Colegiul National “Spiru Haret”Bucuresti

Lucrare de atestat

The Edwardian Era

Candidat: Alina Bajenaru , clasa a XII-a C Profesor indrumator : Dorina Enciu



.page 7 Chapter IV : Religion and Spirituality…………….page 15 Chapter XI : 4 Chapter II : Edward VII……………………………page 6 Chapter III: Science and Technology………… 3 Chapter I : Overview……………………………….page 11 Chapter VII : Literature and Poetry ………………page 12 Chapter VIII : Music………………………………. Games and Leisure ………… 17 2 .Contents Foreword…………………………………………… 13 Chapter IX : Fashion……………………………….page 15 Sequitur……………………………………………….. Sculpture and the Graphic Arts…page 9 Chapter VI : Architecture………………………….page 13 Chapter X : Food and Cooking…………………… 16 Bibliography………………………………………….page 8 Chapter V : Painting..

of the corner history was soon to turn. 3 . There were signs too. with the problematic Boer War hinting at a new British weakness overseas and the rise of the Suffragette movement pushing the boundaries of the social and political landscape. It is more than important to call on history whenever we find ourselves in an existential struggle.Foreword At times like these . the first aeroplane and the first use of the telegraph. often seen as the last long summer before the cataclysmic changes of the twentieth century began to take form. It was also a time of vastly improved education and the public appetite for authors such as Conan Doyle. when everybody is rushed to get as fast as they can at their targets (whatever those are) and following the saying ‘the end justifies the means’ . and its sinkage giving this period a certain tragic aura. The class system remained rigidly in place and thousands were employed in domestic service. I chose this subject for my paper because I believe history is a milestone for modern man’s evolution. Edwardian Britain is the quintessential age of nostalgia. It saw the first widespread use of the motor car. I chose to write upon the Edwardian Era because I see it as an inspirational era of elegance governed by scientific and technological progress and the revival of man’s spirituality In few words . The habits and sports of the aristocracy were an everyday indulgence.the Edwardian Era is well illustrated by the famous Titanic phenomenon : the construction of the ship reflecting the scientific progress . the passengers. M. But it was an age of invention as well as tradition. Forster was increased by greater literacy. wealthy people. showing the opulence characteristic to the era . Rudyard Kipling and E.

The "Edwardian" style broadly encompasses the years of 1901 through 1919. brought the first rewards of modern industrialization and massproduced abundance. opulence. customs.overview The Edwardian era corresponds with the reign of King Edward VII. and excesses of the time. whose short-lived governance (1901-1910) preceded the modern House of Windsor in England. fashion. It was an era when social differences dissipated and the mores. the grand ocean liner which embodied the human progress. which had only sprang into being in the 1880s and 1890's. The Edwardian era is aptly remembered as the "Gilded Age. entertainment and travel as never before." 4 . Perhaps the Edwardian era was best captured in the Titanic.CHAPTER I : The Edwardian Era (19011919) . Americans during the Edwardian age experienced new-found wealth and indulged in cuisine." The Edwardian era was a historical moment of tremendous technological and social change. The wonders of the modern world. and expectations of the citizenry came together. One author described the Edwardian era in the following vein: "The end of the century brought the dawning of a new age and a new attitude toward life.

For the United States. western-educated Sun Yat-sen led republican revolutionary groups to challenge the Manchus. Meanwhile. After limited reforms under the Dowager Empress. the five-year old emperor. Roosevelt also negotiated the end of the Russo-Japanese War. and thereby ensure construction of the Panama Canal. Bulgaria and Greece attacked the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War. Theodore Roosevelt. In 1904 and 1905. French and Belgian colonists. The doctrine endowed the United States with international police power. 1912. proved unsatisfactory. the Supreme Court decided in Wong Kim Ark v. General Yuan Shi-Kaiin in an unexpected move offered to defect in return for the presidency of the Chinese republic. the Asiatic Exclusion League was established in 1905. the quelching of the Boxer Rebellion led to a shift in governance. United States that Chinese born in the country could not be stripped of their citizenship. Race relations remained difficult in the United States. The First Boer War resulted in England's acquisition of Transvaal and the Orange Free State. Tzu-Hsi. Under the Gentleman's Agreement with Japan. After Presdient William McKinley's assassination. The ensuing attempt by British colonists to anglicize the former republics intensified national identity and renewed an Afrikaans Movement. and ethnic groups won only a limited number of legal and political successes on their continual struggle for equality. and forbidding marriage between whites and "Mongolians. the United States agreed not to restrict Japanese immigration in exchange for Japan's promise not to issue passports to Japanese laborers for travel to the continental United States. After the Spanish-American War of 1898. Pu-Yi. Tensions and wars abounded in other areas of the world as well. Self-government was restored in 1906. for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize. the United States gained the Phillipines. which could be justifiably exercised when other nations defaulted on its debts or mistreated foreign subjects. In 1900. California passed an Alien Land Law prohibiting "aliens ineligible to citizenship" from buying land or leasing it for longer than three years. and the state of California enacted a number of discriminatory laws segregating Asian American children from attending schools with whites. who had gained a national reputation as the Assistant Secretary of the Navy by raising a volunteer calvary troup of Rough Riders. In China. and Britain created the Union of South Africa as a dominion within the empire in 1910. In 1903. and helped to defuse the Morocco crisis of 1906. he provided the political initiative to support an uprising in Panama against Colombia. as the Boers' taxation of mining companies and differential treatment of immigrant workers sparked conflict. the Edwardian era ushered in the nation's dominance in international affairs. Immigration of Koreans and Asian Indians were also restricted in California. The discovery of gold and diamonds in the Transvaal caused tensions in the region to sour. abdicated his throne. Fearing the consequences if they refused. On February 12. the African continent experienced prolonged domination by British. Serbia. Puerto Rico and Cuba from Spain. Russia experienced a 5 ." In 1913. Roosevelt quickly immersed himself in his new duties as President. ending the Ching dynasty and ushering in the establishment of the Republic of China. Arizona followed suit in 1917. Roosevelt developed what became known as the Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. the Manchu Grand Council agreed. However. won the vice presidency. In the face of ongoing anti-Chinese sentiment. Although the imperial army should have been able to crush the rebels.

and Cambridge. Britain and Italy gained control on the Western front. He was also an important force behind two agreements that strengthened the position of Great Britain on the Continent. In 1914. which Queen Victoria had abandoned on going into virtual retirement after the death of the Prince Consort in 1861. the Kaiser of Germany abdicated his throne. the entente powers of France. Edward was born on November 9. and was christened Albert Edward. Trench warfare. the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. poison gas. fighter planes. In 1918. Edward travelled extensively. his horses won the Derby in 1896. Chapter II : Edward VII (1841-1910). 1841. his popularity was increased both as Prince of Wales and as king by his interest in sports. 1900. notably yachting and racing. In 1860 he visited Canada. Russia lost on the eastern front and withdrew from the international feud. the Entente Cordiale of 1904 between France and Great Britain. particularly. American soldiers left their homeland in 1917 to serve alongside their European Allies. Spain. and a pact between Russia and Great Britain in 1907. In Russia and France. In 1863 Edward married Alexandra. and 1909. Oxford. World War I erupted after the assassination of an Austrian archduke. and the Grand National at Liverpool in 1900. and tanks were introduced for the first time as weapons of war. eldest daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark. In 1909 the king and queen paid a diplomatic visit to Emperor William II of Germany (Edward's nephew) that temporarily dispelled German suspicion that the increasingly friendly relations between Great Britain and France and Russia were aimed at weakening Germany. where political tension had been mounting. From the beginning of his reign he adopted a policy of promoting international amity in Europe. Because of his 6 . the shortlived governance of a second Russian Duma. and Portugal. inaugurating the custom of goodwill visits by members of the British royal family. Germany. The war ended with an armistice and the adoption of the Treaty of Versailles. He attended the universities of Edinburgh. to British dominions and foreign countries. London. resulting in the collapse of its empire and replacement by the Bolsheviks. in Buckingham Palace. and the empowerment of Grigori Raspute over the Russian royal family. His visits to various European capitals from 1901 to 1904 and return visits to him by European rulers helped promote the signing of arbitration treaties in 1903-1904 between Great Britain and France.decade of tumultuous events such as Bloody Sunday and an ensuing revolution. Meanwhile. Edward succeeded to the throne in 1901. Italy. King of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India (1901-1910). he made valuable personal contacts in political and social circles. Following early reverses. particularly the Prince of Wales. the murder of Russian Premier Peter Stolypin. The prince and princess then assumed much of the burden of court ceremonial and public functions. At home.

radium. The sons were Prince Albert Victor. Vitamins A and D. In 1903. Their interest in flying was renewed in 1896. and 7 . a toy helicopter-like top. The first motion pictures were developed from the technological advances of inventors such as Thomas Edison and Louis and August Lumiere. and made their own bicycles called Van Cleves and St. Wilbur began reading everything that had been published in aeronautical research to date. Wilbur had defined the elements of a flying machine: wings to provide lift. Among the inventions of the Edwardian era are such modern conveniences such as the vacuum cleaner. hormones. and the new. discoveries made during the era include amino acids. genetic heredity. synthetic ammonia. Before long. Princess Maude Charlotte Mary Victoria. atomic structure. sparked their interest in flying. Their father brought the boys various trinkets he found during his travels for the church. a power source for propulsion. experienced in the eerie feeling of ascent on the first elevator rides. Soon afterward. the dazzling aura of electric light. tear gas. In 1896 Edward's youngest daughter. CHAPTER III : Science and Technology The Edwardian era is described by one author as "the dawning of the age of material novelties. household detergent. Three daughters and two sons were born of the marriage between Edward and Alexandra. SONAR. heard in the clatter of the telegraph." They later started their own bicycle repair business in 1893. the jingle of the telephone and the cacophony of the first mass-produced typewriters. superconductivity and x-ray diffraction. As youngsters. Duke of York. air conditioner. Edward died at Buckingham Palace on May 6. AM radio. cellophane. democratic mobility of the bicycle. roll. who succeeded Edward as George V. the Wright Brothers made their ground-breaking first flight in North Carolina. diesel locomotive.efforts to increase international amity the king became known as Edward the Peacemaker. One such trinket. electric food mixer. the brothers started their own printing firm and referred to themselves for the first time as the "Wright Brothers. who later became King Håkon VII of Norway. neon lighting. married her cousin. Orville and Wilbur Wright were sons of a minister in the Church of the United Brethren in Christ and his wife. relativity theory. 1910. fire extinguisher. the brothers looked to their mother for mechanical expertise and their father for intellectual challenges. As young men. quantum theory. and a system of control. Of the early aviators. stainless steel. The era also ushered in the first mass-produced automobiles such as Henry Ford's Model T. and the refrigerator. when Wilbur read about the death of a famous German glider pilot. only Wilbur recognized the need to control a flying machine in three axes of motion: pitch. brassiere. having reigned for only nine years. Duke of Clarence." The Edwardian era was a period of incredible scientific and technological progress. and George. In addition. Clairs. Prince Charles of Denmark.

S. Wilbur and Orville then built their own 4-cylinder. causing some minor damage." Having designed a propeller with the same principles they used to design their wings. where winds averaged 13 miles per hour. whose classes Seymour had attended and from whom Seymour had first learned about the working of the Holy Spirit. Seymour's gatherings. as well as the secular news media. After achieving success with their gliders. 12horsepower engine. CHAPTER IV : Religion and Spirituality The Edwardian era was an exciting time for Christianity in America. Orville achieved their dream of flight. nationalities. and immediately contacted the U. On December 14. This is why God has built up the work [at Azusa]. In August of 1900. Parham began preaching that God was "sick at his stomach. Seymour continued to pastor at the Azusa Street Mission. By May of 1906. a pastor and leader of the Apostolic Faith movement in Texas. came to Asuza in 1906 seeking to claim his "rightful" leadership in the burgeoning movement." Parham's racially hostile efforts weakened the Asuza Street revival. After the movement ended. Despite the widespread attention.. soft-spoken and unassuming man whose heart always remained steadfastly on the Lord." At the Asuza Street Mission. Wilbur won a coin toss and made the first attempt to fly the machine. Christians from many races. he chose a remote sandy area off the coast of North Carolina named Kitty Hawk. Repulsed by the display of interracial fellowship. Wilbur built his first glider. Charles F. machine powered flight in the world. a number of "Spirit-filled" revivals had already taken place across the country. which remained interracial until the end.' He also developed a revolutionary system by twisting an empty bicycle tube box with the ends removed. "No instrument that God can use is rejected on account of color or dress of lack of education. Stirred by a passionate desire for interracial harmony. the energetic revival meetings at the Apostolic Faith Mission at Asuza Street had attracted the attention of ministers from across the United States. He stalled it on take-off. He and Orville then journeyed to Kitty Hawk where they tested a a number of gliders. and Orville made the next attempt on December 17. In a flight lasting only 12 seconds and covering just 120 feet.yaw. Reviewing the list. 1903. an African American minister named William Seymour began holding meetings where both black and white Christians worshipped together. confession. Seymour wrote. and an "outpouring of the Holy Spirit" (frequently accompanied by attendees breaking out in spiritual tongues). and classes gathered in a time of tumultuous racial prejudice. Parham. His solution to the problem of control was 'wing warping. became so large that they soon moved to an abandoned warehouse building on Asuza Street in Los Angeles. the brothers set to building a "flying machine. numerous missionaries from Asuza Street were commissioned and sent to Liberia. Women were also given full equality in worship. By January 1908. releasing their talents and leadership. The movement also sparked intense scrutiny and criticism.m. China. Weather Bureau for information on windy regions of the country. He died of a 8 . he made the first heavier-than-air. which ended in 1909. Seymour himself is remembered as a humble. and Japan. At 10:35 a. while people came from all over the world came to attend services held three times each day. The plane was repaired. praise. During the 1890s. which often culminated in widespread repentance. In 1905.

and toward the end of the period. encouraged designers to stylistic excesses. was Art Nouveau. at least in mainstream America and Europe. Artists whose names became synonymous with the style include the American Louis C. although his congregation maintained that he died of a broken heart. pictured at left). the Austrian Gustav Klimt. commercial art. and Spanish Antonio Gaudi. propelled by the enterprising spirit of Siegfried Bing. during an era when racial hatred and strife persisted. Art Nouveau appealed especially to the enlightened elite and nouveau riches of the Edwardian era. 1922. CHAPTER V : Painting. Tiffany. Seymour is remembered for his dream that people of all colors would worship together. perhaps the most popular. Fauvism. the Café-Concerts and Montmartre. known for his popular illustrations. However. French Alphonse Mucha and Hector Guimard. However.heart attack on September 28. clothing. Cubism and Futurism. forms. uninhibited by tradition. The style was characterized by patterns and motifs inspired by nature and expressed in exuberant colors. and household articles entered the scene at the turn of the century. furniture. the French Toulouse-Lautrec. and lines. This new style of design in architecture. Sculpture and the Graphic Arts The Edwardian era saw a variety of artistic movements such as Post-Impressionism. famed for his posters of the demimonde. Dadaism. celebrated for their architectural genius displayed in their Metro stations. an elusive and brilliant connoisseur in Paris. The Kiss. these patrons soon tired of the "new art". renowned for his stained glass windows and Favrile glass. Belgian Victor Horta. Expressionism. 9 . and the style was considered out of fashion and tacky before the first World War. recognized for his passionate. De Stijl and Constructivism. under the power of the Holy Spirit. whose tastes. colorful paintings (for example.

Dadaism 10 .

women's fashions were highly influenced by the advancing feminist Suffrage movement. ornamentation of the Classical.CHAPTER VI : Architecture The busy battle of styles of the Victorian period finally ended in an eclectic aesthetic.H. to create fashions appropriate for women entering professions formerly occupied by men. where the diverse melange of interests finally came together. In addition. The curvaceous clothing line of this period resounded with the curving lines of Art Nouveau style. The Art Nouveau style also invaded women's jewelry styles. With the death of Queen Victoria in 1901 after almost 64 years on the throne came a flush of new ideas. Ragtime music popularized by Scott Joplin became the rage in North America. Throughout the Edwardian period. creating an energetic and original sound. ragtime had begun to sweep across the Mississippi Valley in the late 1890s. The new style allowed women to cast away the confining corsets of the Victorian age and embrace the new "health corsets" that supported the spine and abdomen. Even before the Edwardian era. predominantly driven by African American pianists such as Theodore Northrup and W. Women modeled their behavior and appearance upon the "Gibson Girl". such as "Coon songs" and "Cakewalks" which were often accompanied by vibrant music reminscent of African dances. the shape of women's fashions transitioned from the popular "hourglass" figure to dresses designed with an "S" curve. the popular image of the "New Woman"." CHAPTER IX : Fashion At the advent of the Edwardian era. 11 . Ragtime is a style of lively. and inklings of the birth of the garden cities. hard collar and tie. Krell. and commuter-land. syncopated music filled with counterpoint and harmonic contrasts. known affectionately as the "King of Ragtime". Typically. CHAPTER VIII : Music At the dawn of the century. Joplin's most popular rags are titled "The Entertainer" and "The Maple Leaf Rag. The musical style has its roots in African American traditions on Southern plantations. as peacocks. suburbia. the bass notes establish the beat and the the melodic notes fall unexpectedly on and off beat. Joplin. borrowed from the classic styles of composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach and Louis Moreau Gottschalk to create a renowned musical tradition that reached its height of popularity in the late 1910s. Designers soon borrowed from men's clothing styles such as the suit. shirt. a trend that continued steadily until 1911. ladies' hats became larger. dragonflies and moths created out of dazzling enamels and gold filigree became standard adornments for ladies' combs and brooches.

women's fashions became progressively more comfortable. Women's fashions also generally became lighter in construction and materials. In sum. practical and aesthetically pleasing during this era. as epitomized by the "lingerie dress". casual and comfortable "sport clothing" also became popular. such that the period from 1890 to 1914 is remembered as "la Belle Epoque" ("The Beautiful Epoch"). a feather-light white cotton dress inset with strips of open-work lace and net.During the later half of the Edwardian era. As women began participating in athletics. fashions once again transitioned from the "S" curve dresses to the pre-flapper. straight-line clothing of the late 1910s. 12 .

Within cities. resorts opened in the outskirts of cities. Some workers with limited budgets went to the countryside or the beaches. which gave workers more free time for leisure activities. largely due to inventions such as the steam tractor. the most famous of the latter being William F. Towards the latter part of the nineteenth century. and the latest technological A Glimpse of the San Diego 13 . they moved into storefront Nickelodeon theaters and then into even larger theaters. Games and Leisure In America. giving the government increased control in regulating food quality in the marketplace. founded in 1897. albeit unpaid. the period from 1894 to 1915 allowed workers more leisure time than in previous times. The monotony of specialized industrial work and the crowding of urban expansion also created a desire in the worker to have leisure time away from his or her job and away from the bustle of the city. people attended vaudeville shows. Initially the movies were novelties in kinetoscope viewers. As motion pictures became longer. Oreo cookies. Yet another factor was the installation of electric lighting on city streets. CHAPTER XI : Sports. which transformed farming into a grand-scale operation. Other popular shows of the time included circuses and Wild West shows. including Crisco oil. Shows often ran continuously so that theatergoers could come and go as they pleased.CHAPTER X : Food and Cooking The Edwardian era saw the beginning of the modern American food industry. Employers also began to offer vacation time. "Buffalo Bill" Cody's. scenes from foreign life. and toaster oven brought time-saving convenience and efficiency to the modern kitchen. offering rides. and Kellogg's cereal. Self-service grocery stores and supermarket chains opened for the first time in history. and rides. which would feature a multitude of acts. as workers began to pay greater attention to their health and well-being. which made leisure activities after dark less dangerous for both sexes. The Progressive movement was another factor. machinery. Motion pictures also served as entertainment during leisure time for urban audiences. Amusement parks opened in places like Coney Island. Vaudeville shows crossed economic and ethnic boundaries. the latter featuring agricultural products. until they became acts in their own right on the vaudeville stage. competitions. Finally. such as the beach area of Asbury Park in New Jersey. A host of brand-name foods emerged in these newfangled grocery stores. New York. One reason for this was that industrial employers began to decrease working hours and institute a Saturday half-day holiday. as many different social groups would mix in the audience. pyrex dishware. The United States passed its Food and Drug Act. fun houses. Outdoor activities remained popular as people attended celebratory parades and county fairs. the invention of the refrigerator. which was founded in 1870.

as with these. Louis (1904). The first major one was the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. American historian. which featured exercises using Indian clubs. "History. One such example was Yellowstone Park where people camped or stayed at the hotels built there in the late 1880s. By demanding that we view the world through the eyes of our predecessors. Gymnasiums. is useful in the sense that art and music. While initially only the wealthy could partake of most sporting events. the analysis and interpretation of the past provides an essential context for evaluating contemporary institutions. Atlanta (1895). Surely it is no accident that the study of history has been the solace of many of the noblest minds of every generation. and cultures. The study of history thus provides us with a substantive framework for understanding the human condition and grappling with moral questions and problems. rides and vendors. Without it. shows. and barbarity. Buffalo (1901). we develop a sense of context and coherence while recognizing complexity and ambiguity. religion and philosophy are useful. Nashville (1897). its origins. cruelty. cities offered Americans a chance to "tour the world" in one place. such as motion pictures.S. we can confidently assert. and also reveals unique insight into human nature and civilizations. life would be poorer and meaner. Missouri Valley College Athletic clubs such as the New York Athletic Club were organized and the YMCAs began to institute sports programs. were opened in many Eastern cities. heavily influenced by German athletics. courts. These programs mostly focused on track and field events. National parks were created by the federal government to preserve nature and many began to tour these areas on vacation. and St. After the Civil War. politics. 14 . without it we should be denied some of those intellectual and moral experiences which give meaning and richness to life. foreign villages. once stated. The fairs celebrated progress and featured exhibits of science and technology.Exposition breakthroughs. and its possibilities for the future. instituted by communities of Scottish and English descent. and gymnastics. wooden rings. Indeed. Sequitur Henry Steele Commager. and dumbbells. the popularity of sports as leisure activities grew as people began to see the importance of exercise to health." The study of history is vital to understanding our current world. Basket Ball. which was followed by fairs in Chicago (1893). World's fairs and expositions held in different U. the opening of publicly available gymnasiums. its reasonings. Omaha (1898). and we confront the record not only of human achievement but also of human failure. poetry and flowers. and fields allowed the working and middle classes to participate also.

Bibliography 1. Encarta 97 Encyclopedia 15 . www. 3.wikipedia.

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