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Biology Form 4 Chapter 5 Cell Division

5.2.1 The process of meiosis

1 Meiosis consists of two nuclear division: Meiosis I and Meiosis II.


.
Meiosis I: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I and Telophase I.
Meiosis II: Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II and Telophase II.

2 Meiosis I begins with a single diploid parent cell.


. At the end of meiosis II, four haploid daughter cells are produced, each
of the daughter cell genetically different from the other and parent cell.

5.2.2 The stages of meiosis

1 Meiosis I is also preceded by interphase like mitosis, during which


. replication of DNA and organelles (example, centriole in animal cell) takes
place and energy is built up to be used later.

2 Table 5.2 The stages of meiosis in an animal cell


.
Phases diagram Phase/ Description
PROPHASE I • The chromosomes begin to condense,
become shorter, thicker and clearly
Meios visible.
is I • Homologous chromosome pair up to form
bivalent through process called
synapsis.
• Each bivalent consists of a tetrad. A
tetrad consists of two homologous
chromosomes and each chromosome is
made up of two sister chromatid.
• Crossing over occurs where the non-
sister chromatids exchange segments of
DNA. The points at which segments of
chromatids cross over are called
chiasmata.
• The nucleolus and nuclear membrane
disappear.
Biology Form 4 Chapter 5 Cell Division

• Each pair of centrioles migrates to the


opposite poles of the cells the spindle
fibres are radiated from it.
METAPHASE I • The pairs of homologous chromosomes as
tetrad are lined up on the metaphase
plate.
• Each chromosome is attached to the
spindle fibres.

ANAPHASE I • The homologous chromosomes are pulled


away by spindle fibres from one another
to the opposite poles of the cell.
• Each chromosome still consists of two
sister chromatids.

TELOPHASE I • The chromosomes arrive at the poles.


• Each pole has a haploid daughter nucleus
because it contains only one set of
chromosomes.
• The spindle fibres disappear.
• The nuclear membrane and nucleolus
reapears.

Cytokinesis • Cytokinesis occurs simultaneously with


telophase I resulting in two haploid
daughter cells.
Biology Form 4 Chapter 5 Cell Division

Meiosis II

PROPHASE II • The nuclear membrane of daughter cells


disintegrate and nucleolus disappear.
Meios • The spindle fibres re-form.
is II
METAPHASE II • The chromosomes lined up on the
metaphase plate.
• The sister chromatid of each chromosome
is attached to the spindle fibres at the
centromere.
ANAPHASE II • The centromere of the sister chromatids
separate.
• The chromosomes are pulled to the
opposite poles of the cell.
TELOPHASE II • The nucleolus and nuclear membrane re-
form.
• The spindle fibres break down.
Cytokinesis • Four haploid daughter cells are
formed.
• Each of the daughter cells contains half
the number of chromosomes and is
genetically different from the parent cell.
• These haploid cells will develop into
Biology Form 4 Chapter 5 Cell Division

gametes.

5 The Importance of meiosis:


. (a) To ensures that the diploid number of chromosomes is maintained
from one generation to next.
(b) To provide for genetic variation which occurs from
(i) Genetic recombination
• Crossing over during prophase I results in the exchange of genetic
material between non-sister chromatids of a bivalent to form a new
combination of genes on a chromosome.
• Independent assortment
During metaphase I, each pair of homologous chromosomes is
arranged independently and randomly at the metaphase plate of the
cell. The paternal and maternal chromosomes may be oriented to
face either one of the poles.
(ii) The random fertilisation of an ovum by a sperm

5.2.3 Comparison of meiosis I and meiosis II


Similarities
1. Both are nuclear division and cytokinesis.
2. Each division consists of 4 phase (prophase, metaphase,anaphase and
telophase).
3. Spindle formation and the breaking down of nuclear membrane and
nucleouli occur during the prophase of both meiosis I and meiosis II.
4. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus are reformed during the telophase of
meiosis I and meiosis II.

Differences
Meiosis I Aspect Meiosis II
compared
Occurs prior to meiosis I Interphase Does not occurs prior to
meiosis I
Chromosome already Prophase Replication of
replicated, synapsis of chromosome, synapsis of
homologous chromosomes, homologous
formation of chiasma and chromosomes, formation
Biology Form 4 Chapter 5 Cell Division

crossing over between the of chiasma and crossing


non-sister chromatids over between the non-
occurs. sister chromatids does
not occur.
Paired homologous Metaphase Sister chromatids/
chromosomes align at the chromosomes align at the
metaphase plate. metaphase plate.
Separation of homologous Anaphase Separation of sister
chromosomes to opposite chromatids/ chromosomes
poles. to opposite poles.
Two non-identical daughter Telophase Four non-identical
cells are formed. daughter cells are formed.
Is halved. Chromosome Is maintained.
number
Does not occur. Spliting of Occurs during the
centromeres anaphase II.
5.2.4 Comparison of mitosis and meiosis

Similarities
1. Both are nuclear division.
2. DNA replication & duplication only once.
3. Both start from diploid cells.
4. Both follow similar phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and
telophase.

Differences
Mitosis Aspect Meiosis
compared
All somatic cells Type of cell Cells in the reproductive
organs
Produces new cells for Purpose Produces gametes for
growth, replacement of old sexual reproduction.
and damaged cells and
axesual reproduction.

Does not occur. Synapsis Homologous chromosomes


pair up to form tetrads or
bivalents.
Biology Form 4 Chapter 5 Cell Division

Does not occur. Crossing over Crossing over between the


non-sister chromatids
occurs during prophase I.
Chromosomes are Metaphase Homologous chromosomes
arranged randomly at the are line up side by side
metaphase plate. at the metaphase plate
during metaphase I.
Sister chromatids separate Anaphase Homologous chromosomes
and pulled towards the separate and pulled
opposite poles. towards the opposite poles
during anaphase I.
One Number of cell Two
division
Two Number of Four
daughter cells
produced
Diploid (2n) or same Chromosomal Haploid (n) or half the
number of chromosomes number of number of chromosomes
as the parent cell daughter cell of the parent cell
produced
Genetically identical to the Genetic Different from the parent
parent cell content cell
No genetic variation in any Genetic Causes genetic variation
generation variation from one generation to the
next
5.3 Appreciating the Movement of Chromosomes during Mitosis and
Meiosis

1 Mitosis and meiosis are regulated in a precise manner so that they are not
. go awry.

2 During mitosis and meiosis, the failure of homologous chromosomes or


. sister chromatids to separate normally or to move to opposite poles of the
cell result in abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell is known as non-
disjunction.
Biology Form 4 Chapter 5 Cell Division

3 Non-disjunction causes genetic disorder such as Down’s syndrome,


. Turner’s syndrome and Klinefelter’s syndrome.

4 Down’s syndrome is caused by the chromosome 21 pair fails to separate


. during meiosis and both copies of the chromosome end up in a single egg
cell results in the egg cell has 3 copies of chromosomes number 21.

Subsequent fertilization by a sperm (n=23) with the egg cell contains 3


copies of chromosome number 21 (n=24) causing each somatic cell to
have a total of 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46 chromosomes.

Diagram 5.12 The karyotype of Down’s syndrome patient

A Down’s syndrome patient has the following characteristics:


(a) mentally retarded
(b) weaked cardiovascular system
(c) shortened limbs
(d) slanted eyes
(e) a protruding tongue
(f) receding forehead and chin