[4830-01-u] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 [TD 8605] RIN 1545-AE30 Presumptions

Where Owner of Large Amount of Cash is not Identified AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and temporary Regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations regarding the presumptions that arise where the owner of a large amount of cash or its equivalent is not identified. The final regulations reflect changes to the law made by the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 and the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, and incorporate the rules of current #301.6867-1T, relating to cash, cash equivalents, specific cash equivalents and the value of cash equivalents. In addition, several new items have been added to the list of specific cash equivalents. The final regulations affect individuals who are found in possession of a large amount of cash or its equivalent and the true owners of that cash or its equivalent. EFFECTIVE DATE: [INSERT DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THIS DOCUMENT IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER]. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerome D. Sekula, (202) 622-3640 (not a toll-free call). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background This document contains final regulations amending the Procedure and Administration Regulations (26 CFR part 301) under section 6867 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (Code). The regulations reflect the enactment of section 6867 by section 330(a) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-248), and the amendment made by section 1001(a)(1) of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-647). The IRS published a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register on September 29, 1994, (59 FR 49613) providing proposed rules under section 6867 of the Code. No written comments were received. No public hearing was requested or held. In most respects, the final regulations are identical to the proposed regulations. The final regulations, however, do not contain those provisions of the proposed regulations that had permitted a possessor of cash, solely in that person's capacity as possessor of cash, to bring a suit for refund in the district court after the deficiency had been collected. Explanation of Provisions Section 330(a) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 amended the Code by adding section 6867, designed to be used in making jeopardy or termination assessments, as appropriate, when there is no known owner of large amounts of cash. Section 6867 provides that if an individual in physical possession of cash in excess of $10,000 does not claim the cash as belonging to that individual or as belonging to another person whose identity is readily ascertainable and who acknowledges ownership of the cash to the IRS, it is presumed that the cash represents gross income of a single individual for the taxable year in which the possession occurs and that the collection of tax will be jeopardized by delay. Section 6867, as originally enacted, made the entire amount of the cash subject to a 50 percent tax rate. Section 1001(a)(1) of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988 amended section 6867, effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, to provide that the tax rate is to be the highest rate of tax for an individual specified in section 1. Under section 6867, the possessor of cash is treated (solely with respect to the cash) as the taxpayer for the purposes of chapters 63 and 64 of

the Code, relating to assessment and collection, and for the purposes of section 7429(a)(1), entitling that individual to a written statement of information concerning the assessment provided for by that section. Because section 6867 does not treat the possessor as the taxpayer for the purposes of sections 7429(a)(2) and 7429(b), relating to administrative and judicial review of termination and jeopardy assessments, the proposed regulations do not permit the possessor of cash to maintain an action under section 7429 for such review. In addition, because section 7422, relating to civil actions for refund, is in chapter 76B and other provisions dealing with refunds are contained in chapter 65 and not chapters 63 or 64 of the Code, a possessor of cash, solely in that person's capacity as possessor of cash, may not institute a suit for refund in district court after the deficiency has been collected. This in no way diminishes the right of the possessor of cash to petition the United States Tax Court to challenge the notice of deficiency issued to the possessor solely in that person's capacity as possessor of cash. The true owner of cash may maintain an action under section 7429 for administrative and judicial review of the deficiency notice issued to the possessor. However, the true owner may only institute the section 7429 action concerning the notice of deficiency issued to the possessor by making a request for review within 30 days from the date the possessor is given the written statement of information required under section 7429(a)(1). After the deficiency asserted against the possessor of cash has been levied upon, the true owner of cash may bring an action in federal district court, within the time frame specified in section 6532(c), to recover the cash, as provided in section 7426, relating to civil actions by persons other than taxpayers. In addition, the true owner of cash, with the permission of the court, may appear before the United States Tax Court in any proceeding that may be filed by the possessor of the cash challenging the notice of deficiency issued to the possessor as possessor of the cash. Section 301.6867-1(f) of the final regulations incorporates the definitions contained in #301.6867-1T, relating to cash, cash equivalents, specific cash equivalents and the value of cash equivalents. In addition, several other items have been identified and added to the list of specific cash equivalents. Section 301.6867-1T will be removed on [INSERT DATE THIS DOCUMENT IS PUBLISHED IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER]. Special Analyses It has been determined that this Treasury decision is not a significant regulatory action as defined in EO 12866. Therefore, a regulatory assessment is not required. It also has been determined that section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 5) and the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. chapter 6) do not apply to these regulations, and, therefore, a Regulatory Flexibility Analysis is not required. Pursuant to section 7805(f) of the Internal Revenue Code, the notice of proposed rulemaking preceding these regulations was submitted to the Small Business Administration for comment on its impact on small business. Drafting Information The principal author of these regulations is Jerome D. Sekula, Office of Assistant Chief Counsel (General Litigation). However, other personnel from the IRS and Treasury Department participated in their development. Lists of Subjects in 26 CFR Part 301 Employment taxes, Estate taxes, Excise taxes, Gift taxes, Income taxes, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Adoption of Amendments to the Regulations Accordingly, 26 CFR part 301 is amended as follows: PART 301--PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Paragraph 1. The authority citation for part 301 continues to read in part as follows: Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805 * * *

Par. 2. Section 301.6867-1 is added to read as follows: #301.6867-1 Presumptions where owner of large amount of cash is not identified. (a) General rule. For purposes of section 6851 (relating to termination assessments) and section 6861 (relating to jeopardy assessments), if cash in excess of $10,000 is found in the physical possession of an individual who does not claim either ownership of that cash or ownership by some other person whose identity the Commissioner can readily ascertain and who acknowledges ownership of that cash as of the date the cash was found, then, it shall be presumed that-(1) The cash represents gross income of an unknown single individual; and (2) That the collection of tax on that income will be jeopardized by delay. (b) Rules for assessment. The Commissioner may make an assessment pursuant to section 6851 or section 6861, as appropriate, using the rules for assessment specified in this paragraph. In the case of any assessment resulting from the application of paragraph (a) of this section-(1) The entire amount of cash is treated as taxable income for the taxable year in which the cash is found; (2) The income is treated as taxable at the highest rate of tax specified in section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code; and (3) Except as provided in paragraph (c), the possessor of the cash is treated (solely with respect to that cash) as the taxpayer for purposes of chapters 63 and 64 and section 7429(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code. (c) Effect of later substitution of true owner--(1) In general. If an assessment resulting from the application of paragraph (a) of this section is later abated and replaced by an assessment against the true owner of the cash, the later assessment is treated for purposes of all laws relating to lien, levy, and collection as relating back to the date of the original assessment. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, any notice and review provided for by section 7429 and the notice of deficiency issued to the true owner relative to the later assessment are to be made within the prescribed time limits, using the actual date of the later assessment against the true owner. (2) Example. The provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section may be illustrated by the following example: Example. On June 5, 1994, A is found in possession of a bag, containing $200,000, which A claims he was holding for a friend whose name A cannot remember. Because A does not claim ownership of the cash and does not provide the name of the true owner so that the Commissioner can identify the true owner and have that person acknowledge ownership of the cash, it is presumed that the cash represents gross income of an individual for calendar year 1994, and that the collection of tax on that gross income will be jeopardized by delay. Accordingly, on June 17, 1994, a termination assessment under section 6851 is made against A, in his capacity as possessor of the cash. On June 21, 1994, the written statement of information provided for by section 7429(a)(1) is given to A. No request for review under section 7429(a)(2) is made by the true owner within 30 days after the day on which A was furnished the written statement provided for in section 7429(a)(1). Subsequently, individual B comes to the Service and states that he is the owner of the cash. On September 2, 1994, the Service determines that B was the true owner of the cash on June 5, 1994. On September 9, 1994, the Service abates the termination assessment made against A solely as possessor of cash and, after determining that jeopardy exists, replaces it with a termination assessment under section 6851 against B. The lien against B that arises under section 6321 is treated as arising on June 17, 1994. However, within 5 days after September 9, 1994, the Service must give B the written statement of information required by section 7429(a)(1) so that B can make a request for

review under section 7429(a)(2). In addition, a notice of deficiency must be sent to B within 60 days after the later of the due date or the actual filing of B's tax return for 1994, as required by section 6851(b). (d) Rights of possessor of cash--(1) Action permitted. Section 6867 provides that the possessor of cash is treated as the taxpayer for purposes of chapter 63 (relating to assessment) and chapter 64 (relating to collection) of the Internal Revenue Code. Accordingly, the possessor of cash may file a petition with the United States Tax Court, within the applicable time limits, challenging the notice of deficiency issued to the possessor solely in that person's capacity as possessor of cash. (2) Actions not permitted. Section 6867 provides that the possessor of cash is treated as the taxpayer solely for purposes of section 7429(a)(1), and is entitled to the written statement of information provided for by that section. The possessor of cash is not treated as the taxpayer for purposes of sections 7429(a)(2) and 7429(b), relating to administrative and judicial review of termination and jeopardy assessments, and may not maintain an action under section 7429 for such review. The possessor of cash is not treated as the taxpayer for purposes of section 7422, relating to civil actions for refund, or chapter 65 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to abatements, credits, and refunds, and may not institute a suit for refund in district court after the deficiency has been collected. (e) Rights of true owner of cash--(1) Actions permitted. The true owner of cash may request administrative review under section 7429(a)(2) and may maintain a civil action under section 7429(b) for judicial review of an assessment under section 6851 or section 6861 made against the possessor solely in that person's capacity as possessor of cash. Such an action, however, must be preceded by a request for review under section 7429(a)(2) made by the true owner within 30 days after the day on which the possessor is furnished the written statement provided for in section 7429(a)(1). In addition, after the deficiency asserted against the possessor of cash has been levied upon, the true owner of cash may bring an action in federal district court to recover the cash, as provided in section 7426, relating to civil actions by persons other than taxpayers. See, however, section 6532(c), relating to the 9-month statute of limitations for suits under section 7426. In addition, the true owner of cash, with the permission of the court, may appear before the United States Tax Court in any proceeding that may be filed by the possessor of the cash challenging the notice of deficiency issued to the possessor solely in that person's capacity as possessor of the cash. (2) Actions not permitted. The true owner of cash may not file a petition with the United States Tax Court challenging the notice of deficiency issued to the possessor solely in that person's capacity as possessor of cash. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the true owner of cash may file a petition with the United States Tax Court challenging any notice of deficiency issued to the true owner following the abatement of the assessment made against the possessor of cash. (f) Definitions. For the purposes of this section and section 6867-(1) Cash. The term cash includes any cash equivalents. (2) Cash equivalent--(i) In general. The term cash equivalent includes foreign currency, any bearer obligation, and any medium of exchange that is of a type that has been frequently used in illegal activities, as listed in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section. (ii) Specific cash equivalents. For purposes of paragraph (f)(2)(i), the following are also cash equivalents-(A) Coins; (B) Precious metals; (C) Jewelry; (D) Precious stones;

(E) Postage stamps; (F) Traveler's checks in any form; (G) Negotiable instruments (including personal checks, business checks, official bank checks, cashier's checks, notes, and money orders) that are either in bearer form, endorsed without restriction, made out to a fictitious payee, or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery; (H) Incomplete instruments (including personal checks, business checks, official bank checks, cashier's checks, notes, and money orders) signed but with the payee's name omitted; and (I) Securities or stock in bearer form or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery. (iii) Value of cash equivalents. A cash equivalent is taken into account at its fair market value except in the case of a bearer obligation, in which case it is taken into account at its face value. (3) Possessor of cash. An individual is considered to be the possessor of cash if the cash is found on that individual's person or in that individual's possession or is found in any object, container, vehicle, or area under that individual's custody or control. (4) True owner of the cash. The true owner of cash is the individual who beneficially owns the cash on the date such cash is found in the physical possession of the individual described in paragraph (f)(3) of this section. An agent, bailee, or other custodian of the cash is not the true owner of cash. A true owner of cash does not include an individual who, subsequent to the date on which the cash is found in the physical possession of the individual described in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, obtains ownership of the cash by purchase, subrogation, descent, or other means. (g) Effective date. This section is effective with respect to cash found in the physical possession of an individual on or after [INSERT DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THIS DOCUMENT IN THE FEDERAL REGISTER]. #301.6867-1T [Removed]

Par. 3.

Section 301.6867-1T is removed. Margaret Milner Richardson Commissioner of Internal Revenue

Approved:

June 29, 1995 Leslie Samuels Assistant Secretary of the Treasury