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Presented By: Mohammad Umar Rehman Electrical Engineering Department Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

Outline

• • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Historical Review The Basic Problem of Tomography CT Setup CT Projections P j i Tomographic Images Image Re-construction: The Radon Transform I R t ti Th R d T f Projection Slice Theorem CT Generations G ti Pros & Cons Conclusion & Future Prospects

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Introduction

• Tomography is derived from the Greek word “Tomos” meaning a slice or a cutting • T Tomography refers t th cross-sectional i h f to the ti l imaging of an object i f bj t from either transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions. • Part of a larger field called Modern Medical Imaging. • Popularly known as Computed (Axial) Tomography (CT/CAT) & uses X X-rays as radiation source di i • Mathematical foundations by Johann Radon, Austria, 1917 • Rediscovered by Allan Cormack 1963 USA Cormack,1963, • First Scanning Machine by an Engineer, Godfrey Hounsfield, 1971, UK. Nobel Prize in Medicine 1979 to Cormack & Hounsfield

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Historical Review

Imaging Modality X-Ray Year 1895 Inventor Röntgen (Nobel 1901) Wavelength Energy 3-100 keV Physical principle Measures variable tissue absorption of X-Rays Radioactive decay. Measures variable concentration of radioactive agent. SPECT with improved SNR due to increased number of useful events Multiple axial X-Ray views to obtain 3D volume of absorption Space and tissue dependent resonance frequency of kern spin in variable magnetic field. Measures echo of sound at tissue boundaries

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Single Photon Emission Comp. Tomography (SPECT) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Computed Axial Tomography (CAT/CT)

1963

Kuhl, Edwards

150 keV

1953

Brownell, Sweet Hounsfield, Cormack (Nobel 1979)

150 keV

1972

Few keV (Varies)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

1973

**Lauterbur, Mansfield (Nobel 2003 many
**

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GHz

Ultrasound

19401955

MHz

**The Basic Problem of Tomography
**

• Given a certain number of views, or projections of an object, , p j j , under what conditions can we determine the object. OR • Given a number of digital projections of the distribution of some parameter within a patient acquired at regular angular t ithi ti t i d t l l intervals over either 180 or 360 degrees, with a scanner of some sort, how can we produce pictures of the parameter distribution in the trans-axial plane. • Tomography is like looking through the various windows of a house and trying to draw the floor plan. plan

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CT Setup

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**CT Setup contd Setup…contd
**

Linear Translation X-Ray Source

Parallel Beam

Detector

Rotation

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A Real One

Control Panels When to breathe indicator

Gantry

Bed (moves in & out of gantry)

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CT Projections

• A fi X fine X-ray b beam i used to i di the slice of i is d irradiate h li f interest. • Once the measurement is made, the beam is moved over and another measurement is collected until entire slice of interest has been exposed. • This set of measurements taken at the numerous beam positions, is known as a projection • It is desirable to collect as many samples per projection as possible. However, possible However in practical systems there are limitations systems, on sampling due to: i. The physical size of the X-ray detectors, ii. Desire to minimize radiation exposure to the patient, and iii. The desire to minimize the amount of data that must be collected and manipulated manipulated.

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Tomographic Images

• The tomographic image is a picture of a slab of the g p g p patient’s anatomy • The 2D CT image corresponds to a 3D section of the patient • CT slice thickness is very thin (1 to 10 mm) and is approximately uniform pp y • The 2D array of pixels in the CT image corresponds to an equal number of 3D voxels (volume elements) in the patient • Each pixel on the CT image displays the average X-ray attenuation properties of the tissue in the corresponding p p p g voxel

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**Fig. Depiction of how a slice of an object can be viewed as a set of voxels t f l
**

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**Image Re-construction: The R d Transform Th Radon T f
**

• Let the slice of the image be represented by a 2D function μ ( y) th it R d T (x, ) then its Radon Transform i given b f is i by:

• Where, δ is the Dirac-delta function & is the equation of the line as shown • Thus, Radon transform maps a function from the rectangular coordinates (x, y)into (s, θ). Also known as a sinogram. • Vl Values f s are obtained b th li for bt i d by the linear t translation of th X l ti f the X-ray source and detector pair and values for θ are obtained by the rotation of the gantry.

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Radon Transform …contd contd

**Fig: Illustrating the Radon Transform
**

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Image and its RT

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**The Radon Transform contd Transform…contd
**

• In most signal processing applications, a signal is measured (typically a voltage or current), then some type of transform is applied to abstract the desired useful information. information • In CT, the Radon Transform of an image is measured. • Our goal is to obtain the original function μ (x y) . (x, • The field of CT falls under the broad mathematical category of inverse problems. • Next we define the Inverse Radon Transform

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**The Inverse Radon Transform
**

∂g(s,θ ) 1 π∞ ∂s μ(x, y) = ℜ−1{g(s,θ )} = 2 ∫ ∫ dsdθ 2π 0 −∞x cosθ + y sinθ − s

• But inverse Radon Transform is valid only when g(s, θ) is known for all possible s and θ . • i.e. infinite projections…impossible • In a typical medical imaging system sampled version of the Radon Transform is measured. • Here comes into play that is known as Filtered Back p y Projection (FBP) • Widely adopted technique for image reconstruction

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**Projection Slice Theorem
**

• Based on Fourier Transform • 1D FT of the projection of an object is same as the 2D FT of the object along the line drawn through the centre of th 2D FT plane t f the l • Thus FBP algorithm allows the image μ(x, y) to be recovered from its sampled Radon Transform given by: • Pθ(ω) is the 1D FT of a projection at a fixed angle θ

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**Projection Slice Theorem contd Theorem…contd
**

• Multiplication of projection Pθ(ω) with the ramp filter |ω| • Multiplication in frequency domain is equivalent to convolution in time domain Filtering • Integration of the filtered projection w.r.t. θ Back Projection • Implementation issue: what is the best range of values of ω? • Practical implementation by “windowing” |ω|

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X Ray X-Ray Imaging

Inverse Filter

Back Project

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CT:A comparison

•

• • •

1971 Original axial CT image from the dedicated Siretom CT scanner. Ability to see the soft tissue structures of the brain, including the black ventricles for the first time. 80 80 80×80 pixel 1-4 hours acquisition time 1-5 days computation

2000 Axial CT image of a normal brain using a stateg of-the-art CT system. • 512×512 pixel • 0.35 sec acquisition time • 1 sec computation

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CT Generations

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**First Generation (1972)
**

Rotate/translate, pencil beam ,p Only two X-ray detectors used (two different slices) Parallel ray geometry Translated linearly to acquire 160 rays across a 24 cm FOV Rotated slightly between translations to acquire 180 projections at 1-degree i t j ti t1 d intervals l • About 4.5 minutes/scan with 1.5 minutes to reconstruct slice reduction • Pencil beam geometry allowed very efficient scatter reduction, best of all scanner generations • • • • •

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**Second Generation (1975) ( )
**

• rotate/translate, narrow fan beam • Incorporated linear array of 30 detectors • More data acquired to improve image quality (600 rays × 540 views) • Shortest scan time was 18 seconds/slice • Narrow fan beam allows more scattered radiation to be detected

Source

Object

Detector

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**Third Generation (1976)
**

• Rotate/rotate, wide fan beam • Number of detectors increased substantially (to more than 800 detectors) d t t ) • Angle of fan beam increased to cover entire patient – Eliminated need for translational motion • Mechanically joined X-ray tube and detector array rotate together • Newer systems have scan times of ½ second

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**Fourth Generation (1977)
**

• Rotate/stationary • Designed to overcome the problem of ring artifacts 4,800 • Stationary ring of about 4 800 detectors

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**Fifth generation (1980s)
**

• Stationary/stationary • Developed specifically for cardiac tomographic imaging • No conventional X-ray tube; large arc of tungsten encircles patient and lies directly opposite to the detector ring • Electron beam steered around the patient to strike the annular tungsten target • Capable of 50-msec scan times; can produce fastframe-rate CT movies of the beating heart

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**Sixth Generation (1990)
**

• Spiral/helical CT scanners acquire data while the p q table is moving • By avoiding the time required to translate the patient table, the total scan time required to i bl h l i i d image the patient h i can be much shorter • Allows the use of less contrast agent and increases patient throughput so e s ces e e e sc do e w • In some instances the entire scan be done within a single breath-hold of the patient

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**Seventh(& last!) Generation (2000)
**

• Multiple detector array & cone beam • When using multiple detector arrays, the collimator spacing is wider and more of the X-rays that are p g y produced by the tube are used in producing image data

– Opening up the collimator in a single array scanner increases the slice thickness, reducing spatial resolution in the slice thickness dimension – With multiple detector array scanners, slice thickness is determined by detector size, not by the collimator

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Pros & Cons

• CT scanning is painless, noninvasive and accurate. • A major ad antage of CT is its abilit to image bone advantage ability bone, soft tissue and blood vessels all at the same time. • Unlike conventional X rays CT scanning provides X-rays, very detailed images of many types of tissue as well as the lungs, bones, and blood vessels. s e u gs, bo es, d b ood vesse s. • CT examinations are fast and simple; in emergency cases, they can reveal internal injuries and bleeding , y j g quickly enough to help save lives. • No radiation remains in a patient's body after a CT examination.

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**Pros & Cons contd Cons…contd
**

• There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the b fi of an accurate di i h benefit f diagnosis far outweighs the risk. • The effective radiation dose for this procedure varies varies. • The risk of serious allergic reaction to contrast materials that contain iodine is extremely rare, and radiology departments are well-equipped to deal with them. • Finite resolution causes some blurring of material boundaries • Large data volumes (GB) can require considerable computer resources f visualization and analysis t for i li ti d l i

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**Conclusion & Future Prospects
**

• Successful, modern medical imaging is possible thanks to high-speed digital computers and efficient, signal processing algorithms. • The introduction of the first CT scanner in 1972 revolutionized medical imaging and has improved contemporary health care care. • The emerging localized tomography promises to provide solutions to problems containing only a partial set of projection data. Localized tomography will also help in cases where only a portion of the object is of interest. • Efforts are being made to further reduce the ionizing radiation dose • Development of image reconstruction algorithms is an open area of research

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References

• Many!!! • To name a few… few 1. Webb, S., “The Physics of Medical Imaging”, Institute of Physics Publishing: Bristol, U.K., 1988. y g 2. Smith, B. J. & R. R. Adhami, “Medical Imaging: Computerized Tomography”, IEEE Potentials Magazine, Dec1998/Jan 1999 Vol:17 Issue:5. 1999,Vol:17, Issue:5 3. Parra, Lucas C., Lecture notes on Biomedical Engineering, y g City College of New York. 4. www.radiologyinfo.org

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The Presentation

• • • • • Could have been better if I had described little bit more mathematics Shown you some more figures Discussed more on CT instrumentation But still… still

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Thank You! for a “patient” Listening

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