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Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues

and Evaluation Considerations

*Meenakshi Bansal, **Rachna Rajput , ***Gaurav Gupta

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r act Mo bile r k connectio
n is ur g entlyr eq uired. The n eed f or mobility
N od es in Wire les s a d-hoc networ k need to ope rate as r in w ire les s n etw or ks neces sita
ted th e fo r matio
n of th
outers in or d er to maintain the informa tion ab out netwo e MANE T wo r k ing gr ou p with in Th e I nter net Engin
r k conn ectivityas th ere is no c entr alized in fras e er ing Ta s k For ce (I ETF) f or developing co nsistent I P r
tr u ctur e. There fore, Routin g Pr otoc ols ar e r equired which outing pr otocols f or both s tatic an d dyna mic top o lo
co uld ada p t dyna mically to th e c h an ging top olo g ies . After ye ars of resear ch, MANET p r o toc ols do not h
g ies an d wor ks at low da ta r ates. A s a res ult,ther e arise ave a complete f o r med I nter net stand ar d. Ther e is only
s a ne ed for the c o mp reh ensive pe rfor man ce evalu bee n an identificatio n of exper im ental Req u e st f or Comm
n of the a d - h oc r outing pr otocols in s a me fra me e nts ( RF Cs) . Atth is s tag e, there is an indication tha t q
wor k to und er s tand their c ompar a tive me rits and s uita b u es tio ns a r e unan s wer ed conc er ning either implem
fo r de ploymen t in diffe
r ent scen arios . I n this pa p e e ntation o r deploymen t o f the pr otocols but the p r op
r the pr otocols suite sele cted for co mpar ison a r e AODV osed algor ith ms a r e identified a s a trial tec h n o logy a nd
, DS R, TORA a n d OLSR ad- hoc r outin g pr otoc ols, as th ther e is a h igh ch ance that the y willdev e lop into a s tand
ese were the mo stp r omising fro m a llo th e r p roto c ols. Th e ar d. Aggre s s ive re sear ch inthis ar e a has contin ued s ince
perfor man ce of thes e protoc ols is e va luated thr oug h exha then withpr o minent s tudies on Ad ho c On- de mand Distan
ustive simula tio n s u s ing the O P NE T Mo d e le r ne tw o c e Vector ( AODV) , Dyna mic So u r c e Routing ( D SR
r k s im ulator u n der different par ameter s like ro utin g ov er ), Tem po r a llyOr d er ed Routing Alg orithm (T ORA) a n d
head, dela y , throu g hput and netwo r k load u nde r vary Optimiez d L ink StateRo u tin g ( O LSR) . 2.eR
ing the mo bilenod es . K ey v
i e wLit e r ature Wirele
Words : alphabe tically, so rted, e xcluding, words , used s s n etw or ks emer ge d in the 19 70' s , since then they
. 1 .nI
, in, title h ave become inc r ea singly p op ular . T he r eas on of their
t p op ular ityis th at the y p r ovide ac cess to info rmatio n r e ga
ro duct i on Th e rdless o f the g e og r aphical loc ation of the u s er . Wirele
s s n etw or ks can be class ified into tw o typ es [ 2] i.e .in
wor d ad- hoc is der ived f r omLatin, itm ean s “f or a par tic f r as tructur ed and inf r as tructur eles s n etw
or ks . I n w
ular pu rpos e” or “in a way that is no t plann ed in adv a ire d n etwor ks , in ord er to obtain the sh ortes t pa th usu a
nce” [ 1] . The a d- hoc netw or ks ar e designed to wor k auton llyDista nc e Vector or Link s tate ro u tin g pr otocols ar e
omo us ly, without a ny centraliz ed in f r as tructur e. In prac used. These protoc ols do not per f or mwell in ad - hoc wirele
tice this me a ns that ne tw o r k nodes s hould be able to c omm s s n etw or ks because wireles s a d-hoc netw or ks have limite
unica te with ea c h other e ven if ther e is no staticinf r a b a ndwidth a n d ther e is no central co ntrol. Ad- ho c wirele
s tructur e s uch as backbone netw or k, base statio ns, and s s n etw o r ks ar e diff e r e nt fr om othe r n etw o r ks beca
centralized n etwor k manag ement f unc tio ns o r Internet Ser v use of the ch aracteristic s like ab sence of centraliz ed c ontr
ice Pr ovider s ( ISPs) a re availa ble. I n thes e situ atio
ns , netwo ol, e ach node has wireles s interfa c e, nodes can move ar ou
r k nodes s hould cov er the m is sin
g fu nctio ns . MANE nd f r eelywhich r e s ultsin f re quent changes in networ k topolo
T s tan ds f or M obile Ad ho c Netw or k. It isa r obu g y, nodes have lim ite
d a m ount of r esour ces and lack
st inf ra s tructur e less wireles s n etw or k. A M ANET c a n o f s ymmetrica l link s i. e. trans miss ion do es not u s ua
be for m ed e ith
er b y m obilenod es or by bothf ixe d a nd mobile llyper for mequ allywell in bo th dire ctio n s. There f ore, modif
nod es . Nodes r andomly as s ociate with ea c h other f orm icatio n s to thes e r outin g pr otocols or totallyn e w r ou tin
ing a r bitrary topolog ies . T hey act as bothr ou ters a nd hos ts g pr otocols ar e r equired f or the ad hoc wireles s d oma
. Th e a bility of mobile r ou ters to se lf - con figur e make in. Pr ese ntly , the re are f our ad-hoc r outin g pr otocols in d e
s this te c h n o logy s uita b le f or pr ov isioning co mm mand f or wireles s a d-hoc netw or ks i.e . AODV [ 3 ] , DSR
unica tio n to, f o r ins tanc e, disaster - hit area s wher e ther e [ 4] , TORA [ 5 ] [6] and OLSR [ 7] . From
is no communica tio n inf r as tructur e, confer ences, or in em the va r ious a d-hoc r outin g pr otoc ols pr o posed, the au tho
e r ge ncy s ear ch and r es c ue oper atio ns w her e a ne tw o r s [ 8] founded TORA, DS Ra nd AODV o n - demand r outin
g pr otoc ols as most p r omising a n d compar e d them.
TORA is a distributed routing protocol for ad-hoc causes of routing overhead are network congestion and
networks, which uses a link reversal algorithm. TORA route error packets.
performs the routing portion of the protocol but depends Mobile nodes are faced with power constraints and as
for other functions on the internet MANET encapsulation such, power saving is a major factor to consider in
protocol (IMEP). DSR allows nodes to find out a route implementation of MANET. Furthermore, radio power
over a network dynamically. The AODV algorithm is a limitations, channel utilization and network size are
confluence of both DSR and destination sequenced considered. These factors limit the ability of nodes in a
distance vector (DSDV) protocols. It shares on-demand MANET to communicate directly between the source and
characteristics of DSR, and adds the hop-by-hop routing, destination. As the number of nodes increases in the
sequence numbers and periodic beacons from DSDV. The network, communication between the source and
protocols were compared over varying loads using destination increasingly relies on intermediate nodes.
OPNET Modeler 10.5 network simulator using packet Most routing protocols rely on their neighbours to route
level simulations. The simulation characteristics used for traffic and the increase in the number of neighbours
performance evaluation were the control traffic received causes even more traffic in the network due to
and sent, data traffic received, throughput, retransmission multiplication of broadcast traffic.
attempts, utilization, average power, route discovery time 3.2 Packet End-to-End Delay
and ULP traffic received. For comparative performance The packet end-to-end delay is the average time that
analysis, each protocol for ad-hoc networks was simulated packets take to traverse the network. This is the time from
for three different scenarios with varying network sizes of the generation of the packet by the sender up to their
40, 80 and 100 nodes. In case of network of 40 nodes, reception at the destination’s application layer and is
TORA shows good performance for the control traffic expressed in seconds. It therefore includes all the delays
received and sent, data traffic sent and for successful in the network such as buffer queues, transmission time
transmission of packets. AODV shows better performance and delays induced by routing activities and MAC control
for data traffic received, throughput and channel exchanges.
utilization. DSR shows an average level of performance in The delay is also affected by high rate of CBR packets.
both power and channel utilization over time. However, The buffers become full much quicker, so the packets
when the network size was increased to 80 and 100 nodes, have to stay in the buffers a much longer period of time
for DSR, the number of packets in routing traffic received before they are sent. This can clear be seen at the highest
and sent, as well as the number of packets in total traffic rate 20 packets/s. The high degree of packet drops, even
received and sent, increase with increasing load. However, at mobility 0 makes the delay high already fro m the start.
for route discovery time and the number of hops per route, DSR has a much lower delay compared to AODV. The
the performance depends primarily on the algorithm rather difference between AODV and DSR is most apparent at
than on the load. For TORA, the number of packets in rate 10 packets/s. DSDV has the lowest delay of them all.
control traffic received and sent, as well as in ULP traffic This is however an effect from the large fraction of packet
received and sent, increases with the increment of loads. drops that DSDV has, compared to DSR and AODV. The
In the case of AODV, varying the number of nodes has no increase in delay for DSDV also comes from the increased
effect on the number of hops per route or route discovery time that the packets must stay in the buffers. The high
time. Therefore, it was concluded that for specific delay at a mobility factor of 0-1 and a data rate of 20
differentials, TORA shows better performance over the packets/ s that can be seen for all protocols is a result of
two on-demand protocols, that is DSR and AODV. the extremely high data rate and the low mobility. The
high data rate will fill up the buffers very quickly. The low
3. Performance Matrics mobility will mean that already found routes are valid for
3.1 Routing Overhead a much longer time period. This means that found routes
Ad hoc networks are designed to be scalable. As the can be used for more packets. Even the packets that have
network grows, various routing protocols perform stayed in the buffer for a long time have a chance to get
differently. The amount of routing traffic increases as the through. When mobility increases, more routes will
network grows. An important measure of the scalability of become invalid and new requests are necessary. While the
the protocol, and thus the network, is its routing overhead. requests are propagating the network in search for a new
It is defined as the total number of routing packets route, buffers will get full and packets are dropped. These
transmitted over the network, expressed in bits per second packets are the packets that have stayed in the buffers for
or packets per second. the longest time and therefore the delay will decrease. The
Some sources of routing overhead in a network are cited increase in mobility actually results in a load balancing of
in [7] as the number of neighbours to the node and the the traffic between the nodes; hot spots are “removed” due
number of hops from the source to the destination. Other to mobility. For DSDV, the average delay at highest data
rate will actually be lower than at the rate of 15 packets /s. at start from AODV and DSR in case of 10 and 30 nodes
This is a little strange but has probably something to do but it fall below AODV throughput curve as the nodes
with the fact that DSDV only uses a buffer that only has start moving. AODV performs better in network with
room for 5 packets per flow. At the rate of 15 packets/s relatively high number of traffic sources and higher
and 20 packets/s, when mobility starts to get so high that mobility. The DSRs throughput is very low in the network
the topology changes frequently, only 40-60 % of the in all the cases.
packets gets through the network. These topology changes 5. Conclusion
means that the protocol needs more time to converge We evaluate the performance of AODV, DSR, TORA and
before the packets can be sent. The buffers will therefore OLSR ad-hoc routing protocols under varying load and
be congested almost all the time so the packets that number of users. The software used is OPNET Modeler
actually get thro ugh have approximately the same the 14.0 and simulations with varying traffic were run for
delay. 3600 sec.
4. Results
4.1 Routing Overhead 6. References
We evaluated that the highest amount of routing traffic is List and number all bibliographical references in 9-point
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Communications and Networking Volume 2006, Issue 2
readily available for the data to be sent from source to
(April 2006), pp- 42 – 42.
destination.The amount of throughput for TORA is higher