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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF MEMS FILTERS
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr. A. AMALIN PRINCE
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF COMPUTER ORIENTED PROJECTS BITSGC331 May 24, 2007
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, PILANI GOA CAMPUS
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE – PILANI, GOA CAMPUS
ZUARINAGAR - 403726
Certified that this is the record of the project work, entitled ‘Design and Analysis of MEMS Filters’, done by Mr.
Anoop P S, ID number 2004P3PS107 during semester II (2006-2007) in partial fulfillment for the requirement of the course BITSGC 331 - Computer Oriented Project.
I would like to express my extreme gratitude to my project guide Mr. A. Amalin Prince for his constant support through out the project. Without his knowledge and experience in MEMS this project would not have been possible. His valuable advices played a major role in shaping my project. I also express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. M T Abilash for all the encouragement support extended to me. Most of the licensing works of the software would not have been possible with out him. I would like to make special thanks to Mr. M.K. Deshmukh for permitting to use the institute facilities through out the project. I express my gratitude to Dr Bharath Deshpande, instructor in charge of computer oriented projects (BITSGC331) for giving me an opportunity to work in this field. I would also like to thank all my friends who helped me through all the difficulties during the entire course of the project. Finally I express my heartfelt gratitude to God almighty who kept my mind always spirited up for the right knowledge and who took me through all the difficulties I faced during the project.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF FIGURES AND TABLES INTRODUCTION TO MEMS BACKGROUND STUDIES CURRENT TRENDS IN MEMS FUTURE TRENDS OF MEMS PROJECT OBJECTIVES METHODOLOGY CHAPTER 1 1.1 MICRO FABRICATION BULK MICRO MACHINIG 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.3 CHAPTER 2 2.1 2.2 ISOTROPIC AND ANISOTROPIC WET ETCHING DRY ETCHING …….07 …….07 …….07 …….08 …….08 …….08 …….08 …….09 …….09 …….09 …….10 …….10 …….11 …….12 …….13 …….14 …….14 …….15 …….15 …….16 …….17 …….17 …….20 …….21 …….21 …….21 …….22 …….22 …….23 …….23 …….13 …….24 …….24
SURFACE MICRO MACHINING MICRO MOULDING AND LIGA FILTER DESIGN ELECTRICAL EQUIVALENT WORKING PRINCIPLE 2.2.1 DRIVING CAPACITOR 2.2.2 RESONATING UNIT 2.2.3 COUPLING UNIT 2.2.4 SENSING CAPACITOR BONDGRAPH ANALYSIS POWER VARIABLES OF BONDGRAPH FILTER TOPOLOGY DESIGNED FILTER IN 20-SIM SIMULATED RESULTS 3.4.1 BODE PLOT RESPONSE 3.4.2 STEP RESPONSE 3.4.3 NICHOLS PLOT 3.4.4 NYQUIST PLOT 3.4.5 POLE ZERO PLOT MEMS PRO SIMULATIONS MEMS PRO PACKAGES 4.1.1. LEDIT
CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
CHAPTER 4 4.1
33 4.29 …….188.8.131.52 …….32 …….1 SCHEMATIC VIEW …….25 …….1 LINEAR COMB DRIVE 184.108.40.206 TSPICE 4.40 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK GLOSSARY REFERENCES …….1.3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE …….1 SCHEMATIC ENTRY 4.36 4.6 SCHEMATIC VIEW OF MODIFIED …….4.2 LINEAR FOLDED BEAM 4.4 FILTER DESIGN …….2.35 4.32 …….4.42 ….3.4.3 RECTANGULAR PLATE 4.34 4.2 LAYOUT OF THE DESIGN …….33 …….…43 5 .4.35 4.2 LAYOUT OF THE DESIGN 4.7 FREQUENCY RESPONSE …….41 …….26 …….2 FILTER DESIGN IN MEMSPRO 4.4.31 …….3.3 RESONATOR DESIGN 4.25 …….38 4.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FILTER …….24 …….26 …….38 4.3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE 4.27 …….1.39 4.8 VARIOUS ANGLE VIEW OF THE DESIGN …….4 WEDIT 4.4 MONTE CARLO ANALYSIS 220.127.116.11.4.4 TSPICE CODE …….2 SEDIT 4.
35 ……….20 ……… 21 ……….27 Pin out of linear Folded Spring ……………………………………….40 Electro mechanical equivalent …………………………………………18 Bond graph representation ………………………………….09 ………..….29 ………..29 ………..21 ……….14 ………..…13 ……….….11 ………...22 ……….22 ……….19 Pin out of linear comb drive……………………………………….38 ……….30 ……….35 ……….30 6 .28 Pin out of Rigid Plate ………………………………………………….15 ………..…….10 …….11 ……….14 ……….23 ………..TABLE OF FIGURES / TABLES FIGURES Figure:-1 Figure:-2 Figure:-3 Figure:-4 Figure:-5 Figure:-6 Figure:-7 Figure:-8 Figure:-9 Figure:-10 Figure:-11 Figure:-12 Figure:-13 Figure:-14 Figure:-15 Figure:-16 Figure:-17 Figure:-18 Figure:-19 Figure:-20 Figure:-21 Figure:-22 Figure:-23 Figure:-24 Figure:-25 Figure:-26 Figure:-27 Figure:-28 Figure:-29 Figure:-30 Figure:-31 Figure:-32 Figure:-33 Figure:-34 Figure:-35 TABLES Table:-1 Table:-2 Table:-3 Table:-2 Table:-3 Bulk micro machining Isotropic and Anisotropic wet etching Surface micro machining Surface micro machining Micro molding Filter design Electrical equivalent Driving capacitor Driving capacitor Resonating unit Coupling unit Sensing capacitor Filter topology Filter design Bode plot Step response Nichols plot Nyquist plot Pole zero plot Comb drive Comb drive sub circuit Folded beam Electrical equivalent Rectangular plate Electrical equivalent Schematic view Layout Frequency response Monte Carlo analysis Schematic view Layout of the Design Frequency response Schematic view of the modified filter Frequency response of filter Various angle view ………..26 ……….10 …….23 ………..31 ……….28 ……….33 ………..34 ……….32 ……….15 ………..39 ……….27 ……….16 ……….12 …….32 ………..
etc.).including packaging. MEMS is a system that consists of microstructures. self-organization. chemistry. 2.INTRODUCTION TO MEMS The MEMS is the batch-fabricated integrated microscale that: 1. sensing and other functions. Although many fruitful works were going on that time. and optical signals and vice versa. Later on many works were carried out in the actuating and sensing properties of silicon. microelectronics. evolutionary learning. CURRENT TRENDS IN MEMS Although some products like pressure sensors have been produced for 30 years. BACKGROUND STUDIES MEMS technology was evolved by borrowing the features of IC technology by integrating mechanical parts in to it. mechanical. and data acquisition features. Works which were going on in the research labs suddenly attained new geometry and with in a short time they conquered the sensor and actuator markets all around the globe. Comprise control (intelligence. power and energy and wireless communication to name a few. Microstructure builds the framework of the system.” Basically. K Peterson’s paper on “Silicon as a Mechanical Material” really revolutionized the MEMS technology. diagnostics. such as bioengineering. and 7 . So the history of MEMS goes along with IC technology. events. This presents exciting new opportunities for a student and practitioner of MEMS to become involved in diverse application domains. signal processing. After the invent of transistor in 1948 next major break point in the growth of IC fabrication was the development of photo fabrication technology and that led to the first integrated circuit in 1958. microsensors. decision-making. Again the path shown by the IC industry can serve as a model. The application of MEMS encompasses many fields beyond traditional electrical and mechanical engineering. 3. optical engineering. Microelectronics processes the signals and gives commands to the microactuator to react to these signals. Digital Mirror Display from Texas Instruments in 1993 really set up a land mark in digital light processing and image projection. and microactuators. Microsensor detects signals. As a result of that first surface micro machined FET accelerometer came up in 1965 itself. MEMS can currently only look with envy as IC industry seriously considers producing RFID chips for cents . test and packaging is to come down. The heavily segmented market is probably the main reason why a consortium like SEMI is still to appear for MEMS. MEMS industry in many aspects is still a young industry. Converts physical stimuli. However everybody agrees that better cooperation and planning has to happen if the cost of the assembly. nanotechnology. Performs actuation. adaptation. and parameters to electrical.
Entire layout and schematic of the design are to be done by MEMS PRO. In this work various aspects of micro fabrication and design technology used in the implementation of a MEMS filter are addressed. As a background various manufacturing processes involved in MEMS technology are to be done. and probably standard testing procedure. non-standardized packaging of MEMS devices and systems.standardization to insure packaging compatibility between different MEMS chip manufacturers seems the way to go. Considering the smaller market size of most MEMS component. hand phone or in the Segway is a clear demonstration of the larger applicability of the MEMS solutions .and as the prices drop. this trend should increase in the future. and lack of MEMS Quality control standards. METHODOLOGY The three main pillars of knowledge for a MEMS engineer are design. various steps involved in the MEMS are dealt with limited elaboration. So it is expected that the labor force associated with and money invested in MEMS will keep growing. An industry standard software MEMS PRO is used for this purpose.Bond graph is used for the system study. A software tool 20-sim is used for the same. Various simulation results are also noted. This implies of course automating assembly by defining standard chip handling procedure. In the fabrication part. Schematic as well as the layout of the design is done in the software. A new method for describing dynamic systems. In the design part. Basic knowledge about the working and designing of a filter is required. MEMS will undoubtedly invade more and more consumer products. Finally a band pass filter is to be obtained by coupling various resonating units. Bond Graph analysis is used to study various transient and frequency response of the system. future possible MEMS applications include micro chemical actuators to monitor the emission of jet engine. except the applications that provided above. In aerospace engineering. Once the analysis of the electrical equivalent is done actual real system is considered. analysis of electrical equivalent of the system is done. The recent use of accelerometer in cameras. microsensors and microactuators for controlling of Euler angles and smart reconfigurable geometry wings. MEMS is still a huge market. Acquaintance with EDA tools like 20-sim. PROJECT OBJECTIVES The objective of this work is to design a band pass Filter using MEMS technology. Although MEMS technology faces many challenges such as lacking advanced simulation and modeling tools for MEMS design. From the market side. FUTURE TRENDS OF MEMS MEMS create lots of possibilities in all areas of research and industry. standard is the only way to bring the numbers where unit packaging price is reduced substantially. MEMS PRO is required for the effective design of the system. fabrication and materials. 8 .
ISOTROPIC AND ANISOTROPIC WET ETCHING Wet etching is obtained by immersing the material in a chemical bath that dissolves the surfaces not covered by a protective layer. e. thin film deposition by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD). The main advantages of the technique are that it can be quick. very selective and cheap. the temperature of the bath. Moreover. In general. while anisotropic etching happens when different etching rate exists along different directions. the presence of agitation. surface micromachining. Isotropic etching happens when the chemical etches the bulk material at the same rate in all directions. 1.1. wet etching must be isotropic. quartz.1. SiC. isotropic etchants are acidic. uniform. glass.g. However the etching rate never reaches 0 and it is actually impossible to obtain etching in only one direction. For substrates made of homogeneous and amorphous material. GaP or InP. The etching rate and the resulting profile depend on the material. MICRO FABRICATION Micro-fabrication is the set of technologies used to manufacture micro-sized structures. MEMS has spurred many unique fabrication techniques that we will also describe in our panorama of MEMS fabrication introducing bulk micromachining. while anisotropic etchants are alkaline. dry etching. 9 . although faster surface etching is sometimes observed. This parameter may range between 1 for isotropic etching to about 0. Wet etching is usually divided between isotropic and anisotropic etching.01 for very anisotropic etch. etc have all been adopted by the MEMS technologists. The methods commonly used to remove excess material are wet and dry etching. silicon. as shown in the figure. and the etch stop technique used if any. thin film growth by oxidation and epitaxy. doping by ion implantation or di_usion. etc. the chemical. 1. crystalline Ge. GaAs. depending on the type of chemical used. that is the lateral etch with respect to the vertical etch. This is commonly quantified by estimating the over etch (w/d). allowing varying degree of control on the profile of the final structure. obtained for example by etching Silicon in a KOH bath. like glass.1 BULK MICRO MACHINING Bulk micromachining refers to the formation of micro structures by removal of materials from bulk substrates. The bulk substrate in wafer form can be silicon. the etching is either isotropic or anisotropic. LIGA. Because of the micro scale operation of MEMS devices. for crystalline materials. wet etching. MEMS fabrication technology quickly took inspiration from microelectronics for fabrication purposes. Techniques like photolithography. However.1.
These methods have various etching selectivity and achieve different etching profiles and usually the etching is more anisotropic and vertical when the etching is more physical. Most of these methods are discussed in standard microelectronics process books. chemically through a chemical reaction occurring at the solid surface (plasma etching or radical etching).2 DRY ETCHING Dry etching is a series of methods where the solid substrate surface is etched by gaseous species. SURFACE MICROMACHINING Unlike bulk micromachining in which microstructures are formed by etching Into the bulk substrate. but they take a different twist when they are applied to MEMS fabrication as in general MEMS necessitates deep (> 5 m) etching. Dry etching is usually used 10 .1.1. The etching can be conducted physically by ion bombardment (ion etching or sputtering and ion-beam milling). 1. some acting as structural layer and others as sacrificial layer.2. while it is more selective and isotropic when it is more chemical. Plasma is usually involved in the process to increase etching rate and supply reacting ions and radicals. The thin film layers deposited are typically 15 m thick. layer by layer. surface micromachining builds up structures by adding materials. or by mechanisms combining both physical and chemical effects (reactive ion etching or RIE). on the surface of the substrate.
and a final wet etching step releases them from the substrate by removing the supporting sacrificial layer. energy of 2.5).to define the shape of the structure layers. LIGA makes very high aspect ratio 3-D microstructures with non-silicon materials such as metal. After the resist is dissolved. When the submicrometer resolution is not much of a concern.g. the speed of deposition (to obtain thicker layers). 1.g. plastic or ceramics using replication or molding. 11 . diffraction effects are minimized and thick layer of photo resist can be patterned with submicron accuracy. as the deposition temperature (dictated by the temperature resistance of the material on the substrate and the allowable thermal stress). MICRO MOULDING AND LIGA Other methods exist where no material is removed but this time molded to achieve the desired pattern. 3. the metal structure remains.3. nickel using NiCl2 solution) is electroplated in the resist mold. electroforming and molding is the mother of these methods. the roughness of the deposited layer. the magnitude of the residual stress in the layer (too much stress cause layer cracking). The choice of the deposited layers is dictated by many different considerations. PMMA). pseudoLIGA processes can be advantageously used. These techniques avoid using the high cost X-ray source for the mold fabrication by replacing it by the thick photo resist SU8 and a standard UV exposure or even by fabricating a silicon mold using DRIE. LIGA process begins with X-ray lithography using a synchrotron source (e. This structure may be the final product but to lower down the costs. Because of the incredibly small wavelength. it usually serves as a mold insert for injection molding or hot embossing. The resist mold is subsequently used for electroforming and metal (e. a German acronym for lithography. The possibility to replicate hundreds of part with the same insert opens the door to cheap mass production.4 GeV and wavelength of 2 °A) to expose a thick layer of X-ray photo resist (e. the existence of pinholes and the uniformity of the deposition.g. LIGA. the con-formality of the deposition (how the deposited layer follows the profile of the substrate as shown in Fig.
FILTER DESIGN This work presents a new filter synthesis approach based on the electrical coupling of individual MEMS resonators. In the UHF frequency range (0. Filter synthesis using electrical coupling does not require mechanical design expertise and provides more design flexibility for electrical engineers.2. In addition. The main advantage of electrical coupling approach in filter synthesis is its greater potential for extension into the UHF frequency range.3-3GHz) and above. due to the very small size of the resonator element (<10 m). mechanical coupling will require sub-micron in size coupling elements (i.. Filter design 12 . In this method. wires) that are difficult to fabricate using optical lithography. which is the band of interest for many wireless applications. filter characteristics are sharply dependant on the positioning and dimensions of the coupling elements and optimized design of a filter will require mechanical design expertise and specialized simulation tools. inductors are used to couple MEMS resonators to each other and provide a high order transfer function.e.
Circuit will carry maximum current at this frequency.e. With each resonator unit added. has been applied to micromechanical resonators for filter synthesis.. extensive efforts have been devoted to replace off-chip frequency-selective components (i. The above given description is for series resonant circuits. Here we are making use of series resonant circuits. Here we are using inductive coupling for our purpose.e.. pass band ripples also increase. Output of a series resonating circuit will be an overshoot at the resonant frequency and attenuated output at all other frequencies. traditionally used for implementation of high order filters from individual mechanical resonators. minimum impedance level.e. Electrically sensed and actuated MEMS filters up to the third order with center frequencies up to 68MHz as well as electrically actuated and optically sensed filters up to the 20th order at center frequencies of a few MHz have been reported using the mechanical coupling technique. For the optimized design we need to consider the area and power constraint before deciding upon the number of resonating units. dividing the filter into functional blocks i. high order band pass filters consisting of a number of coupled resonators are required. either capacitive coupling or inductive coupling. Here at resonant frequencies circuits suffers maximum impedance and so minimum current. A resonator is a series or parallel combination or passive elements resistor. Resonance of a circuit occurs when the reactive component of the impedance cancels out..Over the past few years. This coupling can be done in two ways. resonators and coupling units is being used. Operating conditions changes entirely for parallel resonant circuits. At this frequency capacitive reactance will be equal to inductive counterpart. frequency references and filters) in telecommunication systems with on-chip silicon-micro machined MEMS resonators. Design of any MEMS system starts from the electrical equivalent of the same. Each resonator can be coupled with other to form a band pass filter. 2. Mechanical coupling technique. capacitor and inductor. In this approach of filter designing. This conversion is done basically to reduce the complexity of working in two energy domains (electrical and mechanical). So system turns out to be purely resistive i.1 ELECTRICAL EQUIVALENT 13 . In order to achieve the desired selectivity.
1 DRIVING CAPACITOR Driving capacitor comes in the input section of the filter. Driving Capacitor C01 2. Supply voltage is given to the fixed end. When a sine wave is applied movable plate starts vibrating. Resonating Unit 3. Input signal is fed to this driving capacitor. Driving capacitor is selected to be a comb drive type with one fixed and other variable plate. This causes movable plate to move according to the input voltage applied. These vibrations are coupled to the resonating unit by the movable plate.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE The MEMS filter designed consist of the following functional blocks. It creates an electrostatic force on both plates. 1. Free end is connected to the resonating unit. Sensing Capacitor 2. When a supply voltage is applied to the fixed plate electric filed is set up between the plates of the comb drive.2.2. Coupling Unit 4. 14 .
Here we are using inductive springs for coupling.2. It is simply a flexible mass attached to the movable end of comb drive.2. 2. So when movable plate moves in it increases the area covered and thereby increases the capacitance. Capacitance of dual plate capacitor is directly proportional to the common area. 2. This introduces more capacitance in the path. It receives vibrations from one resonator and passes it on to the other. These vibrations it will pass on to the sensing capacitor or next resonating unit.3 COUPLING UNIT Coupling unit connects two resonating units. It receives the vibrations from the driving capacitor and start vibrating according to the input frequency. 15 .2 RESONATING UNIT Vibrations from the driving capacitor are carried over to the resonating unit.When the actuating voltage is applied at one terminal due to the electrostatic force movable plate moves in. This flexible mass has got the electrical equivalent of a resonator Resonating mass can be converted to electrical equivalent given above. Vibrations will reach maximum for a particular frequency called resonant frequency given by the R L C combination.
Both the simulation works are provided. 2. By adjusting the parameters of the coupling unit. In the current design inductive coupling is made into use. Various types of coupling are in use. In this work a two step approach is being used for simulation. Resonating mass will be having maximum vibration at its resonant frequency.2. It responds to the mechanical input and produces electrical output. 16 . we can attain the required band for the filter designed. This part of the work was done in another tool MEMSPRO. This software is using Bondgraph analysis to convert the mechanical filter to electrical domain. Next step in the designing is the simulation part.Coupling of two resonators results in introducing one more peak in the response of the resonator. Movable end is connected to the resonating unit while output of the system is taken from the fixed end of the comb drive. corresponding mechanical equivalent was considered. This completes the full working of the system. After studying the electrical characteristics of the circuit. Output produced is directly proportional to the frequency of vibration of the resonating unit. Sensing unit is also a comb drive with one end fixed and other end movable. this acts more like a sensor. Some of them are inductive coupling. capacitive coupling and both inductive and capacitive coupling. First the electrical equivalent of the filter is considered and simulated using software called 20SIM. Unlike the driving capacitor.4 SENSING CAPACITOR This part of the design is assigned with the job of receiving the vibrations from the resonating unit. Eventually sensing capacitor senses this shoot up in the vibration and produces an output shoot in terms of voltage.
COSMO..and inter-domain nature of bond graphs. pneumatic. the derivation of system equations is so systematic that it every thing can be put in an algorithm. Bond graphs have four embedded strengths for design applications. 20-SIM and LorSim. such factual power is encountered mostly in non-physical domains and pseudo bond graphs.1 POWER VARIABLES OF BOND GRAPH The language of bond graphs aspires to express general class physical systems through power interactions. etc.3. By this approach. and the ease of mapping to the engineering design process. Effort and Flow have different interpretations in different physical domains. identifying the power flow paths. Yet. the wide scope of systems that can be created because of the multi. especially hybrid multi-domain systems including mechanical. The whole procedure of modeling and simulation of the system may be performed by some of the existing software. Power variables of bond graph may not be always realizable (viz. 3. the natural combinatorial features of bond and node components for generation of design alternatives. a physical system can be represented by symbols and lines. BOND GRAPH ANALYSIS The bond graph is a modeling tool that provides a unified approach to the modeling and analysis of dynamic systems. 17 . hydraulic components. Those attributes make bond graphs an excellent choice for modeling and design of a multi-domain system. capacitance and inductance are interconnected in an energy conserving way by bonds and junctions resulting in a network structure. It is the explicit representation of model topology that makes the bond graphs a good candidate for use in open-ended design search. One such system may be an electrical motor driving a hydraulic pump or an thermal engine connected with a muffler. Camp-G. in bond graphs for economic systems).e. SYMBOLS. From the pictorial representation of the bond graph. The factors of power i. electrical. namely. The lumped parameter elements of resistance. power can always be used as a generalized co-ordinate to model coupled systems residing in several energy domains. ENPORT. where the form of energy varies within the system. the efficiency of evaluation of design alternatives.
Where as the voltage marked by ‘e’ or effort will remain same at the junction e2 e1 f1 f2 0 f3 ⇔ e3 e1 = e2 e2 = e3 f1 – f2 – f3 = 0 “1” junction corresponds to series junctions in electrical circuits. Bond graph analysis provides an easier way of representing system in terms of the power flow in the system. 18 .Generally for the analysis of any system. there are only two kinds of junction “1” junction and “0” junction “0” junction corresponds to a parallel junction in electrical circuits. So current ’f’ will remain same while voltage ‘e’ will be the algebraic sum. If we consider electrical systems in bond graph. So current flow marked by ‘f’ will be the summation of rest. its response in terms of differential equations is written and those equations are solved simultaneously to get the time domain analysis of the system.
Inductance Capacitance Resistance Transformer Gyrator Effort source Flow source 19 .e2 e1 f1 f2 1 f3 ⇔ e3 f1 = f2 f2 = f3 e1 – e2 – e3 = 0 Similar representations are there for the sources as well as passive elements. Its Bond graph representation is given in the following table.
20 . Both the topologies are illustrated below.2 FILTER TOPOLOGY The required filter topology can be attained in two ways.series connection of resonating unit and bridge unit or cascaded connection of resonator unit.3.
3.4SIMULATED RESULTS 18.104.22.168 DESIGNED FILTER IN 20-SIM.1 BODE PLOT RESPONSE 21 .
2 STEP RESPONSE 3.3 NICHOLS PLOT 22 .4.3.4.
23 .4.4 NYQUIST PLOT 3.3. yet software called MEMSPRO is used. Complete analysis of the filter in terms of physical dimensions can be done. But the effect of dimension of each component in frequency response is still unknown.4. In order to solve that problem.5 POLE ZERO PLOT All the electrical properties of filter are studied from various plots.
The MEMS Pro behavioral library (MemsLib. The library contains schematic symbols and behavioral models for common MEMS components. Views from all the angles are possible using it. 3D animations are also added features of MEMSPRO. Required components are taken from this library. All of the components in this library are parameterized. a gate. or an entire design. 4.2 SEDIT SEDIT is used to create the schematic entry of the design. test elements.sdb) contains building blocks for systemlevel simulations.1. It is equipped with all the drawing toolbars and MEMSPRO tool bar. Modules contain two types of components. fluidic elements and resonator elements. MEMS PRO SIMULATIONS In MEMS PRO we will be utilizing the actual MEMS actuators and sensors. Actions on a particular module affect all of its instances in modules above it in the hierarchy.4. often-instanced modules reside near the bottom of the hierarchy. A module is a functional unit of design.1 LEDIT LEDIT is used to create the layout of the design. Cross sections can be generated from the 3D models. While selecting each component itself. the instanced module is the original. In an efficient design. All components are assigned some schematic equivalent and put in a library.1 MEMSPRO PACKAGES 4. All the MEMS components can be accessed from the library of this tool bar. The most elementary. and most of them have corresponding layout generators in L-Edit. optical elements. An instancing module is a module that contains an instance. S-Edit design files consist of modules. A wide variety of transducers are available in MEMS library. PRIMITIVES: Geometrical objects created with drawing tools INSTANCES: References to other modules in the file. Library includes elements for active elements. It works in a drag and drop format. all of its parameters are listed. primitives. near the top.1. SEDIT. Desired values for the dimensional parameters can be entered there itself. and modules form a pyramid-like hierarchical structure. One the design is done. WEDIT and TSPICE. 3D model can be generated from it. MEMSPRO comes with 4 basic units LEDIT. Interconnections between the components can be done by overlapping of one over the other. an amplifier. thermal elements. instances. 24 . passive elements. modules composed largely of instances. This MEMSPRO tool bar is used to create MEMS designs. such as a transistor. 4.
Symbol consists of drawn shapes. o o o 25 .3 TSPICE At the heart of T-Spice’s operation is the input file (also known as the circuit description. schematic mode and symbol mode. power. circle etc are available in this mode to create the schematic entry. polygon. and speed in a flexible environment designed for graphical data presentation. You can measure positions and distances between points easily and precisely with the mouse. You can perform trace arithmetic or spectral analysis on existing traces to create new ones. and only an input file displayed in an active window can be edited and simulated. In addition. TSPICE code for the designed system can be extracted from the same file. the netlist. Charts are automatically configured for the type of data being presented. in single or multiple windows. All the drawing tools like box. You can copy and move traces between charts and windows. though the text editor integrated with T-Spice is ideal as it includes default and fully-customized syntax highlighting. T-Spice includes a Command Tool that automates error-free SPICE language entry. or the extraction facility of a layout editor (such as L-Edit™). understanding.1.1. 4. Some of the advantages of W-Edit are as follows. they can be efficiently created using the export facility of a schematic editor (such as S-Edit™).SEDIT has two viewing modes. Input files can be created and modified with any text editor. but they do not have to be written from scratch. Tanner EDA’s circuit-level simulator. 4. WEdit can chart data generated by T-Spice directly. A data set is treated by W-Edit as a unit called a trace. with which T-Spice constructs a model of the circuit to be simulated. This is a plain text file that contains the device statements and simulation commands. W-Edit is a waveform viewer that provides ease of use. including specifying the exact x-y coordinate range W-Edit displays.4 WEDIT Visualizing the complex numerical data resulting from VLSI circuit simulation is critical to testing. o It has got tight integration with T-Spice. each in its own window in the display area. ports and properties. Any number of text files can be open at once. and improving those circuits. drawn from the SPICE circuit description language. You can pan back and forth and zoom in and out of chart views. Multiple traces from different output files can be viewed simultaneously. Input files can be very long and complex. or the input deck). Schematics show how smaller functional units or basic devices (such as transistors) are connected to form higher-level units (such as inverters). Schematics define the connectivity of primitives and lower-level modules within higher-level modules. only one window can be “active” at any given time. W-Edit charts data dynamically as it is produced during the simulation. without modification of the output data files. However.
the capacitance of the comb is sensitive to the displacement of the movable plate. Each of the two plates of the capacitor are comb-like. These components are taken from the library and connections are made.1 LINEAR ELECTROSTATIC COMB DRIVE. LinearCombDrive_DirX can be used as a sensor. LinearCombDrive_DirX can be used as an actuator. DEVICE SYMBOL 26 . two resonators coupled with an inductive element are required. Rectangular plate is used as the resonating mass. Hence. 4.2. is allowed to move in one direction only (direction of the comb teeth). Linear folded beam is used as the inductive unit. Linear electrostatic comb drive is used as the driving and sensing capacitor. It is mainly a capacitor with specific features. One of the plates is anchored to the substrate while the other. The electrostatic force due to the electrical field between the plates can make the movable plate actuate on another mechanism. 4. It is designated as LinearCombDrive_DirX. Header and comment information supplied by T-Spice is used for automatic chart configuration.2 FILTER DESIGN IN MEMSPRO For the required filter. Runtime update of results is made possible by linking W-Edit to a running simulation in T-Spice. by a specific mechanism.Numerical data is input to W-Edit in the form of plain or binary text files. In other words. Hence. The capacitance between the plates depends on the position of the movable plate with respect to the anchored one. A short description of those components is given below.
2. It is a four-pin device with VAnchor and VActuate as the capacitor terminals.Pins LinearCombDrive_DirX is a capacitor with specific features. Disp and Anchor provide information about the electrostatic force between the capacitor plates in the form of the current flowing through them and they receive information about the displacement of the movable plate in the form of the voltage across them. The mechanical part of the model describes the spring constant K where it is modeled as a support beam fixed at one side 27 .2 LINEAR FOLDED BEAM SUSPENSION The LinearFoldedSpring_DirX component models the spring constant of a linear folded beam suspension element. 4. It is a passive device.
This part is usually used as a part of a resonator. The electrical part of the model consists of a resistance that accounts for the electric resistance of different parts.with guided movement on the other end. DEVICE SYMBOL PINS 28 .
The linear folded beam suspension is a passive element: It responds to movement rather than generating movement. The plate is mostly used in comb resonators where it joins the mechanical springs. the Actuating comb and the sensing comb.3 RECTANGULAR PLATE WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM The RigidPlate_DirX component models the mechanical and the electrical behavior of a rectangular micro-machined plate joining different MEMS components. 4. DEVICE SYMBOL 29 .2. This module has one mechanical degree of freedom in the Y axis direction.
The plate function is to connect several MEMS components together. The mass of the plate and the damping induced on it when it is in motion contribute significantly to the overall performance of the system of connected components. EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 30 .
3 RESONATOR DESIGN: For the filter design first the design of a resonator is considered. 4.0 phase=0. Schematic entry of a resonating unit is as given below.1 SCHEMATIC ENTRY V=50 VAnchor Anchor Linear Folded Beam_DirX VPassive Disp Vpassive_t Disp_t LinearCombDrive DirX RigidPlate_DirX LinearCombDrive DirX VAnchor Anchor Vdc=0. It consists of a single resonating unit with a driving capacitor and one sensing capacitor.3.4.0 mag=1. Resonating frequency will be decided by the device dimensions.0 VActuate Disp Vactuate_l Vactuate_r Disp_l Disp_r right_eVActuate right_mDisp VAnchor Anchor Vpassive_b Disp_b V=0 VPassive Disp Beam_DirX Linear Folded VAnchor Anchor 31 .
00 dx= 0.00 x2= -980.3.00 x2= -980.00 0 myreson vp(righ t_m) 0.00 V o l ta g e P h a s e ( d e g ) -50 -100 -150 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Frequency (kHz) 32 .3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE V o l ta g e M a g n it u d e ( n V ) x1= -980.00 dx= 0.00 45 myreson vm(right_m) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Frequency (kHz) x1= -980.2 LAOUT OF THE DESIGN 4.4.3.
Corresponding phase response is also given. actual view of the device on chip is obtained with exact dimensions. All the frequencies between these two peaks are passed by the filter. Two resonating masses are connected together using a linear folded beam. In schematic. only electrical connections are visible. When the flexural width of linear folded beam is varied. 33 . Second resonating unit introduces one more peak in the response curve. myreson vdb(right_m) -120 -130 -140 Voltage Magnitude (dB) -150 -160 -170 -180 -190 -200 1k 3k 10k 32k 100k Frequency (Hz) From the graph it can be seen that output of the filter is going high at its resonant frequency decided by the device dimensions. the dependency of resonant frequency on device dimensions is made clear. For each value of width each resonating frequency is obtained. By MONTE CARLO analysis. In the layout.4.4 FILTER DESIGN From the resonator design above.4 MONTE CARLO ANALYSIS Flexural width of linear folded beam is continuously varied with values by a Gaussian approximation. Inter relation between the layout and schematic can also be understood. Length and width of the folded beam decides the location of the second peak and thereby the bandwidth. Here inductive coupling is made into use. 30 such runs were performed and the resulting graph is plotted. Various types are coupling are used for this purpose.3. filter can be designed by coupling it with another resonator. resonant frequency also varies with it. 4.
0 mag=1.1 SCHEMATIC VIEW OF A FILTER V=50 VAnchor Anchor Linear Folded Beam_DirX VAnchor Anchor Linear Folded Beam_DirX VPassive Disp VPassive Disp Vpassive_t Disp_t Vpassive_t Disp_t LinearCombDrive DirX RigidPlate_DirX RigidPlate_DirX LinearCombDrive DirX VAnchor Anchor Vdc=0.4.4.0 VActuate Disp Beam_DirX Linear Folded Anchor VAnchor Vactuate_l Vactuate_r Vactuate_l Vactuate_r Disp_l Disp_r Disp_l Disp_r right_e VActuate right_m Disp VPassive VAnchor Anchor Vpassive_b Disp_b Disp Vpassive_b Disp_b V=0 VPassive Disp VPassive Disp Beam_DirX Linear Folded VAnchor Anchor Beam_DirX Linear Folded VAnchor Anchor 34 .0 phase=0.
3 FREQUENCY RESPONSE 35 .4.4.2 LAYOUT OF THE DESIGN 4.4.
2e-005 finger_length=6e-005 finger_gap=3e-006 + finger_width=4e-006 floore='Rotor_Active_Width/(Finger_Width+Finger_Gap)' + number_of_gaps='2*FLOOR(FLOORE/2)+2' + C0='NUMBER_OF_GAPS*EPS0*EPSREL*TPOLY/FINGER_GAP' XDERIV_V3_1 Disp vel_free Derivative XDERIV_V3_2 Anchor vel_fix Derivative Gcomb Disp Anchor POLY(1) VAnchor VActuate 0 0 '0.probe .0\Tutorial\Resonator\final.VActuate)' .4 TSPICE CODE * SPICE netlist written by S-Edit Win32 11.Here the second peak can be seen because of the coupled resonator.SUBCKT LinearFoldedSpring_DirX Anchor Disp VAnchor VPassive + flexure_length=0.4.SUBCKT LinearCombDrive_DirX Anchor Disp VActuate VAnchor TPOLY=TPOLY1 + finger_overlap=3e-005 rotor_active_width=9. 2007 at 11:08:54 * Waveform probing commands .4e-005 + rotor_yoke_width=1. All frequencies in between the two peaks will be passed by the filter.SUBCKT Derivative in out Cin=1e-6 Rfb=1 GAIN=1 A0=1k Eamp out1 0 ampneg 0 '-1*A0' Eampin ampin 0 in 0 1 Eampout out 0 out1 0 '-1*GAIN*(A0+1)/(A0*Rfb*Cin)' Cin ampin ampneg 'Cin' Rfb out1 ampneg 'Rfb' .sdb" + probetopmodule="myresonator" Files\SoftMEMS\MEMS Pro .0002 flexure_width=3e-006 Relec VAnchor VPassive R='rsPoly1*(flexure_length/flexure_width+2)' Rspr Anchor Disp R='1/(ymodPoly1*tPoly1)*(flexure_length/flexure_width)*(flexure_length/flexure_widt h)*(flexure_length/flexure_width)' .20 * Written on Apr 22.ENDS .5*C0' Gcomb2 VAnchor VActuate POLY(2) vel_free vel_fix VAnchor VActuate 0 0 0 0 'C0' 0 G1 VAnchor VActuate chg='(FINGER_OVERLAP+V(DISP.dat" + probesdbfile="C:\Program v6.ENDS .8e-005 stator_yoke_width=1.options probefilename="final.ENDS 36 .ANCHOR))*C0*V(VAnchor. 4.
0002 flexure_width=3e-006 XLinearFoldedSpring_DirX_5 N20 N23 N21 N12 LinearFoldedSpring_DirX + flexure_length=0..0002 plate_length=0.0002 flexure_width=3e-006 XRigidPlate_DirX_1 N6 N4 N23 N9 N2 N12 N3 N7 RigidPlate_DirX XRigidPlate_DirX_2 N14 N20 right_m N18 N21 right_e N13 N19 RigidPlate_DirX v1 N10 Gnd 0.0 Cdamp Disp_l 0 '(9*plate_width*plate_length*mu)/tOx1' Xderiv_acc vel acc DERIV_V3 Xderiv_vel Disp_l vel DERIV_V3 Gmass Disp_l 0 POLY(1) acc 0 0 'plate_width*plate_length*tPoly1*rhoPoly1' 0 Vmass1 Disp_t Disp_l 0.END 37 .0 .0 0.0002 flexure_width=3e-006 XLinearFoldedSpring_DirX_2 0 N6 N17 N3 LinearFoldedSpring_DirX XLinearFoldedSpring_DirX_3 0 N14 N17 N13 LinearFoldedSpring_DirX XLinearFoldedSpring_DirX_4 0 N18 N17 N19 LinearFoldedSpring_DirX + flexure_length=0.0 Vmass Disp_b Disp_r 0.include "C:\Program Files\SoftMEMS\MEMS Pro v6.0 AC 1.sp" * End of main circuit: myresonator .ENDS * Main circuit: myresonator XLinearCombDrive_DirX_1 0 N4 N2 N10 LinearCombDrive_DirX finger_gap=3e-006 + finger_length=6e-005 XLinearCombDrive_DirX_2 0 right_m right_e N1 LinearCombDrive_DirX + finger_gap=3e-006 finger_length=6e-005 XLinearFoldedSpring_DirX_1 0 N9 N17 N7 LinearFoldedSpring_DirX + flexure_length=0.0 v2 N1 Gnd 0 v3 N17 Gnd 50 .0 Velec2 Vactuate_r Vpassive_t 0.SUBCKT RigidPlate_DirX Disp_b Disp_l Disp_r Disp_t Vactuate_l Vactuate_r + Vpassive_b Vpassive_t plate_width=0.0\Tutorial\Resonator\process.SUBCKT DERIV_V3 in out Cin=1e-6 Rfb=1 GAIN=1 A0=1k Eamp out1 0 ampneg 0 '-1*A0' Eampin ampin 0 in 0 1 Eampout out 0 out1 0 '-1*GAIN*(A0+1)/(A0*Rfb*Cin)' Cin ampin ampneg 'Cin' Rfb out1 ampneg 'Rfb' .0 Vmass2 Disp_r Disp_t 0.ac dec 100 1k 40k .0002 Velec Vpassive_t Vactuate_l 0.0 Velec3 Vpassive_b Vactuate_r 0.ENDS .
66 kHz : 23.4.62 kHz : 19.0 phase=0. 4.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FILTER Lower cut off frequency Upper cut off frequency Mid band frequency Quality factor : 16. Quality factor of the filter is relatively low. Modified designs and their frequency responses are given below.83 kHz : 2.83 kHz.0 mag=22.214.171.1249 : The designed filter is having a mid band frequency of 19. Performance of filter can be improved by coupling more resonators in series.6 SCHEMATIC VIEW OF MODIFIED FILTER V=350 VAnchor Anchor Linear Folded Beam_DirX VAnchor Anchor Linear Folded Beam_DirX VAnchor Anchor Linear Folded Beam_DirX VAnchor Anchor Linear Folded Beam_DirX VPassive Disp VPassive q Disp w VPassive q Disp w VPassive q Disp w LinearCombDrive DirX Vpassive_t Disp_t Vpassive_t Disp_t Vpassive_t Disp_t Vpassive_t Disp_t LinearCombDrive DirX RigidPlate_DirX RigidPlate_DirX RigidPlate_DirX RigidPlate_DirX B eam _Di rX Li ne ar Fo lde d A nch or VAn ch or B eam _Di rX Li ne ar Fo lde d A nch or VAn ch or VAnchor + - VActuate Disp B eam _Di rX Li ne ar Fo lde d A nch or VAn ch or V Pas si ve V Pas si ve V Pas si ve Vactuate_l Vactuate_r Vactuate_l Vactuate_r out Vactuate_l Vactuate_r Vactuate_l Vactuate_r VActuate Disp VAnchor + Anchor Vdc=0.0 Disp_l Disp_r Disp_l Disp_r Disp_l Disp_r Disp_l Disp_r Anchor Di sp Di sp Vpassive_b Disp_b Vpassive_b Disp_b Vpassive_b Disp_b Di sp Vpassive_b Disp_b - V=-5 VPassive Disp VPassive Disp VPassive Disp VPassive Disp Beam_DirX Linear Folded VAnchor Anchor Beam_DirX Linear Folded VAnchor Anchor Beam_DirX Linear Folded VAnchor Anchor Beam_DirX Linear Folded VAnchor Anchor 38 .
Normally MEMS devices consume a large amount of power for the actuation of micro structures.4. This design provides better quality factor too. layout file is converted to GDS II format and sent to furnace for manufacturing. Power consumed by the system is also a major concern. This design strikes exact balance between area occupied and the performance indices. We can see that there is always a trade off between filter performances and area occupied by it on the chip.7 FREQUENCY RESPONSE In the modified design the pass band ripples which were present in the earlier design are removed. Once the design in done. 39 . Here an optimum design with 4 resonating units is presented.4.
4.4.8 VARIOUS ANGLE VIEWS OF THE DESIGN 40 .
which is more systematic in approach.63 kHz.62 kHz. Such a design flow provides much more insight into the manufacturing process involved in the design too. Resonator designed gave an output peak at 16. So the current work can be extended by doing the complete design of each component.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK Various aspects in designing of a MEMS device were dealt with ample illustrations. Energy given in the electrical form is converted to mechanical form by the driving capacitor and then converted into electrical domain by the sensing capacitor. Using that one can design any MEMS structure by placing the layer one over the other and removing materials from it. The freedom which user lacks here is being provided by yet another EDA tool COVENTORWARE. All designs already exist in library. In MEMSPRO we have the freedom of using only components available in MEMS library. User can just drag and drop components and make connections accordingly. Two such resonators were coupled inductively to give a bandpass filter with cut off frequencies at 16. Later on more than 2 resonators were coupled to get a novel filter design with optimum chip area and perfect working parameters. All the electro mechanical conversions were done using Bond graph analysis. MEMS filter synthesis approach based on the electrical coupling of electro mechanical resonators was used. I selected filter design because it illustrates the excellent relationship between electrical and mechanical domains. 41 .63 kHz and 23. which we were just using from library now. A trial and error method was used in designing the final design in MEMSPRO.
GLOSSARY DLP LQR PWM CVD PVD LPCVD PECVD RIE IBM SOI GDS : Digital Light Processing : Linear Quadratic Regulator : Pulse Width Modulation : Chemical Vapor Deposition : Physical Vapor Deposition : Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition : Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition : Reactive Ion Etching : Ion beam Milling : Silicon on Insulator : Graphic Data System 42 .
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