snuff materials and their source-plants were used as reference compounds.50 fold. (1977). By using the selective ion monitoring mode (SIM) the detectioncould be increased 20 to 50 fold. temperature of the oven isothermal at 100°C for 1 min and programmed at 10°C/min to 240°C. Gas chromatography /mass spectorometry (GC-MS) Analyses were carried out on a combined GC-MS instrument (Model 5985A. Quantitative analyses were performed by using the same analytical conditions. (1969). Appropriate MS peaks of each compound to be detected were chösen and extracts injected. Calculation was made by external standardization of the detector response for each detected compound. and by Rivier and Lindgren (1972). Typical GC conditions used throughout were: SE-54 WCDT fused silica capillary column (25 m x 0.). The capillary column was connected directly to the MS sourceO which was kept at 200°C. Solutions of known concentrations of reference compounds were injected af ter each extract sample. Hewlett-Packard. Mass spectrometric data for these substances are given by Holmstedt and Lindgren (1967).

136 . it was concluded that the substance was present in the extract.at the expected retention time for the reference compound.

The shape. 18b). Fi ve addi tional vases show jugs of the same shape with enema clysters on top or nearby (e. ENEMA JUG: Furst and Coe were the first to recognize a certain shaped pottery jug as a central feature in the enema ritual (1977). One of these scenes includes a clyster. More than 100 Classic period pictures of such jugs are now known for Petén and Campeche-Yucatan style paintings.g. One petén vase and a Petén plate each show a Dance af ter Decapitation Sacrifice dancer carrying an enema jug with a tumpline (native carrying strap around the forehead holding the jug on the back). C. Missouri. In a complex jug preséntation scene (Hellmuth 1976. The jugs can vary in height from . Occasional enema jugs are bound wi th ropes.W. 2). not a sacrifice related portrait) two 137 .APPENDIX B PRINCIPAL DIAGNOSTIC ACCESSORIES OF MAYA ENEMA SCENES by Nicholas M. Hellmuth [Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research. St. The ratio between the rim. United StatesJ 1978. 15h.Louis. 1a-b. Some enema jugs have handlés on the body.possibly of the enema sort . Two jugs .on a Chipoc style painting (R. neck. These paintings of the definite enema clyster in direct association with a pottery container of a specific shape suggest this type of pot was characteristic of the enema ceremony. The two paintings showing the actual enema administration are both on vases of the ··enema jug·· shape. is the distinguishing characteristic. Some throne scenes have two to five jugs. Smith 1952: Fig. The top rim is wide and Sometimes quite thick. revised November 1984 [Figure numbers refer to plate numbers in Appendix C of the thesis] 1. 56) have handles on the neck.I. The direct association between jug type and specific"ritual comes from the Coe scene and from a second Tepeu 1 jug in a private collection (Hellmuth Photo Archive A-313). holding an estimated 4 to 20 liters (1 to 5 gallons) of liquid if filled. not the size. Enema jugs have a neck much narrower than the rim. of ten of varying size. and body dimensions varies widely. Contrib.25 m to over one meter. The neck may either be tal 1 or squat. None of the three Tzakol 3 cylindrical tripods which show enema administration include a jug (or any other ceremonial paraphernalia in the simple scenes (Figs. Fig.

portable jugs. certain jugs are pictured resting securely in pot stands. In the Classic period. Once the basic shape of an enema jug is recognized. wide. They are each about the size of a large. I do not believe they are "copal bags'" 2. no enema symbolism is yet identified in any codex. In one instance a pair of 138 . 17). -ROW IN JUG TOP" of unidentified objects sticks out of the top of some enema jugs (Fig. Enema clysters are easy to identify on vases. Since some enema jugs have round bottoms and thus would have tended to tip over. One painting pictures an enema jug with a lid (Middle American Research Institute. the burial of a ruler closely related to Ruler A in Burial 116. painted with a variety of designs or with a single hieroglyph. standing out 2 to 6 inches. smaller. This fact has led me to recognize that the overall ritual was dedicated to deliberate consumption of large amounts of a certain liquide Taking an enema was only part of a much longer ceremony. Many of the sherds of large jugs found in excavations on thepalace floors of Tikal and of Uaxactun.as the large enema jugs is not yet ascertained. labeled as being from Honduras). These objects are usually in a parallel row. Several enema scenes picture celebrants drinking next to the same jugs from which the clysters are evidently filled. have handles on them and are carried by dancers in the Dance af ter Decapitation. Such jugs sometimes are decorated with Akbal hieroglyphs.monkeys and a deer-like animal each carry enema jugs on netted tumplines. Chemical analysis needs to be done on the residue on the bottoms of excavated jugs. in all those cases where any special use can be determined for these jars. Thê enema manner of ingestion was used af ter the celebrant could take no more orally. that use is associable with enema clysters. bird plurne.or "storage jugs" could in fact have been used in enema rituals. even when they are not inserted into anuses (see Trait 3). Tulane University. They may be of cloth or perhaps even actual plurnes. These objects are not always rigid. Enema jugs may be plain. two can readily be identified from Tikal polychrome vases. one from Temple I's Burial 116. otherwise their constitution is unknown. Thus the jugs which conservative colleagues prefer to term ·-water jugs" does not rule out their simultaneous utilization in the enema ritual. Whether these are portable versions containing the same essentially alchoholic beverage . labeled traditionally in technical pottery monographs as -water jugs. another which I excavated in Burial 196 from Structure 50-73. Although jugs of ten seen in the Dresden Codex have the same general shape as 8th century enema jugs. And.

7a. eaten. Several Yucatecan/Campeche reg ion polychrome paintings on low bowls have fat. 139 . 32b. 33. so the bar can later be sucked. The specimens of Fig. ENEMA CLYSTER. 18b were repainted in Miami and are not accurate in minute detail (the Miami painter misunderstood the bone tube). The whole apparatus is the same size and shape of modern ··ear ·syringes·· used for blowing water into the ear to cleanse them. 16a. rounder. though the overall scene is correct in a general sense. We need to find a painting where these bars are being handled outside of the jug to see their full size. Sometimes a li ttle ··gasket·· can be seen holding the bone tube in place on the bulb. 14b. 11. The long bone tube is clearly pictured in a polychrome painting in the Museo Pop ol Vuh (Fig. These are either a regional variation or a different substance. 16a. 17. 24. A beautiful specimen is pictured in color on the polychrome graffiti at Tikal in the palace buried intact by the Maya under Structure 5E-55 (Orrego and Larios 1983: front cover and Lam. A frequent.stylized ··smoke·· curls issue from the jug through the row of bars. the enema clyster was dipped into the water jug to suck the liquid into the bulb. It is also possible that these are food solids meant to soak into themselves essence already in the enema jug liquid.Coe 1973: Grolier 37). Feline personage 22 on the Grolier Vase of the 31 Gods holds an exellent example (M. 8. 42).A). The bulbous end of the clyster of ten has a nipple-like end. Another naturalistic rendering is in Fig. diagnostic trait of the clyster is the oval or semi-circular black design on the top middle of the bulb. 12a. 3.leaves or segments of a plant steeping in the watery concoction to add flavor or other chemical essence deemed a necessary ingredient for this apparently potent liquide There is though. and perhaps thereby learn something of their content and function. 42). 3. or smoked. Then the enema was either selfadministered (especially during the Early Classic. Hellmuth 1985) or insterted or assisted by a young female attendant (Late Classic). In use. Several scenes picture an enema clyster and a drinking cup or U~thing resting directlyon top of the enema jug. More than 25 other examples are clearly rendered in Petén paintings (Figs. 10. The clyster is most likely formed of a bone tube (which is insterted into the anus) and a squeezable bulb (of native rubber or animal intestine). no proof whatsoever for this hypothesis. nipple-ended objects sticking out from enema jugs. 11. The seashells held by personages 1 and 24 on the same vase includes the same symbol. I postulate that these may be essence bars . Fûrther study of additional examples from privatecollections is needed.

while a spider-monkey-man behind him holds the syringe readyto inject. Yale University. The clyster has its characteristic side decoration.permit ready differentation for the iconographic specialist. palaces. 25). The identification as vomit bib came from a Tepeu 1 bowl in the Museo Popol Vuh (Fig. Af ter I had identified the bibs. Michael Coe accepted the bib identification and pointed out to me that the bib was the same 140 . 4. Musical rattIes may at first be confused with enema syringes.but of course they are worn on the wrong end for that. during a presentation of the enema ritual diagnostics at a lecture. Bleeding af ter mouth torture or tooth pulling is a possibility for Fig. usually a short poli shed sect ion of an animal long bone. But. BIB of overlapping segments of material is the single most diagnostic trait af ter the enema jug and clyster (Figs.in addition to differences in the object itself . 7a-b. The direct association of these b~bs to scenes with enema jugs or syringes is so fixed that I originally termed these -enema bibs. Willey comments on the frequency of such bone tubes: "The bone tube. 24. since they both consist of a bulb on a stick. No enema celebrant ever has two clysters. 24 but is not yet suspected in the other scenes. 13e). and indeed on one bowl a celebrant has his hand near his anus seemingly applying something (Fig. one in each hand (or one rat tIe and one drum (tucked under the arm)) . such as at Yaxchilan. Associations and costumes . middens. is a very typical Maya Lowland artifact(1978:168). and burials are actually the tubes of enema clysters. Anthropologists have recorded that when the Lacandon Maya consume fermented balche beer that the natives normally regurgitate the first sips they take due to the unpleasant and harsh taste of this intoxicating beverage. Regurgitation was a natural result of the excessive drinking which was a prelude to the enema (Figs. ca.To get a rigid bone tube into the anus could have been painful without a preliminary lubricant. Artistic portrayal of bleeding after tongue sacrifice is not documented even in scenes of known relationship to tongue piercing. 27). 17). and the person holding a rat tIe will not usually wear the clothing of an enema participant or attendant. of History of Art. which to him (before the Furst and eoe artiele) were of then unknown function.the standard arrangements for rattIe musicians. 1978-79. I suspect that many of the deer bone tubes found in excavations of Maya tempIes. 25.. enema clysters never have pendants or attached decorations as do musical rattIes. Dept. Late Classic paintings demonstrate that most of the "enema" ceremony involved ritualized preliminary drinking and toasting. 13a-c.

size, shape, and of the same material as the turbans worn in the same enema scenes. From this observation I suggest the term bibturban (when worn on the head) or turban-bib (when worn as a bib). The Whipple Vase and a vessel in a West Berlin museum each show the turban-bib held by a female attendant near the man who will be dressed. These special items of dress are made of hundreds of overlapping segments of unidentified material. On some paintings the segments look like feather ends, in other paintings like flower petals. They could also be bits of painted cloth, The suspicion that perhaps the little oval units of the bib construction might possibly be flower petals (or painted copies on cloth) comes from the overlapping pattern of suspected flowers on sterns in bouquets being sniffed in certain throne room enema scenes. One of the pots I excavated from Tikal Burial 196 shows a suspected bouquet of flowers or leaves in a wicker basket next to a small enema jug. In the only scene yet found where the contents of the enema jug i tself are pictured (when the jug is turned upside down and emptied) comparable little overlapping units are coming out of the jug (Fig. 4). When the accessory is worn as a bib, then an enema ceremony is thereby identified. When worn as a turban (especially in Chama style paintings) an enema ceremony is not necessarily being enacted. 5. U-THING: a Red Band style, Tepeu 1 bowl in the Museo Popol Vuh shows three enema enactments, each with two net-headdressed God N devotees on either side of a large 5 gal. enema jug (Fig. 7a-b). Two of the jugs have clearly identifiable enema syringes on top. All three jugs include an enigmatic U-shaped thing on top also. Since other enema jugs picture drinking cups on top (with or without an adjacent enema clyster) perhaps the U-things are just a special shape of drinking cup. Three of the celebrants hold identical U-shaped things as though they were going to eat them - or drink out of them. A woman on the Whipple Vase holds a U-thing while she applies make-up (?) to an enema participant. Whatever its use, it appears restricted to enema scenes. 6. OFFERING BALLS: On the right of the throne in the Princeton 7 scene is a ceramic container with five little balls which Coe correctly identifies as ··offerings.·· Wi th the advantage of a photographic archive of other Maya paintings from private collections and museums it is now possible to relate this bowl to others, and then to use this identification to recognize the same balls on vases of the traditional corpus, such as on a Tikal Burial 116 vase under a lord's throne. In the adjacent panel is another throne with an enema jug underneath it. This ceramic 141

container in the palace scene has tripod supports and con ta ins the same little oval offerings as on a lively presentation of enema celebrants, a syringe, enema jug with stick bundle (Fig. 17) (see i tem 7, next). I suspect the offering balls were edible. They may have a little semi-circle painted at their tops, sometimes just like the design on the enema clyster. A bowl possibly from Campeche shows a man seated in front of a large enema jug holding a large bowl (different than the plat es with the offering balls) full of what seems to be comparable offering balls, except here they seem almost to be some kind of fruit. Four of the identical round objects are sticking out of the top of an enema jug in the same position that essence bars are normally found. Still another Campeche or Yucatan bowl has two more clearly defined balls right on top of the jug with the diagnostic little split or semi-circle (really a thin ""U""), These little balls may well be to steep in the enema liquid to impart essence, or to soak up essence already in the jug's liquide 7. STICK BUNDLES are pictured just below the bowl of offering balls on the scene wi th a Holmul Dancer backrack. These sticks are in two bundles projecting out of a medium sized enema jug. A man holds a clyster nearby and several other attendants wear vomit bibs. On a vase in a West Berlin museum a woman (wearing clothing wi th a painted, tabbed ""turtle carapace"" symbol associated with enema attendants, see diagnostic trait 12) offers a bundle of sticks to a man. On a Dance af ter Decapitation vase (Fig. 33) the sticks are again projecting out ,of an enema jug, here carried by a feline actor with turban-bib and with a syringe strapped onto his belt front. He looks like a drug peddler coming into town with his wares. Any such sticks as these would traditionally be identified as perforators, especially for bloodletting by penis perforation. But so far no personal bloodletting is associated with the enema ceremony. The only blood is from occasional decapitation. Since in two cases the stick bundles are inside the enema jug, possibly again they are steeping or soaking up some flavor or stimulant. They seem too thin to be cigars. but tobacco should not be ruled out. Their identity and function is unclear. Are the little bundles held in Grolier 43 (non-enema scene) and contained in a serving dish in Grolier 48 (a definite enema jug scene) the same? We can only hope to find in a private collection a painting where these sticks are being handled in some manner where their full size and shape is clearer. So far they are partially obscured by the container in which they are held. 8. DRINKING CUPS in a variety of sizes and shapes are held by enema attendants and celebrants in many scenes. The normal 142

pattern is two men on either side of an enema jug drinking and toasting one another for some time before actually receiving an enema. Of ten atractive young ladies serve the cups. Obviously drinking cups are so common in other non-enema contexts that the mere presence of a drinking cup is not enough to identify a scene as related to an enema unless the celebrants are wearing a bib. Paintings often show a drinking cup resting on top of the enema jug. It is possible that U-things (Trait 5) are a special form of drinking cup. The Cholula murals of the drunkards is certainly similar to many of the drinking scenes around enema jugs on Maya polychromes (Artes de Mexico, Ano XVIII, No. 144,1971). 9. PELLETS: is a general name for small unidentified objects. In two or three scenes with enema jugs the celebrants are popping little pellets or cookie sized edibles into their mouth. The way they hold these items so reverently as they eat them, the general posture of the celebrant in his setting, suggests that these little snacks are either mighty tasty or else pack quite a stimulating effect upon ingestion into the body system. My original notes nicknamed these ··ecstasy cookies·· but that term of course could not be objectively substantiated. The pellets are so small that it was hard for the Maya artist to add any symbols to aid in the identification of their content or meaning. 10. CIGARS are smoked in several enema rituals (figs. 12c; 13bc), but are so widely used elsewhere that they are not diagnostic of the enema ceremony. Robicsek's book describes the effects of smoking a Mesoamerican cigar. 11. PETAL BOUQUETS on long sticks are held by lords and attendants in several throne scenes where enema jugs are nearby. That they are in fact pleasantly scented flowers is suggested by a little bird hovering over a bouquet on Grolier 28 (not an enema scene) and also by one vase where the lord seems to be sniffing at the bouquet. Did the Maya also take stimulating snuff? If sa, they consumed drugs through every opening of their body except their ears. Their ears received stimulants from pulsating drum and rattIes. The traditional tendency in Maya academia to render conservative interpretations is inappropriate in a situation such as the highly evolved Maya rituals which involved a total chemical assault on every sense organ from a wide variety of stimulants administered in sequence. We must also remember that certain of these drinking and injecting rituals took place before the bloody sacrifice of babies (Hellmuth 1978: 212 and two other vases, unpublished, Hellmuth Photo Archive) as weIl as of adults followed by a gory dance of crazed priests and ritual attendants. 12. BUMP OUTLINED DECORATIONS ON WOMEN'S HUIPILS are 143

noticeable on enema related scenes (Hellmuth Photo Archive A358a; 456981-66 (West Berlin); and 48667-2), Some stylized water lilies (in other, unrelated scenes) have the water lily pad with the same pattern of bumps around the edge. 13. CONGLOMERATE MONSTER GOD HUT is a special construction seen three times in front of enema rituals, on the Whipple Vase (Fig. 18a), on the other side of Fig. 22 (Hellmuth Photo Archive A358a); and on the other side of Fig. 21 (Hellmuth Photo Archive 486667-2). This hut is composed of a stack of monster faces. Whereas the Whipple Vase is totally overlined and partially recreated in Miami, discovery of the other two untouched Maya paintings in original condition certifies reality of the overall layout of the Whipple Collection scene. PARTICIPANTS Standardized enema ceremony participants include: (a) Water Lily Jaguar is as frequent in enema jug scenes as he is in Dance aftel' Decapitation paintings though his costume may be different in each situation. For the Dance aftel' Decapitation he wears a red or orange scarf. For the enema ritual he wears a turban-bib. Several Tepeu 1 multiple resist style paintings show one of each feline together (private collection, Zurich), demonstrating that the two costumes are both separate yet can be worn in a combined ritual - an enema associated with sacrifice. That i t is a human actor wearing a costume is clear from another vase where the celebrant's head sticks out from his feline costume (Hellmuth 1978:210, upper left). (b) Spider Monkey is as common in enema jug scenes as he is in Dances af ter Decapitation. In death ceremonies, though, the monkey conflates with a deer, and may wear a red or orange scarf, or carry a fruit-like object. In enema scenes the monkey more likely has an enema turban-bib and may wear a loincloth (Figs. 13a-e). The deer is not as prominent in enema scenes as is the monkey, except where God D is present. (c) Drug bird is distinguished by a beak with fat, out-turned end. This beak is unlike any real bird yet this avian character is present in at least four enema scenes. Hellmuth 1978:210 illustrates one. On a matched set of two nearly identical Late Classic Petén plates an anthropomorphic dancer in net weave body stocking (yet not in this case a God N) has one of these special bird beaks attached to his face. Of the many different birds in enema rituals, this is the easiest character to recognize. (d) Enema birds in general are more common in highland Guatamalan paintings (Fig. 9), but birds do occur on petén plates together wi th enema jug drinking scenes. One Late Classic plate in the 144

Denver Art Museum has highland type bird celebrants next to enema jugs. Some of the birds shake musical rattIes, just as on the series of highland vases (one of which is in the American Museum of Natural History, New York). Altogether at least five different species of birds are represented in this group of highland vase paintings and other species are sure to be recognized as additional vases become available for study. Whereas birds in Dance af ter Decapitation scenes tend to be raptorial, have slit stomachs, or carry snakes, enema birds tend to be simplier and more anthropomorphic. Birds also occur in lowland paintings, as on a Red Band style bowl (Fig. 12b). (e) Big lipped frogs are dominant personages on one Tepeu 1 enema scene (Fig. 13a). One holds a giant water lily in his lap. The frogs on this one bowl have large, round eyes and thick, almost bird-beak like lips. Other frogs, but differing in anatomical and mythical detail, appear on the Vase of the 31 gods (Grolier 37). In some of these 7th-8th century paintings it is hard to distinguish between toads and frogs, or even iguanas. (f) Other animals appear in enema scenes. One may be an armadillo (Fig. 12b). The Vase of the 31 Gods (Grolier 37) pictures other beasts. Since every rendering is a little bit different it is difficult to ascertain whether the differences are stylistic or anatomical. (g) Rain Beast is the name given by eoe to the officiating deity on the Whipple Vase. He is generally considered to be GI (though eoe keeps them separate). (h) God N or devotee is the principal celebrant. A full-fledged God N is elderly and wears a conch shell (or turtle shell or snail shell). A devotee may be of any age, and shows his devotion to the God N cult by wearing net weave napkin headdress (Figs. 7a-b; 9b). God N, and devotees, appear in many other ceremonies besides those related to enemas. (i) God D (Fig. 14c), especially when seated on a planetary band throne of ten has enema jugs associated with him (Fig. 15). This elderly slouching god may have a rabbit or young woman (the Moon Goddess most likely) on the throne behind him. God D appears in many scenes other than those related to enemas. He appears himself, rather than in the guise of devotees. (j) Women wearing huipils decorated with bump-outlined forms are diagnostic of enema attendants.

145

All the while the men continue drinking from cups dipped into the enema jugs. of ten with an attractive young female attendant. 40.·· Actually. They keep drinking to a state of intoxication. 38 [God D is on other sideJ). generally with animals (Figs. (Fig. B) multi-actor settings but still with minimal costumes (Fig. The participants also make use of 146 . 21. with gourd rattIes.DISTINCTIVE RITUAL TYPES WHICH EMPLOYED ENEMAS AS PART OF LaNGER ENACTMENTS. 21. felines. 28. With small cups the celebrants dip into the jugs. fill their containers. 23). 35). 15. In the background a musical group plays. and applying make-up to the men who will receive the clyster. massaging. 36) • C) With God N devotees. 22 [on the other sideJ). 14. 27. Two specially dressed men seat themselves on either side of a giant enema jug. and female attendants (Figs. Celebrants or attendants costumed as deer. Inside the hut reigns the supervising or honored deity. 32. 31. 42). 20. and spider monkeys dance in bearing additional jugs in tumblines. and small drums. F) By God D (Figs. other side. 24 [Type E alsoJ. Hellmuth Photo Archive 486667-2). 16th-17th century Spanish chronicIers document that such alcohol consumption was a standard part of Maya rituals. a form of communication with their gods. 34). undressing. Based on more than 50 Late Classic scenes. All of this interaction takes place in front of a Monster Face Conglomerate ··God Hut. E) As part of the Dance af ter Decapitation Sacrifice (Figs. 18. which shares many features wi th Type D. Two paintings picture the women holding the bib-turban ready to dress the man nearby. 24 [aspects of Type DJ. 22. Other bizarrely costumed characters also appear. 13. fanning. costuming. 17. 19. in one case a God K-like supernatural. 33. A clyster and drinking cup are ready on top of the container of special drink. 16. and drink. Women attend to the pre-enema preparation. Type C. I propose the following hypothetical reconstruction of the ceremony. in two cases GI (Whipple Vase and the vase of Fig. turtle carapace rasped with deer antIer. As catoIoging of photographs continues additional categories of enema ritual can be classified. There is not really just one ··enema ritual. enemas were taken in: A) plain palace settings with minimal special costumes and pagentry (Figs. 12.· a ceremonial structure of perishabIe material. D) As complex enema rituals. One purpose was to induce visions. 11. of ten with the Cauac Monster God Hut. 7. 5.

As a final event. The multiple-resist Tepeu 1 vases (Figs. The Vase of the 31 Gods (Grol ier 37) depicts a variant. Chiapas (Nuestra Senora de los Dolores de Lacandon. Aztec excesses are simply bet ter documented. eating pellets and balls of potential stimulating action. 16 and 35 show the simpler. 147 . would certainly affect them.1710) had attendants whose job it was to keep the caciques drinking and intoxicated four days in a row for a single ceremony (Margil de Jesus 1984).spec ial li ttle ··cook ies·· and ··U-things·· (ei ther another edible or make-up material). The Cholti-Lacandon of Sac Balam. and even more complicated enema ritual. We cannot discount the effect of music and dance. getting ready to take off their loincloth apron. present the combined enema ritual together with the Dance af ter Decapitation Sacrifice. the men recline and bend over to receive the enema. 31. 1694-ca. Maya polychrome paintings at last make available for the Maya what Spanish chronicles and Aztec codices long ago provided for central Mexico. with the female attendants behind them. At a certain point the God N devotees parade near their enema jugs. 42). and bare breasted young females may not have gone entirely unnoticed either. 25. 28. 27. or by the women. And the Maya were religious all year long. featuring God D (though not a sky band God D type enactment). 32) and the same ceremony on vases of other styles (Figs. combined with Landa's and Margil de Jesus' comments on native Maya alchoholic consumption in religious rituals to recognize that drinking in the Maya palace reached high levels comparable to that of ancient Greece and Rome. Type A enema administration. The devotees render obsequience to the god in the conglomorant hut. 24. if not more. Figs. Flower-like bouquets are offered and sniffed and potent cigars are smoked continuously. Imagine what condition they were in on the morning af ter a four day ceremony. not to mention other stimulants not found in a Havanna puro or in a Marlboro. and then injecting chemical sub stances directly into their body through an enema clyster. administered themselves. Considering that at the same time the Maya were smoking native cigars of considerable potency in nicotine alone. Ecstatic states can be obtained through suggestive music and dance alone. I feel it is a fair conclusion from the frequency of drinking scenes on Maya pottery.

Revised edition of Tozzer (1913) ORREGO. 14. Peabody Museum. 1 of Excavations at Seibal. Vol.ADDITIONAL REFERENCES [Other than those already cited in the dissertation bibliography] HELLMUTH. Department of Petén. 148 . No. Harvard University. 1985 cylindrical tripods MARGIL DE JESUS 1984 (Frank Comparato. parque Nacional Tikal. Memoirs. Nicholas 1976 Tzakol and Tepeu Maya Pottery Drawings. editor). 1. No. Cambridge. WILLEY. Instituto de Antropologia e Historia de Guatemala. Miguel and Carlos Rudy LARlOS 1983 Reporte de las investigaciones arqueologicas en el grupo 5E11 Tikal. Mass. Gordon 1978 Artifacts. Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research. Los Angeles. Guatemala.

Painted polychrome Maya tripod bowl. probably Tepeu 1. PLATE 2. Several males have a bib around their neck. and some of them are wearing this garment as a headdress. PLATE 3. information on time period.APPENDIX C A PICTORIAL APPROACH TO ENEMA SCENES ON ANCIENT MAYA POTTERY [All plat es originate from the archive of the Foundation for Latin American Anthropological Research (SLLouis. Present location: private collection. Previous publications are sometimes indicated. Description: Both sides show a personage bending forward. except plate 3 (Peter Furst). Painted polychrome Maya cylindrical tripod. present location and condition is given on basis of personal communications by Nicholas Bellmuth in 1984. Two other males have an enema syringe tucked into the belt (top Jeft and bot tom right). One of the females is inserting a syringe into the anus of her companion (bottom middle). who is giving himself an enema (1a. and a second male is himself performing this task (top right). Time period: Early classic. but no attempt has been made to be exhaustive. Painted polychrome Maya pot. Previous publication: Furst and Coe 1977. (Tentative) provenanee: Petén. 1b). Most females are holding an U-shaped object in the hand. Bruxelles) and plate 41 (John Justeson). Guatemala. (tentative) provenanee.J PLATE 1. plate 1). Description: A personage bending forward is giving himself an enema (cf. Time period: Late classic. 149 . Missouri). Guatemala. (Tentative) provenanee: Petén. Condition: feet are broken off. there are nine jugs with painted dots at their mouth. Plate 3b is a painting of the whole vase by Diane Peck. Time period: Early classic. Present location: private collection. Where possible. Present location: private collection. plate 40 (Royal Museums of Art and History. (Tentative) provenanee: Petén. Between the couples. It shows seven pairs of a male and a female. Guatemala. Description: Plate 3a shows the actual shape of the vase. Previous publication: Robicsek 1978.

Painted polychrome Maya bowl. Guatemala. Time period: Late classic. Present location: private collection. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Present location: private collection. PLATE 7. (Tentative) provenance: Yucatan. Between the top a repetitive band. Tepeu 1. Carved Maya bowl.and some of them offer a bib to and bottom. Mexico. a glyph appears in suggests that this glyph may be and adds the speculative notion sphincter muscle. (Tentative) provenance: Campeche or Yucatan. which are emitting dotted lines. Mexico. Time period: Late classic. 150 . Time period: Late classic. Tepeu 1. PLATE 5. probably Tepeu 1. Time period: Late classic. which are flanked by two males wearing bibs (7a. PLATE 6. Guatemala City. Painted polychrome Maya bowl (Red Band style). Description: The scene shows a large jug with a probable syringe on top (8a) and seated figures holding a bowl full of large black-eyed forms (8a. Present location: Museo Popol Vuh. Time period: Late classic. Painted polychrome Maya bowl. Previous publication: Robicsek 1978. Description: A personage is pouring black-eyed circular forms out of a jug. On U-shaped jug PLATE 8. one side of the bowl. that it represents an anal PLATE 4. Coe (1978) the sign for the enema ri tual. Guatemala. and there is also an enema syringe on top of the (7a) • object 7b). Painted polychrome Maya bowl. Present location: private collection. 8b). their companion. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Present location: private collection. Guatemala. (Tentative) provenance: petén or Motagua. Description: The scene shows large jugs with an U-shaped on toP. Description: A seated figure is surrounded by two large jugs. the right male is holding a second object. Description: A jug emitting scrolls is flanked by an indeterminate creature (left) and a Water Lily Jaguar (right).

Description: The centre of the scene shows a large jug with small circular forms on top of it. Condition: possibly repainted. A large jug is shown between them. Time period: Late classic. Painted Maya vase (Codex style). this personage is probably God N. Present location: private collection. Guatemala. while the right part shows a smaller jug.PLATE 9. two males are gathered around a huge enema syringe. Time period: Late classic. commun. The jug is flanked by a large black bird (left) and another animal (right). (Tentative) provenance: Guatemala. It is surrounded by two males. Description: A large jug with a syringe on top of it is flanked by a canine creature (left) and by a male holding a drinking cup (right). PLATE 12. Tepeu 1. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Present location: private collection. 151 . (Tentative) provenance: Highlands. A personage is either painted on the jug or sitting next to it. Guatemala. Time period: Late classic. again with small circular forms on top (12c). Present location: private collection. out of which evidently something is pouring (12a). Left of this scene. A male is painted on the jug or sitting in front of it. (Tentative) provenance: petén or adjacent area. Previous publication: Robicsek 1978. (Tentative) provenance: ? Present location: private collection. Description: A bird-like creature holding a probable enema syringe (9a) is being offered a cup by a second bird-like creature (9b). PLATE 10. According to Coe (pers. Painted polychrome Maya bowl (Red Band Style). and dotted lines are coming out of it (12b). the left one holding a possible enema syringe. 1985). Description: There is a large jug with a probable enema syringe on top of it. Time period: Late classic. Painted polychrome Maya vase. PLATE 11.

each of them with a cigarette from which scrolls are being emitted (13b middle. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Besides the jug. 13c middle. There are four of such indeterminate creatures in the scene (13b left. Time period: Late classic. Time period: Late Classic. Previous publications: Anonymous 1976b. Under the throne. Several personages are wearing a bib. Time period: Late classic. He is kneeling next to a jug with a probable enema syringe on top of it. 152 . One of them is holding something that might be a water lily flower in his hand (13b left). 13e left). Description: God D is seated on a throne (cf. New York. PLATE 14.PLATE 13. RObicsek 1978. PLATE 15. Hellmuth (1978) suggests that they are frogs. Painted polychrome Maya vase. who also has a jug in front of him with a possible syringe on top (13d right). Guatemala. there is a plate filled with segmented rectangular forms (1 4b) . who are kneeling in fornt of God D on a throne (14c). Present location: private collection. plate 140). 14b). 1984. there are four monkeys. Out of the objects the same scrolls are coming as out of the cigarette held by one of the Jaguars. Painted polychrome Maya bowl. Present location: private collection. (Tentative) provenanee: Petén. One of the smoking monkeys seems to hold up an enema syringe. 13b right. 13c right. Tepeu 1. 13c left. Besides the Jaguars. but this view is not shared by Robicsek (1978). jugs are depicted with plume-like forms coming out of them. Present location: Museum of the American Indian. 13e right). Description: The scene shows two males (14a. Guatemala. Hellmuth 1978. while the figure in front of him is conspicuously holding his hand near his anus (13e middle). The left male has a cup in his hand and a cigarette in his mouth (14a). Tepeu 2. 13e middle). Guatemala. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Description: The scene shows three Water Lily Jaguars with objects that might be small jugs at the tip of their tail (13a middle. 13d middle. Tepeu 2. Torres 1984. (Tentative) provenance: petén. Previous publications: de Smet 1981b. The other one is holding a deer antI er in his left hand.

there are two pairs of a male and a female. The lower servant holds up a mirror to the male who is apparently painting his face. They are almost identical to the one. possibly apaintpot. Previous publications: Torres 1984. three monsters are playing a musical instrument (18d). Description: Two persons are sitting around a jug. Condition: repainted. Above the enema jug stands a tripod full of large circular forms (cf. Description: In the left part of the centra 1 scene (18b). and there i s a smaller jug under the throne (16b). Guatemala. Guatemala. The females have their hands tucked under the armpits of the companion. Present location: private collection. Mexico or Petén. who are facing two males (middle). The up per male is fanned by his servant. filled with bundIes of stick-like forms (cf. Time period: Late classic. accompanied by two other females (right). Previous publications: Coe 1978. Time period: Late classic. PLATE 18. a drum (bottom left). Hellmuth 1978. who is sitting in a hut on the Ie ft (18a). out 153 . and a turtle shell struck with a deer antler (bottom left). Description: Two large jugs are standing next to a throne. He has a jug in front of him and the female behind him offers him a bib. Guatemala. there are two jugs with enema syringes on top. and scrolls are being emitted from one of the syringes (bottom). Present location: private collection. (Tentative) provenanee: Petén. Tepeu 2. Painted polychrome. The right part of the centra 1 scene (18c) shows two female servants (left side). Maya vase. He has an U-shaped object in his left hand. plate 18d). (Tentative) provenanee: Petén. The orchestra instrumentarium consists of a rattIe (top). on which a male with a large enema syringe in his hand is seated (16a). A female companion is offering a bowl to the male (16c). and who seems to be their conductor. Painted polychrome Maya vase. According to Coe (1978).PLATE 16. Behind the central figures. Present location: private collection. There is a jug with a syringe on top. plate 14b). PLATE 17. In front of the males. Coe (1978) identifies all the four males as God N. Time period: Late classic. The left person is holding an enema syringe. (Tentative) provenance: Campeche. Painted polychrome Maya vase. they may represent Rain Beasts.

Tepeu 2. Description: Bath sides of the vase show males standing in front of a jug (22a. (Tentative) provenanee: Guatemala. Condition: possibly repainted. Behind him a female is standing. all of which show females undressing males (plates 19-23). 20b). apparently untying his loincloth (21b) (cf. 22b). PLATE 20. Torres 1984. Guatemala. This vase painting is one of a series. while a female companion is untying his loincloth (19b). Description: A male is standing in front of a large jug with a syringe and a drinking cup on top of it (19a). Description: A male Is standing in front of a jug. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Painted polychrome Maya vase. who appear to untie their loincloth (cf. A tripod filled with oval forms is shown in front of him. Description: Both sides of the vase show a male standing in front of a jug with a drinking cup on top (20a. PLATE 19.of which scrolls are coming. plate 19). who appears to untie his loincloth (cf. (Tentative) provenanee: Petén. The male is followed by a female. 154 . PLATE 22. PLATE 21. plate 19). out of which scrolls are being emitted (21a). Time period: Late classic. The netted head-dress of the males indicates that they represent God N's or his devotees. Present location: private collection. Condition: repainted. behind the rattle player. They are followed by females. Time period: Late classic. Present location: private collection. (Tentative) provenanee: Guatemala. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. plate 19). Previous publications: Robicsek 1978. Present location: private collection. Tepeu 2. Time period: Late classic. Time period: Late classic. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Guatemala. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Present location: private collection.

Previous publication: Coe 1982. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Time period: Late classic. plate 19). PLATE 27.PLATE 23. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. (Tentative) provenance: ? Present location: private collection. PLATE 25. Condit1on: repainted. Guatemala City. Tepeu 2. Time period: Late classic. who appears to untie his loincloth (cf. Present location: private collection. Description: A jug with a possible enema syringe on top is surrounded by a vomiting creature (left) and a Water Lily Jaguar (right). Painted polychrome Maya vase. Description: This part of the vase shows a bird (top). PLATE 26. Guatemala. Description: A vomiting Water Lily Jaguar with a bib around his neck is stand ing next to a jug wi th a cup on top of it. Painted polychrome Maya bowl. Tepeu 1. Present location: private collect1on. Painted polychrome Maya bowl. Painted polychrome Maya vase. followed by a female. Time period: Late classic. apparently to fill up a drinking cup or enema syringe. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Description: A b1b-wearing male has his hand in a large jug. (Tentative) provenanee: ? Present location: private collection. (Tentative) provenanee: Petén. probably Tepeu 1. Time period: Late classic. Description: A male is standing in front of a jug. probably Tepeu 1. Condition: repainted. Guatemala. Time period: Late classic. 155 . Coe (1982) identifies this lat ter personage as God A'. Guatemala. Present location: Museo Popol Vuh. PLATE 24. and a male vomiting over an enema syringe (bot tom). an animal with canine and rodent features (middle). Previous publication: Hellmuth 1978.

Painted polychrome Maya vase (Multiple Resist). (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Time period: Late classic. Painted polychrome Maya vase. The lat ter character is a common participant in scenes representing a special dance performed af ter human sacrifice. while the other side displays a Dance after Death Jaguar. Guatemala. Description: One side of the vase shows a Water Lily Jaguar wearing a bib (31a). Tepeu 2. PLATE 29. plate 156 . Guatemala. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Description: A Water Lily Jaguar (29b) is standing in front of a large jug full of stick-like forms. There is a vaguely painted jug in front of him (30b). The other side shows a Water Lily Jaguar (32b). Description: One side of the vase shows a male holding a brush or some other flexible object in each hand. This vase therefore raises the possibility of arelation between the enema ritual and the dance after death ritual (cf. The other side shows a giant toad. Time period: Late classic. Description: On one side of the vase. on top of which there are circular forms (29a). Time period: Late classic. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Present location: private collection. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Present location: private collection. Description: A Water Lily Jaguar is wearing a bib and holding a drink ing cup. who has tucked a jug under his left arm (32a). a smoking male is seated. Painted polychrome Maya vase. PLATE 30. Guatemala.PLATE 28. Guatemala. plate 32). He is seated in front of a jug (30a). He is wearing a red-orange scarf.or frog-like monster. which is characteristic of a Dance af ter Death Jaguar (cf. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Time period: Late classic. Guatemala. Time period: Late classic. character ized by his red-orange scarf (31 b). (Tentative) provenance: Petén. characterized by the 'ear' with three dots. PLATE 31. Painted polychrome Maya vase (Multiple Resist). Tepeu 1. PLATE 32. Present location: private collection. Present location: private collection. Tepeu 1. Present location: private collection.

Description: The scene shows large jugs (36a. who is being offered a probable cup by aservant. PLATE 35. Denver. PLATE 33. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Description: A bib-wearing jaguar is carrying a jug full of pointed forms in his backpack. he carries a portable jug which is commonly seen in Dance af ter Death scenes. Guatemala. Present location: private collection. Present location: Denver Art Museum. Time period: Late classic. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. In his left hand. (Tentative) provenance: Campeche. Description: The middle of the plate shows a male on a throne. 36b) and a man holding a bouquet-like object close to his face (36a far left). Painted polychrome Maya vase. Guatemala. he may be wearing a bib. One of the jugs is flanked by musicians with rattles and a drum (rim left). Condition: repainted. Present location: private collection. Time period: Late classic.31). The rim shows jugs with things sticking out of them and personages holding drinking cups. Painted polychrome Maya plate. Time period: Late classic. Mexico or Petén. is standing next to a large jug with a row of things on top of it. Time period: Late classic. PLATE 34. Guatemala. A possible enema syringe is sticking out of his belt. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Tepeu 2. 157 . Guatemala. The simultaneous occurrence of objects characteristic for the enema scenes and for Dance af ter Death scenes raises the possibility of arelation between the two rituals (cf. plate 31). Previous publication: Hellmuth 1978. Description: A man who is sniffing or closely looking at a bouquet-like object. Painted polychrome Maya vase. and in his right hand he is holding a possible enema syringe. PLATE 36. Present location: private collection. but under this scarf.

Painted Maya vase (Codex style). Time period: Late classic. Present location: Museo Popol Vuh. a jaguar is carrying a syringe and a jug. Painted polychrome Maya bowl. (Tentative) provenance: central Petén. Hellmuth (pers. Tepeu 2. thereby spilling its contents. (Tentative) provenance: Highlands or Motagua. Description: A female is carrying a jug. commun. PLATE 42. Description: A female holding an animal is seated on a throne. Condition: possibly repainted. Previous publication: Robicsek and Hales 1981. PLATE 38. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Present location: private collection. A jug is standing in front of her and other jugs are seen under the throne. (Tentative) provenance: ? Present location: Royal Museums of Art and History. Painted Maya vase. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Guatemala. Time period: Late classic. Charlotte. Previous publication: Hellmuth 1978. PLATE 40. 1984) identifies her as the Moon Goddess holding a rabbit. Guatemala. The lat ter ones show black-eyed circular forms on top of smaller plain ones. Time period: Late classic. Guatemala. PLATE 41. Painted polychrome Maya vase. Description: A large jug appears to be tumbling over. (Tentative) provenance: ? Present location: private collection. Description: An animal is carrying a small jug. Time period: Late classic. (Tentative) provenance: Petén. Tepeu 2. Time period: Late classic. her sexual companion. Guatemala. Present location: ? Description: A large jug with protruding rod-like objects (41b) is surrounded by an animal personage (41a) and a human figure (41c) with a cup in their hand. Guatemala City. Description: On the right.PLATE 37. Present location: Mint Museum of Art. Time period: Late classic. 158 . Bruxelles. PLATE 39. (Tentative) provenance: Petén.

Painted polychrome Maya bowl. 159 . Guatemala.PLATE 43. Description: A mammal is jumping out of a jug. Time period: Late classic. Present location: private collection. (Tentative) provenance: Petén.

Assen. van der Boon [Pharma Bio-Research International.. methanol 4%.i.V. 280 nm R=0. Model 441 U. and the organic layer was transferred to a centrifuge tube with a conical bottom and evaporated at 55°C under nitrogen.s.~m. Integrates: Spectra Physics. SP 4100j Column: Merck.: 4. The chromatographical conditions were: room temperaturej flow rate: 1.V. type M45. Injection sytem: Waters. Detector: Waters.05%. catalogue number: 50388. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) --rhe HPLC system consisted of the following components: Pump: Waters.0 mI of dichloromethane were added. n-heptane 41%. The tube was vortexed for 2 min and centrifuged for 5 min at 4900 t. 100 ~l of the internal standard solution (D4030 50 mg/l in water). Hibar column packed with Lichrosorb Si60-5 ~m.01. composi tion of mobile phase: chloroform 55%. length: 250 mm. The water phase was removed.APPENDIX D PROCEDURE FOR THE PLASMA LEVEL DETERMINATIONS OF CAFFEINE by Jan H. LD.0 ml/m in. The residue was resolved in 1000 ~l of the mobile phase by vortexing for 30 sec. 160 . The NetherlandsJ Extraction procedure 100 ~l of plasma was brought in a centrifuge tube of 5 mI.G. wisp 710B.. 100~1 of water. 10 ~l was injected into the HPLC system. 100 ~l of ammonium sulphate solution (saturated) and 3.0 mmo The sample was concentrated wi th the aid of the sample concentrator type SC-3 of Techne. pressure: 1300 p. and acetic acid 0. Jonkman and Wim J.

Calibration curves were obtained by proceeding standard solutions in the same way as the plasma samples. Typical GC conditions used throughout were: SE-54 WCOT fused silica capillary column (25 m x 0.APPENDIX E PROCEDURE FOR THE PLASMA LEVEL DETERMINATIONS OF HARMINE by Laurent Rivier [Institute of Legal Medicine. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) --Xnalyses were carried out on a combined GC-MS instrument (Model 5985A.0 and 212. Each ion was measured for 100 msec. The toluene/isoamyl alcohol fraction was reduced to 50 ~l and 3 ~l were injected into the GC-MS system. For allowing the sensitivity and specificity necessary for accurate harmane and harmine quantifications. Lausanne. Injection port for splitless injections was maintained at 280°C and the tranfer line and ion source were 250°C and 200°C. Us ing this mode. the MS was set up for detecting 4 ions representative of the molecules (182. Temperature conditions were: initialoven temperature 155°C for 0 min. Hewlett-Packard. The column was connected directly to the MS source and the carrier gas flow ra te (helium) was 1. The pH of the water was brought to 9 with 2N NaOH and 1 ml of a toluene/isoamyl alcohol mixture (85:15) was added.).0 for harmane and 169. The calibration curve obtained by SIM with harmane as internal standard indicated that the response of the detector was linear over the 0 to 50 ng/ml levels. Lausanne. The limit was set up to 2 ng/ml as it was from such a level that a clear signal emerging from the noise could be measured. respectively. Selective Ions Monitoring (SIM) or Mass Fragmentography was used. 1 ml of plasma was diluted with 1 ml of water and 50 ng of harmane added as internal standard.3 mm Ld.5 ml/min at 200°C through the end of the column. SwitzerlandJ Extraction procedure Typically.0. final temperature 260°C f6r 10 min. 197. Palo Alto).0 for harmine). It was found that harmane is a good internal standard as no signal at all could be detected at the place of emergence when drug free 161 . SwitzerlandJ and Pierre Baumann [Psychiatric University Clinic. heating rate 30°C/min.

(1983) In: A. and Perey.plasma was used.7-18 162 . Rivier.8. pp.P. This is not the case for norharmane (*). Medi cine andEiiV'Ironmental Research. (*) Baumann. Vol.Frigerio (Ed.M.L..) Recent Developments in Mass Spectrometry in Biochemistry.

wild lemen. New Guinea natives are sometimes said to smoke the leaves of var.20) WewäkBoikin Malevolent sorcerers may start with eating a 'gombi' mixture which includes wild taro. and several kinds of ginger (12) . juice of Alocasia macrorhiza is considered an antidote for Laportea gigas (25) Raiapu Enga 0'1 UJ Alocasia sp.APPENDIX F SCME RlTUAL PLANTS AND REPUTED BOTANICAL INTOXICANTS OF NEW GUINEA NATIVES (*) Scientific name Acalypha insulana (Euphorbiaceae) Acorus calamus (Aracea~ Vernacular name Tribe or area Uses is also known as Acalypha hellwigii. but other Alocasia species (41). (Araceae) Baining Participants in dancing ceremonies are said to eat Colocasia esculenta or tubers of Alocasia indica.41) Additional remarks Leaves are also used as tobacco wrapper (26) api IAI-people Rhizome is eaten in certain ceremonies.indica. followed by Laportea leaves to counteract the pOisonous action (19. bark of the 'mali' tree. grated cocc-nut. whereafter the participants feel able to contact spirits (4B) Huntsmen spit chewed sweet flag into the nose of their dogs to promote their ability to locate game (10) North American Sioux Indians spit masticated sweet flag into the mouth of a puppy to make it a fierce watchdog (23) The New Guinea flora does not include the Javanese A. in Australia. mollis (1.

said to occur al1Xlng the Australian Arunta as well (22) Beaumontia sp. (Apocynaceae) Lake area or Kema valley kikisira Gimi Smoked instead of tobacco (22) (J\ "'" Bubbia sp.Scientif ie name Amaracarpus sp.' and 'siroru' (flame-coloured coxcomb) are included in a mixture intended to provoke a ceremonial shaking-fit (44) Nut is chewed as intoxicant (26) Additional remarks Gimi tumeni Orokaiva New Bri tain The collection of the State Herbarium in Leiden contains only Archontophoenix from Australia (41) Misspelled as 'Bomoncia'. (Winteraceae) Capparis sp. (Capparaceae) Man of power smokes tobacco with 'kikisira' bark to pass into a dream-like state during a healing ceremony (13) To become a magician. leaves and root are eaten by magicians wanting to be wild (15) kara Western islands Torres Strai ts . (Rub iaceae) Amaranthus sp. (Palmae) Vernacular name Tribe or area Uses Vide Elaeagnus sp. (Amaranthaceae) Archontophoenix sp. 'Turneni. the novice must eat the unripe fruit.

the novice must take a mixture of various ingredients. children sometimes persist in eating the raw kernels. this often leads to emaciation. including the leaves of Citrus hystrix. (Lauraceae) Mailu is land Death sorcerer may chew cinnamon bark to become 'hot' or powerful (29) kai-yaukwera Q'\ Kukukuku Marindanim Cinnamon leaves are mixed with dog's food to make it a good hun ter (8) To become a sorcerer. sometimes even their smell is claimed to be sufficient (40) Vide Citrus hystrix Citrus hystrix UI (Rutace~ tadi Citrus sp. because of their pleasant taste.Scientific name Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae) Vernacular name Tribe or area Uses Seed is said to have similar intoxicating effects as certain mushrooms. (Ru taceae) ximbung WewäkBoikin Marindanim Codiaeum variegatum (Euphorbiaceae) kundama Marindanim . when steamed and eaten in quantity (16) Additional remarks Against the advice of their parents. Cordyline rrutiëosa. Crinum asiaticum and several unidentified plants (46) Vide Alocasia sp.17) Mixture of tobacco and cinnamon is sometimes claimed to cause marihuana-like effects in the New World (28) kawang Banz area Cinnamomum sp. Leaves of the wild lemen tree are used to induce ecstasy (46). anaemia and mouth ulceration (7. Codiaeum variegatum.

for instance by media who want to contact supernatural beings (47) Before young men are admitted to the circle of adults. they must drink a beverage prepared from the rhizome (48) Pollen are used as a narcotic (33) Cycas pollen or male brä'ëts are also reputed to be narcotic in India (38.43) Baining Sent ani sea Pawaia Cl' Cl' Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) Cycas circinalis (Cycadaceae ) söuwaa baibai. bebai Gunantuna .Scientific name Colocasia esculenta (Araceae) Cordyline fruticosa (Liliaceae) Costus sp. (Zingiberaceae) Crinum aslatlcum (Amaryllidaceae) Cryptocarya aromatica (Lauraceae) Vernacular name Tribe or area Baining Uses Vide Alocasia sp. Marindanim Adzera jangun fagata jarangar a serengachi oa Marindanim Vide Ci trus hystrix Aromatic massoibark is chewed with lime and a species of betel leaf as substitute for betel nut (21. Vide Ci trus hystri x Fruit is chewed as substitute for betel nut (18) Additional remarks ngasi jangun .24) Bark is chewed during various ritual actions.

Hagenpeople Rossel Island agara Okapa area '-J Euodia cf. a mixture of tobacco with leaves of Elaeagnus sp. followed after an hour by calmness and euphoria.Scientific name Cycas sp. is smoked to pass into a trance-like state (13) Used in a ritual context to make young warriors fierce (26) Bark is chewed by men during dancing feasts (37) Leaves are chewed as substitute for betel nut (17) Jimi or Mt.6) Is also used in a ritual context to make young warriors fierce (26.42) . (Ebenaceae) kub ilg im To become a magician. boiiWTëkii (Rutaceae) Ficus subnervosa (Moraceae) Galbul1mima belgraveana (Himantandraceae) Natives chew a mixture of 'agara' bark and 'ereriba' leaves (Homalomena sp. and thereafter drowsiness (5. Hagen kilt Mt.) to provoke premonitory visions. and Amaracarpus sp. (Elaeagnaceae) Endospermum moluccanum (Euphorbiaceae) (J\ In divination rites. (Cycadaceae) Vernacular name budzamar Tribe or area Western islands Torres Straits Western islands Torres Straits Gimi Uses Young leaf shoots are eaten by sorcerers wanting to be wild (15) Additional remarks Diospyros sp. sometimes the rhizome of 'kaine' (Zingiber zerumbet) is added as weIl. the novice must inter alia chew this plant (15) Elaeagnus sp. direct observation of an user has revealed violent tremor with miosis.

(Urticaceae) salak Palmeria sp.?) to become 'hot' (33) Leaves are eaten by men as a stimulant in time of war (36) Leaves are also eaten by women as an abortivum (34. which is a synonym (41) Kaempferia galanga (Zingiberaceae) Lactuca indi ca (Asteracë"ä8) 0\ <Xl maraba Okapa area kuntigea kada-a a mingual. (Euphorbiaceae) Homalomena sp. a mangarai Kukukuku Baining Seeds are chewed as substitute for betel mixture (8) Laportea leaves of the large-leaved 'a mingual' and of the small-leaved 'a mangarai' are taken by dancers af ter the ingestion of Alocasia tubers (vide supra) (20) Death sorcerer eats leaves of astinging nettle (Laportea sp.Scientific name Galbulimima belgraveana (contTnued) Homalanthus sp.5) Root is said to be hallucinogenic (6) Additional remarks Gimi New Britain ereriba Okapa area lndicated as Ornalanthus. to provoke dreams and vlslons. men may pass into a trance-like state by chewing the bark (13) Used in a ritual context to make young warriors fierce (26) Leaves are used. followed by serious neurological symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease (4.36) Laportea sp. (Araceae) Vernacular name Tribe or area Uses For divination. sometimes together with Galbulimima bark. (Monimiaceae) boma kan Komba Chimbu .

this temporary folly is reputed to be provoked by the ingestion of raw or immature nuts of the pandanus tree or even by the smell of its rotting fruit shells (6.27. but from Jimi valley (16).3Q.Q2) Fruit is eaten by boys in puberty eeremony (8) Fruit is used as substitute for betel nut (11) Additional remarks The nuts are said not to be from loeal trees. to stimulate them for hunting (17) Used for soreery (30) Leaves of Zornia latifolia are-sIDoked in Brazil as substitute for Cannabis (30) . (Pandanaeeae) Vernaeular name Trlbe or area Chimbu Uses Natives are said to beeome 'long long' (mad) in the beg inning of the year.Seientif ie name Pandanus sp.16. when pandanus fruits are ripe. hamanga Ptyehoeoeeus paradoxus (Palmae) Pueraria phaseoloides (Leguminosae) (j'\ Kukukuku Barriai New Britain Leaves are used as intoxieant (26) Stryehnos minor Zornia gibbosa (Leguminosae) \D (Loganiaee~ Bark is erushed with ginger and fed to dogs.26) amugl keja tayuaka. pandanus leaves are used in New Guinea as a eigarette wrapper (22.

ginger (33.22.48).36). the nong'n plant of the Danga (27). . -..'" Macaranga sp. 1983 (42) Webb 1960 (43) Whiting 1963 (44) Williams 1928 (45) Williams 1941-42 (46) Wirz 1925 (47) Wirz 1928 (48) Wolff-Eggert 1977 • 170 . . pers.26. Ficus sp. References: (1) Airy Shaw 1980 (2) Anonymous 1920 (3) Aufenanger and Höltker 1940 (4) Barrau 1957 (5) Barrau 1958 (6) Barrau 1962 (7) Bell 1973 (8) Blackwood 1940 (9) Bridgewater 1968 {10) Feachem 1972-73 (11) Friederici 1912 (12) Gerstner 1954 (13) Glick 1967 (14) Haddon 1946 (15) Haddon and Seligmann 1904 (16) Heim and Wasson 1965 (17) Henty 1980 (18) Holzknecht 1971 (19) Laufer 1946-49 (20) Laufer 1963-64 (21) Laufer 1965-66 (22) Le Roux 1948 (23) Morgan 1980 (24) Parkinson 1907 (25) Plowman 1969 (26) Powell 1976 (27) Reay 1960-61 (28) Reko 1949 (29) Saville 1926 (30) Schultes and Hofmann 1980b (31) Serpenti 1962 (32) Seyfarth 1981 (33) Sterly 1970 (34) Sterly 1973 (35) Sterly 1978-79 (36) Sterly.Notes: (*) Specific exclusions from the table are: .27). Hibiscus sp.. which are possibly associated with a native frenzy (16.33. opium (2) and hemp (35) .9.the sota and tsinimp leaves of the Adzera (18) and the yiragai herb of the Kutubu (45).. kava (31. such as hallucinogenic Brugmansia species (7. .psychoactive plants which are merely reported to have caused unintentional poisoning.33. commun.48). 1985 (37) Stopp 1963 (38) Thieret 1958 (39) Van Nouhuys 1932 (40) Verten ten 1916 (41) Vink. Kleinhovia hosj)'It'ä. betel (32.well-known plants and preparations like tobacco (14. such as the kevo tree in the Bismarck Mountains (3).33. alcoholic beverages (26).17). commun.certilin mushrooms. such as Donax canniformis.~ecodia brassii and Rubus moluccanus (22.plants which are merely used as cigarette wrappers.39). the kumani creaper in the western islands of the Torres Straits (15). pers.48).plants without botanical identification.

colubrina var. Botanical identifications are not given. when smoked (6) .. DMT is claimed tb be effective. and Argentinian natives are said to smoke jatáj (~cebil) mixed with tobacco (8). 5--Meü-DMT. ~H-DMT in the seed (15) Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebll (Leguminosae) Paraguay and Argentina -. but not for 5-OHDMT (15) DMT is claimed to be effective.J Anadenanthera peregrina ( Le guminosae) Br1tish Guiana True hallucinogenic activity is definitely established for DMT and 5--Meü-DMT.63) Aboriginal smoking of the pulverized seeds is mentioned in an early source (52) DMT.39) True hallucinogenic activity is definitely established for DMT. cebll\53. 5-OH-DMT in çevil pods is mentioned the seed and in the in an early souree on seed pod (26) Paraguay (18). but such preparations are associated with A.muscaria mixed with tobac~ an intoxicant and to perform ritual diagnoses (17) Aboriginal smoking of DMT. but not for ~H-DMT (15) The smoking of 6-10 mg 5--Meü-DMT is effective (15)..APPENDIX G MULTIDISCIPLINARY TABLE ON SOME REPUTEDLY PSYCHOACTIVE FUMIGATORIES AMONG MIDDLE AND SOUTH AMERICAN NATIVES (*) Scient1fic name Amanita muscaria (Amanitaceae) Area Valley of Puebla. ibotenic A curandero is reputed acid (15) to smoke dried A. Mexico Ethnobotany (**) Phytochemistry (***) Psychopharmacology Evidence for hallucinogenic activity is less impressive than in the case of psilocybian mushrooms (15. when smoked (6) Efficacy of smoking Muscimol.

.Scientific name Calea zacatechichi (Asteraceae) Area State of Oaxaca. the principal way of Cannabis use is oral administration (23. Mexico Ethnobotany (**) Phytochemistry (***) Psychopharmacology Efficacy of smoking C.. when inhaled and ingested in an uncontrolled study (17) Chontal curanderos pre.38) well established (36.68) This plant is also known as Genista canariensis (53~qui shaman prepares cigarettes from the dried blossoms (19 ) Cannabis sativa Brazil (Cannabac~ The mild hallucino. N-methyl. when smoked in an uncontrolled study (19) .44) leaves for clarification of the senses (17.70) C.canariensis was mildly psychoactive.53) Cytisus canariensis Northern (Leguminosae) Mexico -.31) The Tenetehara Indians Delta-9-tetrahydrosmoke the dried flower cannabinol and many and leaf as a recreaother cannabinoids (60) tional stimulant (64).zacatechichi was mildly psychoactive.Well established genic activity is (2.Cytisine and cytisine and N-methylcytisine anagyrine in the have similar periphleaf (69) eral effects as nicotine.J N Cytisine. but their central activity may be different (1.Caleines and pare an infusion and a zexbrevin in aerial cigarette from the dried parts (25. Among Mexican natives like the Tepehua Indians.

hyosassociated with Datura cyamine in the use (30).67 ) Spiked ceramics might be Scopolamine.J W Erythroxylum sp. (Solanaceae) Area Mexico Ethnobotany (**) Phytochemistry (***) Psychopharmacology The deliriant activity is weIl established (15) Efficacy of smoking WeIl established (56.Scientific name Datura sp. (Erythroxylaceae) Peru The psychostimulating properties are weIl established (21) WeIl established (~O. Contemporary data are limited to a vague statement that dried toloachi leaves are added to tobacco cigarettes in the Guanajuato region (~6)..53) archaeological clay pipes with spiked bowls should be mentioned here (~3). so finds of leaf (2~. The nonaboriginal smoking of coca paste is weIl documented (27) cocaine in the leaf (~7) -.. but no primary reference is given. but substantial evidence for pre-Hispanic Datura smoking in Mexico is lacking. but this may be a non-aboriginal practice Aboriginal smoking is reported for the Omagua Indians (7). ~1) .

(Strcphariaceae) Mexico The hallucinogenic activity is weIl established (15) The availability of psilocybin is said to be compromised by pyrolytic degradation and by condensation.po -.leaf (15) tory of Middle and South American aboriginals. but its central activity may be different (49.. The principal species are N.59) PSllocybe sp.rustlca in Mlddle America and N. The ancient Aztecs smoked mushrooms as an admixture to tobacco (50).tabacum and N.59) Efficacy of smoking Recent references on the efficacy of smoking have not been found. pslloof psilocyblan mushc in (53) rooms by a Yaqui Indian has been described (9.57).Scientific name Lobelia tupa (Campanulä'ëëae) Area Chlle Ethnobotany (**) Phytochemistry (WWW) Psychopharmacology Lobeline has similar peripheral effects as nicotine. but the botanical identity is unkown The psychostimulating properties are weIl established (15.tabacum in South America (48.. when lt is smoked in a pipe (57) .ted (1~. (Solanaceae) Widespread .66) The contemporary smoking Psilocybin. said to smoke the leaves lobelanidine. 10). but the authenticityof this report is very gravely doub.5 ) The Mapuche Indians are Lobeline. as an intoxlcant (32) norlobelanine in the leaf (28) Nicotiana spp.J Nicotine in the Tobacco is undoubtedly the most common fumiga. there is merely a report as80ciating a smoking mixture of Lobelia inflata and-oatUra Bträiiiöili um wi th the sudden death of an asthmatic (35) WeIl establlshed (~.

63.reptans.exscapa and T. Archaeological excavations have yielded what appear to be cigars made from a cactus thought to be T.. The Huichol Indians smoke the dried leaves and flowers. the powdered root of phellopterin and T. T. (Asteraceae) Argentina . the flower of the cacauaxochitl plant. incana (37) Other species said to be used are T. auriculata.53) The hallucinogenic activity is weIl established (15) Tagetes lucida (Asteracë"ii""e) Sierra Madre. One of the suggested identifications is Q. either alone trichoclin in or mixed with tobacco. as an admixture to smoking tobacco (50.incana (20. T. either alone or mixed with Nicotiana rustica (58) The root con ta ins BBT (11).Scientific name Area Ethnobotany \**) Phytochemistry (***) Psychopharmacology Efficacy of smoking Quararibea funebris Mexico (Bombacaceae) funebrine (45) The Aztecs used poyomatli.J V1 Las Aldas. Peru This plant is also known Mescaline (13) as EChinopsis pachanoi (53).71) Trichocline spp.funebris (33.pachanoi (55) The Chaco Indians smoke Isop impinellin. various non-alkaloidal constituents have been reported for the genus (17.65).51).dealbatä. T. Mexico Trichocereus pachanoi (Cactaceae) -.

. 34 ) The hallucinogenic activity is well established (15) Efficacy of smoking The smoking of 6-10 mg 5-MeO-DMT is effecti ve (15).63) Phytochemistry ("') Psychopharmacology DMT and 5-Meo-DMT in the bark (12.. Q'\ . DMT is claimed to be effective.A collected bark mina te Virola species sample was devoid reportedly is smoked of alkaloids (34) by witch doctors as an additive to tobacco (34) .Scientific name Virola sebifera (Myristicaceae) Area Venezuela Ethnobotany (**) Witch doctors are reputed to smoke the inner bark to cure fevers (53. (Myristicaceae) Brazil The bark of an indeter.. when smoked (6) Virola sp....

(58). Rhus glabra (61). Zornia latifolia~)-(***)The following abbreviations are used to indicate constituents: DMT = N.2'-bithienyl References: (1) Barlow and McLeod 1969 (2) Barnett et al. the following plants have been excluded : Canavalia maritima (16). Leptotaenia californica (22). Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (62). Cornus stolonifera (29). 1984b (35) McLaren 1968 (36) Meyer 1972 (37) Miyakado et al. Lobelia inflata (61). 1 982 (4 1 ) Perez-Reyes et al. Myristica fragrans (54).N-dimethyltryptamine BBT 5-(3-buten-l-ynyl)-2. 1978 (38) Oh 1 ss 0 net aL 1 980 (39) 0 t t 1 97 6 (4 0) Pal y eta 1.Notes: (*) Reported North American Indian fumigatories other than tobacco include Achillea millefolium (61). Eupatorium solidaginifolium (62). Sassafras officinale (61).53). 1982 (3) Barrows 1900 (4) Benowitz et al. 1982 (42) Pollock 1975 (43) Porter 1948 (44) Quijano et al. Eriogonum sp. Vi burnum opulus (61) (**) Since their use as a fumigatory is or may be non-aboriginal. Sida acuta (16).innoxia? (24. 1980 (61) Vogel 1970 (62) von Reis and Lipp Jr. Leonurus sibiricus (16).N-dimethyltryptamine 5-MeO-DMT 5-methoxy-N. Salvia divinorum (16). 1982 (5) Benowitz et aL 1983 (6) Brimblecombe and Pinder 1975 (7) Bühler 1948 (8) Califano 1975 (9) Castaneda 1970 (10) Castaneda 1972 (11) Chan et aL 1979 (12) Corothie and Nakano 1969 (13) Crosby and McLaughlin 1973 (14) de Mille 1980 (15) de Smet 1983b (16) Dfaz 1976 (17) Dfaz 1979 (18) Dobrizhoffer 1822 (19) Fadiman 1965 (20) Giberti 1981 (21) Grinspoon and Bakalar 1976 (22) Harrington 1932 (23) Heffern 1974 (24) Hegnauer 1973 (25) Herz and Kumar 1980 (26) Iacobucci and Ruveda 1964 (27) Jeri et al. Verbascum thapS'iiS (61). 1978 (50) Sahagun 1961 (51) Sahagun 1963 (52) Schomburgk 1848 (53) Schultes and Hofmann 1980b (54) Schulze 1976 (55) Sharon and Donnan 1977 (56) Siegel 1976 (57) Siegel 1981 (58) Siegel et aL 1977 (59) Taylor 1980 (60) Turner et al. 1979 (45) Raffauf et al. Stropharia cubensis (42). 1984 (46) Reko 1949 (47) Rivier 1981 (48) Robicsek 1978 (49) Rosecrans et al. Datura meteloides (3) = D. 1978 (28) Kaczmarek and Steinegger 1958 (29) King 1977 (30) Litzinger 1981 (31) MacDougall 1968 (32) Mariani Ram!rez 1965 (33) Martinez 1979 (34) McKenna et al. 1982 (63) von Reis Altschul 1967 (64) Wagley and 177 . Cestrum laevigatum (53).N-dimethyltryptamine 5-GH-DMT 5-hydroxy-N.

1983 (70) Zachowski 1938 (71) Zardini 1977 178 . 1967 (68) Williams-Garcia 1975 (69) Wink et al.Galvao 1949 (65) Wasson 1980 (66) Wilbert 1975 (67) Wilcox Jr.

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