GSM Systems

RF Network Design - Introduction

Slide No.1

Frequency Bands
The term GSM-900 is used for any GSM system which operates in any 900 MHz band. P-GSM-900 P-GSM-900 band is the primary band for GSM-900 Frequency band for primary GSM-900 (P-GSM-900) : 2 x 25 MHz 890 – 915 MHz for MS to BTS (uplink) 935 – 960 MHz for BTS to MS (downlink) E-GSM-900 In some countries, GSM-900 is allowed to operate in part or in all of the following extension band. E-GSM-900 (Extended GSM-900) band includes the primary band (P-GSM-900) and the extension band : 880 – 890 MHz for MS to BTS (uplink) 925 – 935 MHz for BTS to MS (downlink)
Slide No.2

Frequency Bands
R-GSM-900 (Railway GSM-900) band includes the primary band (P-GSM-900) and the following extension band: 876 – 890 MHz for MS to BTS (uplink) 921 – 935 MHz for BTS to MS (downlink)

Frequency band: 2 x 75 MHz 1710 – 1785 MHz for MS to BTs (uplink) 1805 – 1880 MHz for BTS to MS (downlink)

Slide No.3

Carrier Spacing and Channel Structure
Channel number – the carrier frequency is designated by the absolute radio
frequency channel number (ARFCN). The frequency value of the carrier n in the lower band is called FL (n) while FU (n) is the corresponding frequency value in the upper band. Frequencies are in MHz P-GSM-900: FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 n with 1 < n < 124 FU (n) = FL (n) + 45 E-GSM-900: FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 x n with 1 < n < 124 FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 x (n-1024) with 975 < n < 1024 FU (n) = FL (n) + 45

Slide No.4

Carrier Spacing and Channel Structure
R-GSM-900: FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 x n with 1 < n < 124 FL (n) = 890 + 0.2 x (n-1024) with 955 < n < 1024 FU (n) = FL (n) + 45 GSM-1800: FL (n) = 1710.2 + 0.2 x (n-512) with 512 < n < 885 FU (n) = FL (n) + 95

• Carrier spacing is 200 kHz • 8 time slots per carrier

Slide No.5

• To guarantee a good quality in both uplink and downlink direction. cables. Slide No. • These values are calculated as a function of design constraints: – BTS and MS receiver sensitivity levels – MS output power level – Antenna gain – Diversity reception – Losses in combiners. However. and Quality Providing coverage is usually considered as the first and most important activity of a new cellular operator. the power levels of BTS and MS should be in balance at the edge of a cell. every network is indeed coverage driven. It provides the means of service and should meet certain quality measures. the coverage is not the only thing.6 . Capacity. Main output results of the power link budgets are: – Maximum path loss that can be tolerated between the MS and the BTS – Maximum output power level of the BTS transmitter.Coverage. etc. For a while. The starting point is a set of coverage quality requirements.

differences in the operating environments and the quality targets in different cell ranges.Coverage. Capacity. by allocating frequencies. using inputs of maximum path loss. and Quality The cell ranges are derived with propagation loss formulas such as OkumuraHata. Slide No. The traffic capacity requirements have to be combined with the coverage requirements. This also may have impact on the cell range.7 .

to be used for strategic decisions. the cell ranges can be determined given the equipment losses and gains. antennas and cables is the core of the coverage planning strategy.8 . decisions should be based on a careful analysis Cell Range and Coverage Area For any site configuration.g. Some typical configurations are: • 3-sector sites for (sub)urban areas • 2-sector sites for road coverage • omni sites for rural areas These are not the ultimate solutions. The site coverage areas can be calculated then and these will lead to the required number of sites for a given coverage region. Slide No. This makes it possible to estimate the cost. The right choice will provide cost savings and guarantees smooth network evolution. e.Coverage Planning Strategies The selection of site configurations. per km2.

9 .Methodology Define design rules and parameters • Identify design rules to meet coverage and capacity targets efficiently • Acquire software tools and databases • Calibrate propagation models from measurements Set performance targets • Clear statement of coverage requirements (roll out and quality) • Forecast traffic demand and distribution • Test business plan for different roll out scenarios and quality levels Design nominal plan • • • • • Use computer tool to place sites to meet coverage and capacity targets Verify feasibility of meeting service requirements Ensure a frequency plan can be made for the design Estimate equipment requirements and costs Develop implementation and resource plans (including personnel requirements) • Radio plan will provide input to fixed network planning Slide No.

using search areas. can be done manually. • Modify nominal design as theoretical sites are replaced with physical sites • Modify search areas in accordance with evolving network.Methodology Implement cell plan • Identify physical site locations near to nominal or theoretical locations. • Flexible. based on interference matrix using an automatic tool. Optimising the network Expand the network • • • • Slide No.10 In line with the roll out requirement In line with the forecasted traffic level Improve the coverage quality Maintain the blocking performance . Produce frequency plan • Fixed cluster configuration.

RF Propagation A radio wave transmitted to and from a moving mobile station is subject to several effects. These effects will cause loss of signal strength and interference. The effects are:• Distance attenuation • Shadowing − Diffraction • Rayleigh fading − Reflections − Inter-symbol interference − Doppler shift − Ducting The most important conventional countermeasures to deal with the problems of the mobile channels are :• The use of fade margins • Various types of diversity reception • Installation of supplementary BTSs Slide No.11 .

the mobile radio link is not set up in free space. rather between –30 and –45 dB/decade.12 . The slope will be steeper. This will cause multipath signal strength variations. The loss is depended upon the frequency. caused by :• Obstructions in the propagation path. the first Fresnel zone is obstructed in most cases.Practical Attenuation In practice. the antenna design and the terrain. Even of line-of-sight conditions apply. The path loss is more severe that the inverse square law would predict. • Reflections from the ground and from objects Reflections combine different phases of the signal on the receiving antenna. Slide No. particularly in the first Fresnel zone This is frequently the case because of the low height of the mobile antenna.

Assume : • The mobile radio system needs an signal level of Pr dBm at the receiver • The maximum likely fade (loss) is calculated to be L(fade) dB The a received signal level of Pr dBm can be ensured by transmitting enough power for a normal received signal level of (Pr + L(fade)) dBm The fade margin is normally equal to the maximum expected fade or to a smaller value.Fade Margin The concept of a fade margin is to reserve extra signal power to overcome potential fading. the impact of Rayleigh fading is taken into account by implementing an extra fade margin of 8 dB. In RF planning. For this purpose. it is necessary to know the probability density function of the fading.13 . Slide No. The value is chosen in such a way that the threshold value is undershot in only a low percentage of time.

Multipath Propagation The radio wave may be reflected.14 . from a hill. the reflected signal is significantly attenuated. a truck. a building. This is known as Multipath Propagation Slide No. In some cases. The result is that not one but many different paths are followed between the transmitter and receiver. while in others almost all the radio energy is reflected and very little absorbed. an aeroplane or a discontinuity in the atmosphere.

Multipath Propagation Reflection and multipath propagation can cause positive and negative effects :• Coverage extension Multipath propagation allows radio signal to reach behind hills and buildings and into tunnels The latter effect is known as ducting • Constructive and destructive interference The interference due to multipath propagation manifest itself in the following 3 most important ways:– Random phase shift creates rapid fluctuations in the signal strength known as Rayleigh fading – A delay spread in the received signal causes each symbol to overlap with adjacent symbols : intersymbol interference – Random frequency modulation due to different doppler shifts on different paths Slide No.15 .

If the coverage in a tunnel needs enhancement. repeater station at the tunnel entrance radiating into the tunnel may help.16 . building canyons. atmosphere layers) are good reflectors for radio waves. valleys.Ducting Ducting may occurs in tunnels. Slide No. VHF frequencies do not propagate well in long tunnels. and in the atmosphere if the boundaries (steep hillsides. but higher frequencies (>800 MHz) follow the tunnel like a waveguide.

17 . Rayleigh fading is dependent on : • Time Time dependent fading is applicable for moving mobiles only The countermeasure against time dependent Rayleigh fading is the use of bit interleaving in burst building Slide No.Rayleigh Fading The reflected radio wave will be altered in both phase and amplitude. Partial out of phase relationships among multiple received signals produce smaller reductions in received signal strength. The signal may effectively disappear if the reflected wave is 180 degrees out of phase with the direct path signal.

In between are many shallower fades. The countermeasure against frequency dependent Rayleigh fading is frequency hopping reception Slide No.Rayleigh Fading • Location The fading effect is a spatial effect. the pattern of the fades is also dependent on the radio frequency. The depth and spacing of the fades is related to the wavelength. Maximum fades are very deep (down to –40 dB or less). • Frequency Due to the impact of the wavelength. When a mobile antenna moves through this field. the received signal strength will vary very rapidly.18 . Sometimes it is possible that a mobile is in a fade of the correct BTS but not in a fade of any “incorrect” BTS transmitting on the same frequency. The countermeasure against location dependent Rayleigh fading is diversity reception. a few inches apart.

called delay spread is caused by multipath propagation effects. the individual symbols will overlap each other and ISI will occur.19 . This effect. Slide No. If the delay spread is large relative to the average symbol duration.Inter-symbol Interference The sharp pulse that is transmitted arrives in the receiver as a delayed. smeared and flattened budge that lasts longer than the original pulse.

known as doppler shift.Doppler Shift The movement of the MS relative to the BTS will cause a shift in frequency of the radio signal. Doppler shift effects can be limited by using a well-designed (adaptive) equaliser in the receiver. Slide No. Doppler shift affects all multiple propagation paths. some with positive shift. This frequency shift varies considerably as the MS changes direction and/or speed. Thus Doppler frequency shift Δ f is :Δ f = Vr / λ where Vr is the radial speed component pointing to/from the BTS or a reflection point. Doppler shift introduces random frequency modulation in the radio signals. others a negative shift at the same instant.20 . The power spectrum of the received radio signal will be smeared.

The TSC (training sequence codes) are specified in GSM Rec.5ms) to measure the channel characteristics. It uses the well known 26 bits (or more) TSC training sequence transmitted in each timeslot burst (once per 0. 05. the general countermeasure against distortion due to multipath effects is adaptive equalisation :• The distortion characteristics of the channel are measured continuously. the predicted distortion in the transmitted pulses are subtracted from the received waveform and the most likely sequence of data for the distorted received signal is estimated.02. Knowing the channel characteristics. Slide No.Equalisation To some extent. • The predicted distortions in the received signal are subtracted from the received signal.21 . The Viterbi algorithm is an example of an adaptive MLSE (maximum likelihood sequence estimation) solution.

Slide No.69 μs. Echos with a delay of > 15 μs cannot be cancelled by the equaliser.Equalisation The equaliser used for GSM is specified to equalise echos up to 15 μs after the first signal. These signals should be considered as co-channel interference for which the required minimum C/I ratio of 9 dB must be met. This corresponds to 4. This means that the sum of the echos with delays of >= 15μs should remain >= 9 dB under the sum of the wanted carrier signal plus the “useful” echos within the 15μs window.22 . The echos resulting from reflections just outside the ellipse for Δt = 15 μs are mostly the strongest and will cause most trouble.5 km in distance. Hence. One bit period is 3. echos with about 4 bit lengths delay can be compensated.

the distance r from the optical LOS should be : r ≥ r ( F1) = λd1( S − d1) S The obstacles may be hills. The radius of the first Fresnel zone is r(F1).23 .Fresnel Zone A fresnel zone is a 3 dimensional body. Slide No. The sum of the distances from a point (P) on the ellipsoid to the transmitter (T) and to the receiver (R) is n/2 wavelengths longer than the LOS path (S) : Distance (P-T) + Distance (P-R) = S + n (λ/2) For the first fresnel zone. bounded by ellipsoids that have their focal points at the transmitter and the receiver antennas. n ≡ 1. buildings or vegetation. To keep out of this zone.

Diffraction Shadowing does not always mean that no signal is received behind an obstacle. Slide No.24 . This effect is called diffraction. The diffraction effect depends on the wavelength in relation to the size of obstacle. and is greater the longer the wavelength. Radiowaves may bend around obstructions to a certain extent.

One pixel is characterised by :• Terrain height • Clutter type : high/low building. literally from one street to another. Each pixel has an size in the range of 50m x 50m to 500m x 500m. forest. The fading effects produced by shadowing are often referred to as slow fading The radio network planning tool uses a topographical database. The problems of shadowing are most severe in heavily built-up urban centres. Shadows as deep as 20dB may occur over very short distances. water etc. Slide No. The topographical area is divided in a grid of pixels.Shadow Fading The effect of shadowing by obstacles is fading of the received signal.25 .

g. depending on the size of the obstruction :• Shadowing. diffraction and reflection by obstructions larger than the database resolution (e. Slide No. The distances between the fading dips are in the magnitude of tens of meters.g. • Shadowing by obstructions smaller than the database resolution (e.26 . individual building) can be treated statistically.Shadow Fading The shadowing problem is approached in 2 ways. The distances between the fading dips are in the magnitude of hundreds of meters. hills) can be predicted by propagation models in computerised planning tools.

27 .Shadow Fade Margin Shadow fade margins must be added to the receiver sensitivities specified in GSM Rec 05. to give the probability of signal being greater than the receiver sensitivity.05. The fade margin depends on :• The desired coverage probability • The propagation slope • The standard deviation of the log-normal fading Slide No.

40 dB/decade This means that the signal will decay according to 1/rn where n = 4 • The shadow fading standard deviation σs. The inputs are :• The propagation slope.g. 90% coverage probability over the area Slide No. e. by using a set of standard graphs. 7 dB • The required coverage probability.g. e.28 .g.Jakes Graphs A way to find an appropriate fade margin is the method according to Jakes. It can be used for a wide range of propagation slopes and standard deviations. e.

1) Slide No. Find the fade margin for P(edge) in the CDF table for the standard normal distribution table N(0. This can be found as follows : 1.29 . The intersection of the 2 values will provide a value for the cell edge coverage probability P(edge) 4. Take required area coverage probability P(area) as the ordinate value 3. Find the abscissa value σs/n 2.Jakes Graphs The output will be the fade margin for a given required area coverage probability.

0.61 x σs.1) table.73 corresponds to 0. In order to find the required fade margin to achieve 90% area coverage. the value for σs/n = 7/3. then n = 35/10 = 3. Hence.30.3 dB Slide No.Slow Fade Margin – Example According to GSM 03. In the normal distribution N(0.5 = 2 2.73 = 73% 3.30 . the following steps are taken :1. the fade margin = 0.5 Because the σs = 7 dB. the normal case of urban propagation has a standard deviation of σs = 7 dB while the propagation path loss slope is –35dB/decade. the P(area) = 90% and σs/n = 2 Intercept at the curve for P(edge) ~ 0. In the graph.61 x 7 = 4. Determine the σs/n abscissa value : The propagation slope is 35 dB/decade.

Okumura-Hata). − No obstacles assumed to be close to the BTS antenna.Propagation Modeling • Statistical propagation models − These calculate a median signal for each pixel.g. • Deterministic propagation models − Take into account individual buildings and use ray tracing techniques. − Make use of high resolution map data (at least 10m). The level within this pixel varies about the median in a way that can only be analysed statistically.31 . − Formulas derived from measurements (e. Slide No. − Local mean signal levels are distributed around the pixel median with a log-normal probability distribution.

Ni = k T B Where k = Boltsmann’s constant = 1.Noise Levels There are 2 kinds of noise that play a role in mobile communication :• Thermal noise • Man-made noise (e. spurious signals) The thermal noise depends on the receiver bandwidth B (in Hz) and the absolute temperature T (Kelvin).38 x 10-23 J/K Watt Slide No.g.32 .

33 . the S/N ratio will be worse than at the antenna because the amplifier has added some extra noise by itself.Noise Figure A mobile radio signal. The noise figure F is the ratio between : • The total output noise level generated by both the external noise and the internal noise of the amplifier • The output noise level due to external (thermal) noise only A typical noise figure for a GSM receiver is 6 dB. After amplification.38 10-23 x (17 + 273) x 200 x 103 = 8 x 10-16 W = -120 dBm Slide No. the received thermal noise is :- 1. At a temperature of 17 degrees C and a receiver bandwidth of 200 kHz. received on the antenna. will be amplified by the frontend RF amplifier in the radio receiver.

Receiver Sensitivity With the thermal noise level of –120 dBm and a noise figure F = 6 dB.34 . The implementation margin being 2 dB and the fade margin for Rayleigh fading being 8 dB. the reference receiver sensitivity can be taken as :For normal GSM 900 BTS -120 dBm + 6 dB + 2 dB + 8 dB = -104 dBm Slide No. the noise floor will be at –114 dBm.

2 and 3 mobile stations and normal BTS) • • • • -120 dBm (Class 4 and 5 mobile stations) -97 dBm (micro-BTS M1) -92 dBm (micro-BTS M2) -87 dBm (micro-BTS M3) This already take into account the effect of multipath fading on moving mobiles.05 are as follows :• -102 dBm (class 3 mobile station or micro-BTS M1) • -100 dBm (GSM 1800 class 1 and 2 mobile stations) • -97 dBm (micro-BTS M2) • -92 dBm (micro-BTS M3) Slide No.Receiver Sensitivity GSM 900 Receiver Sensitivity The reference sensitivity levels specified in GSM Rec 05.35 . Rayleigh Fading (time domain) and Doppler Effect (frequency domain) GSM 1800 Receiver Sensitivity The reference sensitivity levels specified in GSM Rec 05.05 are as follows:• -104 dBm (Class 1.

typical macro cell radius 3 – 30 km Frequency reuse (factor n = 3. ) Cell splitting to increase local capacity Micro and pico cells act as patches for hot spots. 4. 7 ..Cellular Architecture The essential principles of the cellular architectures are :• • • • • Low power transmitters with antenna heights between 20 – 50 m Small coverage zones (cells).. tunnels and buildings Balance is to be found between conflicting requirements of : • Coverage • Traffic capacity Slide No.36 .

When K is too large. provided that the cells using the same frequency set are far enough separated so that co-channel interference is kept at an acceptable level most of the time.Cell Clustering Frequency reuse is the core concept of the cellular mobile radio system. given the fact that the number of allowed frequencies is fixed. • The challenge is to find the smallest K value which can still meet our system performance requirements. This involves :– Estimation of the co-channel interference – Calculation of the minimum frequency reuse distance D to meet the cochannel interference criterion – The practical values for K range up from 3 to 21 Slide No. The total frequency spectrum allocation can be divided into K frequency reuse patterns. a large K is desired. In practice. the number of frequencies assigned to each of K cells becomes too small. A frequency can be reused simultaneously in different cells. the total number of allocated frequencies is fixed. Trunking inefficiency will be the result. • Theoretically.37 .

go back to the starting cell Rotate the i axis by one cell face Repeat the procedure.38 .Cluster Size Valid values for K are found by setting i and j to positive values in :K = i2 + i j + j2 The smallest value for K is 3. found for i = j = 1. Frequency Reuse Distance The frequency reuse distance D can be derived from the K value:- D = R 3K Slide No. The K value can be found as follows :• • • • • The starting direction of the i axis is arbitrary j is rotated by one cell face (60 degrees) to the left from the i axis After finding the first co-channel cell.

6 R2 Sector cell (Hexagon) = 1. for highways) – 3 sectors Cell Coverage Area Omni cell (Hexagon) = 2.g.Cell Types The 2 main cell types are :• Omni cells : – Coverage is in principle a circle.96 R2 Slide No. but in reality a rough pattern • Sector cells : – 2 sectors (e.39 .

Base Station Antenna Problems Problems that are encountered in the design and installation of cellular antennas :• Dead Spots Slight unintentional tilts and minor lobes nulls in the radiation pattern may result in gain loss on some spots • Isolation The more spacing between transmitter and receiver antennas. Several antennas cannot be mounted at the same point Slide No.40 . Less the coupling • Collinear antenna mounting Only one antenna can be mounted at the top most point of the site tower.

Unfortunately. with compression. more minor lobes appear in the radiation pattern. nearby dead spots may exist due to minor lobe nulls even though the distant coverage is good because of a high main lobe gain. In the desired coverage area.Dead Spots A higher antenna gain is achieved by compressing the beamwidth in the elevation plane. Moving a dead spot away from a certain location can be done by :• Tilting the antenna beam • Reduction of antenna height • Use of a lower gain antenna Slide No.41 .

This is caused by :• Receiver in-band noise caused by the co-site transmitter (spurious signals) • Gain reduction of the low-noise amplifier caused by an strong off-channel signal Techniques used for isolation are :• Decoupling of the antennas by adequate spacing • Filtering the transmitter’s out of band channel noise by multicouplers. which is a reduction in receiver sensitivity.Isolation Isolation between transmitter and receiver antennas is required to avoid receiver desensitisation. duplexers and isolators Slide No.42 .

Isolation Horizontal Spacing The isolation A(h) between 2 horizontally separated antennas is given by the empirical formula :A(h) = 31.3 + 40 log d dB A(v) = 59.6 + 20 log d – (Gt + Gr) dB A(h) = 37.43 .6 + 20 log d – (Gt + Gr) dB for 900 MHz for 1800 MHz Vertical Spacing The isolation A(v) in dB is given by :A(v) = 47.3 + 40 log d dB for 900 MHz for 1800 MHz Slide No.

This is the median value. e.44 .Service Contour The propagation prediction model provides the signal level in terms of dBm. there is a certain probability (e. the signal level can only be guaranteed top be –102 dBm (or more) which is the receiver sensitivity of the mobile. for 95% of all the locations it is expected to receive a signal that is above –102 dBm. with a 95% reliability. If the MS travels along the boundary.g. This contour is a statistical boundary. 95%) that the signal in a given area will be at least a number of X dB below the median value of that area. The signal contour for a specified receiver sensitivity must be plotted around the cell site to define the coverage area. Slide No.g. Thus. –88 dBm Given the standard deviation.

However it is desirable to design a cell structure as homogeneous as possible.Cell Structure Planning A homogeneous cell structure is practically impossible. This will lead to :• Reliable coverage • Simple frequency planning • Easy calculation of traffic loads • Reliable handovers Slide No.45 .

e.46 . The front lobe at any BTS directional TX antenna should illuminate only the back lobe of its co-channel counterpart • Define cell boundaries firmly. resulting in many handovers and many interferers • Sufficient overlapping zones • Avoid cell boundaries across traffic hot spots • Keep all antenna heights about the same Slide No. Avoid areas with many equally good server.g. at the edge of towns) • Avoid random pointing of antenna direction.Cell Structure Planning Good cell structures can be planned by keeping the following points in mind :• Use as homogeneous a cell structure as possible (no abrupt changes in cell size.

when they grow across the LOS radio path Slide No. Cells are living because :• New buildings may be erected within the coverage area • Existing building may be demolished • Trees are also a concern.Cell Structure Planning Once a BTS is located through site establishment. and good coverage can be achieved.47 . there is no guarantee that the cell will maintain its original coverage.

In all cases. existing outdoor coverage needs to be upgraded to indoor coverage Integration of each new BTS or even each TRX has to be carefully planned into the greater system.48 . the existing cells adjacent to the growth area will be affected in the following aspects :• • • • • Changes in cell size and shape Changes in the BSS parameters Updates in neighbour list Frequency allocation Interference performance Slide No.Cell Structure Growth Network growth can be required for the following reasons :• Extension of coverage area A new coverage area needs to be added • Capacity increase The traffic density in an existing cell has grown • Coverage quality increase For example.

the basic cellular principle required that capacity increase is achieved by reusing frequencies more often over a certain coverage area.Coverage Quality and Capacity Increase If the number of available channels is fixed.49 . Hence more sites are needed within the existing area. This is accomplished by reducing the cell sizes in areas of high demand :• This requires the creation of new small cells within the overall cluster pattern • Frequency reuse must not infringe on rules determining frequency allocation for the large pattern • Some coverage quality improvement can be expected as well Slide No.

50 .Coverage Quality and Capacity Increase Increasing the cell density in a coverage area can be achieved by :• Adding more sites in the coverage area • Cell splitting (sectorisation) The capacity increases while the number of sites remains the same – The size of the small cell is dependent on 2 factors:• Radio aspect • Capacity of the system – Certain channels should be used as barriers • Cell Splitting Slide No.

Coverage Limited System In a noise limited cell. there is a limitation due to SNR limitations only.51 . This is also called coverage limitation • No interference (C/I is good) − Co-channel interference − Adjacent channel interference • No traffic congestion Slide No.

Coverage Extension The coverage can be increased by one or a combination of the following actions :• • • • • • • • • • Increase transmitted power. Doubling the height may give +6 dB gain Use a high gain or a directional antenna at BTS Lower the threshold level of a received signal Install a masthead amplifier Decrease the front-end noise figure F (low noise receiver) Use a diversity receiver Select proper BTS site locations Use enhancers or micro/pico cells to enlarge coverage or to fill in holes Engineer the antenna pattern Slide No.52 . Doubling the power gives a gain of +3dB Increase BTS antenna height.

they have only a relay function • Repeater gain 10 – 85 dB adjustable • Typical repeater range 0.53 .Filling Coverage Holes In areas where the traffic intensity is low. its is not cost effective to install a BTS. Aspects:• The antenna pointing to the cell site BTS is directional • The lower antenna is omni or directional • Enhancers do not improve the SNR.5 – 3 km • Interference aspects may make implementation difficult • Ring oscillation shall be avoided • Distance to serving BTS site as small as possible to avoid spread of power into a large area in the vicinity of BTS and beyond • Enhancers may impact the network of another operator Slide No. An enhancer can be use to fill these coverage holes at low investments. Savings are installation and operational costs. that receives at a low height and transmit to a higher height and vice versa. Two types of enhancers are distinguished : • Wideband • Channelised The enhancer can be considered as a relay.

resulting in a different interferer from hop to hop Slide No. an intracell handover to another frequency or time slot should occur • Frequency hopping − Effective on uplink and downlink path − Choose different hopping sequences for co-channel cells. avoiding problems from co-channel and adjacent channel interference • Selection of a proper channel − Among a set of assigned channels to a particular MS − If the quality of the signal is poor.Interference The C/I ratio can be increase in a number of different ways :• Good frequency management chart − Grouping the channels into subsets • Intelligent frequency assignment − Allocation of specific channels to cell sites and MS.54 .

interrupted transmission during gaps in speech • Choosing cell site location Slide No. adaptive power control to keep transmission power as low as possible. in other directions no signal may be needed • Tilting of antenna patterns − To confine energy within a small area − Downward tilt of directional antenna • Reduction of antenna height − Reducing interference is as important as radio coverage • Power reduction of interfering transmitter − RF power control.55 .Interference • Antenna pattern design − In some directions a strong signal is required. on a per time slot basis − DTX.

determined by the interference matrix Slide No. In general.Planning the frequencies The frequency plan can be made in different ways :• Fixed cluster configuration – For example.. The basic idea is to protect the BCCH frequency – It is a good solution to use first e. f1. e. It is simple but not particularly efficient • Flexible assignment – Based on the interference matrix using an automatic tool. cluster of K = 21 cells will use 21 frequencies (at least).. this method can lead to a more efficient frequency use. This fixed frequency planning can be done manually.g. f21 for the control channels on a safe K = 21 cell cluster. . 18 frequencies doing the job instead of the fixed K = 21 frequency cluster size for the same level of coverage quality.56 . • A mix of these methods is also possible – Control channels are always transmitted at maximum power.g. and then let the other frequencies be at a closer range..

57 . new frequencies from other layers of the same frequency group can be added in that cell. e. a revised frequency plan is necessary • To minimise the re-tuning. • No interference analysis is required • It is possible however that frequencies from adjacent layers in differnt groups can be adjacent channels. the already operational base station should be left unchanged as much as possible • The pre-assigned frequencies of the cell cliques that will change significantly should be abandoned in favour of new frequencies It is convenient to define a set of frequency group • Initially.g. the frequency group are of less importance Slide No. by increasing the cell density in order to improve the traffic capacity and the coverage quality.Extension and Frequency Changes When a network is to be extended. This needs to be verified • If the frequency planning is performed by a computer tool. each cell starts with a layer of a particular frequency group • In a later stage.

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