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BY ALAIN GORIELY

1,2,

*

, REBECCA VANDIVER

1

AND MICHEL DESTRADE

3

1

Program in Applied Mathematics, and

2

Department of Mathematics,

University of Arizona, Building no. 89, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA

3

UPMC Univ. Paris 6 and CNRS, Institut Jean le Rond d’Alembert

(UMR 7190), 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, France

The buckling of hyperelastic incompressible cylindrical tubes of arbitrary length and

thickness under compressive axial load is considered within the framework of nonlinear

elasticity. Analytical and numerical methods for bifurcation are developed using the

exact solution of Wilkes for the linearized problem within the Stroh formalism. Using

these methods, the range of validity of the Euler buckling formula and its ﬁrst nonlinear

corrections are obtained for third-order elasticity. The values of the geometric

parameters (tube thickness and slenderness) where a transition between buckling and

barrelling is observed are also identiﬁed.

Keywords: nonlinear elasticity; Euler buckling formula; barrelling

1. Introduction

Under a large enough compressive axial load an elastic beam will buckle. This

phenomenon known as elastic buckling or Euler buckling is one of the most

celebrated instabilities of classical elasticity. The critical load for buckling was

ﬁrst derived by Euler in 1744 (Euler 1744, 1759; Oldfather et al. 1933) and

further reﬁned for higher modes by Lagrange in 1770 (Lagrange 1770;

Timoshenko 1983). Both authors reached their conclusion on the basis of simple

beam equations ﬁrst derived by Bernoulli (Todhunter 1893; ﬁgure 1). Since then,

Euler buckling has played a central role in the stability and mechanical

properties of slender structures from nano- to macrostructures in physics,

engineering, biochemistry and biology (Timoshenko & Gere 1961; Niklas 1992).

Explicitly, the critical compressive axial load N that will lead to a buckling

instability of a hinged–hinged isotropic homogeneous beam of length L is

N

Euler

Z

p

2

EI

L

2

; ð1:1Þ

where ‘p is the circumference of a circle whose diameter is one’ (Euler 1759); E is

Young’s modulus; and I is the second moment of area, which, in the case of a

cylindrical shell of inner radius A and outer radius B, is I ZpðB

4

KA

4

Þ=4.

There are many different ways to obtain this critical value and inﬁnite

variations on the theme. If the beam is seen as a long slender structure, the one-

dimensional theory of beams, elastica, or Kirchhoff rods, can be used successfully

Proc. R. Soc. A

doi:10.1098/rspa.2008.0184

Published online

* Author for correspondence (goriely@math.arizona.edu).

Received 4 May 2008

Accepted 16 June 2008 1 This journal is q 2008 The Royal Society

to capture the instability, either by bifurcation analysis, energy argument

(Timoshenko & Gere 1961) or directly from the exact solution, which in the case

of rods can be written in terms of elliptic integrals (Nizette & Goriely 1999). The

one-dimensional theory can be used with a variety of boundary conditions, it is

particularly easy to explain and generalize and it can be used for large geometric

deﬂections of the axis (Antman 1995). However, since material cross sections

initially perpendicular to the axis remain undeformed and perpendicular to the

tangent vector, no information on the elastic deformation around the central

curve can be obtained. In particular, other modes of instability such as barrelling

cannot be obtained. Here, by barrelling, we refer to axisymmetric deformation

modes of a cylinder or a cylindrical shell. These modes will typically occur for

sufﬁciently stubby structures.

The two-dimensional theory of shells can be used when the thickness of the

cylindrical shell is small enough. Then, the stability analysis of shell equations

such as the Donnell–von Ka´rma ´n equations leads to detailed information on

symmetric instability modes, their localization and selection (Hunt et al. 2003).

However, the theory cannot be directly applied to obtain information on the

buckling instability (asymmetric buckling mode).

The three-dimensional theory of nonlinear elasticity provides, in principle, a

complete and exact description of the motion of each material point of a body

under loads. However, due to the mathematical complexity of the governing

(a)

(b)

Figure 1. Euler problem: (a) illustrations from Euler (1744). (b) Lagrange solutions (1770), modes

1, 2 and 3.

A. Goriely et al. 2

Proc. R. Soc. A

equations, most problems cannot be explicitly solved. In the case of long slender

structures under loads, the buckling instability can be captured by assuming that

the object is either a rectangular beam (Biot 1962; Levinson 1968; Nowinski

1969) or a cylindrical shell under axial load. Using the theory of incremental

deformations around a large deformation-stressed state, the buckling instability

can be recovered by a bifurcation argument, usually referred to, in the nonlinear

elasticity theory, as small-on-large, or incremental, theory. By taking the proper

asymptotic limit for long slender structures, the Euler criterion can then be

recovered. In comparison to the one- and two-dimensional theories, this

computation is rather cumbersome as it is based on non-trivial tensorial

calculations, but it contains much information about the instability and the

unstable modes selected in the bifurcation process.

Here, we are concerned with the case of a cylindrical shell under axial load.

This problem was ﬁrst addressed in the framework of nonlinear elasticity in a

remarkable 1955 article by Wilkes who showed that the linearized system around

a ﬁnite axial strain can be solved exactly in terms of Bessel functions. While

Wilkes only analysed the ﬁrst axisymmetric mode (nZ0, see below), he noted in

his conclusion that the asymmetric mode (nZ1) corresponds to the Euler strut

and doing so, opened the door to further investigation by Fosdick & Shield

(1963), who recovered Euler’s criterion asymptotically from the solution of

Wilkes. These initial results constitute the basis for much of the modern theory

of elastic stability of cylinders within the framework of three-dimensional

nonlinear elasticity (Haughton & Ogden 1979a,b; Simpson & Spector 1984; Duka

et al. 1993; Pan & Beatty 1997; Bigoni & Gei 2001; Dorfmann & Haughton 2006).

The experimental veriﬁcation of Euler’s criterion was considered by Southwell

(1932) and by Beatty & Hook (1968).

The purpose of this article is threefold. First, we revisit the problemof the stability

of an incompressible cylindrical shell under axial load using the Stroh formalism

(Stroh 1962) and, based on the solution of Wilkes, we derive a new and compact

formulation of the bifurcation criterion that can be used efﬁciently for numerical

approximation of the bifurcation curves for all modes. Second, we use this

formulation to obtain nonlinear corrections of Euler’s criterion for arbitrary shell

thickness and third-order elasticity. Third, we consider the problem of determining

the critical aspect ratio where there is a transition between buckling and barrelling.

2. Large deformation

We consider a hyperelastic homogeneous incompressible cylindrical tube with

isotropic cross sections of initial inner radius A, outer radius BandlengthL, subjected

to a uniaxial constant strain l

3

and deformed into a shorter tube with current

dimensions a, b and l. The deformation bringing a point at (R, Q, Z), in cylindrical

coordinates in the initial conﬁguration, to (r, q, z) in the current conﬁguration is

r Zl

1

R; q ZQ; z Zl

3

Z; ð2:1Þ

where l

1

Za=AZb=B and l

3

Zl/L. Since the material is isotropic in the cross

sections, the physical components of the corresponding deformation gradient F are

½F Zdiagðl

1

; l

1

; l

3

Þ; ð2:2Þ

3 Nonlinear Euler buckling

Proc. R. Soc. A

showing that the principal stretches are the constants l

1

, l

2

Zl

1

, l

3

; and that

the pre-strain is homogeneous. Owing to incompressibility, det FZ1, so that

l

1

Zl

K1=2

3

: ð2:3Þ

The principal Cauchy stresses required to maintain the pre-strain are (Ogden 1984)

s

i

ZKp Cl

i

vW

vl

i

ði Z1; 2; 3Þ ð2:4Þ

(no sum), where p is a Lagrange multiplier introduced by the internal constraint of

incompressibility and W is the strain energy density (a symmetric function of the

principal stretches). Inour case, s

2

Zs

1

because l

2

Zl

1

. Also, s

1

Z0 because the inner

and outer faces of the tube are free of traction. It follows that:

p Zl

1

W

1

; s

3

Zl

3

W

3

Kl

1

W

1

; ð2:5Þ

where W

i

hvW/vl

i

, andwe conclude that the principal Cauchystresses are constant.

3. Instability

To perform a bifurcation analysis, we take the view that the existence of small

deformation solutions in the neighbourhood of the large pre-strain signals the

onset of instability (Biot 1965).

(a ) Governing equations

The incremental equations of equilibrium and incompressibility can be written

as (Ogden 1984)

div s Z0; div u Z0; ð3:1Þ

where s is the incremental nominal stress tensor and u is the inﬁnitesimal

mechanical displacement. They are linked by

s ZA

0

gradðuÞ Cp gradðuÞK _ pI; ð3:2Þ

where _ p is the increment in the Lagrange multiplier p and A

0

is the fourth-order

tensor of instantaneous elastic moduli. This tensor is similar to the stiffness

tensor of linear anisotropic elasticity, with the differences that it possesses only

the major symmetries, not the minor ones, and that it reﬂects strain-induced

anisotropy instead of intrinsic anisotropy. Its explicit non-zero components in a

coordinate system aligned with the principal axes are (Ogden 1984)

A

0iijj

Zl

i

l

j

W

ij

;

A

0ijij

Zðl

i

W

i

Kl

j

W

j

Þl

2

i

=ðl

2

i

Kl

2

j

Þ; if i sj; l

i

sl

j

;

A

0ijij

ZðA

0iiii

KA

0iijj

Cl

i

W

i

Þ=2; if i sj; l

i

Zl

j

;

A

0ijji

ZA

0jiij

A

0ijij

Kl

i

W

i

ð3:3Þ

A. Goriely et al. 4

Proc. R. Soc. A

(no sums), where W

ij

hv

2

W=ðvl

i

vl

j

Þ. Note that some of these components are

not independent because here l

1

Zl

2

. In particular, we have

A

02121

ZA

01212

; A

02323

ZA

01313

; A

02222

ZA

01111

;

A

02233

ZA

01133

; A

02332

ZA

01331

; A

03232

ZA

03131

;

A

01221

CA

01212

A

01111

KA

01122

Z2A

01212

CA

01331

KA

01313

:

ð3:4Þ

(b ) Solutions

We look for solutions that are periodic along the circumferential and axial

directions, and have yet unknown variations through the thickness of the tube, so

that our ansatz is

fu

r

; u

q

; u

z

; _ p; s

rr

; s

rq

; s

rz

g ZfU

r

ðrÞ; U

q

ðrÞ; U

z

ðrÞ; PðrÞ; S

rr

ðrÞ; S

rq

ðrÞ; S

rz

ðrÞg

!expðiðnq CkzÞÞ; ð3:5Þ

where nZ0, 1, 2, .is the circumferential number; k is the axial wavenumber; the

subscripts (r, q, z) for u and s refer to components within the cylindrical

coordinates (r, q, z); and all upper-case functions are functions of r alone.

The specialization of the governing equations (3.1) to this type of solution has

already been conducted in several articles (see Wilkes 1955; Fosdick & Shield 1963;

Mack 1989; Pan & Beatty 1997; Negron-Marrero 1999; and Dorfmann & Haughton

2006 for the compressible counterpart). Here we adapt the work of Shuvalov (2003a)

on waves in anisotropic cylinders to develop a Stroh-like formulation of the problem

(Stroh 1962). The central idea is to introduce a displacement–traction vector,

hh½U

r

; U

q

; U

z

; irS

rr

; irS

rq

; irS

rz

T

; ð3:6Þ

so that the incremental equations can be written in the form

d

dr

hðrÞ Z

i

r

GðrÞhðrÞ; ð3:7Þ

where Gis a 6!6 matrix, with the block structure

GZ

G

1

G

2

G

3

G

C

1

¸ ¸

; G

2

ZG

C

2

; G

3

ZG

C

3

: ð3:8Þ

Here the superscript ‘C’ denotes the Hermitian adjoint (transpose of the complex

conjugate) and G

1

, G

2

and G

3

are the 3!3 matrices

i Kn Kkr

Kn Ki 0

Kkr 0 0

¸

¸

¸;

0 0 0

0 K

1

A

01212

0

0 0 K

1

A

01313

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

;

k

11

ik

12

k

13

Kik

12

k

22

k

23

Kik

13

k

23

k

33

¸

¸

¸; ð3:9Þ

5 Nonlinear Euler buckling

Proc. R. Soc. A

respectively, with

k

11

Z4A

01212

CðA

03131

KA

01313

Þk

2

r

2

; k

23

Znð2A

01212

CA

01313

Þkr;

k

12

Z4nA

01212

; k

13

Z2A

01212

kr; k

22

Z4n

2

A

01212

CA

03131

k

2

r

2

;

k

33

Zn

2

A

01313

Cð4A

01212

C2A

01122

KA

01111

CA

03333

K2A

01133

Þk

2

r

2

:

ð3:10Þ

As it happens, there exists a set of six explicit Bessel-type solutions to these

equations whenns0. This situationis inmarkedcontrast withthecorrespondingset-

up in linear anisotropic elastodynamics, where explicit Bessel-type solutions exist

only for transversely isotropic cylinders with a set of four linearly independent modes

and do not exist for cylinders of lesser symmetry (Martin & Berger 2001; Shuvalov

2003b). As mentioned in §1, the six Bessel solutions are presented in the article by

Wilkes (1955; for a derivation see Bigoni & Gei 2001).

First, denote by q

2

1

, q

2

2

the roots of the following quadratic in q

2

:

A

01313

q

4

KðA

01111

CA

03333

K2A

01331

K2A

01133

Þq

2

CA

03131

Z0: ð3:11Þ

Then the roots of this quartic in q are Gq

1

and Gq

2

, and it can be checked that

the following two vectors are solutions to (3.7):

h

ð1Þ

; h

ð2Þ

Z iI

0

n

ðqkrÞ;K

n

qkr

I

n

ðqkrÞ;KqI

n

ðqkrÞ;

¸

K

kr

q

ðA

01313

q

2

CA

03131

ÞI

n

ðqkrÞ C2A

01212

I

0

n

ðqkrÞK

n

2

qkr

I

n

ðqkrÞ

;

K2inA

01212

I

0

n

ðqkrÞK

1

qkr

I

n

ðqkrÞ

;Kið1 Cq

2

ÞkrA

01313

I

0

n

ðqkrÞ

T

;

ð3:12Þ

where qZq

1

, q

2

in turn and I

n

is the modiﬁed Bessel function of order n.

Similarly, we checked that the following vector h

(3)

:

h

ð3Þ

Z i

n

kr

I

n

ðq

3

krÞ;Kq

3

I

0

n

ðq

3

krÞ; 0;K2nq

3

A

01212

I

0

n

ðq

3

krÞK

1

q

3

kr

I

n

ðq

3

krÞ

;

¸

!iq

3

A

01212

2I

0

n

ðq

3

krÞK q

3

kr C2

n

2

q

3

kr

I

n

ðq

3

krÞ

; KinA

01313

I

n

ðq

3

krÞ

T

ð3:13Þ

is also a solution when q

3

is the positive root of the quadratic equation

A

01212

q

2

KA

03131

Z0: ð3:14Þ

Finally, we also checked that the vectors h

(4)

, h

(5)

and h

(6)

, obtained by replacing

I

n

with the modiﬁed Bessel function K

n

in the expressions above, are solutions too.

Next, we follow Shuvalov (2003a) and introduce N(r) as a fundamental matrix

solution to (3.7):

N ðrÞ Z

h

ð1Þ

jh

ð2Þ

j.jh

ð6Þ

: ð3:15Þ

A. Goriely et al. 6

Proc. R. Soc. A

It clearly satisﬁes

d

dr

N ðrÞ Z

i

r

GðrÞN ðrÞ: ð3:16Þ

Let M(r,a) be the matricant solution to (3.7), i.e. the matrix such that

hðrÞ ZMðr; aÞhðaÞ; Mða; aÞ ZI

ð6Þ

: ð3:17Þ

It is obtained from N(r) (or from any other fundamental matrix made of linearly

independent combinations of the h

(i )

) by

Mðr; aÞ ZN ðrÞN

K1

ðaÞ ð3:18Þ

and it has the following block structure:

Mðr; aÞ Z

M

1

ðr; aÞ M

2

ðr; aÞ

M

3

ðr; aÞ M

4

ðr; aÞ

¸ ¸

; ð3:19Þ

say.

(c ) Boundary conditions

Some boundary conditions must be enforced on the top and bottom faces of

the tubes. Considering that they remain plane (U

z

Z0 on zZ0, l ) and free

of incremental shear tractions (S

rz

ZS

rq

Z0 on zZ0, l ) leads to

k Z

mp

l

Z

mp

l

3

L

; ð3:20Þ

where mZ1, 2, 3, .but, since the equations depend only on k, we can take mZ1

without loss of generality.

The other boundary conditions are that the inner and outer faces of the

tube remain free of incremental tractions. We call S h½S

rr

; S

rq

; S

rz

T

the traction

vector and U h½U

r

; U

q

; U

z

T

the displacement vector. We substitute the

condition S(a)Z0 into (3.17) and (3.19) to ﬁnd the following connection:

rSðrÞ Zzðr; aÞUðrÞ; where z hiM

3

M

K1

1

ð3:21Þ

is the (Hermitian) 3!3 impedance (Shuvalov 2003a). Since S(b)Z0, a non-

trivial solution exists only if the matrix z(b, a) is singular, which implies the

bifurcation condition

det zðb; aÞ ZKi

det M

3

ðb; aÞ

det M

1

ðb; aÞ

Z0: ð3:22Þ

This is a real equation since zZz

C

(Shuvalov 2003a) that applies independently

of the nature (i.e. real or complex (Pan & Beatty 1997), simple or double

(Dorfmann & Haughton 2006)) of the roots q

1

, q

2

and q

3

.

7 Nonlinear Euler buckling

Proc. R. Soc. A

4. The adjugate method

We are now in a position to use the bifurcation condition (3.22) to compute

explicitly bifurcation curves for each mode n. We note that the components of A

0

depend on the strain energy density W and on the pre-strain, which by (2.3)

depends only on l

3

; so do q

1

, q

2

, q

3

, by (3.11) and (3.14). According to (3.12) and

(3.13), the entries of M(b, a) thus depend (for a given W) on l

3

, n, ka and kb

only. For a given material (W speciﬁed) with a given thickness (b/aZB/A

speciﬁed), the bifurcation equation (3.22) gives a relationship between a measure

of the critical pre-stretch: l

3

Zl

K2

1

, and a measure of the tube slenderness:

kbZ2pmðb=lÞZ2pml

K3=2

3

ðB=LÞ, for a given bifurcation mode (n speciﬁed). That

is, for a given tube slenderness, what is the axial strain necessary to excite a

given mode?

While this bifurcation condition is formally clear, it has not been successfully

implemented to compute all bifurcation curves. Indeed, for mode nO1, the root

ﬁnding of det(z) becomes numerically unstable and numerical methods become

unreliable (as observed in Dorfmann & Haughton (2006) for a similar problem)

and, in explicit computations, most authors do not use the exact solution by

Wilkes but use a variety of numerical techniques to solve the linear boundary-

value problems directly (such as the compound matrix method (Haughton & Orr

1997), the determinantal method (Ben Amar & Goriely 2005) or the Adams–

Moulton method (Zhu et al. 2008)). Note that from a computational perspective,

the Stroh formalism is particularly well suited and well behaved (Biryukov 1985;

Fu 2005) and if numerical integration was required it would provide an ideal

representation of the governing equation.

Rather than integrating the original linear problem numerically, we now show

how to use an alternative form of (3.22) to compute all possible bifurcation

curves. This method bypasses the need for numerical integration and reduces the

problem to a form that is manageable both numerically and symbolically, to

study analytically particular asymptotic limits. The main idea is to transform

condition (3.22) by factoring non-vanishing factors. We start by realizing that

since the fundamental solutions {h

(i )

, iZ1, ., 6} are linearly independent, the

matrix N(r) is invertible for all r2[a,b], which implies that the elements of

M(r, a) are bounded for r2[a,b]. Therefore, det(M

1

(r, a)) is uniformly bounded

away from zero and det zZ0 implies det(M

3

(b, a))Z0. Instead of expressing

det(M

3

(b, a)) as the determinant of a 3!3 submatrix of a matrix obtained as the

product of two 6!6 matrices, we ﬁrst decompose N(r) as

N ðrÞ Z

N

1

ðrÞ N

2

ðrÞ

N

3

ðrÞ N

4

ðrÞ

¸ ¸

; ð4:1Þ

say, where each block is a 3!3 matrix. We also rewrite equation (3.18) as

Mðr; aÞN ðaÞ ZN ðrÞ; ð4:2Þ

and write explicitly the two entries N

3

(r) and N

4

(r), which are

M

3

ðr; aÞN

1

ðaÞ CM

4

ðr; aÞN

3

ðaÞ ZN

3

ðrÞ; ð4:3Þ

M

3

ðr; aÞN

2

ðaÞ CM

4

ðr; aÞN

4

ðaÞ ZN

4

ðrÞ; ð4:4Þ

A. Goriely et al. 8

Proc. R. Soc. A

which implies

M

3

ðr; aÞ N

1

ðaÞN

K1

3

ðaÞKN

2

ðaÞN

K1

4

ðaÞ

ZN

3

ðrÞN

K1

3

ðaÞKN

4

ðrÞN

K1

4

ðaÞ:

ð4:5Þ

Using again the fact that the entries of N are bounded, we have that the

bifurcation condition det(M

3

(b, a))Z0 implies that

det Qðb; aÞ Z0; ð4:6Þ

where

Qðb; aÞ ZdetðN

4

ðaÞÞN

3

ðbÞadjðN

3

ðaÞÞKdetðN

3

ðaÞÞN

4

ðbÞadjðN

4

ðaÞÞ; ð4:7Þ

and adj(A) is the adjugate matrix of A, i.e. the transpose of the cofactor matrix

(which in the case of an invertible matrix is simply adj(A)Zdet(A)A

K1

). This

new bifurcation condition is equivalent to the previous one but has many

advantages. The matrix Q involves only products of 3!3 matrices and is

polynomial in the entries of N, i.e. det Q(b, a) is a polynomial of degree 18 in

Bessel functions and has no denominator (hence no small denominator). Both

numerically and symbolically, this determinant is well behaved, even in the

limits a/0, which corresponds to a solid cylinder, and nZ0, which corresponds

to the ﬁrst barrelling mode (and usually requires a special treatment). We will

refer to the use of this form of the bifurcation condition as the adjugate method.

15

0.2

5 25

0.7

20

0.9

30

0.5

1.0

0.1

0.6

0

0.8

0.4

0.3

10

kb

Figure 2. Bifurcation curves (stretch as a function of stubbiness) of a homogeneous neo-Hookean

cylindrical tube for modes nZ0–8 with b/aZB/AZ2 and C

1

Z1.

9 Nonlinear Euler buckling

Proc. R. Soc. A

(a ) Numerical results

As a ﬁrst test of the stability of the numerical procedure, we consider a neo-

Hookean potential WZC

1

ðI

1

K3Þ=2, where we set C

1

Z1 without loss of

generality and consider the typical value B/AZ2. We compute the critical

value of lhl

3

as a function of the current stubbiness kbZpb/l (the initial

stubbiness is nZB=LZkbl

3=2

=p) for the ﬁrst 9 modes (nZ0–8) as shown

in ﬁgure 2. The known classical features of the stability problem for the

cylindrical shell are recovered, namely for slender tubes, the Euler buckling

(nZ1) is dominant and becomes unavoidable as the slenderness increases; there

is a critical slenderness value at which the ﬁrst barrelling mode nZ0 is the ﬁrst

unstable mode (in a thought experiment where the axial strain would be incre-

mentally increased until the tube becomes unstable); and for very large kb, the

critical compression ratio tends asymptotically to the value lZ0.444, which

corresponds to surface instability of a compressed half-space (Biot 1962).

For a second test, we consider very thin neo-Hookean tubes with B/AZ1.01. Here

we are interested in the mode selection process. As the stubbiness increases, the

buckling mode rapidly ceases to be the ﬁrst excited mode and is replaced by different

barrelling modes. Fromﬁgure 3, it appears clearly that as kb increases, modes nZ1–9

are selected (modes nZ0 and 10 remain unobservable). There is one particularly

interesting feature inthese two sets of bifurcationcurves. Dependingonboththe tube

thickness and the stubbiness, the instability mode of a tube transition occurs from

buckling to barrelling, the material transition from either the one-dimensional

behaviour of slender columntothe two-dimensional behaviour of a thinshort tube, or

the three-dimensional behaviour of a thick short tube. Accordingly, we will refer to

these particular geometric values where transition occurs as dimensional transitions

and obtain analytical estimates for them in §5.

0.94

10 9 6

0.99

4 1

0.96

8 5

0.97

7

0.98

0

0.95

3

1.00

2

1

2

3

4

5 6 7 8 9

kb

Figure 3. Bifurcation curves (stretch as a function of stubbiness) of a homogeneous neo-Hookean

cylindrical tube for modes nZ0–10 with b/aZB/AZ1.01 and C

1

Z1.

A. Goriely et al. 10

Proc. R. Soc. A

5. Asymptotic Euler buckling

We are now in a position to look at the asymmetric buckling mode (nZ1)

corresponding to the Euler buckling in the limit l/1. The asymptotic form of

the Euler criterion cannot be obtained for a general strain-energy density. This is

why we choose the Mooney–Rivlin potential, which, for l close to 1, corresponds

to the most general form of third-order incompressible elasticity (see §6 and

Rivlin & Saunders (1951)),

W ZC

1

ðI

1

K3Þ=2 CC

2

ðI

2

K3Þ=2; ð5:1Þ

where C

1

R0 and C

2

O0 are material constants; I

1

Zl

2

1

Cl

2

2

Cl

2

3

; and I

2

Z

l

2

1

l

2

2

Cl

2

2

l

2

3

Cl

2

3

l

2

1

. Close to lZ1, we introduce a small parameter related to the

stubbiness ratio

e Zkb Zpb=l; ð5:2Þ

and look for the critical buckling stretch l as a function of e of order M,

l ZlðeÞ Z1 C

¸

M

mZ1

l

m

e

m

COðe

MC1

Þ: ð5:3Þ

Similarly, we expand dðlÞZdet Qðb; aÞ in powers of e,

dðlÞ Z

¸

M

d

mZ1

d

m

e

m

COðe

M

d

C1

Þ; ð5:4Þ

and solve each order d

m

Z0 for the coefﬁcients l

m

. This is a rather cumbersome

computation. It can be checked that l

m

vanishes identically for all odd values of

m and that the ﬁrst non-identically vanishing coefﬁcient appears at order 24.

A computation to order 28 is necessary to compute the correct expression for a,

which is found to be to order 6 in e

l Z1 Cl

ð2Þ

e

2

Cl

ð4Þ

e

4

Cl

ð6Þ

e

6

COðe

8

Þ; ð5:5Þ

with

l

ð2Þ

ZK

r

2

C1

4r

2

; ð5:6Þ

l

ð4Þ

Z

ð19C

2

C28C

1

Þr

4

C2ð53C

2

C62C

1

Þr

2

C19C

2

C28C

1

144ðC

1

CC

2

Þr

4

; ð5:7Þ

l

ð6Þ

ZK

1

4608r

6

ðr

4

K1ÞðC

1

CC

2

Þ

ð973C

1

C341C

2

Þðr

10

K1Þ

Cð7073C

1

C3385C

2

Þr

2

ðr

6

K1Þ C4392 lnðrÞðC

1

CC

2

Þðr

6

Cr

4

Þ

C4ð377C

2

C1141C

1

Þðr

6

Kr

4

Þ

; ð5:8Þ

where rhB/AZb/a. It is of interest to compare the different approximations.

We recover the Euler formula by keeping only the term up to e

2

, which we denote

by Euler

2

. We deﬁne similarly Euler

4

and Euler

6

by keeping terms up to orders 4

and 6 in e. We show the different approximations as a function of e

2

for rZ1.01

11 Nonlinear Euler buckling

Proc. R. Soc. A

(ﬁgure 4a) and rZ10 (ﬁgure 4b). The classical Euler formula is well recovered in

the limit e/0, but the Euler

4

and Euler

6

approximations clearly improve the

classical formula for larger values of e. It also appears from the analysis of Euler

4

that for C

2

R0 the classical Euler formula always underestimates the critical

stretch for instability.

6. Nonlinear Euler buckling for third-order elasticity

The analytical result presented in §5 was formulated in terms of parameters and

quantities natural for the computation and the theory of nonlinear elasticity. In

order to relate this result to the classical form of Euler buckling, we need to

express equation (5.5) in terms of the initial geometric values A, B, L, the axial

load acting on the cylinder and the elastic parameters entering in the theory of

linear elasticity.

We ﬁrst consider the geometric parameters. We wish to express the critical

load as a function of the initial stubbiness nZB/L and tube relative thickness

rZB/A. Recalling that eZpb/l and lZl/L, bZl

K1/2

B, we have

e

2

l

3

Zp

2

n

2

: ð6:1Þ

To express e as a function of n, we expand e in powers of n to order 6, and solve

(6.1) to obtain

e

2

Zp

2

n

2

K3p

4

l

ð2Þ

n

4

Kð3p

6

l

ð4Þ

K15p

6

l

2

ð2Þ

Þn

6

COðn

8

Þ; ð6:2Þ

where l

(2)

and l

(4)

are deﬁned in (5.6) and (5.7) and come from the expansion of l

in powers of e.

1.00 (a) (b)

0.98

0.25

0.96

0.15

0.92

0.90

0.99

0.30

0.97

0.95

0.20

0.94

0.93

0.91

0.10 0.05 0

Euler

2

exact

Euler

6

Euler

4

Euler

2

exact

Euler

6

Euler

4

0.6

1.000

0.8

0.900

1.0 0.9

0.975

0.875

0.5 0.4 0.2 0.7 0

0.950

0.925

0.3

0.850

0.1

Figure 4. Comparison of the different Euler formulae obtained by expanding the exact solution to

order 2 (the classical Euler buckling formula), Euler

4

and Euler

6

for a neo-Hookean potential

C

1

Z1, C

2

Z0. For comparison purpose, we show the critical stretch for mode nZ1 versus e

2

in which

case the graph becomes linear in the limit e/0. (a) rZb/aZB/AZ1.01, (b) rZb/aZB/AZ10.

A. Goriely et al. 12

Proc. R. Soc. A

Second, we want to relate the axial compression to the actual axial load N. To

do so, we integrate the axial stress over the faces of the tubes, i.e.

N ZK2p

b

a

rs

3

dr: ð6:3Þ

Since s

3

is constant and given by (2.5), we have

N ZKpðb

2

Ka

2

Þs

3

ZK

p

l

ðB

2

KA

2

Þs

3

ZK

p

l

3

ðB

2

KA

2

Þ½ðl

4

KlÞC

1

Cðl

3

K1ÞC

2

: ð6:4Þ

Third, we relate the elastic Mooney parameters C

1

and C

2

to the classical

elastic parameters. Here, we follow Hamilton et al. (2004; Destrade &

Saccomandi 2005) and write the strain-energy density to third order for an

incompressible elastic material as

W ZK2mi

2

Cn

3

i

3

; ð6:5Þ

where m is the usual shear modulus, or second Lame ´ parameter, and n

3

is a third-

order elasticity constant; m is related to Young’s modulus by EZ3m; also, in

Murnaghan’s notation, n

3

Zn and in Landau’s notation, n

3

ZA (see Norris (1998)

for other notations). In (6.5), i

1

, i

2

, i

3

are the ﬁrst three principal invariants of the

Green–Lagrange strain tensor, related to the ﬁrst three principal invariants I

1

, I

2

,

I

3

of the Cauchy–Green strain tensor by

I

1

Z2i

1

C3; I

2

Z4i

1

C4i

2

C3; I

3

Z2i

1

C4i

2

C8i

3

C1: ð6:6Þ

Since I

3

Z1, we can solve this linear system for i

2

and i

3

and write the strain-

energy density (6.5) as a function of I

1

and I

2

, i.e.

W Z mC

n

3

8

I

1

K

m

2

K

n

3

8

I

2

; ð6:7Þ

which by comparison with (5.1) leads to

C

1

Z2mCn

3

=4; C

2

ZmKn

3

=4: ð6:8Þ

To write the nonlinear buckling formula, we consider (6.4) and ﬁrst expand l

in e using (5.5), then expand e in n using (6.2) and, ﬁnally, substitute the values

of the moduli in terms of the elastic parameters, which yield

N Z

3

4

p

3

B

2

mðr

4

K1Þn

2

r

4

K

1

96

p

5

B

2

ðr

2

K1Þð20r

4

mC9r

4

n

3

C176r

2

mC18r

2

n

3

C20mC9n

3

Þn

4

r

6

C

B

2

p

7

n

6

512r

8

mðr

2

C1Þ

323m

2

r

8

K3n

2

3

K240r

2

mn

3

K9r

2

n

2

3

K9r

10

m

2

C9m

2

C3r

10

n

2

3

C1464 lnðrÞr

6

m

2

C1464 lnðrÞr

4

m

2

C240r

8

mn

3

C240r

6

mn

3

K180r

6

m

2

C180r

4

m

2

C9r

8

n

2

3

C6r

6

n

2

3

K6r

4

n

2

3

K323r

2

m

2

K240r

4

mn

3

COðn

8

Þ: ð6:9Þ

13 Nonlinear Euler buckling

Proc. R. Soc. A

While it is not surprising, it is comforting to recover to order n

2

the classical

Euler buckling formula (1.1) (using rZB/A, nZB/L and mZE/3).

7. Dimensional transition

Finally, we use the buckling formula to compute the transition between modes as

parameters are varied. That is, to identify both the geometric values and the

axial strain for which there is a transition between buckling and barrelling

modes. Here we restrict again our attention to the neo-Hookean case (with C

1

Z1).

Fromﬁgures 2 and 3, it appears clearly that for e small enough there is a transition

(depending on the value of r) from either mode nZ1 to mode nZ0 (large r), or

from mode nZ1 to mode nZ2 (r close to 1) as e increases. We refer to this

transition as a dimensional transition, in the sense that the material mostly

behaves as a slender one-dimensional structure when it buckles according to

mode nZ0 and mostly as a two-dimensional structure when it barrels with mode

nZ2. Indeed both modes of instability can be captured by, respectively, a one- or

a two-dimensional theory. For r close to unity, the transition nZ0/nZ1 occurs

for small values of e. Therefore, in this regime, we can use the approximation

(5.5) for the barrelling curve and substitute it in the bifurcation condition of

mode nZ2. Expanding again this bifurcation condition in e as well as r, one

identiﬁes the values r

t

of r and l

t

of l at which the transition occurs, as

r

t

Z1 C

3

4

e

2

K

53

32

e

4

C

2393

384

e

6

COðe

8

Þ;

l

t

Z1K

1

4

e

2

C

13

8

e

4

K

665

96

e

6

COðe

8

Þ:

ð7:1Þ

In terms of the initial stubbiness nZB/L, we have

r

t

Z1 C

3

4

p

2

n

2

K

17

32

p

4

n

4

C

161

384

p

6

n

6

COðn

8

Þ: ð7:2Þ

This relationship also provides a domain of validity for the Euler buckling formula.

For sufﬁciently slender tube (n small), the buckling mode disappears when rOr

t

at

the expense of the nZ2 barrelling mode. For stubbier and fuller tubes, this

approximation cannot be used. To understand the dimensional transition, we solve

numerically the bifurcation condition, using the adjugate method, for the

intersection of two different modes. That is, for a given value of r

Ã

, we ﬁnd the

value of e

Ã

such that both the bifurcations for either modes nZ1 and 2, or modes

nZ1 and 0 are satisﬁed. If the corresponding value l

Ã

is the largest value for which

a bifurcation takes place, the pair (e

Ã

, r

Ã

) is a transition point. The corresponding

transition point in terms of the initial parameters is n

Ã

Zðe

Ã

=pÞðl

Ã

Þ

3=2

; r

Ã

. In

ﬁgure 5, we show a diagram of all such pairs for both transitions.

8. Conclusion

This article establishes a reliable and effective method to study the stability of

tubes based on the exact solution of the incremental equations proposed by

Wilkes (1955) within the Stroh formalism. It then puts the method to use, to

A. Goriely et al. 14

Proc. R. Soc. A

obtain the ﬁrst geometric and material corrections to the Euler buckling. The

method can be also used to obtain the transition between buckling and barrelling

modes when a tube becomes unstable.

The method presented here can be easily generalized to different materials and

different boundary conditions. For instance, using the exact solution of the

incremental equations proposed in Dorfmann & Haughton (2006) for compres-

sible materials and the adjugate method, an explicit form of the bifurcation

condition in terms of Bessel functions can be obtained by following the steps

presented here and various asymptotic behaviours can be obtained. Similarly, a

variety of boundary-value problems can be analysed by the adjugate method,

such as the stability problem of a tube under pressure and tension (Han

2007; Zhu et al. 2008), the problem of a tube embedded in an inﬁnite domain

(Bigoni & Gei 2001) and the problem of a tube with coating (Ogden et al. 1997).

In all these cases, useful asymptotic formulae for the buckling behaviour could be

obtained by perturbation expansions.

It is also enticing to consider the possibility of performing an analytical

post-buckling analysis of the solutions. Since the solutions of the linearized

problem can be solved exactly, a weakly nonlinear analysis of the solution

should be possible to third order. This would yield, in principle, an equation

for the amplitude of the unstable modes containing much information not

0.9

2.6

2.2

0.7

1.8

0.5

1.0

1.0

3.0

2.8

2.4

0.8

2.0

1.6

0.6

1.4

1.2

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

approximation

L

Figure 5. Dimensional transition for a neo-Hookean cylindrical tube of initial length L and initial

radii A and B. All tubes in the nZ1 regions will become unstable by buckling. As the tubes get

stubbier or thinner (arrows), it will not buckle but instead will be subjected to a barrelling

instability. Note that only the transition curves from mode nZ0 are shown. Tubes in the barrelling

regions may be subjected to other unstable modes.

15 Nonlinear Euler buckling

Proc. R. Soc. A

only about the actual amplitude of the unstable modes but also on the

localization of unstable modes after bifurcation. We leave this daunting task for

another day.

This study is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant

no. DMS-0604704 (A.G.) and made possible by a CNRS/USA Collaborative Grant from the

French Centre National de la Recherche Scientiﬁque (M.D.).

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17 Nonlinear Euler buckling

Proc. R. Soc. A

The two-dimensional theory of shells can be used when the thickness of the cylindrical shell is small enough. in principle. other modes of instability such as barrelling cannot be obtained.2 (a) A. 2 and 3. However. the theory cannot be directly applied to obtain information on the buckling instability (asymmetric buckling mode). These modes will typically occur for sufﬁciently stubby structures. A . In particular. (b) Lagrange solutions (1770). modes 1. their localization and selection (Hunt et al. R. energy argument (Timoshenko & Gere 1961) or directly from the exact solution. However. Here. Then. Goriely et al. to capture the instability. since material cross sections initially perpendicular to the axis remain undeformed and perpendicular to the tangent vector. Soc. The one-dimensional theory can be used with a variety of boundary conditions. Euler problem: (a) illustrations from Euler (1744). the stability analysis of shell equations ´ ´ such as the Donnell–von Karman equations leads to detailed information on symmetric instability modes. no information on the elastic deformation around the central curve can be obtained. The three-dimensional theory of nonlinear elasticity provides. (b) Figure 1. a complete and exact description of the motion of each material point of a body under loads. However. due to the mathematical complexity of the governing Proc. we refer to axisymmetric deformation modes of a cylinder or a cylindrical shell. it is particularly easy to explain and generalize and it can be used for large geometric deﬂections of the axis (Antman 1995). 2003). either by bifurcation analysis. by barrelling. which in the case of rods can be written in terms of elliptic integrals (Nizette & Goriely 1999).

subjected to a uniaxial constant strain l3 and deformed into a shorter tube with current dimensions a. Second. we derive a new and compact formulation of the bifurcation criterion that can be used efﬁciently for numerical approximation of the bifurcation curves for all modes. usually referred to. outer radius B and length L. l3 Þ. this computation is rather cumbersome as it is based on non-trivial tensorial calculations. we are concerned with the case of a cylindrical shell under axial load. Since the material is isotropic in the cross sections. most problems cannot be explicitly solved. we consider the problem of determining the critical aspect ratio where there is a transition between buckling and barrelling. R. This problem was ﬁrst addressed in the framework of nonlinear elasticity in a remarkable 1955 article by Wilkes who showed that the linearized system around a ﬁnite axial strain can be solved exactly in terms of Bessel functions. ð2:1Þ where l1 Z a=AZ b=B and l3Zl/L. see below). the Euler criterion can then be recovered. The deformation bringing a point at (R. opened the door to further investigation by Fosdick & Shield (1963). In comparison to the one. q Z Q. First. 1993. the physical components of the corresponding deformation gradient F are ½F Z diagðl1 . theory. Levinson 1968. z Z l3 Z. Pan & Beatty 1997. the buckling instability can be recovered by a bifurcation argument. Simpson & Spector 1984.and two-dimensional theories. Duka et al. but it contains much information about the instability and the unstable modes selected in the bifurcation process. as small-on-large. These initial results constitute the basis for much of the modern theory of elastic stability of cylinders within the framework of three-dimensional nonlinear elasticity (Haughton & Ogden 1979a. in the nonlinear elasticity theory. Dorfmann & Haughton 2006). 2. Bigoni & Gei 2001. Q. the buckling instability can be captured by assuming that the object is either a rectangular beam (Biot 1962. A ð2:2Þ . or incremental.b. who recovered Euler’s criterion asymptotically from the solution of Wilkes. z) in the current conﬁguration is r Z l1 R. Third. in cylindrical coordinates in the initial conﬁguration. Here.Nonlinear Euler buckling 3 equations. based on the solution of Wilkes. The experimental veriﬁcation of Euler’s criterion was considered by Southwell (1932) and by Beatty & Hook (1968). we revisit the problem of the stability of an incompressible cylindrical shell under axial load using the Stroh formalism (Stroh 1962) and. q. The purpose of this article is threefold. l1 . he noted in his conclusion that the asymmetric mode (nZ1) corresponds to the Euler strut and doing so. b and l. Proc. While Wilkes only analysed the ﬁrst axisymmetric mode (nZ0. Using the theory of incremental deformations around a large deformation-stressed state. we use this formulation to obtain nonlinear corrections of Euler’s criterion for arbitrary shell thickness and third-order elasticity. Large deformation We consider a hyperelastic homogeneous incompressible cylindrical tube with isotropic cross sections of initial inner radius A. to (r. Soc. In the case of long slender structures under loads. Z ). Nowinski 1969) or a cylindrical shell under axial load. By taking the proper asymptotic limit for long slender structures.

not the minor ones. showing that the principal stretches are the constants l1. 9 > > > > > = if i sj. and we conclude that the principal Cauchy stresses are constant. (a ) Governing equations The incremental equations of equilibrium and incompressibility can be written as (Ogden 1984) div s Z 0. Goriely et al. ð3:2Þ _ where p is the increment in the Lagrange multiplier p and A0 is the fourth-order tensor of instantaneous elastic moduli. ð2:5Þ where WihvW/vli . we take the view that the existence of small deformation solutions in the neighbourhood of the large pre-strain signals the onset of instability (Biot 1965). with the differences that it possesses only the major symmetries. ð3:1Þ where s is the incremental nominal stress tensor and u is the inﬁnitesimal mechanical displacement. i i j A 0ijij Z ðA 0iiii KA 0iijj C li Wi Þ=2. li Z lj . l3. A if i sj. R. In our case. and that it reﬂects strain-induced anisotropy instead of intrinsic anisotropy. This tensor is similar to the stiffness tensor of linear anisotropic elasticity. ð3:3Þ . and that the pre-strain is homogeneous. s2Zs1 because l2Zl1. det FZ1. where p is a Lagrange multiplier introduced by the internal constraint of incompressibility and W is the strain energy density (a symmetric function of the principal stretches). 2. s1Z0 because the inner and outer faces of the tube are free of traction. A 0ijji Z A 0jiij A 0ijij K li Wi Proc. l2Zl1. s3 Z l3 W3 K l1 W1 . so that l1 Z l3 vW vli K1=2 : ð2:3Þ The principal Cauchy stresses required to maintain the pre-strain are (Ogden 1984) si ZKp C li ði Z 1. It follows that: p Z l1 W1 .4 A. Instability To perform a bifurcation analysis. div u Z 0. Also. li slj . 3. 3Þ ð2:4Þ (no sum). Owing to incompressibility. A 0ijij Z ðli Wi Klj Wj Þl2 =ðl2 Kl2 Þ. Soc. > > > > > . They are linked by _ s Z A 0 gradðuÞ C p gradðuÞK pI . Its explicit non-zero components in a coordinate system aligned with the principal axes are (Ogden 1984) A 0iijj Z li lj Wij .

1. Srz ðrÞg !expðiðnq C kzÞÞ. Uz ðrÞ. G2 Z GC. The central idea is to introduce a displacement–traction vector. Srr ðrÞ. and Dorfmann & Haughton 2006 for the compressible counterpart). irSrz T . where Wij h v2 W =ðvli vlj Þ. uz . srq . A 01221 C A 01212 A 01111 KA 01122 Z 2A 01212 C A 01331 KA 01313 : A 02323 Z A 01313 . Srq ðrÞ. and have yet unknown variations through the thickness of the tube. z). ð3:5Þ ð3:4Þ where nZ0. Negron-Marrero 1999. 2 C G3 G1 ð3:7Þ ð3:6Þ G3 Z GC: 3 ð3:8Þ Here the superscript ‘C’ denotes the Hermitian adjoint (transpose of the complex conjugate) and G1.Nonlinear Euler buckling 5 (no sums). with the block structure " # G1 G2 GZ . . In particular. Note that some of these components are not independent because here l1Zl2. Pan & Beatty 1997. A . the subscripts (r. Uz . G2 and G3 are the 3!3 matrices 3 2 0 0 0 3 2 3 6 7 2 k i Kn Kkr ik12 k13 11 7 6 7 6 60 K 1 0 6 7 7. Uq . Uq ðrÞ. The specialization of the governing equations (3. 6 5 4 Kn Ki A 01212 7 6 6 1 7 5 40 Kik13 k23 k33 Kkr 0 0 0 K A 01313 Proc. 9 A 02222 Z A 01111 . we have A 02121 Z A 01212 . srr .1) to this type of solution has already been conducted in several articles (see Wilkes 1955. uq . Fosdick & Shield 1963. so that the incremental equations can be written in the form d i hðrÞ Z GðrÞhðrÞ. 2. h h ½Ur . A 03232 Z A 03131 . srz g ZfUr ðrÞ. R. irSrq . z) for u and s refer to components within the cylindrical coordinates (r. > = A 02233 Z A 01133 . A 02332 Z A 01331 . (b ) Solutions We look for solutions that are periodic along the circumferential and axial directions. Soc. PðrÞ. p. irSrr . 4Kik12 k22 k23 7. and all upper-case functions are functions of r alone. > . is the circumferential number. ð3:9Þ 0 5. q. so that our ansatz is _ fur . k is the axial wavenumber. q. Mack 1989. dr r where G is a 6!6 matrix. Here we adapt the work of Shuvalov (2003a) on waves in anisotropic cylinders to develop a Stroh-like formulation of the problem (Stroh 1962).

we checked that the following vector h(3): n 1 ð3Þ 0 0 I ðq krÞ . the six Bessel solutions are presented in the article by Wilkes (1955. Goriely et al. 9 k23 Z nð2A 01212 CA 01313 Þkr. we also checked that the vectors h(4). k33 Z n2 A01313 Cð4A 01212 C2A01122 KA 01111 CA 03333 K2A 01133 Þk 2 r 2 : As it happens.7): h i N ðrÞ Z hð1Þ jhð2Þ j. there exists a set of six explicit Bessel-type solutions to these equations when ns0. denote by q1 . > > = 2 2 2 ð3:10Þ k12 Z 4nA 01212 . hð2Þ Z iIn ðqkrÞ. Similarly.7): 0 hð1Þ . where explicit Bessel-type solutions exist only for transversely isotropic cylinders with a set of four linearly independent modes and do not exist for cylinders of lesser symmetry (Martin & Berger 2001. k22 Z 4n A 01212 CA 03131 k r .Kq3 In ðq3 krÞ. obtained by replacing In with the modiﬁed Bessel function Kn in the expressions above.Kið1 C q ÞkrA 01313 In ðqkrÞ . KinA01313 In ðq3 krÞ q3 kr n 3 ð3:13Þ is also a solution when q3 is the positive root of the quadratic equation A 01212 q 2 KA 03131 Z 0: ð3:14Þ n I ðqkrÞ.jhð6Þ : ð3:15Þ Proc. are solutions too. for a derivation see Bigoni & Gei 2001). 2nq h Z i In ðq3 krÞ. h(5) and h(6). As mentioned in §1.6 respectively. K ðA 01313 q C A 03131 ÞIn ðqkrÞ C 2A 01212 In ðqkrÞK q qkr n !T 1 0 2 0 I ðqkrÞ . Next. k11 Z 4A 01212 CðA 03131 KA 01313 Þk 2 r 2 . K2inA 01212 In ðqkrÞK qkr n ð3:12Þ where qZq1.K kr n2 2 0 I ðqkrÞ .K n ðqkrÞ. Soc. with A. > > . we follow Shuvalov (2003a) and introduce N (r) as a fundamental matrix solution to (3. and it can be checked that the following two vectors are solutions to (3. Shuvalov 2003b). A .K 3 A01212 In ðq3 krÞK kr q3 kr n 3 !T n2 0 !iq3 A01212 2In ðq3 krÞK q3 kr C 2 I ðq krÞ . q2 in turn and In is the modiﬁed Bessel function of order n. 0. qI qkr n Finally. 2 2 First. q2 the roots of the following quadratic in q2: A 01313 q 4 KðA 01111 C A 03333 K2A 01331 K2A 01133 Þq 2 C A 03131 Z 0: ð3:11Þ Then the roots of this quartic in q are Gq1 and Gq2. R. k13 Z 2A 01212 kr. This situation is in marked contrast with the corresponding setup in linear anisotropic elastodynamics.

but. aÞhðaÞ. Srq . real or complex (Pan & Beatty 1997). aÞ say. which implies the bifurcation condition det zðb. Since S(b)Z0. l ) leads to kZ mp mp Z . aÞU ðrÞ.Nonlinear Euler buckling 7 It clearly satisﬁes d i N ðrÞ Z GðrÞN ðrÞ: dr r Let M(r. aÞ Z M 3 ðr. K1 where z h iM 3 M 1 ð3:21Þ is the (Hermitian) 3!3 impedance (Shuvalov 2003a). The other boundary conditions are that the inner and outer faces of the tube remain free of incremental tractions. aÞ ZKi det M 3 ðb. R. ð3:19Þ ð3:18Þ M 2 ðr. Uz T the displacement vector. aÞ where mZ1. . simple or double (Dorfmann & Haughton 2006)) of the roots q1. 2.e. aÞ ð3:22Þ This is a real equation since zZzC (Shuvalov 2003a) that applies independently of the nature (i. A . M ða. 3. aÞ M ðr. Considering that they remain plane (UzZ0 on zZ0. aÞ Z I ð6Þ : ð3:17Þ ð3:16Þ It is obtained from N (r) (or from any other fundamental matrix made of linearly independent combinations of the h(i )) by M ðr.19) to ﬁnd the following connection: rSðrÞ Z zðr. aÞ Z 0: det M 1 ðb.e. since the equations depend only on k. we can take mZ1 without loss of generality. (c ) Boundary conditions Some boundary conditions must be enforced on the top and bottom faces of the tubes. a) is singular. l ) and free of incremental shear tractions (Srz Z Srq Z 0 on zZ0.a) be the matricant solution to (3. the matrix such that hðrÞ Z M ðr. i. Uq .17) and (3. Proc. Srz T the traction vector and U h ½Ur .7). We substitute the condition S(a)Z0 into (3. a nontrivial solution exists only if the matrix z(b. Soc. aÞ M 4 ðr. l l3 L ð3:20Þ # . q2 and q3. aÞ Z N ðrÞN K1 ðaÞ and it has the following block structure: " M 1 ðr. We call S h ½Srr .

M 3 ðr. Fu 2005) and if numerical integration was required it would provide an ideal representation of the governing equation. the determinantal method (Ben Amar & Goriely 2005) or the Adams– Moulton method (Zhu et al. Rather than integrating the original linear problem numerically. The adjugate method We are now in a position to use the bifurcation condition (3. This method bypasses the need for numerical integration and reduces the problem to a form that is manageable both numerically and symbolically.13). n.22) to compute explicitly bifurcation curves for each mode n.22) by factoring non-vanishing factors. the entries of M(b. the root ﬁnding of det(z) becomes numerically unstable and numerical methods become unreliable (as observed in Dorfmann & Haughton (2006) for a similar problem) and. to study analytically particular asymptotic limits. iZ1. We start by realizing that since the fundamental solutions {h(i ). the Stroh formalism is particularly well suited and well behaved (Biryukov 1985. Note that from a computational perspective. aÞN 3 ðaÞ Z N 3 ðrÞ. where each block is a 3!3 matrix. the bifurcation equation (3. 4. Proc. for mode nO1. R. for a given bifurcation mode (n speciﬁed). in explicit computations. . aÞN ðaÞ Z N ðrÞ. 6} are linearly independent. a) are bounded for r2[a. which by (2. Soc. which are M 3 ðr. which implies that the elements of M(r. Instead of expressing det(M3(b. a) thus depend (for a given W ) on l3.22) to compute all possible bifurcation curves.3) depends only on l3. and write explicitly the two entries N 3(r) and N 4(r)..22) gives a relationship between a measure K2 of the critical pre-stretch: l3 Z l1 . ð4:1Þ N 3 ðrÞ N 4 ðrÞ say. det(M1(r. aÞN 4 ðaÞ Z N 4 ðrÞ.b]. Therefore.11) and (3. We note that the components of A 0 depend on the strain energy density W and on the pre-strain. it has not been successfully implemented to compute all bifurcation curves. Indeed. For a given material (W speciﬁed) with a given thickness (b/aZB/A speciﬁed).8 A.14). a))Z0. for a given tube slenderness. q2. The main idea is to transform condition (3. we ﬁrst decompose N (r) as " # N 1 ðrÞ N 2 ðrÞ N ðrÞ Z . ka and kb only. most authors do not use the exact solution by Wilkes but use a variety of numerical techniques to solve the linear boundaryvalue problems directly (such as the compound matrix method (Haughton & Orr 1997). the matrix N (r) is invertible for all r2[a. by (3. q3. aÞN 1 ðaÞ C M 4 ðr. and a measure of the tube slenderness: K3=2 kbZ 2pmðb=lÞZ 2pml3 ðB=LÞ. We also rewrite equation (3. That is. what is the axial strain necessary to excite a given mode? While this bifurcation condition is formally clear. so do q1. a)) is uniformly bounded away from zero and det zZ0 implies det(M3(b. aÞN 2 ðaÞ C M 4 ðr. According to (3. 2008)). a)) as the determinant of a 3!3 submatrix of a matrix obtained as the product of two 6!6 matrices.b]. we now show how to use an alternative form of (3.18) as M ðr. Goriely et al. A ð4:2Þ ð4:3Þ ð4:4Þ .12) and (3.

where Qðb. ð4:7Þ ð4:6Þ and adj(A) is the adjugate matrix of A.4 0. Proc. a))Z0 implies that det Qðb. det Q(b.9 0. Both numerically and symbolically. aÞ Z detðN 4 ðaÞÞN 3 ðbÞadjðN 3 ðaÞÞKdetðN 3 ðaÞÞN 4 ðbÞadjðN 4 ðaÞÞ. aÞ N 1 ðaÞN 3 ðaÞKN 2 ðaÞN 4 ðaÞ Z N 3 ðrÞN 3 ðaÞKN 4 ðrÞN 4 ðaÞ: ð4:5Þ Using again the fact that the entries of N are bounded.3 0. even in the limits a/0. i.5 0. Soc. and nZ0. we have that the bifurcation condition det(M3(b. a) is a polynomial of degree 18 in Bessel functions and has no denominator (hence no small denominator). i.2 0. R.1 9 0 5 10 15 kb 20 25 30 Figure 2. A .8 0. the transpose of the cofactor matrix (which in the case of an invertible matrix is simply adj(A)Zdet(A)AK1).0 0.Nonlinear Euler buckling 1.e.7 0. This new bifurcation condition is equivalent to the previous one but has many advantages. which implies À Á K1 K1 K1 K1 M3 ðr. Bifurcation curves (stretch as a function of stubbiness) of a homogeneous neo-Hookean cylindrical tube for modes nZ0–8 with b/aZB/AZ2 and C1Z1. this determinant is well behaved.e. We will refer to the use of this form of the bifurcation condition as the adjugate method. which corresponds to the ﬁrst barrelling mode (and usually requires a special treatment). The matrix Q involves only products of 3!3 matrices and is polynomial in the entries of N . which corresponds to a solid cylinder.6 0. aÞ Z 0.

there is a critical slenderness value at which the ﬁrst barrelling mode nZ0 is the ﬁrst unstable mode (in a thought experiment where the axial strain would be incrementally increased until the tube becomes unstable). the buckling mode rapidly ceases to be the ﬁrst excited mode and is replaced by different barrelling modes. we consider very thin neo-Hookean tubes with B/AZ1. A . where we set C1Z1 without loss of generality and consider the typical value B/AZ2.98 0.97 0. For a second test. which corresponds to surface instability of a compressed half-space (Biot 1962).01. Soc.10 1. the material transition from either the one-dimensional behaviour of slender column to the two-dimensional behaviour of a thin short tube.99 0.96 0. 6 7 8 9 0. modes nZ1–9 are selected (modes nZ0 and 10 remain unobservable).444.01 and C1Z1. the critical compression ratio tends asymptotically to the value lZ0.94 0 1 2 3 4 5 kb 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 3. There is one particularly interesting feature in these two sets of bifurcation curves. we consider a neoHookean potential W Z C1 ðI1 K3Þ=2. the Euler buckling (nZ1) is dominant and becomes unavoidable as the slenderness increases. Accordingly. Goriely et al. Depending on both the tube thickness and the stubbiness. we will refer to these particular geometric values where transition occurs as dimensional transitions and obtain analytical estimates for them in §5. (a ) Numerical results As a ﬁrst test of the stability of the numerical procedure. Here we are interested in the mode selection process. As the stubbiness increases. From ﬁgure 3. Bifurcation curves (stretch as a function of stubbiness) of a homogeneous neo-Hookean cylindrical tube for modes nZ0–10 with b/aZB/AZ1. or the three-dimensional behaviour of a thick short tube. the instability mode of a tube transition occurs from buckling to barrelling. R. We compute the critical value of lhl3 as a function of the current stubbiness kbZpb/l (the initial stubbiness is nZ B=LZ kbl3=2 =p) for the ﬁrst 9 modes (nZ0–8) as shown in ﬁgure 2.95 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 A. The known classical features of the stability problem for the cylindrical shell are recovered. and for very large kb. Proc. it appears clearly that as kb increases. namely for slender tubes.

which we denote by Euler2. 144ðC1 C C2 Þr4 h 1 ð973C1 C 341C2 Þðr10 K 1Þ lð6Þ ZK 4608r6 ðr4 K1ÞðC1 C C2 Þ C ð7073C1 C 3385C2 Þr2 ðr6 K1Þ C 4392 lnðrÞðC1 C C2 Þðr6 C r4 Þ i C 4ð377C2 C 1141C1 Þðr6 Kr4 Þ . we expand dðlÞZ det Qðb. It is of interest to compare the different approximations. We show the different approximations as a function of e2 for rZ1. We recover the Euler formula by keeping only the term up to e2. R. Md X d m em C OðeMd C1 Þ. The asymptotic form of the Euler criterion cannot be obtained for a general strain-energy density.01 Proc. and I2Z 1 2 3 l2 l2 C l2 l2 C l2 l2 . dðlÞ Z mZ1 ð5:4Þ and solve each order dmZ0 for the coefﬁcients lm. corresponds to the most general form of third-order incompressible elasticity (see §6 and Rivlin & Saunders (1951)). for l close to 1. This is why we choose the Mooney–Rivlin potential. M X lm em C OðeMC1 Þ: ð5:3Þ l Z lðeÞ Z 1 C mZ1 Similarly. Close to lZ1. ð5:8Þ where rhB/AZb/a. with lð2Þ ZK lð4Þ Z r2 C 1 . ð5:1Þ where C1R0 and C2O0 are material constants.Nonlinear Euler buckling 11 5. we introduce a small parameter related to the 1 2 2 3 3 1 stubbiness ratio e Z kb Z pb=l. 4r2 ð5:6Þ ð5:7Þ ð5:5Þ ð19C2 C 28C1 Þr4 C 2ð53C2 C 62C1 Þr2 C 19C2 C 28C1 . We deﬁne similarly Euler4 and Euler6 by keeping terms up to orders 4 and 6 in e. Soc. which. This is a rather cumbersome computation. which is found to be to order 6 in e l Z 1 C lð2Þ e2 C lð4Þ e4 C lð6Þ e6 C Oðe8 Þ. I1 Z l2 C l2 C l2 . aÞ in powers of e. A computation to order 28 is necessary to compute the correct expression for a. A . W Z C1 ðI1 K3Þ=2 C C2 ðI2 K3Þ=2. It can be checked that lm vanishes identically for all odd values of m and that the ﬁrst non-identically vanishing coefﬁcient appears at order 24. Asymptotic Euler buckling We are now in a position to look at the asymmetric buckling mode (nZ1) corresponding to the Euler buckling in the limit l/1. ð5:2Þ and look for the critical buckling stretch l as a function of e of order M.

Nonlinear Euler buckling for third-order elasticity The analytical result presented in §5 was formulated in terms of parameters and quantities natural for the computation and the theory of nonlinear elasticity.12 (a) 1.6 0.6) and (5. C2Z0.91 0.25 0. Soc.20 0. We ﬁrst consider the geometric parameters. We wish to express the critical load as a function of the initial stubbiness nZB/L and tube relative thickness rZB/A. 6.00 0.10 0.01.90 0 Euler2 exact Euler4 A.1) to obtain e2 Z p2 n2 K3p4 lð2Þ n4 Kð3p6 lð4Þ K15p6 l2 Þn6 C Oðn8 Þ. the axial load acting on the cylinder and the elastic parameters entering in the theory of linear elasticity.950 0.8 0.0 Euler4 Euler2 exact Euler6 Figure 4.15 0.99 0. Euler4 and Euler6 for a neo-Hookean potential C1Z1. Goriely et al.3 0. but the Euler4 and Euler6 approximations clearly improve the classical formula for larger values of e.94 0.900 0.93 0.1 0.95 0.7) and come from the expansion of l in powers of e. we show the critical stretch for mode nZ1 versus e2 in which case the graph becomes linear in the limit e/0. For comparison purpose.2 0.925 0.7 0. we need to express equation (5. (b) rZb/aZB/AZ10. we have e 2 l 3 Z p2 n 2 : ð6:1Þ To express e as a function of n. B.5 0.875 Euler6 0. Recalling that eZpb/l and lZl/L.4 0. Comparison of the different Euler formulae obtained by expanding the exact solution to order 2 (the classical Euler buckling formula). Proc. The classical Euler formula is well recovered in the limit e/0.850 0.98 0.96 0. ð2Þ ð6:2Þ where l(2) and l(4) are deﬁned in (5. we expand e in powers of n to order 6. A . In order to relate this result to the classical form of Euler buckling. bZlK1/2B. L. (ﬁgure 4a) and rZ10 (ﬁgure 4b).5) in terms of the initial geometric values A. and solve (6.30 0 0. (b) 1.975 0.9 1. R.92 0. It also appears from the analysis of Euler4 that for C2R0 the classical Euler formula always underestimates the critical stretch for instability.05 0. (a) rZb/aZB/AZ1.000 0.97 0.

Soc. I3 of the Cauchy–Green strain tensor by I1 Z 2i1 C 3. I3 Z 2i1 C 4i2 C 8i3 C 1: ð6:6Þ Since I3Z1.2) and. or second Lame parameter. m n n W Z m C 3 I1 K K 3 I2 . A ð6:9Þ . i2. ðb N ZK 2p rs3 dr: ð6:3Þ a Since s3 is constant and given by (2.1) leads to C1 Z 2m C n 3 =4. also. I2. related to the ﬁrst three principal invariants I1. we want to relate the axial compression to the actual axial load N. we follow Hamilton et al.e. we can solve this linear system for i2 and i3 and write the strainenergy density (6. 2mi ð6:5Þ ´ where m is the usual shear modulus. R. ð6:7Þ 2 8 8 which by comparison with (5. and n 3 is a thirdorder elasticity constant.5) as a function of I1 and I2. C2 Z mK n 3 =4: ð6:8Þ To write the nonlinear buckling formula. in Murnaghan’s notation. i3 are the ﬁrst three principal invariants of the Green–Lagrange strain tensor. (2004. n 3Zn and in Landau’s notation.4) and ﬁrst expand l in e using (5. we relate the elastic Mooney parameters C1 and C2 to the classical elastic parameters. I2 Z 4i1 C 4i2 C 3. To do so. In (6. i1. Here. i.5).5). which yield NZ 3 p3 B 2 mðr4 K1Þn2 4 r4 1 p5 B 2 ðr2 K 1Þð20r4 m C 9r4 n 3 C 176r2 m C 18r2 n 3 C 20m C 9n 3 Þn4 K 96 r6 2 7 6 Â B pn 323m2 r8 K3n 2 K240r2 mn 3 K9r2 n 2 K9r10 m2 C 9m2 C 3 3 8 mðr2 C 1Þ 512r C3r10 n 2 C 1464 lnðrÞr6 m2 C 1464 lnðrÞr4 m2 C 240r8 mn 3 3 C240r6 mn 3 K180r6 m2 C 180r4 m2 C 9r8 n 2 3 Ã 6 2 4 2 2 2 4 C6r n 3 K6r n 3 K323r m K240r mn 3 C Oðn8 Þ: Proc. Destrade & Saccomandi 2005) and write the strain-energy density to third order for an incompressible elastic material as W ZK 2 C n 3 i3 . i. we have p N ZKpðb2 Ka 2 Þs3 ZK ðB 2 KA2 Þs3 l p ZK 3 ðB 2 KA2 Þ½ðl4 KlÞC1 C ðl3 K1ÞC2 : ð6:4Þ l Third. we consider (6. then expand e in n using (6. we integrate the axial stress over the faces of the tubes. ﬁnally.e.5).Nonlinear Euler buckling 13 Second. m is related to Young’s modulus by EZ3m. substitute the values of the moduli in terms of the elastic parameters. n 3ZA (see Norris (1998) for other notations).

or from mode nZ1 to mode nZ2 (r close to 1) as e increases. > rt Z 1 C e2 K e4 C = 4 32 384 ð7:1Þ 1 13 665 6 > e C Oðe8 Þ: . For sufﬁciently slender tube (n small). Indeed both modes of instability can be captured by. rÃ . in this regime. respectively. we use the buckling formula to compute the transition between modes as parameters are varied.1) (using rZB/A. It then puts the method to use. the buckling mode disappears when rOrt at the expense of the nZ2 barrelling mode. Goriely et al. From ﬁgures 2 and 3. Dimensional transition Finally.14 A. Conclusion This article establishes a reliable and effective method to study the stability of tubes based on the exact solution of the incremental equations proposed by Wilkes (1955) within the Stroh formalism. as 9 3 53 2393 6 e C Oðe8 Þ. it is comforting to recover to order n2 the classical Euler buckling formula (1. 7. Expanding again this bifurcation condition in e as well as r. While it is not surprising. one identiﬁes the values rt of r and lt of l at which the transition occurs. That is. for the intersection of two different modes. To understand the dimensional transition. a one. We refer to this transition as a dimensional transition. The corresponding transition point in terms of the initial parameters is nÃ Z ðeÃ =pÞðlÃ Þ3=2 . we ﬁnd the value of eÃ such that both the bifurcations for either modes nZ1 and 2. it appears clearly that for e small enough there is a transition (depending on the value of r) from either mode nZ1 to mode nZ0 (large r). In ﬁgure 5. we solve numerically the bifurcation condition. For stubbier and fuller tubes. nZB/L and mZE/3). R. to identify both the geometric values and the axial strain for which there is a transition between buckling and barrelling modes. or modes nZ1 and 0 are satisﬁed. this approximation cannot be used. in the sense that the material mostly behaves as a slender one-dimensional structure when it buckles according to mode nZ0 and mostly as a two-dimensional structure when it barrels with mode nZ2. Soc. Therefore. the transition nZ0/nZ1 occurs for small values of e. rÃ) is a transition point. If the corresponding value lÃ is the largest value for which a bifurcation takes place.5) for the barrelling curve and substitute it in the bifurcation condition of mode nZ2. A . the pair (eÃ. That is.or a two-dimensional theory. to Proc. lt Z 1K e2 C e4 K 4 8 96 In terms of the initial stubbiness nZB/L. we have 3 17 161 6 6 ð7:2Þ p n C Oðn8 Þ: rt Z 1 C p2 n 2 K p4 n 4 C 4 32 384 This relationship also provides a domain of validity for the Euler buckling formula. For r close to unity. we show a diagram of all such pairs for both transitions. using the adjugate method. for a given value of rÃ. we can use the approximation (5. Here we restrict again our attention to the neo-Hookean case (with C1Z1). 8.

obtain the ﬁrst geometric and material corrections to the Euler buckling.5 0.6 1.1 0. In all these cases.4 2. Dimensional transition for a neo-Hookean cylindrical tube of initial length L and initial radii A and B.4 0. it will not buckle but instead will be subjected to a barrelling instability. The method presented here can be easily generalized to different materials and different boundary conditions.0 2.2 0. Zhu et al.6 0. a variety of boundary-value problems can be analysed by the adjugate method. Soc. such as the stability problem of a tube under pressure and tension (Han 2007.4 1.8 1. All tubes in the nZ1 regions will become unstable by buckling. Tubes in the barrelling regions may be subjected to other unstable modes. an explicit form of the bifurcation condition in terms of Bessel functions can be obtained by following the steps presented here and various asymptotic behaviours can be obtained. using the exact solution of the incremental equations proposed in Dorfmann & Haughton (2006) for compressible materials and the adjugate method.6 2.3 0. a weakly nonlinear analysis of the solution should be possible to third order. 2008). A . Since the solutions of the linearized problem can be solved exactly. It is also enticing to consider the possibility of performing an analytical post-buckling analysis of the solutions.Nonlinear Euler buckling 15 3. As the tubes get stubbier or thinner (arrows).8 2. For instance. The method can be also used to obtain the transition between buckling and barrelling modes when a tube becomes unstable.0 0 0.2 1. useful asymptotic formulae for the buckling behaviour could be obtained by perturbation expansions. This would yield.7 0.0 approximation L Figure 5. 1997). the problem of a tube embedded in an inﬁnite domain (Bigoni & Gei 2001) and the problem of a tube with coating (Ogden et al.2 2. Note that only the transition curves from mode nZ0 are shown.0 1. R. Similarly. in principle.9 1. an equation for the amplitude of the unstable modes containing much information not Proc.8 0.

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