Experiment Design 201

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Table of Contents
Table of Contents...................................................................................................1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 2
Analysis of the question, description on brief theories involved............................4
Theories ............................................................................................................ 4
Magnetic Field around a Solenoid..........................................................................9
Picture given below shows the solenoid. A typical solenoid behaves like a bar
magnet. Magnetic field produced by solenoid is constant inside the solenoid and
parallel to the axis of it..........................................................................................9
.............................................................................................................................. 9
We find the magnetic field produced by solenoid with the following formula;.......9
............................................................................................................................ 10
Detailed stepwise description of each section ....................................................11
Lesson plan 1....................................................................................................11
Lesson plan 2....................................................................................................17
From the equation which quantity can be varied, if L and I are kept constant?..19
Lesson plan 3....................................................................................................22
Closure................................................................................................................. 26
Reflections........................................................................................................... 27
References .......................................................................................................... 28

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Experiment Design 201
1

Introduction
The HSC Practical Paper (Paper 5) is a timetabled written paper, focusing on the following
higher-order experimental skills like planning, analysis, conclusions and evaluation.
This examination paper does not require laboratory. It should be stressed that candidates
cannot be adequately prepared for this paper without extensive laboratory work during their
course of study.
In particular, candidates cannot be taught to plan experiments effectively unless, on a number
of occasions, they are required:

to plan an experiment

to perform the experiment according to their plan

to evaluate what they have done.

This requires many hours of laboratory-based work, and requires careful supervision from
teachers to ensure that experiments are performed safely.
Paper 5 consists of two questions each of 15 marks. The first question is to plan a question, in
which candidates will be required to design an experimental investigation of a given problem.
The question is not highly structured: candidates are expected to answer with a diagram and
an extended piece of writing. The second question is an analysis, conclusions and evaluation
question, in which candidates are given an equation and some experimental data. From these
they are required to find the value of a constant. This question also is not highly structured:
candidates are expected to decide for themselves what they need to do in order to reach an
answer. They are also required to estimate the uncertainty in their answer. Some questions on
this paper may be set in areas of Physics that are difficult to investigate experimentally in
school laboratories, either because of the cost of equipment or because of restrictions on the
availability of materials (e.g. radioactive materials). No question, require prior knowledge of
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The class was conducted in a mixed ability one and the teaching strategy was corporative work. I decided to guide my students how to design an experiment to investigate the factors on which the strength of an electromagnet depends. For this reason.Experiment Design 201 1 theory or equipment that is beyond the syllabus: candidates are given all the information that they need. 3 |Page . low ability student. They will reach the objectives of the design question when answering the questions in the worksheets. average achiever. bearing in mind that each group should have a highflyer. The class was divided into 3 groups of 5.

4 |Page . Theories Electromagnet An electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced by an electric current. The theories are very interesting and the applications of electromagnet are considerably appearing more or less everywhere. An electromagnet acts as a temporary magnet. etc. Magnetic field A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic material experiences a force as the result of the present of a magnet or a electromagnet. and various magnetic recording devices such as computer disks. An electromagnet is a type of magnet which can provide a magnetic field with the help of an electric current. After consulting the syllabus. which is used for getting a detailed image of the inside of the body to diagnose a number of diseases. description on brief theories involved Before starting we need to think about the keywords or phrases. To be able to score all the marks in the examination and develop Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). we need to know what are the theories involved in this design question. The direction of a magnetic field is from North pole to South pole.Experiment Design 201 1 Analysis of the question. loudspeakers. a student should have the mastery of the electromagnetism chapter. tape recorders. The main technological uses of electromagnets are in storing information and moving things. They are used on many electrical devices like electrical balls. One of the most important uses of electromagnet in hospitals is in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The main advantage of electromagnets over the normal magnet is that they can be easily started and stopped and the strength of the magnetic field can be effectively controlled. which makes them suitable for many technological and scientific uses.

The pattern of magnetic field produced by a current – carrying conductor depends on the shape of the conductor used. its direction of rotation gives the direction of the magnetic field due to the current. 5 |Page . a) Current in a straight wire The magnetic field lines form a pattern of concentric circles round the wire carrying the current.Experiment Design 201 1 Magnetic Effects of a current –carrying Conductor. The direction of the field around a wire can use two rules: Maxwell’s screw rule If a right -handed screw is turned so that it moves forwards in the same direction as an electric current.

the fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field around the wire.Experiment Design 201 1 The right -hand grip rule If a wire carrying a current is gripped with the right hand and with the thumb pointing along the wire in the direction of the current. The map of the magnetic field due to an electric current flowing in a vertical wire through centre of a horizontal card 6 |Page .

Experiment Design 201 1 The direction of the electric field and the plotting compass b) Current in a single coil The pattern of the magnetic field produced at the centre of the coil is in the form of straight line. The field lines around the two wires are in opposite directions. The lines in the coils are more closed spaced tab the outside. 7 |Page . The Maxwell’s screw rule or The right -hand grip rule can also be used to both sides of the coil to determine the direction of the magnetic field.

The pattern in the centre of the solenoid is in the form of straight lines.Experiment Design 201 1 c) Current in a solenoid The pattern of the magnetic field produced by a solenoid is similar to that of a bar magnet. the field lines are uneven and more widely spaced outside the solenoid. However. We can use two methods to determine the direction of the magnetic field: If a solenoid carrying a current is gripped with the right hand and with the thumb pointing along the solenoid so that the fingers curling round the solenoid in the direction of the current and the thumb then points towards the north pole. 8 |Page .

if the direction of the current is clockwise. Magnetic field produced by solenoid is constant inside the solenoid and parallel to the axis of it. the viewed end of the solenoid is the South pole. 9 |Page . A typical solenoid behaves like a bar magnet. If the direction of the current is anticlockwise. the viewed end is the North pole. We find the magnetic field produced by solenoid with the following formula.Experiment Design 201 1 Determining the poles of the solenoid Looking at the direction of the current from each end of the solenoid. Magnetic Field around a Solenoid Picture given below shows the solenoid.

N is the number of loops. We find the direction of magnetic field by using right hand rule again.Experiment Design 201 1 Where: I is the current. L is the length of the solenoid. 10 | P a g e . and is the permeability of free space. Grab the solenoid as your four fingers shows the direction of current and your thumb shows the direction of magnetic field.

magnetic materials. Objectives: At the end of the lesson. and finally compare and analyse the results of their investigation about electromagnets • Recognize how to set up a proper experimental design Student Prior Knowledge: concept of magnetic fields. students should be able to: • Identify the independent variable in the experiment • Identify the dependent variable in the experiment • Identify the variables that are to be kept constant • Design and carry out an investigation.Experiment Design 201 1 Detailed stepwise description of each section Now the students will be guided towards how to design an experiment to investigate how the strength of an electromagnet depends on current. Lesson plan 1 Subject area : Physics Class level : Higher School certificate Class size : 15 (mix abilities) Venue : Physics lab Duration : 100 minutes (3 periods) Topic : Electromagnetism Aim: To design an experiment to investigate how current affects the strength of an electromagnet. electricity. Teaching-Learning strategies: Cooperative learning and Guided inquiry 11 | P a g e .

.............................. ......... and hence start asking questions: Write down the formula relating magnetic field and current..............................Experiment Design 201 1 Student Organisation: 5 groups of 3 students based on their achievement In each group a student is assigned the role as leader.......................................... .................................................................................................................... How is B related to I.... 3............................. Teacher will confirm on his slides................................................................................................................ Teacher will distribute worksheet 1................................. if the other quantities are kept constant? ................................. 4............................................................ Worksheet 1 1................................... they will have to work as a team...... 2............................... which variables are independent and dependent respectively? 12 | P a g e .................... Write the mathematical formula for the relationship between the magnetic field.... .............................................. From the statement above... A student will be chosen at random to write it on the white board...... What happens to B if I is increased? Decrease? ....... .......................................... B and the current........................................................................................................................................ I. which will be projected on the whiteboard itself..........

................. 13 | P a g e ............................. .................................................................................Experiment Design 201 1 .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5.......................... 7.............................. ... ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................... ................................................................................. Describe how you will make an electromagnet and state the materials used.................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... ................................ ....................................................................................................................... 6...................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Why do we use a rheostat in the circuit? ................ What is an electromagnet? ........................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................

........................................................ .............................................................................. 12.............................................................................................Experiment Design 201 1 8............................................................. ...................................................................................................................................... 10............................................................................................... How can the electromagnet be supported above the pins? .................................................. How will you account for the strength of the electromagnet or test for the conductivity of the magnetic field? ........ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ .............. .............................. 11......................................... 9................................................................................... ......................................................... ....... Draw a schematic diagram of the circuit for the electromagnet...................................................... Should the electromagnet be on the table with the pins or the electromagnet above the pins? ........................................................................................................ What are the 2 additional materials used for the experiment? 14 | P a g e ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .........................................

...................................... what is the shape of the graph expected? ....................................................................................................................................... state the number of readings you would take................................................................................................................Experiment Design 201 1 ........................................................ .... 16... ........................................... If a graph of M against I is plotted.. ....................................................................... Draw a table to illustrate the data collected....................................................................................................................... The magnetic field produced will attract some of the nails.......................................................... ....................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................ 15....................................................................................................................................... M..................................................................................... and M (number of pins attached to the electromagnet) and the number of turns..................................... Draw a diagram for the experiment (circuit + set up).... 15 | P a g e ....................................................................................................................... Since current should be a manipulated variable (varying)..................................................................... 13..e for I................................................. ................................................................... 14.......................... .................................................................. ........ ....................................................................... .............. i.......................................................

...................................................................... ......................... will check whether group work is taking place or not.................................................................................................................. ....................................... ........................................................................................................................................................... Does the strength of the electromagnet is affected by the current? Explain.................................................................... All the answers for the worksheet will be projected so the students can confirm their results.................. ............................................................. 18........................... teacher will walk around to see how the groups are working...................................... 16 | P a g e ....................................................... ....... they will be invited to discuss if they have any doubt......................................... ................................................... While they would be working.......................................... Teacher will be confirming the answers on his power point presentations gradually as the students answer the questions.... Describe the shape of the graph........Experiment Design 201 1 17................

Teaching-Learning strategies: Cooperative learning and Guided inquiry Student Organisation: 5 groups of 3 students based on their achievement 17 | P a g e . N affects the strength of an electromagnet. students should be able to: • Identify the independent variable in the experiment • Identify the dependent variable in the experiment • Identify the variables that are to be kept constant • Design and carry out an investigation. Objectives: At the end of the lesson. Lesson plan 2 Subject area : Physics Class level : Higher School certificate Class size : 15 (mix abilities) Venue : Physics lab Duration : 100 minutes (3 periods) Topic : Electromagnetism Aim: To design an experiment to investigate how the number of turns. magnetic materials.Experiment Design 201 1 Now the students will be guided towards how to design an experiment to investigate how the strength of an electromagnet depend number of turns. and finally compare and analyse the results of their investigation about electromagnets • Recognize how to set up a proper experimental design Student Prior Knowledge: concept of magnetic fields. electricity.

Teacher will distribute worksheet 2 18 | P a g e .Experiment Design 201 1 In each group a student is assigned the role as leader. they will have to work as a team.

.... 2........... Following the same set up as in worksheet 1............Experiment Design 201 1 Worksheet 2 From the equation which quantity can be varied... .......................................... List the additional materials used (as compared to the experiment 1)....................................................................................... How many sets of data would you need? .......................... 1..................... 19 | P a g e ......... How B varies with N? ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4.................................................................................................... 3......................... .......................................................... ............. how would you vary the number of turns? ............................................................................................................................................................................................. if L and I are kept constant? ............................................................... .....................................................................................................

....... Does the strength of the electromagnet is affected by the current? Explain........ .................... 7.............................................................................................. Describe the shape of the graph................................................................ ...................... M and current.................................................................................. I................... ...............................................................Experiment Design 201 1 5........................................................................................................................................... will check whether group work is taking place or not................................................................ ........................ ..................................................................................................................................... ................................... 20 | P a g e ......................... Draw a table to illustrate your data collected.................................... Teacher will be confirming the answers on his power point presentations gradually as the students answer the questions........................................................................................................................................................................................ teacher will walk around to see how the groups are working. i........ While they would be working........ If a graph of M against N is plotted............................................ .......................................................... number of pins attached.................................................... The magnetic field produced will attract some of the pins...................................................................................................... ........................................... what is the shape of the graph expected? ........................................ ................................................. 6................................................. ............... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ............. 8....................e for N (number of turns).......................

21 | P a g e . they will be invited to discuss if they have any doubt.Experiment Design 201 1 All the answers for the worksheet will be projected so the students can confirm their results.

students should be able to: • Identify the independent variable in the experiment • Identify the dependent variable in the experiment • Identify the variables that are to be kept constant • Design and carry out an investigation. and finally compare and analyse the results of their investigation about electromagnets • Recognize how to set up a proper experimental design Student Prior Knowledge: concept of magnetic fields. magnetic materials. A affects the strength of an electromagnet. Objectives: At the end of the lesson. electricity. Lesson plan 3 Subject area : Physics Class level : Higher School certificate Class size : 15 (mix abilities) Venue : Physics lab Duration : 100 minutes (3 periods) Topic : Electromagnetism Aim: To design an experiment to investigate how the cross-sectional area of a wire. Teaching-Learning strategies: Cooperative learning and Guided inquiry Student Organisation: 5 groups of 3 students based on their achievement 22 | P a g e .Experiment Design 201 1 Now the students will be guided towards how to design an experiment to investigate how the strength of an electromagnet depends on the area of cross-section of the wire.

.................. they will have to work as a team............................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. What will be the changes made to the circuit of experiment 1? 23 | P a g e ....... ...................................... 2... .... 3......................................................................................................................................... Teacher will distribute worksheet 3 Worksheet 3 1.................................................................. By recalling the formula of resistivity of a wire............................................................................................................. ............................................ What will be the additional materials used here? ............................................................. A keeping other quantities constant? .................................................................................................................................... ............................ How does the magnetic flux density.................................................................. derive a formula to obtain a relationship between the magnetic flux density........... ..... B and the area of cross-section of the wire wounded across the iron core............................................................................................. ............................................................................ 4.......... .............. B varies with the cross-sectional area...............................................................................................................................Experiment Design 201 1 In each group a student is assigned the role as leader............................................................................................................................................................. ...................................................................

................................................................................................... ................... 24 | P a g e ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Draw a table to illustrate all your data...................................................................................................................... 5............ 7................................... Following the same set up in experiment 1.................................................. .................................................................... ............................................................... ............................................................................................................................... how would you account for the strength of the electromagnet? .................................. ............................................................................................. ........................................................Experiment Design 201 1 ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6............................................................. .......................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ..................................................................................................... ................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... How will you calculate the cross-sectional area of the wires? ...................... .............................................................................

...Experiment Design 201 1 8................................................................................................................. will check whether group work is taking place or not............................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................ ...... While they would be working........ 25 | P a g e .... Compare the results obtained from your table and hence explain what is happening.............................. we couldn’t investigate on more factors affecting the strength of electromagnets.... All the answers for the worksheet will be projected so the students can confirm their results....... So this part of investigation will be done by students at home where a worksheet will be provided to them. they will be invited to discuss if they have any doubt......................................................... Due to lack of time.......................... .......... teacher will walk around to see how the groups are working.............................. .... Teacher will be confirming the answers on his power point presentations gradually as the students answer the questions........

................................... ...................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................ 26 | P a g e ............................................................................................ ...........................................htm) where students will see that 2 of the experiments they have design today is being done in the clip...................................................................com/science/electromagnets....................................................................................................................................Experiment Design 201 1 Closure Teacher will be viewing a video clip (http://marshallbrain....................................... ......... .................................................................. Teacher will give the students a worksheet as homework...................................................... ..................... ........................................................................................................................................................... Worksheet 1.................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................................... Fill the table below 2.... What are the other factors that might affect the strength of electromagnets and explain each factor? ...........................................................................................

............................................................................... ................................................................... Reflections 27 | P a g e ...Experiment Design 201 1 ................................................................................................................................

7th edition Huthchings.scribd. P (1995) Advanced Level Physics. PrenticeHall 28 | P a g e .E (2001) Teaching Science as Inquiry (9th Ed.buzzle. R (1996) Physics Carin.123helpme.A and Bass.Experiment Design 201 1 References http://www. J.html http://marshallbrain.com/articles/uses-of-electromagnets-what-are-electromagnets-usedfor. A.com/view.).asp?id=120659 http://www.com/doc/12405951/Chapter-8-Electromagnet-Teachers-Guide-2009 http://www.htm Nelkon.com/science/electromagnets. M and Parker. New Jersey.

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