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) of Kellough and Kellough's curri culum development model. Principals need to implement the curriculum with al school setting and find out if the curriculum on refers to the actual use of the curriculum or in practice. Implementation is a critical phase eaching a curriculum. the help of teachers in an actu achieved its goal. Implementati syllabus or what it consists of in the cycles of planning and t
Implementing the curriculum does not focus on the actual use but also on the att itudes of those who implement it. These attitudinal dispositions are particularl y important in educational systems where teachers and principals have the opport unity to choose among competing curriculum packages. How should curriculum be implemented? There are two extreme views about curriculum implementation: a. laissez-faire approach or the "let-alone" approach. This gives teachers absol ute power to determine what they see best to implement in the classroom. In effe ct, this allows teachers to teach lessons they believe are appropriate for their classes and in whatever way the want to teach such lessons. There is no firm of control or monitoring whatsoever. b. authoritarian control. In this view, teachers are directed by authority figur es through a memorandum, to follow a curriculum. Teachers have no control or lee way over the subjects the are teaching. The school head exercise absolute power in directing teachers to teach certain subjects in specified ways. In other word s, this approach is dictatorial way of imposing curricular implementation in the classroom. A realistic view o curriculum implementation should be between the two extremes. Teachers are expected to follow the prescribed syllabus exactly and make sure t hat they do not miss any topic/component. When teachers diligently follow a pres cribed syllabus in teaching a lesson, then they are considered to have fidelity of use or fidelity of implementation. To promote fidelity of use, one need to identify the topics or subjects that nee d more focus. These subjects are are those that are more technical or more diffi cult. A structured approach to implementation is then followed, one on which tea chers are provided clear instructions early on. On the other hand, some topics allow or encourage teachers to be creative ad uni que in teaching these topics. Teachers implement personalized variations of the prescribed curriculum, but still be guided by it. This is referred to as adaptat ion to the curriculum or process orientation. process orientation came as a resp onse to the need to acknowledge different organizational concepts and varying te achers' needs and abilities that would require on-site modification.. (Activity: If you are a teacher tasked by your school head to implement a new cu rriculum, what could be your questions on the new curriculum? What would be your concerns?) Source: Module 2: Lead Curriculum Implementation and Enrichment. EXCELS Flexible Course, SEAMEO INNOTECH, c 2005. Posted by Dr. Olga C. Alonsabe at 4:10 AM 0 comments Labels: Curriculum Implementaton, olga alonsabe, SEAMEO Curriculum Leadership Leadership refers to the role or process that enables systems and individuals to
determine the nature and extent of curriculum integration f. develop units of study c. curriculum leadership involves tasks that guarantee qu ality education. integrating and aligning the curriculum c. The definition of curriculum leadership involves functions and goals. enrich the curriculum and remediate learning d. develop the school's own program of studies d. develop yearly planning calendars for operationalizing the curriculum b. A curricul um leader has to take charge of making sure that the curriculum goals are achiev ed. ensuring curriculum quality and applicability b. develop the school's vision of a quality curriculum b.achieve their goals. The tasks and functions may further be specified into four majo r tasks: a. align the curriculum g. To attain such goal. Curriculum leadership therefore is th e act of exercising functions that enables the achievement of a school's goal of providing quality education. A chieving educational excellence is the goal. Curriculum refers to all the experiences that learners hav e to go through in a program of education. supplement the state's or district's educational goals c. develop a learning-centered schedule e. implementing the curriculum efficiently . the principal need to manifest curriculum leadership. the principal is responsible for making sure that the schoo l has a quality curriculum and that the curriculum is implemented effectively. monitor and assist in curriculum implementation Curriculum leadership functions at the classroom-level: a. He provides the list of the essential functi ons of curriculum leadership carried out at the school and classroom levels: Curriculum leadership functions at the school-level: a. Being a school head. That ultimate goal is to maximize student learning by providing quality in t he content of learning. The Roles and Functions of a Curriculum Leader Glatthorn (1997) was an educator interested in how curriculum development could be used to make teaching effective. Curriculum leadership focuses on what is learned (the cu rriculum) and how it is taught (the instruction). evaluate the curriculum The roles and functions show that regardless of whether these are at the school level or classroom level.
The following are the five curriculum approaches: 1. h. Th ese are the important ingredients in curriculum implementation as evaluating the learning outcomes as a change of behavior. contents and activities are also arranged to match with the lear ning objectives. j. C 2005 . teachers and other stakeholders design programs of study by grade levels plan or schedule classes or school calendar prepare curriculum guides or teacher guides by grade level or subject area help in the evaluation and selection of textbooks observe teachers assist teachers in the implementation of the curriculum encourage curriculum innovation and change develop standards for curriculum and instructional evaluation 3. Even textbook writers or instr uctional material producers have different curricular approaches. This was influenced by systems theory. implementing and evaluating the curriculum. The following are of equal importance: a) administration b) counseling c) curric . and updating the curriculum Exhibiting curriculum leadership means that the principal have to be vigilant in overseeing the many instructional activities in one's school so that educationa l goals will be achieved. The organizational chart of the school represents a systems approach. behavioral approach begi ns with educational plans that start with the setting of goals or objectives. regularly evaluating. where goals and objectives are specified. Some of the roles of the Curriculum Supervisors are the following: a.d. establishes the dire ction of change and innovation. SEAMEO INNOTECH. It shows the line-staff relationships of personnel and how decisions are made. and planning and organizing curriculum and instr uction. Managerial Approach. Systems Approach. Posted by Dr. School administrators are less concerned about the content than about or ganization and implementation. The learning outcomes are evaluated in terms of goals and objec tives set at the beginning. This implies that curriculum leadership is also a comp onent of instructional leadership. This approach started with the idea of Frederick Tay lor which is aimed to achieve efficiency. f. e. Behavioral Approach. 2. enriching. c. The change of behavior indicates the measure of the accomplishment. olga alonsabe Curriculum Approaches Curriculum practitioners and implementers may use one or more approaches in plan ning. (Activity: Given the four major tasks of curriculum leadership. This is based on a blueprint. They are less concerned about subject matter. the principal is the curriculum leader and at the same time instructional leader who is supposed to be the general man ager. where the parts of t he total school district or school are examined in terms of how they relate to e ach other. help develop the school's education goals plan curriculum with students. b. The general manager sets the policies and priorities. Olga C. In this approach. i. Alonsabe at 3:40 AM 0 comments Labels: Curriculum leadership. In education. EXCELS. Curriculum managers look at cu rriculum changes and innovations as they administer the resources and restructur e the schools. d. g. Source: Module: Lead Curriculum Implementation and Enrichment. met hods and materials than improving the curriculum. write some speci fic ways in which these tasks can be manifested). EXCELS Flexible C ourse on Leading Curricular and Instructional Processes. parents.
guided response. utility usefulness of the content either for the present or the future 5. Olga C. nature of learner . complex overt respon se. 1970) 2. another term for knowledge ( a compendium o f facts. Learner-centered view of curriculum: Relates knowledge to the individual s pers onal and social world and how he or she defines reality. Cognitive knowledge. Subject-centered view of curriculum: The Fund of human knowledge represents t he repository of accumulated discoveries and inventions of man down the centurie s. develop learning skills 3. 2008 Posted by Dr. Gerome Bruner: Knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure to regularities in experience Criteria used in selection of subject matter for the curriculum: 1. 4. Alonsabe at 2:56 AM 0 comments Labels: curriculum approaches.ulum d) instruction e) evaluation. synthesis. analysis. concepts. The learner s at the center of the curriculum. characterization 3. (Question: Does a principal with humanistic approach to curriculum emphasize mos t memorization of subject matter? Does the systems approach to curriculum consid er only each part?) Source: Curriculum Development by Purita P. validity meaningful to the learner based on maturity. Humanistic Approach. set. 1. evaluat ion 2. LoreMar Pub. due to man s exploration of his world 2. educa tional and social value 4. resources available. This approach is rooted in the progressive philosophy an d child-centered movement. 2009 Elements/Components of the Curriculum The nature of the elements and the manner in which they are organized may compri se which we call a curriculum design. principles. adaptation. application. Secondary. et. learnability within the range of the experience of the learners 6. generalization. Goals and Objectives Aims: Elementary. origination Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject Matter Information to be learned in school. prior experience. February 20. self-sufficiency less teaching effort and educational resources. less learner s effort but more results and effective learning outcomes most economical manner ( Scheffler. comprehension. It considers the whole child and believes that i n curriculum the total development of the individual is the prime consideration.. psychomotor perception. al. organization. responding. valuing. It considers the formal or planned curriculum and the informal or hidden curriculum. mechanism. Affective receiving. expe rtise of the teacher. Bilbao. Component 1: Curriculum Aims. and Tertiary Goals: School Vision and Mission Objectives: educational objectives Domains: 1. significance contribute to basic ideas to achieve overall aim of curriculum. olga alonsabe Friday. feasibility can be learned within the tile allowed. theories.
Principles to follow in organizing the learning contents (Palma. attitud es or values so that these will be used in daily living. the co re and heart of the curriculum. glaring gaps or wasteful overlaps in the subject matter will be avoided. 2. flexibility should be a consideration in the use of teaching methods Component 4 Curriculum Evaluation To be effective.p rocess is continuous. teaching methods are means to achieve the end 2. These are th e steps: 1. psychomotor. interacting with computer progr ams and other experiential learning will also form par of the repertoire of teac hing. Learning requires a continuing application of the new knowledge. This will ensure that the level o r area will not be overcrowded or less crowded. The horizontal connections are needed in subject areas that are similar so that learning will be elated to one another. learning styles of the students should be considered 5. in the choice of teaching methods. ARTICULATION. there will be some guide for the selection and use. The instructional strategies and methods will pu t into action the goals and use of the content in order to produce an outcome. conducting experiments. Among these a re time-tested methods. inquiry approaches. and product of the curriculum. Input (ingredients of curriculum ). Regardless of the methods and materials evaluation will utilize. review and reinforcement of learning is what is referred to as CONTINUITY. Component 3 Curriculum Experience Instructional strategies and methods will link to curriculum experiences. a suggested pla n of action for the process of curriculum evaluation is introduced. It refers to the deepening and broadening of content as it is taken up in the higher levels. all curricula must have an element of evaluation. constructivist and other emerging st rategies that complement new theories in teaching and learning. The most widely used is Stufflebeam's CIPP Model. teaching methods should stimulate the learner s desire to develop the cognitive . Several methods of eva luation came up. Each level of subject matter should be smoothly connected to th e next. Curriculum ev aluation refer to the formal determination of the quality. Educational acti vities like field trips. social and spiritual domain of the individual 4. there is no single best teaching method 3. Content curriculum should be fairly distributed in depth and breath of the particular learning are or discipline. 1992) 1. Product accomplishment of goals). effectiveness or valu e of the program. Teaching strategies convert the written curriculum to instruction. skills. Whatever methods the teacher utilizes to implement the curriculum. This is the logical arrangement of the subject matter. This is INTEGRATION. CIPP Model Context (environment of curriculum). affective. Process (ways and means of implementing). The constant repetition . every method should lead to the development of the learning outcome in three domains 6. BALANCE . or the degree program? Specify objectives of evalu . The process i n CIPP model is continuous and very important to curriculum managers. the grade level. Will it be subject area. SEQUENCE. the course. Here are some of them: 1. process. 3. Focus on one particular component of the curriculum.
et. olga alonsabe Major Foundations of Curriculum Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum: Philosophy provides educators. 6. Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao. The subjects are interdisciplinary. 3. role of education and curriculum trends. or infor mally through round table discussion and conversations. The focus of the curriculum is on present and future trend s and issues of national and international interests. 4. implementing and evaluating curriculum in school. al. The following four educational philosophies relate to curriculum: 1. storing and retrieving data for interpretation. Alonsabe at 1:28 PM 0 comments Labels: curriculum development. An appropriate way of analyzing will be utilized. Choose a par ticular level and a specific subject area as a point o reference). teachers and curriculum makers with framework for planning. Analyze information.I helps in answering what schools are for. 2. 5. A curriculu m planner or specialist. LoreMar Pub. The curriculum is focused on students' interest. literary ana lysis and considers curriculum as constant. 4. The essential skills of the 3 R's and essential subjects of Eng lish. Perennialism. integrative and interactive. Essentialism. 2008) Posted by Dr. It can be done formally in conferences with stakeholders. modifications and adjustment s to be made. Information is made up of data needed rega rding the object of evaluation.ation. organizing.. Recycle the information for continuous feedback. Math and Foreign Language is the focus of the curriculum . school heads. philosophy prov ides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision-making. How does a strong belief or philos ophy influence curriculum? Historical Foundations of Curriculum. evaluator anc hors his/her decision making process on a sound philosophy. Report the information. what subjects are important. Science. Educational philosophy lays the strong foundation of any curriculum. 3. Reconstructionism. Reflect and research (gather enough dat a/proof in your particular school/district/division) on this issue. Organize the information. Curriculum is not an old field. The report of evaluation should be reported to specif ic audiences. (Activity: Compare the four Philosophies of Education based on the aim of educat ion. 2. In decision-making. implementer or the teacher. The focus in the curriculum is classical subjects. (Activity: "Is Philippine education really deteriorating?" This is a big questio n raised by many sectors of our society. human problem s and affairs. Olga C. how students should learn an d what materials and methods should be used. This step will require coding. Collect or gather the information."The Curriculum" . Progressivism. Majority of scholars would place its beginning i n 1918 with the publication of Franklin Bobbit's book. History.
believes that curriculum is a science and an extens ion of school's philosophy. This can be tra ced back to the glorious history. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) . intuitive thinking. Cognitive Psychology . For the cognitive theorists. lea rning constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting learning.focus their attention on how individuals process infor mation and how the monitor and manage thinking. the Americ an educational system has the greatest influence on our educational system.Philippine education came about from various foreign influences. Ivan Pavlov and Rob ert Gagne to the present views on curriculum) 2. Felder and Silverman and Daniel Goleman to curriculum development. Lev Vygotsky. and thus. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) . The following are the three major groups f learning theories: 1. The historical development shows the different changes in the purposes. (Activity: Discuss the contributions of Jean Piaget. Of all foreign educational systems. Curriculum is concerned w . Werret Charters (1875-1952) . Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956). and the teachers plan the activities. 4. method of teaching should be introduced in a step by step manner with proper sequencing of task. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) . 2.viewed curriculum as purposeful activities w hich are child-centered. The following six curriculum theorists contributed their views on curriculum: 1. etc. It unifies elem ents of the learning process and some of the some of questions which can be addr essed by psychological foundations. 5.sees curriculum as organized around social funct ions of themes. Humanistic Psychology . Behaviorists Psychology . discovery l earning. principl es and content of the curriculum. Based on Gestalt psychology where learning can be explained in terms o f the wholeness of the problem and where the environment is changing and the lea rner is continuously reorganizing his/her perceptions. creative thinking. organized knowledge and earner's interests.emphasized social studies in the curriculum and the teacher plans the lesson in advance. Lea rning is rooted in the tradition of subject matter where teachers use a lot of p roblem and thinking skills in teaching learning. Thorndike. (Question: What are the implications of ever-changing curriculum top teachers?) Psychological Foundations Psychology provides basis for the teaching and learning process. based on students' need and interests.presented curriculum as a science that emphasize s on students' need. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) .considered curriculum also as a science which i s based on students' need. 3. 3. Howard Gardne r. (Activity: Discuss the contributions of Edward L. 6. These are exemplified by practi ces like reflective thinking.consider that learning should be organized in order that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subject ma tter.concerned with how learners can develop their human p otential.
et. Olga C. assessed curriculum . division or country documen ts 3. Do you think this is a good practice? Why? Why not?) Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao. learned curriculum . to be relevant. The relationship of curriculum and society is mutual and encompassing. computers. Lorimar Pub.that which is tested and evaluated 6. society should also imbibe the changes bro ught about by the formal institutions called schools.what the students actually learn and what is measured 7.what teachers implement or deliver in the classroom and s chools 4.ith the process not the products. 2008) Posted by Dr. (Question: A school has been using the same old curriculum it has had for the pa st ten years. Write specific examples). principals)and identify the existence of the differ ent curricula. taught curriculum . olga alonsabe Types of Curriculum Operating in Schools Allan Glatthorn (2000) describes seven types of curriculum operating in the scho ols: 1. (Activity: Give the contributions of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers to the prese nt field of curriculum development.appears in school. al.resources-textbooks.the unintended curriculum (Activity: Visit a school of your choice. audio-visual materials which support and help in the implementation of the curriculum 5. supported curriculum . 4. students.. recommended curriculum .proposed by scholars and professional organizations 2. et. written curriculum . the curricula should reflect and preserve the culture of society a nd its aspirations. Alonsabe at 12:08 PM 0 comments Labels: foundations of education. 2008) . district. Hence. Source: Curriculum Development by Purita Bilbao. hidden curriculum . Loremar Pub. At the same time.Societal culture affects and shapes sch ools and their curricula. al. Schools exists within the social context. Social Foundations of Education. psychologic al meaning and environmental situations. Observe and interview the appropriate persons (teachers.. personal needs not subject matter.